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You are on page 1of 14

**Sequences and impulse
**

responses

Technical Report

Michael Prior-Jones

Summary

This report details the theories of pseudo-random binary sequences

and cross-correlation and describes how they may be applied to

fnd the impulse responses of linear systems. The document also

describes a laboratory experiment used to demonstrate the

feasibility of using this technique to measure the impulse response

of a simple RC flter.

The technique can be demonstrated to work, although it is

recommended that a longer R!" and a higher clock speed be used

in any further work. #t is also suggested that the analogue

technique used in the experiment be replaced by a software

solution, either on a C or on a fast embedded microprocessor.

age $ of $%

Pseudo-Random Binary

Sequences and impulse

responses

Technical Report

Michael Prior-Jones

Contents

$ #ntroduction................................................................................&

$.$ !ackground...........................................................................&

$.' Report "tructure...................................................................&

' Theory of seudo-Random !inary "equences............................%

& Theory of Cross-correlation and system identifcation...............(

% )etails of demonstration system.................................................*

+ Conclusions...............................................................................$'

+.$ )iscussion and recommendations......................................$'

+.' ,ull circuit diagram of R!" generators and control logic$&

( !ibliography..............................................................................$%

age ' of $%

Pseudo-Random Binary

Sequences and impulse

responses

Technical Report

Michael Prior-Jones

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

The Research and )e-elopment department has been carrying out

a feasibility study on the process of measuring acoustic impulse

responses using pseudo-random binary sequences. This report

details work done to date on this pro.ect, together with

recommendations for future product de-elopment.

1.2 Report Structure

"ections ' and & deal with the theories of R!" generation and

correlation. "ection % details a laboratory experiment designed to

measure the impulse response of an RC flter using these theories.

"ection + contains some recommendations for future de-elopments

in this pro.ect.

age & of $%

2 Theory of Pseudo-Random Binary

Sequences

/0hite noise1 is the term gi-en to completely random

unpredictable noise, such as the hiss you hear on an untuned radio.

#t has the property of ha-ing components at e-ery frequency. 2

pseudo-random binary sequence 3R!"4 can also ha-e this

property, but is entirely predictable. 2 R!" is rather like a long

recurring decimal number- it looks random if you examine a short

piece of the sequence, but it actually repeats itself e-ery m bits. 5f

course, the larger m is, the more random it looks.

6ou can generate a R!" with a shift register and an 75R gate.

Connecting the outputs of two stages of the shift register to the

75R gate, and then feeding the result back into the input of the

shift register will generate a R!" of some sort. "ome

combinations of outputs produce longer R!"s than others- the

longest ones are called m-sequences 3where m means /maximum

length14.

,or a six-stage shift register, you can generate a (&-bit R!" by

connecting outputs + and ( to the 75R gate- as shown in fgure $.

=1

Clock

Output

Direction of shift

D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q

Figure 1

5b-iously, it8s possible to get a longer m-sequence using more

stages to the shift register. The formula connecting these is9

1 2 − =

n

m

0here m is the length of the m-sequence and n is the number of

shift register stages.

age % of $%

There is one state 3known as the forbidden state4, which does not

form part of the m-sequence. This is the state where all of the shift

registers contain :ero. #n this situation, the circuit outputs :eroes.

This condition can be trapped using some extra logic, shown in the

re-ised circuit of fgure '.

=1

Clock

Output

Direction of shift

≥1

≥1

D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q

Figure 2

age + of $%

3 Theory of Cross-correlation and

system identifcation

The impulse response of a system is a useful description of its

beha-iour- it describes how the systems output -aries with time if a

unit impulse is fed into it. 2 unit impulse is defned as being of :ero

width and infnite amplitude, but with unit area. ,or this reason, a

unit impulse is not a practical signal to generate, let alone feed into

a system;

5ne could use an approximate unit impulse, but se-eral problems

would occur9

• most systems would be o-erloaded by such a large signal,

and might be damaged

• e-en if the system is not damaged, it is unlikely to maintain

its normal characteristics when dri-en with such an abnormal

signal.

<owe-er, R!"s can help us here9 we can feed a R!" into our

system and compare the output with the original R!", using a

technique called cross-correlation.

Correlation is the process of measuring similarity. Two wa-eforms

will correlate strongly if they are of a similar shape. ,or example,

sine wa-es and cos wa-es correlate strongly, because they are the

same shape but => degrees out of phase.

Cross-correlation in-ol-es comparing one wa-eform with a

di?erent one 3this is distinct from autocorrelation, where you

compare the wa-eform with itself4. 6ou perform the correlation by

time-shifting one wa-eform by a range of -alues, and for each time

shift you multiply the wa-es together. The resultant function

describes the similarity of the two wa-es as one shifts with respect

to the other. @quation $ gi-es the mathematics of this9

∫

∞

∞ −

+ = dt t y t x r

xy

) ( ) ( ) ( τ τ

Equation 1

#n this equation9

x3t4 and y3t4 are the functions being correlated

r

xy

3τ4 is the cross-correlation function

τ is the time shift under consideration

5ne of the properties of this process is that when the two

wa-eforms match, you get a peak in the function at the time shift

where they match. Correlating a totally random signal against itself

produces :ero, except at the point where the time shift is :ero.

2 R!" will only correlate well against itself when it8s time shifted

by an integer multiple of the sequence length.

0hen the R!" is fed into a linear, time-in-ariant system 3such as

an RC flter4, the output of the circuit consists of a number of

age ( of $%

copies of the signal all at di?erent amplitudes and time shifts. #f

you could separate out all of the di?erent time shifts and measure

their amplitudes, you could draw the impulse response 3amplitude

against time shift4.

<owe-er, it is possible to use correlation to separate out all the

di?erent signals. #f you correlate the output signal against the

original R!", o-er a wide range of time shifts, the correlation

function will eliminate all of the signals except the component at

the current time shift. The output will then be proportional to the

amplitude of the component at that particular time shift.

The upshot of all this is that cross-correlating the output of a linear

system against a R!" fed into its input will generate the impulse

response. 2n ob-ious technique to doing this would be using a

computer with dual-channel analogue-to-digital con-erters9 the

original R!" is fed into one channel, and the system output is fed

into the other. The computer can then sample the output o-er a

defned time-period 3ideally one shorter than the R!" length4 and

perform the correlation by shifting the original R!" with respect

to the output signal.

There is another method, howe-er, and this was the one that we

used in the lab.

age A of $%

4 etails of demonstration system

2 block diagram of the lab system is shown in fgure &9

Clock

generator

Continuous

PRBS

generator

Interrupted

PRBS

generator

Clock

interrupt

logic

Sample

& Reset

signal logic

Correlator

!odule

CRO

S"stem

under

in#estigation

$RC %ilter&

S'!P() & R)S)*

!

a

i

n

C

l

o

c

k

PRBS

Interrupted

PRBS

Interrupted

Clock

Ripple

Carr" Out

S"stem

response

Figure 3

,or our lab experiment, we built a straightforward %-bit R!"

generator 3this generates a $+-bit long sequence4 using four stages

of a A%B"$(% *-bit shift register and a A%B"*( quad two-input 75R

gate. This is shown in fgure %, including the extra anti-lockup

circuitry9

=1

Clock

Output

Direction of shift

≥1 ≥1

D Q D Q D Q D Q

Figure 4

The correlation method used was an interesting piece of analogue

computing. 2 third-party correlator module 3containing an

analogue multiplier and integrator4 was used to carry out the

correlation calculation and send a signal to an oscilloscope for

age * of $%

display. The correlator required a number of logic signals in order

to carry out the calculation. #n order to do the time shifting, a

modifed R!" is gi-en to the correlator as a reference. This

sequence has a one-bit delay introduced at the end of each

sequence, so it shifts with respect to the main R!" 3which is being

fed through the RC flter4 and is only in-phase e-ery $( cycles.

There8s also a "2CB@ signal that must be generated, at the end of

each R!" cycle, which the correlator to output to the scope as its

fnished its integration. #n the clock cycle following "2CB@, a

R@"@T signal is sent to discharge the integration capacitor ready

for the next calculation.

To generate the delayed R!", we built a second R!" generator

3as fgure &4 and used a %-bit counter #C 3A%B"$(&4 to count the

cycles. This chip has a Ripple Carry 5ut line 3RC54 which goes high

when the count rolls around from $$$$ to >>>>. This signal is used

to inhibit the clock on the generator using an 5R gate, as shown in

fgure +.

+,(S1-.

≥1

RCO

Clock in

Interrupted clock to

PRBS generator

Figure 5

This circuit generates an interrupted clock signal, which holds high

e-ery $( cycles, as shown by the timing diagram in fgure (.

1/ 1, 1. 10 1 1 0 .

!ain clock

Interrupted clock

Count

Figure 6

The R!" generator8s output is thus inhibited at the end of e-ery

sequence, allowing it to fall behind the uninhibited generator by

one bit for e-ery sequence.

age = of $%

The control signals 3"2CB@ and R@"@T4 for the correlator module

need a timing diagram looking like fgure A.

1/ 1, 1. 10 1 1 0 .

!ain clock

Count

S'!P()

R)S)*

Figure 7

To achie-e this, a single )-type was used to create a one-clock

delayed copy of the RC5 signal from the counter. This was then

used to dri-e the clock-inhibitor 3fgure %4 and formed the R@"@T

signal. The original RC5 signal became the "2CB@ signal.

This logic is shown in fgure *, together with the clock-inhibitor

logic.

≥1

RCO

Clock in

Interrupted clock to

PRBS generator

+,(S1-.

Q D

S'!P()

R)S)*

Figure 8

age $> of $%

The circuit tested was an RC flter circuit, with R being &k= and C

being A(n,. The theoretical impulse response of this circuit is

shown in fgure =.

Theoretical impulse response of RC filter

1

011

,11

-11

211

1111

1011

1,11

111)311 111)41, 011)41, .11)41, ,11)41, /11)41, -11)41, +11)41,

Time

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

The result seen on the oscilloscope as a result of using this system

looked like fgure $>.

*ime

'mplitude

Figure 10

This is quite a good approximation, although it8s quite steppy. 0ith

a faster clock speed and a longer R!" a better approximation

would be achie-ed.

age $$ of $%

Figure 9

! Conclusions

5.1 Discussion and recommendations

The experiments carried out demonstrate the feasibility of

measuring impulse responses using pseudo-random binary

sequences and cross-correlation. The method used in the lab is

inexpensi-e and relati-ely straightforward, although the

requirement for an oscilloscope to display the output trace may

outweigh the cost benefts of doing the computing in analogue

hardware. 2n alternati-e method would be to incorporate a

computer of some kind into the system, either a C or a fast

microprocessor system. The correlation could then be done in

software, and the only hardware requirement is the R!"

generator. #ndeed, by using a high-speed embedded microprocessor

system, one could build a portable instrument capable of displaying

the impulse response on a small BC) screen, and then sa-ing the

results back to a C for later perusal.

The resolution of the system should be addressed, using a longer

R!" and a higher clock speed. #t would ob-iously be necessary to

calibrate the instrument, so that the amplitudes and times may be

read o? accurately by the user.

age $' of $%

5.2 Full circuit diagram of PRBS generators and control logic

≥1

RCO

Clock in

Interrupted clock to

PRBS generator

+,(S1-.

Q D

S'!P() R)S)*

=1

≥1 ≥1

D Q D Q D Q D Q

=1

≥1 ≥1

D Q D Q D Q D Q

PRBS to s"stem

under in#stigation

Interrupted PRBS to

correlator

Control lines to correlator

age $& of $%

" Bi#lio$ra%hy

Tew, 2. #. 3'>>>4. )igital "equences, Correlation and Binear

"ystems, Dni-ersity of 6ork.

<orowit:, . E <ill, 0. 3$=*=4. The 2rt of @lectronics, Cambridge

Dni-ersity ress, '

nd

edition.

age $% of $%

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