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WCDMA UE Behaviors

in Idle Mode
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Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foreword
UE behaviors in idle mode include:
PLMN selection
System information reception
Cell selection and reselection
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Location registration
Paging procedure
Access procedure
References
3GPP TS 22.011: Service Accessibility
3GPP TS 23.122: NAS Functions Related to Mobile Station (MS)
in Idle Mode
3GPP TS 24.008: Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specification;
Core Network Protocols - Stage 3
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Core Network Protocols - Stage 3
3GPP TS 25.304: UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures
for Cell Reselection in Connected Mode
3GPP TS 25.331: Radio Resource Control (RRC)
3GPP TS 31.102: Characteristics of The USIM Application
Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Describe the working principles of the UE Behaviors in Idle
Mode feature
Perform parameters modification of the UE Behaviors in Idle
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Mode feature
Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Cell Search
UE does not have UTRAN carrier information:
In order to find a suitable cell to stay, UE will scan all the
frequencies in UTRAN. In each carrier, UE just need to find a
cell with best signal
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UE has UTRAN carrier information:
UE will try whether the original cell is suitable to stay. If not, UE
still need to scan all the frequencies in UTRAN to find a
suitable cell in PLMN
Cell Search (Cont.)
Slot synchronization
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Frame synchronization and
code-group identification
Primary scrambling code
identification
PLMN Selection
When the UE is switched on, or the coverage is restored, or the
UE selects a cell that belongs to another PLMN, then the UE
selects the registered PLMN or its equivalent PLMN
If no registered PLMN or equivalent PLMN is available, or if
registration fails, the UE performs one of the following two
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registration fails, the UE performs one of the following two
procedures, depending on its operating mode:
Automatic PLMN selection: the UE automatically selects a PLMN
according to the priority order
Manual PLMN selection: the UE shows all available PLMNs to the
subscriber. The subscriber then selects a PLMN
PLMN Selection (Cont.)
Automatic PLMN selection: UE can select a PLMN from the Home
PLMNs (HPLMNs) and roam in the Visited PLMN (VPLMN)
Selecting from the HPLMNs: UE maintains a list of allowed and
available PLMNs in priority order. When selecting a PLMN, the UE
searches for the PLMNs from the highest priority to the lowest
Roaming in the VPLMN: UE periodically searches for the HPLMN and
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Roaming in the VPLMN: UE periodically searches for the HPLMN and
higher priority PLMNs for better services
Manual PLMN selection: UE maintains a list of allowed and
available PLMNs in priority order. When selecting a PLMN, the UE
indicates the list to the subscriber who will select a PLMN, and
then camps on the selected PLMN
Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Structure of System Information
System information is organized as a tree, including:
MIB (Master Information Block)
SB (Scheduling Block)
SIB (System Information Block)
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System Information
SIB1: contains the system information for NAS and the
timer/counter for UE
SIB2: contains the URA information
SIB3: contains the parameters for cell selection and cell re-
selection
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SIB5: contains parameters for the common physical channels of
the cell
SIB7: contains the uplink interference level and the refreshing
timer for SIB7
SIB11: contains measurement controlling information
Reception of System Information
The UE shall read system information broadcast on a BCH
transport channel when the UE is in idle mode or in
connected mode, that is, in CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, or
URA_PCH state
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Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Cell Selection
When the PLMN is selected and the UE is in idle mode, the
UE starts to select a cell to camp on and to obtain services
There are four states involved in cell selection:
Camped normally
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Any cell selection
Camped on any cell
Connected mode
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Cell Selection (Cont.)
Two types of cell selection:
Initial cell selection
If no cell information is stored for the PLMN, the UE starts this
procedure
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Stored information of cell selection
If cell information is stored for the PLMN, the UE starts this
procedure
Cell Selection Criteria
Q Q S − =
Criterion S is used by the UE to judge whether the cell is
suitable to camped on
Criterion S: Srxlev > 0 & Squal > 0, where:
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min qual qualmeas qual
Q Q S − =
on compensati rxlev rxlevmeas rxlev
P Q Q S − − =
min
Parameters of S Criterion
Qqualmin
Parameter name: Min quality level
Recommended value: -18, namely -18dB
Qrxlevmin
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Qrxlevmin
Parameter name: Min Rx level
Recommended value: -58, namely -115dBm
Parameters of S Criterion (Cont.)
MaxAllowedUlTxPower
Parameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX power
Recommended value: 24, namely 24dBm
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Cell Reselection
The signal strength of both serving cell and neighboring
cells varies with the movement of a UE and so the UE
needs to select the most suitable cell to camp on. This
process is called cell reselection
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Cell reselection process:
Measurement start criteria
Cell reselection criteria
Measurement Start Criteria
Intra-frequency measurement:
S
qual
≤ S
intrasearch

Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
intrasearch
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Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
intrasearch

Q
qualmeas
≤ Q
qualmin
+ S
intrasearch
Measurement Start Criteria (Cont.)
Inter-frequency measurement:
S
qual
≤ S
intersearch

Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
intersearch
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Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
intersearch

Q
qualmeas
≤ Q
qualmin
+ S
intersearch
Measurement Start Criteria (Cont.)
Inter-RAT measurement:
S
qual
≤ S
searchRATm

Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
searchRATm
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Q
qualmeas
− Q
qualmin
≤ S
searchRATm

Q
qualmeas
≤ Q
qualmin
+ S
searchRATm
Parameters of Measurement Start Criteria
IdleSintrasearch
Parameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold for idle
mode
Recommended value: 127, namely none
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ConnSintrasearch
Parameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold for
connected mode
Recommended value: 127, namely none
Parameters of Measurement Start Criteria
(Cont.)
IdleSintersearch
Parameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold for idle
mode
Recommended value: 127, namely none
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ConnSintersearch
Parameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold for
connected mode
Recommended value: 127, namely none
Parameters of Measurement Start Criteria
(Cont.)
SsearchRat
Parameter name: Inter-RAT cell reselection threshold
Recommended value: 127, namely none
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Measurement Start Criteria Description
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Cell Reselection Criteria
Criterion R is used for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and
inter-RAT cell reselection
The cell-ranking criterion R is defined by:
hysts s meas s
Q Q R + =
,
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n s
offset n meas n
Q Q R
,
,
− =
hysts s meas s
Q Q R + =
,
Hysteresis and Time Interval
Quality
Rn
Qmeas,n
Qhyst,s
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Time
Treselection
Rn
Rs
Qmeas,s
Qoffsets,n
Parameters of R Criteria
QualMeas
Parameter name: Cell Sel-reselection quality measure
Recommended value: CPICH_ECNO
Treselections
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Treselections
Parameter name: Reselection delay time
Recommended value: 1, namely 1s
Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)
IdleQhyst1s
Parameter name: Hysteresis 1 for idle mode
Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB
ConnQhyst1s
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ConnQhyst1s
Parameter name: Hysteresis 1 for connected mode
Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB
Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)
IdleQhyst2s
Parameter name: Hysteresis 2 for idle mode
Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB
ConnQhyst2s
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ConnQhyst2s
Parameter name: Hysteresis 2 for connected mode
Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB
Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)
IdleQoffset1sn
Parameter name: IdleQoffset1sn
Recommended value: 0, namely 0dB
ConnQoffset1sn
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ConnQoffset1sn
Parameter name: ConnQoffset1sn
Recommended value: 0, namely 0dB
Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)
IdleQoffset2sn
Parameter name: IdleQoffset2sn
Recommended value: 0, namely 0dB
ConnQoffset2sn
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ConnQoffset2sn
Parameter name: ConnQoffset2sn
Recommended value: 0, namely 0dB
Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Location Registration
The location registration includes:
Location update (for non-GPRS)
Route update (for GPRS)
The types of location registration:
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The types of location registration:
Normal location registration
Periodic location registration
IMSI attach/detach
Periodic Location Registration
Periodic location registration is controlled by a Periodic
Location Update timer (T3212, for non-GPRS operation) or
a Periodic Routing Area Update timer (T3312, for GPRS
operation)
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T3212 is set through T3212 on the RNC side
T3312 is set on the CN side
IMSI Attach/Detach
The IMSI attach/detach process facilitates the fast location
registration of the UE in specific conditions
IMSI attach/detach is set through ATT on the RNC side
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Parameters of Location Registration
T3212
Parameter name: Periodical location update timer [6min]
Recommended value: 10, namely 60min
ATT
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ATT
Parameter name: Attach/detach indication
Recommended value: ALLOWED
Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Paging Initiation
CN initiated paging:
Establish a signaling connection
UTRAN initiated paging:
Trigger the cell update procedure
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Trigger the cell update procedure
Trigger reading of updated system information
Paging Type 1
If UE is in the idle or CELL/URA_PCH state, the paging
message will be transmitted on PCCH with paging type 1
CN RNC1 RNC2 NODEB1.1 NODEB2.1 UE
RANAP RANAP
PAGING
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RANAP RANAP
PCCH: PAGING TYPE 1
PAGING
PCCH: PAGING TYPE 1
Paging Type 2
If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state, the paging
message will be transmitted on DCCH with paging type 2
CN SRNC UE
PAGING
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RANAP RANAP
PAGING
RRC RRC
DCCH: PAGING TYPE 2
Typical Call Flow of UE
UE NAS
UE AS
NSS
MSC
paging
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
RR_SECURITY_CONTROL_REQ
paging
RR_EST_REQ (PAGING RESPONSE)
RR_PAING_IND
INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER
(PAGING RESPONSE)
RANAP RANAP
RRC setup process
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RR_SECURITY_CONTROL_REQ
(IK CK)
Security mode control
SETUP
CALL CONFIRM
ALERT
CONNECT
CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE
RAB setup process
DRX Procedure
To reduce power consumption, the UE can read the
information from the PICH only at a particular time. This is
known as the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) technology.
The interval between two consecutive periods of time is
called DRX cycle
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called DRX cycle
The value for the DRX paging cycle length is determined as
follows:
DRX Cycle Length =MAX (2
k
, PBP) frames
DRX Procedure (Cont.)
The value of the Paging Occasion is determined as follows:
Paging Occasion (CELL SFN) =
{(IMSI div K) mod (DRX cycle length div PBP)} * PBP
+ n * DRX cycle length + Frame Offset
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+ n * DRX cycle length + Frame Offset
DRX Procedure (Cont.)
In FDD the UE shall monitor its paging indicator in the PICH
frame with SFN given by the Paging Occasion
The Paging Indicator to use is calculated by using the
following formula:
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PI = (IMSI div 8192) mod N
P
DRX Procedure (Cont.)
Through DRX, UE only listens to PICH at certain predefined
time. And UE will read the paging information on SCCPCH if
the paging indicator is 1
Time offset between PICH and SCCPCH:
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τ
PICH
Associated S-CCPCH frame
PICH frame containing paging indicator
Parameters of DRX
DRXCyclelenCoef
Parameter name: DRX cycle length coefficient
Recommended value: 6
PICHMode
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PICHMode
Parameter name: PICH mode
Recommend value: V36
Parameters of DRX (Cont.)
MaccPageRepeatTimes
Parameter name: Number of page re-TX
Recommended value: 1
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Contents
1. PLMN Selection
2. System Information Reception
3. Cell Selection and Reselection
4. Location Registration
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5. Paging Procedure
6. Access Procedure
Two Working Modes of UE
Idle mode:
After turning on, UE will stay in idle mode
Connected mode:
UE will switch to connected mode which could be CELL_FACH
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UE will switch to connected mode which could be CELL_FACH
state or CELL_DCH state from the idle mode
After releasing RRC connection, UE will switch to the idle
mode from the connected mode
Random Access Procedure
Definition:
Random access procedure is initiated by UE in order to get
service from the system. Meanwhile, the access channels are
allocated to the UE by system
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Random Access Channel
AICH access
slots
#0 #1 #2 #3 #14 #13 #12 #11 #10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #5 #4
τ
p-a
SFN mod 2 = 0 SFN mod 2 = 1
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10 ms
#0 #1 #2 #3 #14 #13 #12 #11 #10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #5 #4
PRACH
access slots
10 ms
Access slot set 1 Access slot set 2
RACH Sub-Channels
SFN
mod 8
Random access sub-channels number
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 12 13 14 8 9 10 11
The access slots of different RACH sub-channels are illustrated by
the following table:
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1 12 13 14 8 9 10 11
2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 9 10 11 12 13 14 8
4 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5
5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
6 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Access Service Class
The PRACH resources can be classified into several ASCs,
so as to provide RACH applications with different priorities
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Access Control
“Access Control” is used by network operators to prevent
overload of radio access channels under critical conditions
Access class 0 ~ Access Class 9
Access class 11 ~ Access Class 15
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Access class 10
Mapping between AC and ASC
The AC-ASC mapping information is optional and used for
the System Information Block 5 (SIB5) only
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Random Access Procedure
START
Choose a RACH sub channel from
available ones
Get available signatures
Set Preamble Retrans Max
Set Preamble_Initial_Power
Send a preamble
Check the corresponding AI
Change message part power by p
-m based on preamble power
Set physical status to be RACH
message transmitted
Set physical status to be Nack
on AICH received
Choose a access slot again
Counter > 0 & Commanded Preamble
power- maximum allowed power < 6
dB
Choose a signature and
increase preamble transmit power
Set physical status to be Nack
on AICH received
Get negative AI
No AI
Report the physical status to MAC
END
Get positive AI
The counter of preamble retransmit
Subtract by 1, Commanded preamble power
increased by Power Ramp Step
N
Y
Send the corresponding message part
RRC Connection Message
Typical RRC connection messages:
RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST
RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP
RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE
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RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE
RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE
UE Timers and Constants in Idle Mode
T300
Parameter name: Timer 300 [ms]
Recommended value: D2000, namely 2s
N300
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N300
Parameter name: Constant 300
Recommended value: 3
UE Timers and Constants in Idle Mode
(Cont.)
T312
Parameter name: Timer 312 [s]
Recommended value: 6, namely 6s
N312
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N312
Parameter name: Constant 312
Recommended value: D1, namely 1
RRC Connection Establish Channel
Type and Bit Rate
RrcCause
Parameter name: Cause of RRC connection establishment
Recommended value: refer to next page
SigChType
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SigChType
Parameter name: Channel type for RRC establishment
Recommended value: refer to next page
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Thank you
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