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By Brad Thornas
The Antique/Classic Board of Directors, following
the resignation of J. R. Nielander, Jr. as President of
the Division, has appointed meto serve as your Presi-
dent for the unexpired term. The hours and hours of
time, thought, preparation, planning, and execution
byJ. R. throughoutthepastyearsareobviouslyplanted
and the seeds have grown into the expansion of our
Division. Itis myutmostdesiretoincreasethisgrowth.
With the excellent guidance available from the Offi-
cers, Directors, and Advisors of our Division, we will
strive to serve the membership, EM and all aviation
with the expertise available to fulfill the purpose of
this Division:
1. to encourage and aid the retention and restora-
tion ofantique, historical and classic aircraft;
2. to establish a library devoted to the history of
aviation and to construction, repair, restoration,
maintenance and preservation of aircraft, par-
ticularly antique, historical and classic aircraft
and engines;
3. to holdand conductmeetings,displaysand edu-
cational programs relating to aviation with em-
phasis on restoration, maintenance and care of
antique, historical and classic aircraft and en-
4. to improve aviation safety and aviation educa-
The Vintage Airplane has been acclaimed by many
to be the best publication available - devoted en-
tirelyto the functions and historyofantique and clas-
sic aircraft, historical events of aviation interest, res-
toration and maintenance of antique and classic air-
craft, and a library of useful information. We plan to
expand and add to the Vintage Airplane new and ex-
citing items of interest to antique and classic buffs.
This is your publication and we solicit your thoughts
and suggestionsabout t ~ contents.
As your new President, I feel you should be given
abriefbackground, so I introduce myselfas a hosiery
manufacturer by trade, who soloed in 1938 at the age
ofsixteen in aJ-3 Cub- as so manyhave - attended
a prep school, and completed one year in college
before the advent of World War II attracted my at-
tention. Volunteering into the Army Air Corps cadet
program, I reached Maxwell Field, Alabama to be
transferred into British Flying Training School #5 in
Clewiston, Florida, earned both Air Corps and RAF
wings; was then moved to Great Falls, Montana as a
ferry pilot with the Air Transport Command, flying
fighters, twins and multi-engine aircraft throughout
the World War II period.
Following the war period, I returned to North
Carolina, married, completed college, and established
a hosiery manufacturing business in Pilot Mountain,
North Carolina, where I continue to reside with my
Aviation is myhobby,beginning intheearlythirties
with model building and progressing to the present,
with myspare timedevoted toward EM,ourDivision,
and maintaining my homebuilts, single engine "tra-
velling" aircraft, and my most recent project, a 1937
D-17R Beech Staggerwing. My interest in aviation con-
tinues to increase throughout the years. The fellow-
ship, fly-ins, local EMChapter #8, ourAntiqueChap-
ter #3 (NC-SC-VA), our EMAntique/Classic Division
- all contribute to my high regard for those whose
interestlies in aviation.
After serving the Division as Chief Classic judge
for the Oshkosh International Convention, as Advisor
and member of the Board of Directors, the Division
Secretary, and nowas President, I pledgeto serve our
Antique/Classic Division with the best of my ability
and with the effortexpected ofme.
March 24, 1913- February 11, 1979
We were saddened to learn of the death of
our friend Bill Ehlen. Bill was active in the for-
mation of the Antique/ Classic Division, had a
hand in the development of Sun ' N Fun, took
an ambitious role at Oshkosh,and was seen fre-
quently at fly-ins around the country with his
Aeronca Chief. Bill's interest in vintage air-
craft and his contributions to the sport aviation
movement as a Director achieved a level of ac-
complishmentthatwill be deeplymissed.
Paul H. Poberezny
(Dave Gustafson Photo)
1949 Bell 47, a Classic belonging to Patri cia's Heli-
David Gustafson
copter Service.
Associate Editors: H. Glenn Buffington, Edward D. Williams, Byron
(Fred) Fredericksen
Readers are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Associate Editorships are assigned
to those writers who submit five or more articles which are published in THE VINTAGE AIR
PLANE during the current year. Associates receive a bound volume of THE VINTAGE AIR
PLANE and a free one year membership in the Division for their efforts. POLlCYOpinions
expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting
restsentirely with the contributor.
Claude L. Gray, Jr. AI Kelch
9635 Sylvia Avenue 66 W,622 N. Madison Avenue
Northridge, CA 91324 Cedarburg, WI 53092
414/377-5886 Home
919/368-2875 Home Dale A. Gustafson MortonW. Lester
919/368-2291 Office 7724 Shady Hill Drive P.O. Box 3747
Indianapolis, IN46274 Martinsvillf>, VA 24112
317/293-4430 703/632-4839'Home
703/638-8783 Office
ROUTE 1, BOX 111 Richard H. Wagner
ALLEN, TX 75002 P.O. Box 181 ArthurR. Morgan
2141727-5649' Lyons, WI 53148 3744 North 51st Blvd.
414/763-2017 Home Milwaukee,WI 53216
414/763-9588 Office 414/442-3631
7745 W. 183RD ST. l ohn S. Copeland Dan Neuman
9'Joanne Drive 1521 Berne Circl e West
Robert E. Kesel
Westborough, MA01 581 Minneapoli s, MN 55421
913/681-2303 Home 455 Oakr idge Dri ve
617/36&- 7245 6121571-0893
913/681-2622 Office
Rochester, NY14617
RonaldFr itz John R. Turgyan
71613423170 Ho me
1989' Wil son, NW 1530 Ku ser Road
TREASURER 716/3252000, Ext.
Grand Rapids, MI 49504 Trent on, NJ 08619'
23250/23320 Office
609/585-2747 6161453 7525
Stan Gomoll Gene Morr is Robert A. White
UNION, IL 60180 104290th Lane, NE 27 Chandell e Dri ve P.O. Box 704
Minneapolis, MN 55434 Hampshire, IL 601 40 Zellwood, FL 32798
6121784-1172 3121683 3199' 305/88&- 3180
THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE (ISSN 0091-6943) is owned exclusively by EAA Ant ique/Classi c Division, Inc..
and is published monthly at Hales Corners, Wi sconsi n 53 130. Seco nd class Postage paid at Hales
Corners Post Office, Hales Corners. Wisconsin 53130, and additional maili ng off ices. Membership
rates for EAA Antique/Classic Division, Inc., are $14.00 per 12 month period of which $10.00 is f or the
publicati on of THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE. Membershipis open toall who are int erested i n aviation.

P.O. Box 229, Hales Corners, WI 53130
1979 EAAAntique/Classic Division, Inc. ,All Rights Reserved.
The Cover . ..Grand Champion Classic Aeronca Chief a tSun ' N Fun belongs toAI Nase - story next month.
(David Gustafson Photo)
Straight and Level byBrad Thomas ...,................_ .............., 2
Sun 'n Fun '79'by Paul Hopkins ,. . .,. ." .. .. .,..,. . . ...". ,.,. .. ... .,. 4
Canti lever Cessnas The " World' s Most Efficient"
byGarWilliams.,......,....... .,,......,,,,...,,................ . 8
National Stearman Fly-In byThomas E. Lowe,. . ., .,,,. ., . ,. .,.,,..,..., 20
Borden'sAeroplane Posters From The 1930's
byLionel Salisbury ..........,.....................,,.....,,..._... 23
New15 Passenger 1933 CurtiSS-Wright CondorTransport......,...,.._.. 24
Watkins Skylark X-470E by Cedric Galloway... . ... . ...,.,.. . ...,..,.,,.. 25
Letters To The Editor ....._ ..........................,..,.,,......,... 26
Calendarof Events ...............,.,',......,.........,.,...,..,..... 26
oNON-EAA MEMBER - $20.00. Includes one year membership in the EAA Antique/
Classic Divi sion, 12 monthly issues of THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE; one year mem-
bership in the Experimental Aircraft Association and separate membership cards.
SPORT AVIATION magazine notincluded.
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Page 4 Page 8 Page 20

By Paul Hopkins
1617 South Florida Avenue
Lakeland, Florida 33803
(Photographs byDavidGustafson, Editor)
Sun ' N Fun 79 is history, and as usual, "Old Man
Winter" had a bag full of tricks to keep us on our toes.
In past years, we have run the gauntlet of everything
from tornado alerts and line squalls to snowstorms.
This year brought pre-convention low pressure cells
that tried to funnel the Gulf of Mexico onto the Florida
peninsula. This left the site a near swamp, and created
the week' s most common diversion: tractor pulls of
autos, motor homes, and anything else that found
less than sure footing - the stuck aircraft were all
extracted by hand by our fast moving repair and emer-
gency crews. By mid-week though, most everyone
knew " where the high ground lay", and the weather
had settled into a pattern of fast moving cold fronts
that usually passed during the nighttime hours; leav-
ing the days mostly clear and not too cold. Only one
day of forty knot gusts threatened to wreck havoc on
our tent city. The most damaging weather for many
happened hundreds of miles to the north. Record
snowfalls, ice storms, and just plain unflyable (or
driveablel winter fare kept a great number of con-
vention bound guests far from their destination.
Registration statistics proved the effects of the
elements fury. The camp grounds counted 399 units
sheltering 889 people, and the total of 15,103 conven-
tion participants were both up conSiderably from last
year. The FAA traffic controllers also totaled a sub-
stantial increase in aircraft movements. Many air-
craft flew into the convention site for each afternoon's
aerial demonstration, and the fly-by pattern was more
active than in past years. The big loss in numbers due
to winter's attack upon sport aviation was in the show
plane category; only 262 aircraft were on hand. This
certainly did not detract from the quality or variety
of tho,. that d;d make -'-- mo,. about that
The fenced Sun ' N Fun compound was a week long
beehive of aviation activity. The OX-5 Club sponsored
a tent for aviation pioneers which provided a gather-
ing place for these honored guests, as did the Fri-
day evening "Gathering of Eagles" hosted by the
Florida Sport Aviation, Antique and Classic Associa-
tion. Our beloved pioneer, Jessie Woods, aided and
abetted by Roger Don Rae, Big Nick Rezich, Dave Fox,
and many others made these two activities stand-
out attractions. The names of the famous fliers, de-
signers, and scientists who were in attendance would
fill this magazine.
Thursday evening' s "Ground Loop" party, dance,
and fashion show as always, was a winner; providing
a chance to unwind and warm up. In this same vein,
the "Ladies Pavilion" proved to be a focal point. The
AOPA "Pinch Hitter Course", special luncheons, gour-
met cooking demonstrations, and v ~ n EAA Head-.
Grand'Champion Antique: Dolph Overton's Command
Aire from Orlando, Florida. Restoration work was dohe
Ernie Webb ofCharlotte, NorthCarolina.
Air show time in the Antique/Classi c area. Note the short
sleeves and bare grass!
artin Propet of Ja cksonville,
-airchild 24.
Classics from Headquarters: President Paul 's
f AA 's "s taff hauler" DC-3.
quarters' Airspace Action presentation. On the edu-
cational level, four days of forums and workshops
had something of interest for everyone. The quality
of content and the caliber of the lecturers, too nu-
merous to mention, are a tribute to the EAA, and to
John Shinn and lyle Flagg who put the forums to-
Cockpit area of Bill Dodd's shiny Buhl Pup restoration.
Note the wing windows. (How about a story on that re-
build, Bill ?)
P-5 1 D and
Also of great interest was the "Flea Market" where
many articles of use to aviators changed hands. This
was rivaled by the huge commercial circus tent with
over one hundred vendors of aeronautical ware, and
the EAA Headquarters merchandise tent with a beauti -
ful red blimp tethered high overhead . The EAA also
manned membership huts near the registration points
for individuals desiring to join our organization . A
new Sun ' N Fun Headquarters building combining
staff coordination, FAA Flight Service, announci ng
stand, and fly-by briefing functions proved its worth
even before the convention began. Also new this
year was a much needed convenience store for camp-
ers. located in the rear of the shower house, which
itself sported a new and unseen, but most necessary,
overload drain field which can accommodate con-
stant maximum usage, the " Country Store" packed
an amazing variety of camping needs into a small area.
More of note was the food service. located in a large
centrally located tent, this " Boy's Club" concession
served good food in a comfortable, sit-down environ-
ment. Not once did this writer hear a complaint con-
cerning quality or pricing.
We have not mentioned many names so far dur-
ing this narrative because over eighty chairmen with
their hundreds of co-chairmen, judges, and volun-
teers would fill a book, and we don' t want to show
any partiality. Fly-In Director, Bill Henderson, and
Sun ' N Fun President, len McGinty have put together
a smooth, well oiled operation. To them, and to all
" who got i nvolved", ou r hats are off.
And now (you were about to give up hope?) a few
words about the aircraft that drew us all to the EAA
i n the first place. As mentioned earlier, the afternoon
aerial demonstrations provided spectators with some
of the finest air show acts in the world: EAA President
Paul H. Poberezny, with an ultra smooth performance
in the P-51D, ACA President Ron Cadby in the new
260 hp Pitts S2S doing impossible vertical maneuvers,
concluding with a six revolution torque roll, Bud Judy,
Vice-President of the lAC, in the two place Acro Sport,
making the whole event look so easy, Jim Stanton with
the S1S Pitts, doing likewise with the little red hor-
net, Maurice Seree, factory demonstration pilot , mak-
ing the STOl RalLye do the impossible, and many,
many more. They' re always a high point of the fly-in
day. On the flight line, and in snow fence protected
within the spectator area, we found a great
abundance of rare and unusual craft. The grounds
and fly-by pattern seemed overrun by ultra light craft
of many types - John Moody surely started some-
thing. Quite a number sported twin power sources
which seemed to cut down on noise.
In the Antique/Classic sphere, the aircraft ran the
gamut from DC-3's to a Buhl Bull Pup and C-3 Aeronca.
The beautiful EAA DC-3 which brought the Headquar-
ters crew to Florida, and a machine owned by Haw-
thorne College way up in Antrim, New Hampshire,
and boasting of over 84,000 hours in the log books,
sort of gave an overall perspective to the show planes .
Bill Dodd's Continental powered Buhl, and Dan Araldi's
1936 C-3 represented the low powered antiques, while
Morton Lester's red DGA-15P Howard and Bob Allen's
Lockheed 12A showed the class of aviation from forty
years ago. Even older were the great names in bi-
planes. Dean Tilton's beautiful OX-5 Travel Air, I'm
sure caused many a throat to choke up as it made its
daily flight around the patch from the hangar it calls
home on the north side of the field. Ken Rickert's '41
Aeronca Chief, Red Smith's 108 Stinson, joe Araldi 's
Command Aire, and son Dan's C-3 and Stampe SV4 C
covered similar mileage. The 220 Continental pow-
ered Command Aire and another Warner equipped
ship from Dolph Overton's reincarnated "Wings and
Wheels" museum in Orlando International Airport ,
Mike Turner's 1947 Navion was flown down from Frank-
enmuth, Michigan. It won the Best Custom Classic Award
and clearly deserved it.
William T. Gorman of Cape Coral came to Sun 'N Fun
in his Ranger powered Fairchild 24.
are the only two airworthy craft of this type in opera-
tion and both turned up. Side by side they brought
back many a memory, no doubt. On this same row
could be found john Dekel' s 220 Travel Air from
Thomasville, Georgia, an immaculate machine, Dick
Durst' s Fleet 9; another "only surviving" type pow-
ered by a 160 hp Kinner, and Bob White's UKC-5 Waco
Cabin. Bob test flew the ship the first morning of the
fly-in and finding that everything worked, continued
on to Lakeland from his Zellwood, Florida airport.
Rounding out the notable antiques was a fantastic
1936 90A Monocoupe fitted with a big four cylinder
Lycoming for aerobatic work, a handful of Stearmans,
Beech Staggerwings, T-50 Cessnas, and j-3 and -4 Cubs.
Merle jenkin' s newly restored Aeronca L-3 in full war
time regalia was an attention getter, and a couple of
homebuilts were of interest to older airplane buffs.
Dick Durst's Redfern-built, Ranger powered Great
Lakes was flown in an air show by Dave Fox, and the
first machine to arrive at the fly-in was Fred Quinn's
Woody Pusher, dressed up to resemble its Curtiss
junior ancestor.
The classic area was also equally graced with beauti-
ful machines. Deadlines prevent us from connecting
more aircraft with their owner's names. The Ercoupe
(Aircoupe-Alon-Mooney) line drew 17 aircraft at one
count. The always plentiful Swifts showed a trend
toward highly polished metal and stock appearing
cowling - sometimes even stock engines - fine air-
craft. The 170 Cessna population was sort of low, but
several nice 120-140-140A craft were counted. The
190-195 contingent took up where the 170's left off
though - thank goodness for airline pilots. A very
well finished Fairchild 24W made a brief appearance
from St. Augustine. Several excellent Pipers, PA-11,
PA-12, PA-17, PA-20 and PA-22 were scattered through
the parking area, as were a few Luscombes.
It was a successful Sun ' N Fun. A great excuse to
bring a lot of fantastic people together, and a chal-
lenge to make next year's event even better. Y'all
come back real soon.
Most people come to fly-ins to look at airplanes, some
show up to play in the mud.
This beautiful Cabin Waco UKC-5 belonging to Bob White
of Zellwood, Florida was completed just prior to the fly-in.
Ah-h-h-h .. .
N970E, Dolph Overton, Wings and Wheels Muse-
um, Orlando
2000, NC6117, Dean Tilton, Lakeland
UKC-5, NC15214, Bob White, Zellwood, FL
NC57917, Ted Andros, Coral Gables
BEST ANTIQUE BIPLANE -American Eagle, Jack Brown,
Seaplane Base, Winter Haven
25628, R. R. Allen, Fayetteville, NC
BEST ANTIQUE - OPEN COCKPIT - Travelaire 4000,
NC4952, John Dekle, Thomasville, GA
BEST ANTIQUE - CABIN - Cessna UC-78, NC69072,
J. Cramer, Boynton Beach
Dan Araldi, Plant City
MERITORIOUS AWARD - Taylorcraft BC 120, NC-
39222; Aeronca L-3, NC46924, Merle Jenkins, Lake-
land; Aeronca Chief, N33731, Ken Rickert, Lake-
N85829; AI Nase, Rehoboth Beach, DE
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - Up to 100 hp - Piper
PA-17, N4699H, George Bickel, Raleigh, NC
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - 101 to 165 hp - Fairchild
F-24, N81222, Martin Probst, Jacksonville
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - Over 165 hp - Cessna 195,
N3484V, Donald Sutherland, Miami Lakes
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - Up to 100 hp - Ercoupe,
N24AP, Don Stretch, Fallington, PA
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - 101 to 165 hp - Swift,
N10SS, Bill Shepherd, New Orleans, LA
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - Over 165 hp - Navion,
N4043K, Mike Turner, Frankenmuth, MI
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Ercoupe, N3081H, Fred
Best, Safety Harbour
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Aeronca Champ, N2300E,
Bill Bond
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Swift, N46GS, Joseph Ran-
son, Hollywood, FL
CLASSIC - LADIES CHOICE - Cessna 140A, N9476A,
Dave/ Linda Grow, Gloucester Point, VA
MERITORIOUS AWARD - Ercoupe, N 94806, Marvin
Funk, Peachtree, GA; Aeronca Champ, N3408E,
Charles Hughes, Pansy, AL; Bellanca, NC86748,
Tom Leahy, Brooklyn, OH
Cantilever Cessnas
The "World s
By GarWilliams
9 5 135 Aero Drive
Route 1
Naperville, Illinois 60540
How many homebuilders and even aircraft manu-
facturers would like to lay claim to such a title! Un-
doubtedly one airplane could have earned that reputa-
tion. Push time back to 1936 and you'll find such a
title bestowed upon an airplane design that won so
many contests for speed and efficiency that it was
declared the "World's Most Efficient Airplane" . Cess-
na, with good justification, capitalized upon this title
and soon this slogan accompanied their advertising
for their very popular "Airmaster".
The Airmaster story has its beginnings many years
earlier - in fact , it all started in Iowa in 1880 with the
birth of Clyde Cessna. Apparently, Clyde quickly be-
came quite a mechanic for early reports indicate he
was known for his repairman abilities on farm ma-
chines. And (eventually) automobiles. Clyde's interest
in mechanics quickly led to airplanes and, at 31 , he
decided that he should join the ranks of the home-
builders. In the late spring of 1911, Clyde started to
learn to fix - and to survive crashes. After many les-
sons in the rebuilding of his homebuilt, Clyde made
one successful take-off and landing - and promptly
went into the air show business! Many years and origi-
nal designs transpired with Cessna's interest pinned
on the monoplane. It's hard to imagine an aircraft
designer and current day company - with records
as far back as 1911 - not having a biplane hanging
in the family tree! That actually is the case for the
Cessna Aircraft Company. Cessna went "fully canti-
lever" in 1927 and regressed to " struts" , eighteen
years later with the introduction of the 120/140 series.
Design evolution of the Airmaster series goes very
obviously back through the DC-6 and the "A" series
to Clyde' s 1927 "design number one" - the second
" Comet" . The catalyst for the transformation of the
details of these earlier designs into the sleek new
four place C-34 was Clyde's son Eldon. Eldon ' s in-
terest in racing led to a number of design improve-
ments on his personal AW - " Old 99" - NC7107.
Various photos show improvements in the windshield
- cowling - and finally wheel pants specifically for
the reduction of drag. Clyde and Eldon Cessna con-
tinued updating the AW design and quickly emerged
with the C-3 late in 1933. This was a rebuild of a model
AA (serial 124) and included a fully cowled 125 Warner,
an enlarged cabin, and the incorporation of a DC-6
series gear neatly faired with wheel pants. Early Cess-
na publications indicate this ship was the first pro-
duct of the late 1933 reorganization while Bob Pickot
and Mitch Makburn's excellent book Cessna Guide-
book Volume One points out conclusively that this
was actually the fourth and last product of the C. V.
Cessna Company - formed by Clyde while the Cess-
na Aircraft Company was dormant. (Author's Note -
This book, Cessna Guidebook is an excellent his-
tory of Cessna's early years. It's a must for every an-
tiquer's library. The book is number 2 in the American
Aircraft Series published by Flying Enterprise Pub-
,cessna C-165 (NCI13) sin 484 and C- 145 (N
85 for c.A.A. September, 1939. '
lications, 3164 Whitehall, Dallas, Texas 75229.)
These two ships - "Old 99" - and the C-3 obvi-
ously had considerable influence on the C-34 design.
The basic fuselage and wing design of the AW were
used with rather minor changes. The C-34 wing in-
corporated a built up solid spar and trailing edge wing
flaps whereas the earlier wing had a very complex
box spar with no flaps. The airfoil was changed from
a modified M-12 to the NACA 2412 and the wing span
was shortened six feet. The remaining portions of
the wings are identical in detail design and construc-
tion. The steel tube fuselage on the AW was widened
and deepened to enlarge the cabin area. One right
hand entrance door giving access to both front and
rear seats was substituted for the AW's rather awk-
Inset picture taken 1927.
ward front and rear cabin doors. "Fully cantilever"
on the C-34 applied to everything - the main and
tail gear became internally sprung cantilever struts
- the steel tube strut braced AW tail surfaces were
designed to be a " strutless" wooden structure.
As with many famous designs a great deal of con-
troversy has surrounded the Airmaster regarding the
design responsibility for the C-34. Obviously the over-
all design and construction was a team effort although
there is no question in the author's mind that the Air-
master series was primarily the result of Eldon Cess-
na' s engineering expertise. Cessna literature credits
the design to other individuals. The author has per-
sonally reviewed the original "Cessna Company Scrap-
book" which includes pictures and newspaper arti-
C-165's in formation . Cessna Airmaster Reunion, 1975,
Wich ita, Kansas. NC237E - Ken Col e, Pleasanton, CA;
25485 - C. Williams.
des relating to Eldon Cessna's new design. Eldon per-
sonally test flew the prototype in the fall of 1934, sig-
nificantly earlier than the June 1, 1935 manufacture
date warranty recognized by the Cessna archives.
The background on the title of the " World's Most
Efficient Airplane" is interesting although somewhat
misleading. As Eldon Cessna relates the story, air
racing was not necessarily the road to glory, just one
of the better ways in the Depression Years to keep the
family from starving. One of the Detroit News Trophy
events used a formula of load capacity, speed, take-
off and landing distances, as well as fuel consump-
tion as parameters for determining efficiency. Eldon's
pilotage and "Old 99" agility easily garnered the
Detroit News Trophy.
Cessna Aircraft Company entered their second pro-
duction C-34 series number 301, NC15462 in the same
event at the 1935 races. With George Hart at the con-
trols, the new monoplane brought the trophy home
for the second time. The following year Dwane Wal-
lace swept the efficiency event with serial number
320, NC15852. Since a Cessna Monoplane had won
the event three times, the decision was made to be-
stow the title of the "World's Most Efficient" upon
the cantilever creation of Eldon Cessna. Of course,
the factory applied the title to their current produc-
tion C-34' s although "one third" of the award actually
belongs to an AW and in reality should have credited
the designer as well. Prior to the award, Clyde and
Eldon Cessna had given up control of Cessna Aircraft
with Clyde retiring to farming and Eldon moving to
Northrup Aircraft in Los Angeles so in reality the de-
signer was no longer associated with Cessna Aircraft .
The "World's Most Efficient" slogan was used t)1rough-
out the six years of Airmaster production.
During the forty plus years that have passed since
the Detroit News Trophy was won for the third time
by a "cantilever" Cessna the three airplanes that
"brought the bacon home" have gone their separate
routes into oblivion. The AW, "Old 99" NC7107, serial
#146 eventually found its way into Oklahoma where
it appears to have been destroyed in a windstorm.
At this writing there is only rumor as to its disposi-
tion - it has been struck from FAA's records and the
number 7107 was assigned to AW serial #196 which
is currently being rebuilt by a very ambitious young
antiquer - with a project like that one must be young
at the start - Dave Rawlings of Rio, Wisconsin . If
the real "Old 99" ever turns up, its existence would
be easy to prove. During the construction of the ship,
Eldon Cessna had the fuselage lengthened to com-
pensate for the lighter Warner Engine. This airframe
was the only one so modified. Hence, easy identifica-
First Cessna C-34, cln 254, Ju/y, 1935._
prototype/ofseries stillf/y/ing- ownedby W
Ken Muxow, MmneapoIS, Minnesota.
Notice deep cowl,
fin and rudder.
Cessna 's first cantilever wing! A seri es prototype wing on October, 1927.
Airmaster paint shop. C-37 production.
The second winner of the coveted Detroit News
Efficiency Trophy has returned from oblivion at the
capable hands of Clyde Boureois, Santa Ynez, Cali-
fornia. Clyde's rebuild of this ship has been recog-
nized as superb by judges at Watsonville, Oshkosh
and many fly-ins between those points. It's beauti-
fully preserved for posterity.
The third capture of the contest was made by serial
number 320, NC15852. This ship eventually went to
Canada as CR-BDI. On April 13, 1952, serial 320 was
forced down by reasons unknown on Mcinnis Lake,
near Sioux Lookout, Ontario, Canada. As far as is
known to date, the ship is still there. Either in the
lake or on the shore. There must be a fisherman/
antiquer that visits that area of Canada. Just remem-
ber, antique airplanes aren' t beirig made anymore.
Have at it!
To fully understand the development of Cessna's
cantilever airplanes one must first examine the model
designations assigned to their first production air-
plane, serial #113, through the last single engine pre-
war ship, serial #591 . Clyde Cessna' s first ship was a
model A equipped with an Anzani Engine (which made
i t an AA). Engine variants in the A generated the AC,
AS, and AW. The second design, the model B, was a
model A with heavier spars and gear. The 13 model
B' s were all produced with the J-5 Wright and ap-
propriately called " BW's". The third model - the
" C" - was an enlargement of the NB series. Several
were built but not type certificated. Appropriately
the fou rth Cessna design was labeled the D series.
All of the D models were actually labeled DC-6 Cur-
tiss Challenger Engine. A majority of this series was
built with the Wright J-6-9 and J-6-7 as the DC-6A and
DC-6B. The next design produced by the Cessna Air-
craft Company was the C-34; the prototype of the
Airmaster series. A number of aircraft were designed
and built by Eldon Cessna between the DC and C-34
series. These experimental aircraft contributed to the
virtues of the C-34 but were products of the Clyde
V. Cessna Company, a Kansas partnership between
Clyde and Eldon. The C-34 model number was simply
Cessna, 1934. This was the production year of the
prototype design of which 43 were built between late
1934 and January 1937. Ref inements of the de5ign
resulted in the C-37 (Cessna 1937) first produced
December 8, 1936, the C-38 (Cessna 1938) produced
from October 11, 1937 through August 31, 1938, the
C-145 (Cessna 145 horsepower) built from September
24, 1938 through April 28, 1941 , and finally the C-165
(Cessna 165 horsepower) which was built from April
22, 1939 through August 12, 1941 .
Production of thi s " World's Most Efficient Air-
plane" totaled 184 copies. The breakdown is 42 C-34's;
- - - . . .. . . ..... .. ,- ..... ........ ,'J 'u............ ..... u
finish on the Airmaster. C-7 45/C-7 65
wing production. 7939- 7940.
.. .. -
Static test of Cessna AW cantilever wing. February 1928.
46 C-37' s; 16 C-38' s; 42 C-145's; and a total of 38 C-165's.
Over the years, engine changes have been made up-
dating the 145 powered ships to the more reliabl e
165 horsepower Warner, but by far the majority of
aircraft (146) were built with the 145 horsepower War-
ner as standard equipment. Only one factory installa-
tion of an engine other than a 145/165 Warner was
made - in 1940 General Motors ordered one C-165
to be built with their experimental 175 horsepower,
liquid cooled, 2 cycle engine for power. This ship
(serial #568) subsequently was converted to the 165
Warner and even later to a spring steel gear: Both
conversions were accomplished by the Cessna fac-
tory. The design and production of the Airmaster
series can logically be broken into two phases. The
straight or narrow gear versions include the C-34' s
and 37's. In January of 1938, the C-38 was introduced
which featured the wider , "bowed" gear - the name
"Airmaster". Although all versions now carry that
label, technically the C-34' s and C-37's are not "Air-
masters". A number of other changes were incor-
porated into the C-38, enough to make a definite break
.in the description of the details of models produced
from 1934 through 1941 .
Th e early versions of the C-34 included several
features that added to the rather delicate ground
handling qualities of these ships. The narrow gear
was placed well forward of the center of gravity which
made directional stability marginal. Add to that a set
of Johnson bar brakes, a non-steerable tailwheel held
centered by a shock cord, a very small fin and rudder
and you have all the ingredients for head spi nning
horizontal reversements. A number of the early ships
that have survived have been modified to steerable
or at least locking tailwheels as well as hydrauli c
brakes. Only a few of the C-34's are now flying with
the original small fin and rudder.
The first few production C-34's had crank operated
flaps. This method was quickly modified to a chain
and cable system powered by an electric motor.
Through the end of production in 1941, Cessna re-
tained electric operation of the flaps except for the 16
C-38's which utilized a hydraulic belly flap. All the
C-34's and C-37's had wooden structu re trailing edge
flaps. The flaps were hinged on the bottom surface
and worked in principle similar to the post-war 120/140
and 170/170A flaps. With the advent of the bowed
gear C-38, Cessna engineers developed a large hy-
draulicall y actuated belly flap quite similar to the Rutan
VariEze mechanism. Starting at serial number 450 -
the first C-145 - and through serial number 591 -
the last Airmaster - Cessna built the Airmaster with
a third type of flap assembly. This was a drag flap
mounted on the underside of the wing just forward
of the rear spar and inboard of the ailerons . This flap
design was carried forward to the post-war 1901195
series airplanes.
The reason for Cessna' s flap variations are ap-
parent once you fly the ship. The airplane has a very
flat glide. Once in ground effect, airspeed bleeds off
slowly causing a " float" that reminds you of a Tay-
lorcraft. The trailing edge flaps of course added drag
and steepened the approach . Unfortunately, these
flaps also added significant lift which in turn did not
help decrease the tendency to float. What the air-
plane really needed was pure drag. To accomplish
that, Cessna engineers deleted the trailing edge flaps
and added a large hydraulic hand pump actuated belly
flap to the C-38 series. The aerodynamic purpose was
well served but the operation added another hand
operation to the pilot's duties - stick, Johnson bar,
and hydraulic pump. The extra handle cluttered an
already cramped cockpit. The advent of the under-
wing drag flaps starting with NC14464, the first C-145,
was the ultimate solution. Plenty of drag, steeper ap-
proaches, no floating, as well as a simple, lightweight
operating mechanism.
Except for the landing gear change to the 12 inch
wider "bowed" gear with the introduction of the 1938
C-38, the other variation between the first C-34 and
final C-165 were subtle and should be considered
minor in nature. Many minor changes occurred in
the cabin to facilitate pilot and passenger comfort.
The C-37 featured a four inch wider cabin than the
predecessor. With the C-38, the structure support-
ing the instrument panel was moved forward four
inches giving the appearance of a larger cockpit. This
change caused the size of the windshield and for-
ward side windows to vary. The size and shape of
the other cabin windows were also noticeably dif-
ferent. Factory records indicate improvements in
cabin upholstery with the later copies being fur-
nished with plush mohair and bedford cord wools.
Other mechanical changes included a locking tail-
wheel on the C-37 and subsequent models and shock
mounted removable engine mount. Starting with the
C-38 the welded, non-removable mount of the earlier
series, and hydraulic brakes introduced on the first
Options available to the customer on all series
Airmasters include either: wooden or Curtiss Reed
metal fixed pitch propellers and variations of fuel
tankage for 35, 45, or 52V2 gallon capacity. Exterior
and interior colors were also left to the customer' s
Cessna C-37, sin 346, April, 1937.
Still licensed and flying in Spokane,
Cessna C-145 panel. October 1938.
Bob Cummi ngs and his C-37. sin 369. This is Bob's fi rst
Airmaster. Currentl y owned by Bill Koelling, Great Bend,
KS. Bob's second Airmaster was SN588 NC32455 which
is still flying in the Northwest.
Bob Cummings in his C-37 " Spinach // ".
discretion and resulted in a veritable rainbow of
colors. Many Airmasters were outfitted with the lat-
est in electronic equipment and were often navigated
by the beeping A-N ranges through the worst of weath-
er. All of these "World's Most Efficient" airplanes
came normally equipped with electric starter , gen-
erator , and night flying equipment.
At this writing, approximately fifty of these fine
Second winner . of Detroit News Trophy sin 307 C-34.
Restored by Clyde B. Bouozgeois.
old birds have survived the ravages of time, incom-
petency and neglect. Airmaster owners have loosely
bonded themselves together through the Antique
Airplane Association sponsored Airmaster Club. This
club offers social and mechanical support for the
survival of the breed. A majority of Airmaster owners
are fiercely proud of their possessions and, as a re-
sult, the ownership turnover i s quite slow. One own-
er, a very competent engineer , feels sure that his ship
represents one of the finest combinations of airframe,
engine and propeller ever produced. On the oppo-
site side, one currently popular aviation writer had
the audacity to suggest that the airplane flies like a
truck. We Airmaster owners know he would say a
Corvette rides hard!
PERFORMANCE: English Metric
High speed,at sea level . 162 m.p.h. 261 k.p.h.
'Cruising speed, at optimum alti-
tude (8,200ft.). ........ 151 m.p.h. 243 k.p.h.
'Cruisingspeed,at sea level. 143 m.p.h. 230 k.p.h.
Landingspeed,withflapsextended 49 m.p.h. 79 k.p.h.
Climbfirst minute... .. . 1,000 feet 305 meters
Cruising Radius (with 521/ 2 U. S.
galloncapacity)............ 785 miles 1,263 kilometers
CruisingRadius (with 45U.
lon capacity)............. 675 miles 1,086kilometers
CruisingRadius (with 35 U. S. gal-
lon capacity)... 525 miles 845 kilometers
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level)............... 9
/ 2 gal. / hr. 36 liters/ hr.
Air mileage per gallon at cruising
speed (sea level). 15 miles 24 kilometers
Service ceiling. ... .... . . ..... . ...18,000feet 5, 486 meters
'Cruisingspeeds at 75% Horsepower.
Gross weight 2,3501bs. 1,066 kilograms
'Empty weight ...... .......... 1,380 Ibs. 626 kilograms
Useful load ........... 970 lbs . 44 0 kilograms
Pay load ...... .. . .. ... .. . 57 4 lbs. 260 kilograms
Wing loading . 13 lbs./sq.ft. 63.4 kilo./ sq.m.
Power loading. 16.2 lbs. / h.p. 7. 35 kilo. / h.p.
'Empty weightguaranteed nottoexceedthisfigure by over2%.
Type.... 4-place Cabin Monoplane
Numberofengines. 1 1
Length. 24 ft. 8 in. 7.5 meters
Span (wing). 34 ft. 2 in. 10.4 meters
Height. 7ft. 2.1i5meters
Wingarea.. 181 sq. ft. 16.8~ q meters
Fuselage, complete with Engine Mount, Windshield, Windows
and Door (Door Lock and Keys provided). (Pertinent float
Fittings are attached and entire Structure Corrosion Proofed
for Seaplane use.)
Wing, complete with Statically and Dynamically Balanced
Ailerons. (All Metal Parts are Corrosion Proofed for Sea-
plane use.)
2 Wing Flaps.
I Wing Flap Electrical Operating Mechanism.
1 Fin and Rudder.
I Stabilizerand Elevator.
I Set LongitudinalTrimmingTabs (on Elevator) .
1 Parking Brake System.
I Pilot Individual Foot BrakeSystem.
I Automatic TailWheel Locking Mechanism.
I LandingGearwithOildraulic-springShockAbsorbingMechan-
ism, 7:50x10 Goodyear Wheels, Hydraulic Brakes.
Tail Wheel with 8-inch Streamline Tire and Oildraulic-spring
ShockAbsorbing Unit.
1 Set 6:50x10TiresandTubes.
1 Pilot Seatwith Safety Belt.
I Co-pilotSeat with Safety Belt.
I Rear PassengerSeat with Safety Belt (2 Passengers) .
4 Cabin Ventilators (all adjustablefrom Pilot's Seat) .
I Fuel System with two Wing Tanks- total fuel capacity
Tanks, 35 gallons.
Oil System complete with 3
12 gallon Tank.
Qua!'t Pyrene Fire Extinguisher.
'I Bauer& Black First Aid Kit.
I Set Cabin Wall Upholstering (Laidlaw).
I Set Cabin Seat Upholstering (Laidlaw).
I Airmaster Styled Instrument Panel.
1 Set Dual Controls.
I Complete Set Tie Down Lugs.
'I EngineLog Book.
'I Aircraft Log Book.
'I Airplane Manual.
Warner7-CylinderRadialAirCooledEngine, 145 H.P. (it 2050
Curtiss Fixed Pitch Metal Propeller.
Eclipse, Type Y- 150, DirectElectricStarter.
CompleteSet PressureTypeCylinderCoolingBafHes.
GasolineFuel Strainer.
'I CompleteEngineToolKit .
I NACA Cowling.
I InnerMotorCowl.
I Engine Crankcase Cowl.
1 MixtureControl.
I Spark Control.
1 Engine Primer.
I Throttle.
4 Lord RubberEngine Mount Bushings.
Stainless Steel Firewall.
Steel Exhaust Collector.
'I Engine Manual.
Exide, Type 6-TS- 7-1, Electrical Storage Battery (19 Ampere
I Cessna Electric MasterSwitch.
I Cessna Ignition Switch.
1 Wind DrivenGenerator (3
12 to 8 Ampere Capacity).
1 InstrumentLight Rheostat.
3 Grimes, TypeC, Navigation Lights.
CompleteSet Airplane Wiring.
Complete Set Airplane Conduiting andJunction Boxes.
Complete Set Electrical Switches.
StarterSolenoid Switch.
Complete Set Airplane Bonding and Shielding.
Compass. 2 Fuel Quantity Gauges
Altimeter. (Electric).
Airspeed. Ammeter.
Airspeed Pitot Static Tube. Oil PressureGauge.
Tachometer. I OilTemperature.Gauge.
'Not included in standardweight of 1,380.
PERFORMANCE: English Metric
High speed,at sea level 145 m.p.h. 233 k.p.h.
'Cruisingspeed. 130 mp.h.. 209 k.p.h.
Landing speed, with flaps extended 50 m.p.h. 80k.p.h.
Climb first minute. 650 feet 198 meters
Cruising Radius (with 52
12 U. S.
gallon capacity). 700 miles 1,127kilometers
CruisingRadius (with 45 U. S. gal-
lon capacity). 600 miles 966kilometers
CruisingRadius (with 35 U.
lon capacity)... 460 miles 740kilometers
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level). 9
/ 2 gal. / hr. 36liters/ hr.
Air mileage per gallon at cruising
speed (sea level) 13.7 miles 22 kilometers
Service ceiling. .. .14,000feet 4,268 meters
'Cruisingspeeds at 75% Horsepower.
Gross weight 2,550 lbs . 1,159 kil ograms
'Empty weight. 1,635Ibs. 74 3 kilograms
Useful load. 915 lbs. 416 kilograms
Pay load. 574 1bs. 260 kilograms
Wing loading . 14. 1lhs ./ sq. ft. 68.8 kilo./sq. m.
Power loading . 17 .6 lbs. / h.p. 8 kilo. / h.p.
'Empty weight guaranteed not to exceed thi s figure by over 2So.
Type. 4-placeCabin Monoplane
Numberofengines 1 1
Length, overall. 26 ft. 5 in. 8.0 meters
Span (wing). 34 ft. 2 in . 10.4 meters
Height (from water line) 7 ft. 6 in. 2.28 meters
Wing area 181 sq. ft . 16.8 sq. meters
Fuselage, complete with Engine Mount, Windshield, Windows
and Door (Door Lock and Keys provided) . (Pertinent float
Fittings are attach..d and entire Structure Corrosion Proofed
for Seaplaneuse. )
1 EmergencyExit, left side cabin.
1 PairEdo Model 2425 Floats, completewith WaterRudders.
1 WaterRudderLift Control.
1 Complete set Water Rudder Control Cables and Rudder Lift
1 Completeset FloatAttachment Struts and Wires.
1 SetStrutSteps.
1 CompleteFloatStrut Fairing Assembly.
1 Auxiliary SeaplaneVertical Fin.
1 Wing, complete with Statically and Dynamically Balanced
Ailerons. (All Metal Parts are Corrosion Proofed for Sea-
2 WingFlaps. .
1 WingFlap Electrical Operating Mechanism.
1 Fin andRudder.
1 StabilizerandElevator.
1 Set LongitudinalTrimmingTabs (on Elevatoc).
1 ParkingBrakeSystem.
1 PilotIndividualFoot BrakeSystem.
:t AutomaticTailWheelLocking Mechanism. (Forauxiliary land-
1 LandingGearwithOildraulic-spriagShockAbsorbingMechan-
ism, 7:50x10GoodyearWheels, HydraulicBrakes (forauxiliary
Landplane use).
1 Set 6:50x10 Tires and Tubes (for auxiliary Landplane use).
1 Tail Wheel with 8-inch Streamline Tire and Oildraulic-spring
Shock Absorbing Unit (for auxiliary Landplane use).
1 PilotSeatwith Safety Belt.
1 Co-pilotSeat with Safety Belt.
1 RearPassengerSeat with Safety Belt (2 Passengers).
4 Cabin Ventilators (All Adjustablefrom Pilot'sSeat).
Fuel System with two Wing Tanks- total fuel capacity both
Tanks, 35 gallon.
1 OilSystem completewith 3
/ 2gallon Tank.
1 QuartPyreneFire Extinguisher.
"I Bauer& BlackFirst Aid Kit.
1 Set CabinWall Upholstering (Laidlaw).
1 Set Cabin SeatUpholstering (Laidlaw).
1 AirmasterStyled Instrument Panel.
1 Set Dual Controls.
1 CompleteSet TieDown Lugs.
"I Engine Log Book.
"I AircraftLog Book.
"I Airplane Manual.
1 Curtiss Fixed Pitch Metal Propellerfor Seaplane use.
(Other Power PlantAccessories same as C-145 Landplane.)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT- (Same as C-145 Landplane. )
INSTRUMENTS- (Same as C-145 Landplane.)
"Notincluded in standardweightof 1,635.
High speed,at sea level... . .. . .... 162 m.p.h.
"Cruising speed, at optimum alti-
tude (8,200ft.) 151 m.p.h.
"Cruising speed,at sea level. 143 m.p.h.
Landingspeed, with /laps extended 49 m.p.h.
Climbfirst minute............ 1,000feet
Cruising Radius (with 52
/ 2U. S.
galloncapacity) ........... 785 miles
CruisingRadius (with 45 U. S. gal-
Ion capacity) ............ 675 miles
CruisingRadius (with 35 U.S. gal-
lon capacity)................... 525 miles
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level)........ 9liz gal. /hr.
Air mileage per gallon at cruising
speed (sea level). ... 15 miles
Service ceiling... ..........18,000feet
"Cruisingspeedsat 75% Horsepower.
261 k.p.h.
243 k.p.h.
230 k.p.h.
79 k.p.h.
305 meters
.845 kilometers
36 liters/ hr.
24 kilometers
5,486 meters
Gross weight. .......... 2,350Ibs. 1,066 kilograms
*Empty weight ........ .... .... . 1,400Ibs. 635 kilograms
Useful load. 950 Ibs. 431 kilograms
Pay load ......... . .... . . . . .... . 5741bs. 260 kilograms
Wing loading ... 13 Ibs. /sq. ft. 63.4kilo. / sq.m.
Powerloading. 16.2Ibs. /h.p. 7. 35 kilo./h.p.
*Emptyweightguaranteed not to exceedthis figure by over 2%.
Type...... 4-placeCabin Monoplane
Numberofengines. 1 1
Length..... 24ft. 8 in. 7.5 meters
Span (wing). 34ft. 2 in. 10.4 meters
Height. 7 ft. 2.125 meters
Wing area. 181sq.ft. 16.8 sq. meters
Fuselage, completewith EngineMount,Windshield,Windows
and Door (Door Lock and Keys provided). (Pertinent Float
Fittings are attached and entire Structure Corrosion Proofed
for Seaplane use.)
Wing, complete with Statically and Dynamically Balanced
Ailerons. (All Metal Parts are Corrosion Proofed for Sea-
2 Wing Flaps.
1 Wing Flap Electrical OperatingMechanism.
Fin and Rudder.
Stabilizerand Elevator.
Set LongitudinalTrimmingTabs (on Elevator).
Parking BrakeSystem.
PilotIndividual Foot Brake System.
AutomaticTail Wheel LockingMechanism.
LandingGearwith Oildraulic-springShockAbsorbing Mech-
anism, 21-inch Hayes Streamline Wheels, Hydraulic Brakes.
Set 21-inch StreamlineTires and Tubes.
Tail Wheel with 8-inch StreamlineTireand Oildraulic-spring
Shock AbsorbingUnit.
**1 Pilot Seat with Safety Belt.
*'1 Co-pilot Seat with Safety Belt.
**1 Rear PassengerSeat with Safety Belt (2 Passengers).
4 Cabin Ventilators (All Adjustablefrom Pilot's Seat).
Cabin Hearer.
Set Camera Floor Apertures (Arranged to Customer's Speci-
1 Cameraman's Seat.
3 Auxiliary PilotVision Windows.
1 Fuel System with two Wing Tanks and one Auxiliary 171/ 2
U. S. gallon GasolineTank- total capacity 52liz gallons.
Oil System completewith 3
/2 gallonTank.
Quart Pyrene Fire Extinguisher.
*1 Bauer& Black First Aid Kit.
1 Set Cabin Wall Upholstering (Laidlaw).
1 Set Cabin Seat Upholstering (Laidlaw).
1 AirmasterStyled Instrument Panel.
1 Set Dual Controls.
1 Complete SetTie DownLugs.
*1 EngineLog Book.
*1 Aircraft Log Book.
*1 Airplane Manual.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT- (Same as C145 Landpl ane)
Compass. 2 Fuel Quantity Gauges
Altimeter (KollsmanSensitive,Type (Electric).
176-01, TemperatureCompensated). Tachometer.
1 Airspeed. Ammeter.
1 Airspeed Pitot Static Tube. Oil PressureGauge.
OilTemperature Gauge.
**A completesetofstandardpassengerseatsareprovidedtofacilitate
immediate conversion back to a standard 4-place airplane; thus
fitting the airplaneforothervaried purposes.
*Notincludedinstandardweightof 1,400
-----C-165LANDPLANE----- WEIGHT DATA: English Metric
Grossweight. ................... 2,550lbs. 1,159 kilograms
*Empty weight.................. 1,655lbs. 752 kilograms
Usefulload.... .... .... .... ..... 895lbs. 407 kilograms
Pay load ........................ 549lbs. 250
Wing loading .................. . 14.1lbs. / sq.ft. 68.8kilo./ sq.m.
Powerloading.................. 15.45lbs./h.p. 7.03 kilo./h.p.
*Empty weightguaranteednottoexceedthisfigure byover2%.
(Same as C-1 4 5 Seaplane)
(Same as C-1 4 5 Seaplane)
1 Curtiss Fixed Pitch Metal Propellerfor Seaplane use.
1 Warner 7-Cylinder Radial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H.P. @
2,100 r. p. m.
(OtherPower PlantAccessoriessameasC-145Landplane.)
(Same as C-145 Landplane)
(Sameas C-1 45Landplane)
(Same as C-165 Landplane)
(Same as C-165 Landplane)
WEIGHT DATA: English Metric
Grossweight .................... 2,350Ibs. 1,066 kilograms
*Empty weight. ... .... .... ...... 1,420 Ibs. 644 kilograms
Useful load..................... 930Ibs. 422 kilograms
Pay load .......... ........ ...... 5741bs. 260
Wingloading. . . ... ... .. . . . ... .. 13.lbs. / sq. ft. 63.4kilo. / sq.m.
Powerloading ................. . 14.2 Ibs. /h.p. 6.45 kilo.jh.p.
(Same as C- 145 Photoplane)
1 Warner 7-Cylinder Radial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H. P. @
2,100r. p. m.
(Sameas C-1 4 5 Landplane)
(Sameas C- 145 Photoplane )
**High speed, at sea level. .... ...
*Cruising speed, at optimum
altitude (8200ft . )... . .. . . . ....
*Cr uisi ng speed, at sea level......
Landing speed,withflapsextended
Cli mb fi r st minute... . .. . . .... . ..
Crui sing radius (with 52
1z U. S.
gallon capacity). ............ ..
Crui sing radius (with4 5U.S. gal-
Ion capacity). .... .. .. . . ... .. ..
Cruisingradius (with
Ion capacity)........... .......
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
Airmil eage pergall on at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
165 m.p.h.
157 m.p.h.
149 m.p.h.
49 m.p.h.
1,125 feet
725 miles
620 miles
485 miles
10.8 gal. /hr.
13.8 miles
Service ceiling.... .... . .... . .. . .19,300feet
*Cruising speedsat 75% horsepower.
**PlacardedVv actualhi gh speed169m.p.h.
Gross weight . ..... .. . .. . ... . . . ..
*Emptyweight. ... ... . ....
Useful load... .. . . . . ... . ........
Pay load .. ... ... . .. . ......... . ..
Wi ngloading... . . ..... . ... .. . ..
Powerloading... .... ..... . . ....
Type... .. ..... . .... .. . . . ... . ...
Numberofengines.... ... . .... ..
Length. ... . ... .. . .... ... . . . . . . ..
Span (wing). ..... . . .... .... . . ..
Height . . ... .. ... ..... .... . .... ..
Wing area. . ... ... . . . . . . . ... . ...
High speed,at sea level. . . ... . ...
*Cruising speed. .. .. . . ... . ......
Landingspeed,withflaps extended
Climbfirst minute...............
Cruising r adius (with 521/ Z U. S.
Cruisingradius (with45U. S. gal-
lon capacity) . ... ... .... .... . ..
Cr uisingradius (with 35 U.S. gal-
loncapacity) . .. ... .... . ... . .. .
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
Air mileage pergallonat cruising
speed (sea level) . ...... . . . ... .
2,350 Ibs.
13 Ibs./sq.ft.
14.2 Ibs./h.p.
4-place Cabin Monoplane
25 ft.
34 ft. 2 in.
7 ft.
181 sq. ft.
(Sameas C- 145 Landplane)
151 m.p.h.
135 m.p.h.
50 m.p.h.
650 miles
560 miles
4 30 miles
10.8 gal. /hr.
12. 5 miles
Service ceiling..... ..... ... .. ...15,000feet
*Cruisingspeeds at 75% Horsepower.
253 k.p.h.
240 k.p.h.
79 k.p.h.
34 3 meters
1,16 1kilometers
41 liters/hr.
22.2 kilometers
5,885 meters
1,066 kilograms
635 kilograms
430 kilograms
63.4kilo. / sq.m.
6.45 kilo./h.p.
7.62 meters
10.4 meters
2. 125 meters
1 Warner 7-CylinderRadial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H.P. @ 2100
r . p. m.
(Other PowerPlantAccessoriessameasC-145Landplane.)
(Sameas C-145 Landplane)
(Sameas C-145 Landplane)
24 3 k.p.h.
217 k.p.h.
80.5 k.p.h.
222 meters
41 liters/hr.
458 meters
CableAddress: CESSCO. Wichita
Stearman natlona
(Photo by Kenneth D. Wilson)
Stearman PT-27, N66442, restored to Canadian markings
by Charles Andreas and Byron Fredericksen received the
SRA awardfor the Best Stearman PT. .
By Thomas E. Lowe
Stearman RestorersAssociation, Inc.
823 Kingston Lane
Crys tal Lake, IL 60014
The 7th National Stearman Fly-In was held at Gal es-
burg, Illinois during September 6-10, 1978 and enjoyed
the greatest success since its inception with a total of
64 Stearmans attending from all corners of the U.S.
In addition, numerous other antique, warbird, home-
built and modern aircraft swelled the ranks to help
provide an interesting and diverse fly-in for every-
one. All previous Stearman Fly-Ins had been three
day affairs, but since a larger number of Stearmans
always seemed to arrive one or two days early each
year , it was decided to expand the 1978 event to
five days. However, this year was no different as the
first arrival was John McCormick and John Hooper
from New Orleans, Louisiana who landed their Stear-
man N2S-5 at Galesburg on Saturday, September 1, a
full five days before the fly-in officially opened. They
later flew to Harvard, Illinois to spend some time at
Dacy Airport, the home of numerous Stearmans and
other antiques, and then returned again on Tuesday.
By Tuesday evening ten Stearmans were already at
Galesburg getting the fly-in off to another great early
Wednesday was the first official day of the fly-in ,
however, no special events were scheduled except for
whatever flying anyone cared to do. There was quite
a bit of local flying, buddy rides, formation flights
and throughout the day more Stearmans arrived in-
cluding several groups of Stearmans that had flown
into Galesburg together. By that evening 21 Stear-
mans were lined up in the grass.
Thursday morning was spent in local flying and
in renewing old friendships and making new ones. At
noon most of the Stearmans flew the short distance
west to Monmouth to eat lunch at the Prime Beef
Festival in progress on the airport grounds and to
watch or participate in the first Stearman aerobati c
contest scheduled for that afternoon. The Stearman
aerobatic contest was pl anned to be a low-key, fun
affair not restricted by the usual requirements of a
formalized lAC type contest . It was to be a free styl e
event, the pilot flying whatever combination of ma-
neuvers that he wished , with the onl y requirement
being to remain above 1500 feet AGL. Onl y five pilots
could be tal ked into displaying their skills, John Mc-
Cormick, Jack Ruhlin , Dick Baird, Jim Leahy, and Tom
Lowe, three of which had never before flown in any
kind of aerobatic contest whatever. The airplanes
represented the entire range of Stearmans, stock Con-
tinental and Lycoming powered models, plus a 300
hp and 450 hp modified Stearman. Several Stearman
pilots volunteered to serve as the judges and each
pilot put on an interesting display of aerobatics. It
turned out to be a fun event and hopefully more pilots
will participate in the future.
At 6:00 P.M. ten Stearmans flew a formation flight
over Galesburg and by sundown 39 Stearmans were
present. Later that evening a cocktail party was held
at the Holiday Inn where the socializing was en-
hanced by wild flying stories that grew more unbe-
lievable as the evening wore on. Movies and slides
of previous Stearman Fly-Ins were shown and en-
joyed by all.
The beautiful weather that had graced Galesburg
and most of the rest of the country continued on Fri-
day and the day was filled with local flights, fly-bys,
formation passes, photo sessions and all the associ-
ated activities that normally ensue during a fly-in.
By evening, the grass area of the airport was vir-
tually overflowing with Stearmans and when the last
prop swung to a halt , 57 Stearmans were counted
reposing together in the grass. That evening all the
fly-in participants enjoyed a fine fish and chicken
dinner at the Galesburg American Legion Post.
Saturday began bright and early with the tradi-
tional dawn patrol flight to Monmouth, Illinois for
breakfast at the airport co mpliments of the Mon-
mouth Pilots Association. In the cool, damp dark-
ness of pre-dawn pilots and passengers alike strug-
gled to shake off the effects of a too short night's
sleep as they removed cockpit covers, pulled props
through, added oil, and hunted for the gas truck.
Soon the intermittent sputtering of a radial engine
broke the silence as it was coaxed into life and quickly
settled into a quiet, smooth rumble as all the cylin-
ders began working together. One by one the en-
gines turned over and precisely at official dawn the
Stearmans began rolling down the runway into the
cool air to be pleasantly surprised at the warm air
inversion that was encountered just a few hundred
feet above the earth. In all, 45 Stearmans circled over
Galesburg and flew to Monmouth. What a sight to
see numerous groups of four or five Stearmans wing-
ing together forming a larger gaggle that seemed to
darken the sky against the bright orange glow of the
rising sun.
The return flight to Galesburg was made in small
flights of several airplanes together and in somewhat
of a hurry as early morning haze and fog was begin-
ning to thicken and there was concern that the con-
trol zone at Galesburg could possibly go IFR. How-
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Custom 300 Ly-
coming powered
Stearman N2S-5,
N77636, was
flown from New
Orleans, LA by
Harry Thomas.
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Stearmans in flight
over the Galesburg
countryside include
Dick Schlegel 's Stear-
man PT-17, N59737,
Tom Lowe's Stearman
N2S-3, N66417, and
Gary Austin's Stea r-
man N2S-3, N4GA.
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Sam Saxton and Don
Dickert flew their all
white Stearman PT-
130 from Allentown,
ever, the visibility remained VFR and on the flight
back AI Stix earned for himself and his Stearman PT-17,
N5521 N, the unwanted Hard Luck Award when his
engine began throwing oil all over and the oil tem-
perature went sky high. He landed safely at Gales-
burg and subsequent inspection found that the front
bearing on the crankshaft had failed, necessitating an
engine overhaul. During the afternoon the flying con-
tests were conducted and almost all the Stearman
pilots participated. At 4:00 P.M. another mass flight
of Stearmans was made over Galesburg and at 5:00
P.M. the airport was closed for a mini-air show fea-
turing Stearmans only. A good exhibition of low-
level aerobatics was given by Dr. Art Lindquist in his
300 hp 1937 Stearman, Jim Leahy in his stock 220 Con-
tinental N2S-3, and Bob Heuer in his 450 hp custom
The evening was completed with dinner and awards
presentation in the Galesburg Aviation hangar. Guest
speakers were Brigadier General John Conaway, Dep-
uty Director of the Air National Guard , and Jessie
Woods, who with her husband owned the Flying Aces
Air Circus during the 1920' s and 30' s which was the
longest continuously operating barnstorming air show
in history.
Sunday again began with a dawn patrol, but only
ten Stearmans were blessed with pilots who would
struggle out of bed so early in the morning two days
in a row. Another warm air inversion greeted them
shortly after becoming airborne and after touring the
Galesburg area they joined the others for breakfast
in the hangar. Throughout the morning many of the
Stearmans departed beginning their long treks home,
but one new arrival did land Sunday morning to bring
the attendance to 64, an all time high. That afternoon
a fine professional air show was presented for the
public featuring Frank Price, Pete Myers, Jim Leahy,
Bob Heuer, Dick Willetts, J. T. Hill and Darwin McClure.
By evening most all the Stearmans had departed,
but a few diehards remained for a couple more days.
Five days had been spent having fun and in paying
homage to the history and contributions made by
one of the greatest airplanes of all time. Ex-WW-II
Stearman pilots, students and instructors alike, were
reunited with the airplane that had meant so much to
them during man's greatest conflict and a lot of new
friends had been made. The 8th National Stearman
Fly-In is scheduled for Galesburg, Illinois on Sep-
tember 5-9; 1979. Anyone with any interest whatever
in Stearmans is cordially invited.
ArticleNumber 2, Poster Number2, Seri es Number 1
The New 15 Passenger Curtiss-WrightCondorTransport
By Lionel Salisbury
7 Harper Road
Brampton, Ontario
Canada L6W2W3
Imagine! A passenger aircraft that includes a lava-
tory complete with mirror, hand basin with running
water and a vanity case! That's what the Curtiss-
Wright Condor Transport offered its passengers in
This is poster number two, from series number
one, of the Borden Company posters, that were pub-
lished in 1936. The three-view drawing is reproduced
full size from the back of the poster. The description
reproduced is also from the back of the item. The
originals were printed on a stiff card , approximately
19" x 11 /1 , and were published in black and white.
Collectors obtained their posters by submitting
proofs of purchase of tins of Borden' s Malted Milk.
A total of 19'photos were offered. Reprinted through
the courtesy of the Borden Company.
NEXT MONTH - Poster number 3, ofseries number 1 -
Captain Frank Hawks' Northrop Gamma The Texaco Sky-


" ll )

20'-4" ..

- - - -,
- - j
.- - - '-'" --_.:...,. - -
- -
The new Condor has been designed and built to
meet the requirements of transport operators who
today are demanding more speed and comfort for
the flying publi c. In addition to supplying additional
speed, the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Company in build-
ing this new Transport have likewise increased the
comfort and safety of air travel.

..... , ...............
:' ' , t"itA , , I'
The power plants used consist of two of the new
geared 9 cylinder air-cooled Wright Cyclone R-1820F
engines, rated at 700 horsepower each at 1900 rpm.
These engines recently placed on the market weigh
only 1.22 pounds per horsepower and have a diameter
of 53
4 inches . These new li ghtweight per horsepower
engines give the Condor a top speed of 170 miles an
hour and a cruising speed of 145 miles an hour while
the landing speed i s approximately 10 miles slower
than that of current tri-motor transports.
Entering the cabin from the side, the passenger
finds the seats arranged in three rows abreast and
five deep facing forward . There is a twelve inch aisle
between the seats which are high backed and re-
It If
' I I,
"I.o. . JJ
'I I J
, "
, ; ,I
" "
" ,I
" '
clinable with deep upholstering. Cabin walls are fitted
with sockets for tables to be used for serving meals,
writing letters, or for businessmen in writing reports,
etc., while enroute. Some of the chairs in the cabin
may be reversed in order to play bridge or to carry
on conversation with greater ease. Safety belts pro-
vided are of a new type adjustable to the girth of the
passenger and readily openable. The cabin interior
is finished with a combination of fabric and leather .
Refinements in passengeraccommodations include
a lavatory complete with mirror, hand basin with run-
ning water and vanity case. Each seat has a call bell
forsteward service, and thereareash trays, coat racks,
and magazine racks. Tables for writing or card games
may be fitted into the wall sockets mentioned pre-
viously and provision is made for serving meals en-
The pilots' compartment in the extreme nose of
the ship is entered through the passengers' cabin.
Location and large windows give unsurpassed vision.
Side and frontwindows slide fore and aft, giving free
vision in rain. The instrument board, containing all
is mounted on rubber to insure vibrationless opera-
tion. Blind flying aids include the Sperry artificial
horizon and direction gyro. The wing area, including
ailerons, is 1208 square feet. Wings are of all metal
construction with ribs ofduralumin spaced about ten
inches. Mail and baggage is carried underneath the
fuselage, notin the wing. Ample space is provided for
radio equipment to the rear of the pilots' seats. Ex-
ternal lights include two landing lights and three
navigation lights. Inside lightingcomprises both dome
lamps and individual reading lights'.
A summary of the performance data and character-
istics ofthe newCondoris as follows:
Length Overall ......................... 48 ft. 10 in.
HeightOverall ....... .. ... ..... .. ... . .. . 16 ft . 1 in .
WingSpan ................................... 82 ft.
Climb at Sea Level ............... 850 ft. perminute
Service Ceiling ........... ................ 15,500ft.
Absolute Ceiling.......................... 17,500 ft.
Top Speed ............................... 170 mph
Cruising Speed ........................... 145 mph
Range at Cruising Speed ..................560 miles
Gasoline Capacity ...................... 300 gallons
Power Plants .............2-700 horsepower R-1820F
Carries 15 passengers, 2 pilots, 450 Ibs. of baggage
and express and 200 Ibs. of mail , a total payload of
3200 pounds.
By Cedri c Galloway
14624 Willow Street
Hesperia, CA 92345
(Photo Provided by the Author)
A visiting aircraft to any airfield is bound to create
a great deal of interest. When this unusual low wing
open cockpit monoplane landed at the Braley School
of Flying field in Wichita, Kansas, I grabbed my
brownie box camera and was on hand as he taxied
up to the flight line. In 1930 such an airplane was not
seen veryoften.
The pilot had stopped in for gas and a stretch be-
fore continuing his cross-country flight. Having been
at the school but a short time, I didn't know that the
Skylark had been builtright there in Wichita.
A notice printed in the Wichita Eagle describes
the plane: -
Another new airplane being produced at Wichita,
Kansas, is theWatkins Skylark, atwo-placeopencock-
pit monoplane manufactured by the Watkins Aircraft
Company. This ship, a low-wing land monoplane, is
powered with a 5-cylinder LeBlond radial air-cooled
engine rated at 60 horsepower at 1,900 revolutions
per minute.
The fuselage is of reinforced shell and steel tub-
ing construction, fabric covered. The wings are of
the conventional type - two box spars and built-up
truss ribs. The wings are likewise covered with fabric.
The plane has a fuel capacity of 20 gallons and an
oil capacity of3 gallons. The Skylark was designed by
Wallace C. "Chef'Cummings.
Span ........................................ 37 ft.
Length Overall .......................... 23 ft. 6 in.
HeightOverall ........................... 6 ft. 5 in.
Chord ................................... 4 ft. 9'in.
Total WingArea .........................175 sq. ft.
ElevatorArea ...........................13.8 sq. ft.
Weight Empty ............................. 885 Ibs.
Useful Load ...............................465 Ibs.
Gross WeightLoaded..................... 1,350 Ibs.
Wing Loading .................... 7.7 Ibs. per sq. ft.
Power Loading .. ..... . . .... . .......20.7 Ibs. perhp
High Speed...............................103 mph
Cruising Speed ............................80 mph
Climb ............................. 725 ft. per min.
Service Ceiling . .. ... . ....................13,000 ft .
Absolute Ceiling......... .. . .. ... ..... ... . 16,000 ft .
Fuel Consumption .........................20 mpg
It has been stated that about 10 Skylarks were built.
Officers8. Members of EAA Chapter610
Good morning:
It is an accepted fact that the EAA has a
most outstanding exhibit of historical aircraft
representing thepioneerdevelopment ofaero-
nautics and it would seem most appropriate
at this period of the EAA in its effort to keep
the history of aviation accurate, to now con-
sider the proper recognition of those aviation
pioneers who truly contributed to the tech-
nical design and construction of the airplane
and its power plant and not neglecting to rec-
ognize those who contributed and "spark
plugged" the airplane by the fantastic books
which have been compiled covering the tech-
nical factors of the airplane and its engine
through the progressive development stages.
There are many who have noted with much
interest the omission of so many contribu-
tors to the development of the airplane in na-
tional recognition which surely has been
The EAA consists of a strong membership
and if perhaps EAA Chapter #610 could pre-
sent to acceptance by the Official EAA that a
national recognition program on a sophisti-
cated status could be established, then avia-
tion pioneers could be selected for recogni-
tion by those who have a knowledge of avia-
tion contribution.
The following names are only a few of the
neglected aviation pioneers who greatly con-
tributed their "know how" to the design and
construction ofaircraft.
Charles L. Lawrance,Aero Engineer
Alfred Verville,AeroEngineer
Ed Heath, Pioneer light plane designer and
CharlesKirkham,Aero Engineer
L. E. Rausenbesger, Aero Engineer (Designer
offirst 12avo engine in U.S.)
Alfred Lawson, "Spark Plug" behind the first
real forsure airl iner in U.S.
John B. Rathbon,Technical Bookson aviation
VictorPage,Technical Books on aviation
Edward P. Warner,Aero Engineer
Holden C.Richardson,Aero Engineer
Charles H.Day, Aero Engineer
A study would be required regarding the
procedure of a proper recognition, placing it
on a sophisticated basis and recognizing of
aviation pioneerswhocontributed toaviation's
fantastic development.
EAA Chapter #610 members' interest in the
recognition for aviation pioneers surely is an
interest that coincides with the EAA preserva-
tion ofyesterday's fantastic aircraft .
Here is wishing EAA Chapter #610 luck in
presenting the plight of aviation pioneers to
theOfficial EAA Board.
Best of good wishes,
Ray A.Watkins
AERONCA 0-58B, 1943 "Defender" 3000TI, Good Con-
dition, Fabric Poor. Continental 65 hp recent over-
haul. Licensed until August 1979. Asking $3500.00.
Call 319-267-2721 days or319-267-2673 nightsandweek-
ends or write Jim Shepard, 503 N. Main St., Allison,
Wanted: 3-D, 35mm slide projector or viewer. Con-
tact David Gustafson, EAA Headquarters , Box 229;
Hales Corners, WI 53130 (414/425-.4860).
Calendar Of Events
MAY 4-6 - BURLINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA - Spring Fly-In. Planes
tobe judgedshould be on the field by2P.M. on the 5th.Awards din-
nerSaturdayevening.Sponsored byEAA Antique Classic Chapter #3.
For further information contact Geneva McKiernan, 5301 Finsbury
Place, Charlotte, North Carolina28211.
MAY 20 - ROMEOVILLE, ILLINOIS - 1st Annual Fly-In Breakfast of the
year at the EAA building at Lewis UniversityAirport. 7A.M. to 1 P.M.
For further information contact J. P. Fish, P.O. Box 411, Lemont , il-
MAY 25-27 - WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA - 15th Annual Antique Air-
craft Fly-In and Air Showat the Watsonville Airport. Co-sponsored by
the Northern California Chapter , Antique Airplane Association and
Watsonville Chamber of Commerce. For further information contact
Earl Swaney, 525 Saratoga Avenue #3, Santa Clara, California 95050,
(415) 645-3709'(days) , (408) 2%5632 (evenings).
JULY 8- EASTON, PENNSYLVANIA - 3rd Annual Aeronca Fly-In at the
Easton Airport . Any and all Aeroncas invited. 10 A.M. to 2:30 P.M.
(Rain Date July15). ContadJim Polles,(215)759-'3713 nightsand week-
JULY 14-15 - ROMEOVILLE, ILLINOIS - 19th Annual Midwest Fly-In
and Air Show at Lewis University Airport. Shows t heme and feature
will be W.W. Iaircraft. Airport will be re-named to add to the illusion
of the era. Sponsored by Chapters 15 and 86. For further information
contact J. P. Fish, P.O. Box 411 , Lemont , Illinois 60439:
Fly-In. Plan now- it 's the greatest showon earth.
OCTOBER 1214- CAMDEN, SOUTH CAROLINA - Flyln. All divisions,
awards will be presented . For further information contact Geneva
McKiernan, 5301 Finsbury Place, Charlotte, North Caroli na 28211.
Sponsored by EAA Antique Classic Chapter #3.
SEPTEMBER 59'- GALESBURG, ILLINOIS - 91h Annual Stearman Flyln.
Anyone with any interest in Stearmans is cordially invited. For further
information contact the Stearman Restorers Association , Inc., 823
Kingston Lane,Crystal Lake, Illinois60014.
SEPTEMBER 2730 - TULLAHOMA, TENNESSEE - 1st Annual Flyln. Plan
nowforthegreatest showon earth.
FOR: 1929
1929-1933 MISCELLANY
$2.50 Each Post Paid
Total Cost ForAll Six
BOX 469