STRAIGHT AND  LEVEL 

By  Brad  Thorn as 
The  Antique/Classic  Board  of  Directors,  following 
the  resignation  of  J.  R.  Nielander,  Jr.  as  President  of 
the  Division,  has  appointed  me to  serve  as  your  Presi-
dent  for  the  unexpired  term.  The  hours  and  hours  of 
time,  thought,  preparation,  planning,  and  execution 
by J.  R.  throughout the past years are obviously planted 
and  the  seeds  have  grown  into  the  expansion  of  our 
Division.  It is  my utmost desire to increase this growth. 
With  the  excellent  guidance  available  from  the  Offi-
cers,  Directors,  and  Advisors  of  our  Division,  we  will 
strive  to  serve  the  membership,  EM  and  all  aviation 
with  the  expertise  available  to  fulfill  the  purpose  of 
this  Division: 
1.  to  encou rage  and  aid  the  retention  and  restora-
tion  of antique,  historical  and  classic  aircraft; 
2.  to  establish  a  library  devoted  to  the  history  of 
aviation  and  to  construction,  repair,  restoration, 
maintenance  and  preservation  of  aircraft,  par-
ticularly  antique,  historical  and  classic  aircraft 
and  engines; 
3.  to  hold and  conduct meetings, displays and  edu-
cational  programs  relating  to  aviation  with  em-
phasis  on  restoration,  maintenance  and  care  of 
antique,  historical  and  classic  aircraft  and  en-
gines; 
4.  to  improve  aviation  safety  and  aviation  educa-
tion. 
The  Vintage Airplane has  been  acclaimed  by  many 
to  be  the  best  publication  available  - devoted  en-
tirely to  the  functions  and  history of antique  and  clas-
sic  aircraft,  historical  events  of  aviation  interest,  res-
toration  and  maintenance  of  antique  and  classic  air-
craft,  and  a  library  of  useful  information.  We  plan  to 
expand  and  add  to  the  Vintage Airplane new  and  ex-
citing  items  of  interest  to  antique  and  classic  buffs. 
This  is  your  publication  and  we  solicit  your  thoughts 
and  suggestions about    t ~ contents. 
As  your  new  President,  I  feel  you  should  be  given 
a brief background,  so  I  introduce  myself as  a  hosiery 
manufacturer  by  trade,  who  soloed  in  1938  at  the  age 
of sixteen  in  a J-3  Cub - as  so  many have  - attended 
a  prep  school,  and  completed  one  year  in  college 
before  the  advent  of  World  War  II  attracted  my  at-
tention.  Volunteering  into  the  Army  Air  Corps  cadet 
program,  I  reached  Maxwell  Field,  Alabama  to  be 
transferred  into  British  Flying  Training  School  #5  in 
Clewiston,  Florida,  earned  both  Air  Corps  and  RAF 
wings;  was  then  moved  to  Great  Falls,  Montana  as  a 
ferry  pilot  with  the  Air  Transport  Command,  flying 
fighters,  twins  and  multi-engine  aircraft  throughout 
the  World  War  II  period. 
Following  the  war  period,  I  returned  to  North 
Carolina,  married,  completed  college,  and  established 
a  hosiery  manufacturing  business  in  Pilot  Mountain, 
North  Carolina,  where  I  continue  to  reside  with  my 
family. 
Aviation  is  my hobby, beginning  in the early thirties 
with  model  building  and  progressing  to  the  present, 
with  my spare  time devoted  toward  EM, our Division, 
and  maintaining  my  homebuilts,  single  engine  "tra-
velling"  aircraft,  and  my  most  recent  project,  a  1937 
D-17R  Beech  Staggerwing.  My  interest  in  aviation  con-
tinues  to  increase  throughout  the  years.  The  fellow-
ship,  fly-ins,  local  EM Chapter  #8,  our Antique Chap-
ter  #3  (NC-SC-VA),  our  EM Antique/Classic  Division 
- all  contribute  to  my  high  regard  for  those  whose 
interest lies  in  aviation. 
After  serving  the  Division  as  Chief  Classic  judge 
for  the  Oshkosh  International  Convention,  as  Advisor 
and  member  of  the  Board  of  Directors,  the  Division 
Secretary,  and  now as  President,  I  pledge to  serve  our 
Antique/Classic  Division  with  the  best  of  my  ability 
and  with  the  effort expected  of me. 
WILLIAM  EHLEN 
March  24,  1913 - February  11,  1979 
We  were  saddened  to  learn  of  the  death  of 
our  friend  Bill  Ehlen.  Bill  was  active  in  the  for-
mation  of  the  Antique/ Classic  Division,  had  a 
hand  in  the  development  of  Sun  ' N  Fun,  took 
an  ambitious  role  at  Oshkosh, and  was  seen  fre-
quently  at  fly-ins  around  the  country  with  his 
Aeronca  Chief.  Bill's  interest  in  vintage  air-
craft  and  his  contributions  to  the  sport  aviation 
movement  as  a  Director  achieved  a  level  of  ac-
complishment that will  be  deeply missed. 
Editorial
Staff
Publisher 
Paul  H.  Poberezny 
(Dave Gustafson Photo)
Editor 
1949 Bell 47,  a  Classic belonging to Patri cia's Heli-
David  Gustafson 
copter Service.
Associate  Editors:  H.  Glenn  Buffington,  Edward  D.  Williams,  Byron 
(Fred)  Fredericksen 
Readers  are  encouraged  to  submit  stories  and  photographs.  Associate  Editorships  are  assigned 
to  those  writers  who  submit  five  or  more  articles  which  are  published  in  THE  VINTAGE  AIR· 
PLANE  during  the  current  year.  Associates  receive  a  bound  volume  of  THE  VINTAGE  AIR· 
PLANE  and  a  free  one· year  membership  in  the  Division  for  their  efforts.  POLlCY·Opinions 
expressed  in  articles  are  solely  those  of  the  authors.  Responsibility  for  accuracy  in  reporting 
rests entirely  with  the  contributor. 
Directors 
Claude  L.  Gray,  Jr.  AI  Kelch 
9635  Sylvia  Avenue  66  W, 622  N.  Madison  Avenue 
PRESIDENT 
W. BRAD  THOMAS,  JR. 
301  DODSON  MILL  ROAD 
Northridge,  CA  91324  Cedarburg,  WI  53092 
414/377-5886  Home
PILOT MOUNTAIN,  NC 27041 
919/368-2875 Home  Dale  A.  Gustafson  Morton W.  Lester 
919/368-2291 Office  7724  Shady  Hill  Drive  P.O .  Box  3747 
Indianapolis,  IN 46274  Martinsvillf>,  VA  24112
VICE-PRESIDENT 
317/293-4430  703/632-4839'Home
JACK  C.  WINTHROP 
703/638-8783  Office
ROUTE  1,  BOX  111  Richard  H.  Wagner 
ALLEN,  TX  75002  P.O.  Box  181  Arthur R.  Morgan 
2141727-5649' Lyons,  WI  53148  3744  North  51st  Blvd. 
414/763-2017  Home  Milwaukee, WI  53216
SECRETARY 
414/763-9588  Office  414/442-3631
M. C.  "KELLY"  VIETS 
Advisors
7745  W.  183RD  ST.  l ohn  S. Copeland  Dan  Neuman 
9' Joanne  Drive  1521  Berne  Circl e  West 
STILWELL,  KS  66085 
Robert  E.  Kesel 
Westborough,  MA 01 581  Minneapoli s,  MN  55421 
913/681-2303 Home  455  Oakr idge  Dri ve
617/36&- 7245 6121571-0893
913/681-2622  Office 
Rochester,  NY 14617 
Ronald Fr itz  John  R.  Turgyan 
7161342·3170  Ho me 
1989' Wil son,  NW  1530  Ku ser  Road 
TREASURER  716/325·2000, Ext. 
Grand  Rapids,  MI  49504  Trent on,  NJ 08619' 
E.  E.  " BUCK"  HILBERT 
23250/23320 Office 
609/585-2747 6161453· 7525 
8102  LEECH  ROAD 
Stan  Gomoll  Gene  Morr is  Robert  A.  White 
UNION,  IL  60180  104290th  Lane,  NE  27  Chandell e  Dri ve  P.O.  Box  704 
Minneapolis,  MN  55434  Hampshire,  IL  601 40  Zellwood,  FL 32798
815/923-4205 
6121784-1172  3121683· 3199 '  305/88&- 3180
THE  VINTAGE  AIRPLANE  (ISSN  0091 -6943)  is  owned  exclusively  by  EAA  Ant ique/Classi c  Division,  Inc..
and  is  published  monthly  at  Hales  Corners,  Wi sconsi n  53 130.  Seco nd  class  Postage  paid  at  Hales 
Corners  Post  Office,  Hales  Corners.  Wisconsin  53130,  and  additional  maili ng  off ices.  Membership 
rates  for  EAA  Antique/Classic  Division,  Inc.,  are  $14.00  per  12  month  period  of  which  $10.00  is  f or  the 
publicati on  of  THE  VINTAGE  AIRPLANE.  Membership is  open  to all  who  are  int erested  i n  aviation. 
       
OFFICIAL  MAGAZINE 
EAA  ANTIQUE/CLASSIC 
DIVISION  INC. 
of THE  EXPERIMENTAL  AIRCRAFT  ASSOCIATION 
P.O.  Box  229,  Hales  Corners,  WI  53130 
Copyright

1979  EAA Antique/Classic  Division,  Inc. , All  Rights  Reserved. 
MARCH  1979  VOLUME  7  NUMBER  3 
The Cover . .. Grand Champion Classic Aeronca Chief a t Sun ' N Fun belongs to AI Nase - story next  month. 
(David Gustafson Photo)
TABLE  OF CONTENTS 
Straight  and  Level  by Brad  Thomas  ... , ........... . . .. . _  .......... .. .. ,  2 
Sun  'n  Fun  '79'by  Paul  Hopkins  , . . . , . . "  .. .. . , .. , . . . . .. ". ,., . .. ... . ,.  4 
Canti lever  Cessnas  The  " World' s  Most  Efficient" 
by Gar Williams. , ...... , . ...... . , , . ..... , , , , . .. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8 
National  Stearman  Fly-In  by Thomas  E.  Lowe, . . . , . , , , . . , . , . . ,. , , .. , ... ,  20 
Borden's Aeroplane  Posters  From  The  1930's 
by Lionel  Salisbury  .... .. .... , .... . . .... ........... , , . .... , , ... _...  23 
New 15  Passenger  1933  CurtiSS-Wright  Condor Transport .. . ... , . . . , .. _..  24 
Watkins  Skylark  X-470E  by  Cedric  Galloway ... . ... . . .. , . , .. . ... , .. , . , , ..  25 
Letters  To  The  Editor  . . .. . _  .. ......... . .... . ....... .. , .. , . , , ..... . , ...  26 
Calendar of  Events  ...... . ... .... . ,.,', . ..... , ....... .. ,., . . . , .. , .. ...  26 
EAA  ANTIQUE/CLASSIC  DIVISION  MEMBERSHIP 
o NON-EAA  MEMBER  - $20.00.  Includes  one  year  membership  in  the  EAA  Antique/ 
Classic  Divi sion,  12  monthly  issues  of  THE  VINTAGE  AIRPLANE;  one  year  mem-
bership  in  the  Experimental  Aircraft  Association  and  separate  membership  cards. 
SPORT  AVIATION  magazine  not included. 
o EAA  MEMBER  - $14.00.  Includes  one  year  membership  in  the  EAA  Antique/Classic 
Division ,  12  monthly  issues of  THE  VINTAGE  AIRPLANE  AND  MEMBERSHIP  CARD. 
(Applicant  must  be  current  EAA  member and  must  give  EAA  membership  number ,) 
Page  4  Page  8  Page  20 

••••••••
By  Paul  Hopkins 
1617  South  Florida  Avenue 
Lakeland,  Florida  33803 
(Photographs  by David Gustafson,  Editor) 
Sun ' N Fun 79 is history, and as usual, "Old Man
Winter" had a bag full of tricks to keep us on our toes.
In past years, we have run the gauntlet of everything
from tornado alerts and line squalls to snowstorms.
This year brought pre-convention low pressure cells
that tried to funnel the Gulf of Mexico onto the Florida
peninsula. This left the site a near swamp, and created
the week' s most common diversion: tractor pulls of
autos, motor homes, and anything else that found
less than sure footing - the stuck aircraft were all
extracted by hand by our fast moving repair and emer-
gency crews. By mid-week though, most everyone
knew " where the high ground lay", and the weather
had settled into a pattern of fast moving cold fronts
that usually passed during the nighttime hours; leav-
ing the days mostly clear and not too cold. Only one
day of forty knot gusts threatened to wreck havoc on
our tent city. The most damaging weather for many
happened hundreds of miles to the north. Record
snowfalls, ice storms, and just plain unflyable (or
driveablel winter fare kept a great number of con-
vention bound guests far from their destination.
Registration statistics proved the effects of the
elements fury. The camp grounds counted 399 units
sheltering 889 people, and the total of 15,103 conven-
tion participants were both up conSiderably from last
year. The FAA traffic controllers also totaled a sub-
stantial increase in aircraft movements. Many air-
craft flew into the convention site for each afternoon's
aerial demonstration, and the fly-by pattern was more
active than in past years. The big loss in numbers due
to winter's attack upon sport aviation was in the show
plane category; only 262 aircraft were on hand. This
certainly did not detract from the quality or variety
of tho,. that d;d make th9.how -'-- mo,. about that
later.
The fenced Sun ' N Fun compound was a week long
beehive of aviation activity. The OX-5 Club sponsored
a tent for aviation pioneers which provided a gather-
ing place for these honored guests, as did the Fri-
day evening "Gathering of Eagles" hosted by the
Florida Sport Aviation, Antique and Classic Associa-
tion. Our beloved pioneer, Jessie Woods, aided and
abetted by Roger Don Rae, Big Nick Rezich, Dave Fox,
and many others made these two activities stand-
out attractions. The names of the famous fliers, de-
signers, and scientists who were in attendance would
fill this magazine.
Thursday evening' s "Ground Loop" party, dance,
and fashion show as always, was a winner; providing
a chance to unwind and warm up. In this same vein,
the "Ladies Pavilion" proved to be a focal point. The
AOPA "Pinch Hitter Course", special luncheons, gour-
met cooking demonstrations, and   v ~ n EAA Head-.
Grand' Champion  Antique:  Dolph  Overton's Command 
Aire  from  Orlando,  Florida.  Restoration  work  was  dohe 
Ernie  Webb  of Charlotte,  North Carolina. 
Air show time in the Antique/Classi c area. Note the short
sleeves and bare grass!
artin Propet of Ja cksonville,
-airchild 24.
Classics from Headquarters: President Paul 's
f AA 's "s taff hauler" DC-3.
quarters' Airspace Action presentation. On the edu-
cational level, four days of forums and workshops
had something of interest for everyone. The quality
of content and the caliber of the lecturers, too nu-
merous to mention, are a tribute to the EAA, and to
John Shinn and lyle Flagg who put the forums to-
gether.
Cockpit area of Bill Dodd's shiny Buhl Pup restoration.
Note the wing windows. (How about a story on that re-
build, Bill ?)
P-5 1 D and
Also of great interest was the "Flea Market" where
many articles of use to aviators changed hands. This
was rivaled by the huge commercial circus tent with
over one hundred vendors of aeronautical ware, and
the EAA Headquarters merchandise tent with a beauti -
ful red blimp tethered high overhead . The EAA also
manned membership huts near the registration points
for individuals desiring to join our organization . A
new Sun ' N Fun Headquarters building combining
staff coordination, FAA Flight Service, announci ng
stand, and fly-by briefing functions proved its worth
even before the convention began. Also new this
year was a much needed convenience store for camp-
ers. located in the rear of the shower house, which
itself sported a new and unseen, but most necessary,
overload drain field which can accommodate con-
stant maximum usage, the " Country Store" packed
an amazing variety of camping needs into a small area.
More of note was the food service. located in a large
centrally located tent, this " Boy's Club" concession
served good food in a comfortable, sit-down environ-
ment. Not once did this writer hear a complaint con-
cerning quality or pricing.
We have not mentioned many names so far dur-
ing this narrative because over eighty chairmen with
their hundreds of co-chairmen, judges, and volun-
teers would fill a book, and we don' t want to show
any partiality. Fly-In Director, Bill Henderson, and
Sun ' N Fun President, len McGinty have put together
a smooth, well oiled operation. To them, and to all
" who got i nvolved", ou r hats are off.
And now (you were about to give up hope?) a few
words about the aircraft that drew us all to the EAA
i n the first place. As mentioned earlier, the afternoon
aerial demonstrations provided spectators with some
of the finest air show acts in the world: EAA President
Paul H. Poberezny, with an ultra smooth performance
in the P-51D, ACA President Ron Cadby in the new
260 hp Pitts S2S doing impossible vertical maneuvers,
concluding with a six revolution torque roll, Bud Judy,
Vice-President of the lAC, in the two place Acro Sport,
making the whole event look so easy, Jim Stanton with
the S1S Pitts, doing likewise with the little red hor-
net, Maurice Seree, factory demonstration pilot , mak-
ing the STOl RalLye do the impossible, and many,
many more. They' re always a high point of the fly-in
day. On the flight line, and in snow fence protected
  within the spectator area, we found a great
abundance of rare and unusual craft. The grounds
and fly-by pattern seemed overrun by ultra light craft
of many types - John Moody surely started some-
thing. Quite a number sported twin power sources
which seemed to cut down on noise.
5
In the Antique/Classic sphere, the aircraft ran the
gamut from DC-3's to a Buhl Bull Pup and C-3 Aeronca.
The beautiful EAA DC-3 which brought the Headquar-
ters crew to Florida, and a machine owned by Haw-
thorne College way up in Antrim, New Hampshire,
and boasting of over 84,000 hours in the log books,
sort of gave an overall perspective to the show planes .
Bill Dodd's Continental powered Buhl, and Dan Araldi's
1936 C-3 represented the low powered antiques, while
Morton Lester's red DGA-15P Howard and Bob Allen's
Lockheed 12A showed the class of aviation from forty
years ago. Even older were the great names in bi-
planes. Dean Tilton's beautiful OX-5 Travel Air, I'm
sure caused many a throat to choke up as it made its
daily flight around the patch from the hangar it calls
home on the north side of the field. Ken Rickert's '41
Aeronca Chief, Red Smith's 108 Stinson, joe Araldi 's
Command Aire, and son Dan's C-3 and Stampe SV4 C
covered similar mileage. The 220 Continental pow-
ered Command Aire and another Warner equipped
ship from Dolph Overton's reincarnated "Wings and
Wheels" museum in Orlando International Airport ,
Mike Turner's 1947 Navion was flown down from Frank-
enmuth, Michigan. It won the Best Custom Classic Award
and clearly deserved it.
William T. Gorman of Cape Coral came to Sun 'N Fun
in his Ranger powered Fairchild 24.
are the only two airworthy craft of this type in opera-
tion and both turned up. Side by side they brought
back many a memory, no doubt. On this same row
could be found john Dekel' s 220 Travel Air from
Thomasville, Georgia, an immaculate machine, Dick
Durst' s Fleet 9; another "only surviving" type pow-
ered by a 160 hp Kinner, and Bob White's UKC-5 Waco
Cabin. Bob test flew the ship the first morning of the
fly-in and finding that everything worked, continued
on to Lakeland from his Zellwood, Florida airport.
Rounding out the notable antiques was a fantastic
1936 90A Monocoupe fitted with a big four cylinder
Lycoming for aerobatic work, a handful of Stearmans,
Beech Staggerwings, T-50 Cessnas, and j-3 and -4 Cubs.
Merle jenkin' s newly restored Aeronca L-3 in full war
time regalia was an attention getter, and a couple of
homebuilts were of interest to older airplane buffs.
Dick Durst's Redfern-built, Ranger powered Great
Lakes was flown in an air show by Dave Fox, and the
first machine to arrive at the fly-in was Fred Quinn's
Woody Pusher, dressed up to resemble its Curtiss
junior ancestor.
The classic area was also equally graced with beauti-
ful machines. Deadlines prevent us from connecting
more aircraft with their owner's names. The Ercoupe
(Aircoupe-Alon-Mooney) line drew 17 aircraft at one
count. The always plentiful Swifts showed a trend
toward highly polished metal and stock appearing
cowling - sometimes even stock engines - fine air-
craft. The 170 Cessna population was sort of low, but
several nice 120-140-140A craft were counted. The
190-195 contingent took up where the 170's left off
though - thank goodness for airline pilots. A very
well finished Fairchild 24W made a brief appearance
from St. Augustine. Several excellent Pipers, PA-11,
PA-12, PA-17, PA-20 and PA-22 were scattered through
the parking area, as were a few Luscombes.
It was a successful Sun ' N Fun. A great excuse to
bring a lot of fantastic people together, and a chal-
lenge to make next year's event even better. Y'all
come back real soon.
Most people come to fly-ins to look at airplanes, some
show up to play in the mud.
This beautiful Cabin Waco UKC-5 belonging to Bob White
of Zellwood, Florida was completed just prior to the fly-in.
Ah-h-h-h .. .
ANTIQUE AWARD WINNERS
GRAND CHAMPION ANTIQUE - Command-Aire,
N970E, Dolph Overton, Wings and Wheels Muse-
um, Orlando
ANTIQUE CHAMPION - GOLDEN AGE - Travelaire
2000, NC6117, Dean Tilton, Lakeland
ANTIQUE CHAMPION - PLATINUM AGE - Waco
UKC-5, NC15214, Bob White, Zellwood, FL
ANTIQUE CHAMPION - WW " ERA - Stearman PT-17,
NC57917, Ted Andros, Coral Gables
BEST ANTIQUE BIPLANE -American Eagle, Jack Brown,
Seaplane Base, Winter Haven
BEST ANTIQUE MONOPLANE - Lockheed 12A, NC-
25628, R. R. Allen, Fayetteville, NC
BEST ANTIQUE - OPEN COCKPIT - Travelaire 4000,
NC4952, John Dekle, Thomasville, GA
BEST ANTIQUE - CABIN - Cessna UC-78, NC69072,
J. Cramer, Boynton Beach
BEST CUSTOM ANTIQUE - Monocoupe
LADIES CHOICE ANTIQUE - Aeronca C-3, NC17449;
Dan Araldi, Plant City
MERITORIOUS AWARD - Taylorcraft BC 120, NC-
39222; Aeronca L-3, NC46924, Merle Jenkins, Lake-
land; Aeronca Chief, N33731, Ken Rickert, Lake-
land
CLASSIC AWARD WINNERS
GRAND CHAMPION CLASSIC - Aeronca Chief ,
N85829; AI Nase, Rehoboth Beach, DE
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - Up to 100 hp - Piper
PA-17, N4699H, George Bickel, Raleigh, NC
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - 101 to 165 hp - Fairchild
F-24, N81222, Martin Probst, Jacksonville
BEST CLASSIC RESTORED - Over 165 hp - Cessna 195,
N3484V, Donald Sutherland, Miami Lakes
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - Up to 100 hp - Ercoupe,
N24AP, Don Stretch, Fallington, PA
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - 101 to 165 hp - Swift,
N10SS, Bill Shepherd, New Orleans, LA
BEST CLASSIC CUSTOM - Over 165 hp - Navion,
N4043K, Mike Turner, Frankenmuth, MI
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Ercoupe, N3081H, Fred
Best, Safety Harbour
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Aeronca Champ, N2300E,
Bill Bond
CLASSIC BEST OF TYPE - Swift, N46GS, Joseph Ran-
son, Hollywood, FL
CLASSIC - LADIES CHOICE - Cessna 140A, N9476A,
Dave/ Linda Grow, Gloucester Point, VA
MERITORIOUS AWARD - Ercoupe, N 94806, Marvin
Funk, Peachtree, GA; Aeronca Champ, N3408E,
Charles Hughes, Pansy, AL; Bellanca, NC86748,
Tom Leahy, Brooklyn, OH
7
Cantilever Cessnas
The "World s
Most
Efficient"
By Gar Williams 
9  5  135 Aero  Drive 
Route  1 
Naperville,  Illinois  60540 
How many homebuilders and even  aircraft manu-
facturers would like to lay claim to such a title! Un-
doubtedly one airplane could have  earned that reputa-
tion. Push time back to 1936 and you'll find such a
title bestowed upon an airplane design that won so
many contests for speed and efficiency that it was
declared the "World's Most Efficient Airplane" . Cess-
na, with good justification, capitalized upon this title
and soon this slogan accompanied their advertising
for their very  popular "Airmaster".
The Airmaster story has its beginnings many years
earlier - in fact , it all started in Iowa in 1880 with the
birth of Clyde Cessna. Apparently, Clyde quickly be-
came quite a mechanic for early reports indicate he
was known for his repairman abilities on farm ma-
chines. And (eventually)  automobiles. Clyde's interest
in mechanics quickly led to airplanes and, at 31 , he
decided that he should join the ranks of the home-
builders. In the late spring of 1911, Clyde started to
learn to fix - and to survive  crashes. After many les-
sons in the rebuilding of his homebuilt, Clyde made
one successful take-off and landing - and promptly
went into the air show business! Many years and origi-
nal designs transpired with Cessna's interest pinned
on the monoplane. It's hard to imagine an aircraft
designer and current day company - with records
as far back as 1911 - not having a biplane hanging
in the family tree! That actually is the case for the
Cessna Aircraft Company. Cessna went "fully canti-
lever"  in 1927 and regressed to " struts" , eighteen
years later with the introduction of the 120/140 series.
Design evolution of the Airmaster series goes very 
obviously back through the DC-6 and the "A" series
to Clyde' s 1927 "design number one" - the second
" Comet" . The catalyst for the transformation of the
details of these earlier designs into the sleek new
four place C-34 was Clyde's son Eldon. Eldon ' s in-
terest in racing led to a number of design improve-
ments on his personal AW - " Old 99" - NC7107.
Various photos show improvements in the windshield
- cowling - and finally wheel pants specifically for
the reduction of drag. Clyde and Eldon Cessna con-
8
tinued updating the AW design and quickly emerged
with the C-3 late in 1933. This was a rebuild of a model
AA (serial 124) and included a fully cowled 125 Warner,
an enlarged cabin, and the incorporation of a DC-6
series gear neatly faired with wheel pants. Early Cess-
na publications indicate this ship was the first pro-
duct of the late 1933 reorganization while Bob Pickot
and Mitch Makburn's excellent book Cessna Guide-
book Volume One points out conclusively that this
was actually the fourth and last product of the C. V.
Cessna Company - formed by Clyde while the Cess-
na Aircraft Company was dormant. (Author's Note -
This book, Cessna Guidebook is an excellent his-
tory of Cessna's early years. It's a must for every an-
tiquer's library. The book is number 2 in the American
Aircraft Series published by Flying Enterprise Pub-
,cessna C-165 (NCI13) sin 484 and C- 145 (N
85 for c.A.A. September, 1939. '
lications, 3164 Whitehall, Dallas, Texas 75229.)
These two ships - "Old 99" - and the C-3 obvi-
ously had considerable influence on the C-34 design.
The basic fuselage and wing design of the AW were
used with rather minor changes. The C-34 wing in-
corporated a built up solid spar and trailing edge wing
flaps whereas the earlier wing had a very complex
box spar with no flaps. The airfoil was changed from
a modified M-12 to the NACA 2412 and the wing span
was shortened six feet. The remaining portions of
the wings are identical in detail design and construc-
tion. The steel tube fuselage on the AW was widened
and deepened to enlarge the cabin area. One right
hand entrance door giving access to both front and
rear seats was substituted for the AW's rather awk-
Inset picture taken 1927.
ward front and rear cabin doors. "Fully cantilever"
on the C-34 applied to everything - the main and
tail gear became internally sprung cantilever struts
- the steel tube strut braced AW tail surfaces were
designed to be a " strutless" wooden structure.
As with many famous designs a great deal of con-
troversy has surrounded the Airmaster regarding the
design responsibility for the C-34. Obviously the over-
all design and construction was a team effort although
there is no question in the author's mind that the Air-
master series was primarily the result of Eldon Cess-
na' s engineering expertise. Cessna literature credits
the design to other individuals. The author has per-
sonally reviewed the original "Cessna Company Scrap-
book" which includes pictures and newspaper arti-
C-165's in formation . Cessna Airmaster Reunion, 1975,
Wich ita, Kansas. NC237E - Ken Col e, Pleasanton, CA;
25485 - C. Williams.
9
des relating to Eldon Cessna's new design. Eldon per-
sonally test flew the prototype in the fall of 1934, sig-
nificantly earlier than the June 1, 1935 manufacture
date warranty recognized by the Cessna archives.
The background on the title of the " World's Most
Efficient Airplane" is interesting although somewhat
misleading. As Eldon Cessna relates the story, air
racing was not necessarily the road to glory, just one
of the better ways in the Depression Years to keep the
family from starving. One of the Detroit News Trophy
events used a formula of load capacity, speed, take-
off and landing distances, as well as fuel consump-
tion as parameters for determining efficiency. Eldon's
pilotage and "Old 99" agility easily garnered the
Detroit News Trophy.
Cessna Aircraft Company entered their second pro-
duction C-34 series number 301, NC15462 in the same
event at the 1935 races. With George Hart at the con-
trols, the new monoplane brought the trophy home
for the second time. The following year Dwane Wal-
lace swept the efficiency event with serial number
320, NC15852. Since a Cessna Monoplane had won
the event three times, the decision was made to be-
stow the title of the "World's Most Efficient" upon
the cantilever creation of Eldon Cessna. Of course,
the factory applied the title to their current produc-
tion C-34' s although "one third" of the award actually
belongs to an AW and in reality should have credited
the designer as well. Prior to the award, Clyde and
Eldon Cessna had given up control of Cessna Aircraft
with Clyde retiring to farming and Eldon moving to
Northrup Aircraft in Los Angeles so in reality the de-
signer was no longer associated with Cessna Aircraft .
The "World's Most Efficient" slogan was used t)1rough-
out the six years of Airmaster production.
During the forty plus years that have passed since
the Detroit News Trophy was won for the third time
by a "cantilever" Cessna the three airplanes that
"brought the bacon home" have gone their separate
routes into oblivion. The AW, "Old 99" NC7107, serial
#146 eventually found its way into Oklahoma where
it appears to have been destroyed in a windstorm.
At this writing there is only rumor as to its disposi-
tion - it has been struck from FAA's records and the
number 7107 was assigned to AW serial #196 which
is currently being rebuilt by a very ambitious young
antiquer - with a project like that one must be young
at the start - Dave Rawlings of Rio, Wisconsin . If
the real "Old 99" ever turns up, its existence would
be easy to prove. During the construction of the ship,
Eldon Cessna had the fuselage lengthened to com-
pensate for the lighter Warner Engine. This airframe
was the only one so modified. Hence, easy identifica-
tion.
First  Cessna  C-34,  cln  254,  Ju/y,  1935._ 
prototype/of series  still f/y/ing - owned by  W 
Ken  Mux ow,  Mmneapo IS,  Minnesota. 
Notice  deep  cowl, 
fin  and  rudder. 
10
Cessna 's first cantilever wing! A seri es prototype wing on October, 1927.
Airmaster paint shop. C-37 production.
The second winner of the coveted Detroit News
Efficiency Trophy has returned from oblivion at the
capable hands of Clyde Boureois, Santa Ynez, Cali-
fornia. Clyde's rebuild of this ship has been recog-
nized as superb by judges at Watsonville, Oshkosh
and many fly-ins between those points. It's beauti-
fully preserved for posterity.
The third capture of the contest was made by serial
number 320, NC15852. This ship eventually went to
Canada as CR-BDI. On April 13, 1952, serial 320 was
forced down by reasons unknown on Mcinnis Lake,
near Sioux Lookout, Ontario, Canada. As far as is
known to date, the ship is still there. Either in the
lake or on the shore. There must be a fisherman/
antiquer that visits that area of Canada. Just remem-
ber, antique airplanes aren' t beirig made anymore.
Have at it!
To fully understand the development of Cessna's
cantilever airplanes one must first examine the model
designations assigned to their first production air-
plane, serial #113, through the last single engine pre-
war ship, serial #591 . Clyde Cessna' s first ship was a
model A equipped with an Anzani Engine (which made
i t an AA). Engine variants in the A generated the AC,
AS, and AW. The second design, the model B, was a
model A with heavier spars and gear. The 13 model
B' s were all produced with the J-5 Wright and ap-
propriately called " BW's". The third model - the
" C" - was an enlargement of the NB series. Several
were built but not type certificated. Appropriately
the fou rth Cessna design was labeled the D series.
All of the D models were actually labeled DC-6 Cur-
tiss Challenger Engine. A majority of this series was
built with the Wright J-6-9 and J-6-7 as the DC-6A and
DC-6B. The next design produced by the Cessna Air-
craft Company was the C-34; the prototype of the
Airmaster series. A number of aircraft were designed
and built by Eldon Cessna between the DC and C-34
series. These experimental aircraft contributed to the
virtues of the C-34 but were products of the Clyde
V. Cessna Company, a Kansas partnership between
Clyde and Eldon. The C-34 model number was simply
Cessna, 1934. This was the production year of the
prototype design of which 43 were built between late
1934 and January 1937. Ref inements of the de5ign
resulted in the C-37 (Cessna 1937) first produced
December 8, 1936, the C-38 (Cessna 1938) produced
from October 11, 1937 through August 31, 1938, the
C-145 (Cessna 145 horsepower) built from September
24, 1938 through April 28, 1941 , and finally the C-165
(Cessna 165 horsepower) which was built from April
22, 1939 through August 12, 1941 .
Production of thi s " World's Most Efficient Air-
plane" totaled 184 copies. The breakdown is 42 C-34's;
11
- -   - . . • .. . . ..... .. ,- .....  ........ ,'J 'u ............ ..... u 
finish on the Airmaster. C-7 45/C-7 65
wing production. 7939- 7940.
;;;. '!M!iiiiIiir 
.. .. -
Static test of Cessna AW cantilever wing. February 1928.
46 C-37' s; 16 C-38' s; 42 C-145's; and a total of 38 C-165's.
Over the years, engine changes have been made up-
dating the 145 powered ships to the more reliabl e
165 horsepower Warner, but by far the majority of
aircraft (146) were built with the 145 horsepower War-
ner as standard equipment. Only one factory installa-
tion of an engine other than a 145/165 Warner was
made - in 1940 General Motors ordered one C-165
to be built with their experimental 175 horsepower,
liquid cooled, 2 cycle engine for power. This ship
(serial #568) subsequently was converted to the 165
Warner and even later to a spring steel gear: Both
conversions were accomplished by the Cessna fac-
tory. The design and production of the Airmaster
series can logically be broken into two phases. The
straight or narrow gear versions include the C-34' s
and 37's. In January of 1938, the C-38 was introduced
which featured the wider , "bowed" gear - the name
"Airmaster". Although all versions now carry that
label, technically the C-34' s and C-37's are not "Air-
masters". A number of other changes were incor-
porated into the C-38, enough to make a definite break
.in the description of the details of models produced
from 1934 through 1941 .
Th e early versions of the C-34 included several
features that added to the rather delicate ground
handling qualities of these ships. The narrow gear
was placed well forward of the center of gravity which
made directional stability marginal. Add to that a set
of Johnson bar brakes, a non-steerable tailwheel held
centered by a shock cord, a very small fin and rudder
and you have all the ingredients for head spi nning
horizontal reversements. A number of the early ships
that have survived have been modified to steerable
or at least locking tailwheels as well as hydrauli c
brakes. Only a few of the C-34's are now flying with
the original small fin and rudder.
The first few production C-34's had crank operated
flaps. This method was quickly modified to a chain
and cable system powered by an electric motor.
Through the end of production in 1941, Cessna re-
tained electric operation of the flaps except for the 16
C-38's which utilized a hydraulic belly flap. All the
C-34's and C-37's had wooden structu re trailing edge
flaps. The flaps were hinged on the bottom surface
and worked in principle similar to the post-war 120/140
and 170/170A flaps. With the advent of the bowed
gear C-38, Cessna engineers developed a large hy-
draulicall y actuated belly flap quite similar to the Rutan
VariEze mechanism. Starting at serial number 450 -
the first C-145 - and through serial number 591 -
the last Airmaster - Cessna built the Airmaster with
a third type of flap assembly. This was a drag flap
mounted on the underside of the wing just forward
of the rear spar and inboard of the ailerons . This flap
design was carried forward to the post-war 1901195
series airplanes.
The reason for Cessna' s flap variations are ap-
parent once you fly the ship. The airplane has a very
flat glide. Once in ground effect, airspeed bleeds off
slowly causing a " float" that reminds you of a Tay-
lorcraft. The trailing edge flaps of course added drag
and steepened the approach . Unfortunately, these
flaps also added significant lift which in turn did not
help decrease the tendency to float. What the air-
plane really needed was pure drag. To accomplish
that, Cessna engineers deleted the trailing edge flaps
and added a large hydraulic hand pump actuated belly
flap to the C-38 series. The aerodynamic purpose was
well served but the operation added another hand
operation to the pilot's duties - stick, Johnson bar,
and hydraulic pump. The extra handle cluttered an
already cramped cockpit. The advent of the under-
wing drag flaps starting with NC14464, the first C-145,
was the ultimate solution. Plenty of drag, steeper ap-
proaches, no floating, as well as a simple, lightweight
operating mechanism.
Except for the landing gear change to the 12 inch
wider "bowed" gear with the introduction of the 1938
C-38, the other variation between the first C-34 and
final C-165 were subtle and should be considered
minor in nature. Many minor changes occurred in
the cabin to facilitate pilot and passenger comfort.
The C-37 featured a four inch wider cabin than the
predecessor. With the C-38, the structure support-
ing the instrument panel was moved forward four
inches giving the appearance of a larger cockpit. This
change caused the size of the windshield and for-
ward side windows to vary. The size and shape of
the other cabin windows were also noticeably dif-
ferent. Factory records indicate improvements in
cabin upholstery with the later copies being fur-
nished with plush mohair and bedford cord wools.
Other mechanical changes included a locking tail-
wheel on the C-37 and subsequent models and shock
mounted removable engine mount. Starting with the
C-38 the welded, non-removable mount of the earlier
series, and hydraulic brakes introduced on the first
C-145.
Options available to the customer on all series
Airmasters include either: wooden or Curtiss Reed
metal fixed pitch propellers and variations of fuel
tankage for 35, 45, or 52V2 gallon capacity. Exterior
and interior colors were also left to the customer' s
Cessna C-37, sin 346, April, 1937.
Still licensed and flying in Spokane,
Washington.
  ..
Cessna C-145 panel. October 1938.
Bob Cummi ngs and his C-37. sin 369. This is Bob's fi rst
Airmaster. Currentl y owned by Bill Koelling, Great Bend,
KS. Bob's second Airmaster was SN588 NC32455 which
is still flying in the Northwest.
Bob Cummings in his C-37 " Spinach // ".
discretion and resulted in a veritable rainbow of
colors. Many Airmasters were outfitted with the lat-
est in electronic equipment and were often navigated
by the beeping A-N ranges through the worst of weath-
er. All of these "World's Most Efficient" airplanes
came normally equipped with electric starter , gen-
erator , and night flying equipment.
At this writing, approximately fifty of these fine
16
Second winner . of Detroit News Trophy sin 307 C-34.
Restored by Clyde B. Bouozgeois.
old birds have survived the ravages of time, incom-
petency and neglect. Airmaster owners have loosely
bonded themselves together through the Antique
Airplane Association sponsored Airmaster Club. This
club offers social and mechanical support for the
survival of the breed. A majority of Airmaster owners
are fiercely proud of their possessions and, as a re-
sult, the ownership turnover i s quite slow. One own-
er, a very competent engineer , feels sure that his ship
represents one of the finest combinations of airframe,
engine and propeller ever produced. On the oppo-
site side, one currently popular aviation writer had
the audacity to suggest that the airplane flies like a
truck. We Airmaster owners know he would say a
Corvette rides hard!
SPECIFICATIONS 
-----C-145 LANDPLANE-----
PERFORMANCE:  English Metric
High  speed, at  sea  level .  162  m.p.h.  261  k.p.h. 
'Cruising  speed,  at  optimum  alti-
tude  (8,200 ft.) . ....... .  151  m.p.h.  243  k.p.h. 
'Cruising speed, at  sea  level .  14 3  m.p.h.  230  k.p.h. 
Landing speed, with flaps extended  49  m.p.h.  79  k.p.h. 
Climb first  minute . . .  . .  .  1,000  feet  305  meters 
Cruising  Radius  (with  521/ 2 U.  S. 
gallon capacity) .. .. ... . . .. .  785  miles  1,263  kilometers 
Cruising Radius  (with  4 5 U.  S. gal-
lon  capacity) . .. .... . .... .  675  miles  1,086 kilometers 
Cruising Radius  (with  35  U.  S.  gal-
lon  capacity) ...  525  miles  845  kilometers 
Gasoline  consumption  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level) . . . ....... .. .. .  9
1
/ 2 gal. / hr.  36  liters/ hr. 
Air  mileage  per  gallon  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level) .  15  miles  24  kilometers 
Service  ceiling . ... .... . . . .... . ... 18,000 feet  5, 486  meters 
'Cruising speeds  at  75 %  Horsepower. 
WEIG HT  DATA: 
Gross  weight  2,3501bs.  1,066  kilograms 
'Empty  weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1,380  Ibs.  626  kilograms 
Useful  load . . . . . . . . . . .  970  lbs .  44 0  kilograms 
Pay  load  . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .  57 4  lbs.  260  kilograms 
Wing  loading .  13  lbs./ sq. ft.  63.4  kilo./ sq.m. 
Power  loading .  16.2  lbs. / h.p.  7. 35  kilo. / h.p. 
'Empty  weight guaranteed  not to exceed this figure  by  over 2 %. 
AIRPLANE  DATA: 
Type . ...  4-place  Cabin  Monoplane 
Number of engines .  1  1 
Length .  24  ft.  8  in.  7.5  meters 
Span  (wing) .  34  ft.  2  in.  10.4  meters 
Height .  7ft.  2.1i5meters 
Wing area ..  181  sq.  ft.  16.8 ~ q   meters 
STANDARD  EQUIPMENT 
GENERAL  EQUIPMENT: 
Fuselage,  complete  with  Engine  Mount,  Windshield,  Windows 
and  Door  (Door  Lock  and  Keys  provided).  (Pertinent  float 
Fittings  are  attached  and  entire  Structure  Corrosion  Proofed 
for  Seaplane  use.) 
Wing,  complete  with  Statically  and  Dynamically  Balanced 
Ailerons.  (All  Metal  Parts  are  Corrosion  Proofed  for  Sea-
plane  use.) 
2  Wing  Flaps. 
I  Wing  Flap  Electrical  Operating  Mechanism. 
1  Fin  and  Rudder. 
I  Stabilizer and  Elevator. 
I  Set  Longitudinal Trimming Tabs  (on  Elevator) . 
1  Parking  Brake  System. 
I  Pilot  Individual  Foot  Brake System. 
I  Automatic  Tail Wheel  Locking  Mechanism. 
I  Landing Gear with Oildraulic-spring Shock Absorbing Mechan-
ism,  7:50x10  Goodyear  Wheels,  Hydraulic  Brakes. 
Tail  Wheel  with  8-inch  Streamline  Tire  and  Oildraulic-spring 
Shock Absorbing  Unit. 
1  Set  6:50x10 Tires and Tubes. 
1  Pilot  Seat with  Safety  Belt. 
I  Co-pilot Seat  with  Safety  Belt. 
I  Rear  Passenger Seat  with  Safety  Belt  (2  Passengers) . 
4  Cabin  Ventilators  (all  adjustable from  Pilot's  Seat) . 
I  Fuel  System  with  two  Wing  Tanks - total  fuel  capacity 
Tanks,  35  gallons. 
Oil  System  complete  with  3
1
12 gallon  Tank. 
Qua!'t  Pyrene  Fire  Extinguisher. 
'I  Bauer &  Black  First  Aid  Kit. 
I  Set  Cabin  Wall  Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
I  Set  Cabin  Seat  Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
I  Airmaster  Styled  Instrument  Panel. 
1  Set  Dual  Controls. 
I  Complete  Set  Tie  Down  Lugs. 
'I  Engine Log  Book. 
'I  Aircraft  Log  Book. 
'I  Airplane  Manual. 
POWER  PLANT  AND  ACCESSORIES: 
Warner 7-Cylinder Radial Air Cooled Engine,  145  H .P.  (it  2050 
r.p.m. 
'-I 
Curtiss  Fixed  Pitch  Metal  Propeller. 
Propeller Spinner. 
Eclipse,  Type  Y- 150,  Direct Electric Starter. 
Complete Set  Pressure Type Cylinder Cooling BafHes. 
Gasoline Fuel  Strainer. 
'I  Complete Engine Tool Kit . 
I  NACA  Cowling. 
I  Inner Motor Cowl. 
I  Engine  Crankcase  Cowl. 
1  Mixture Control. 
I  Spark  Control. 
1  Engine  Primer. 
I  Throttle. 
4  Lord  Rubber Engine  Mount  Bushings. 
Stainless  Steel  Firewall. 
Steel  Exhaust  Collector. 
'I  Engine  Manual. 
ELECTRICAL  EQUIPMENT: 
Exide,  Type  6-TS- 7 -1,  Electrical  Storage  Battery  (19  Ampere 
Hour Capacity). 
I  Cessna  Electric  Master Switch. 
I  Cessna  Ignition  Switch. 
1  Wind  Driven Generator  (3
1
12 to  8  Ampere  Capacity). 
1  Instrument Light  Rheostat. 
3  Grimes,  Type C,  Navigation  Lights. 
Complete Set  Airplane  Wiring. 
Complete  Set  Airplane  Conduiting  and Junction  Boxes. 
Complete  Set  Electrical  Switches. 
Starter Solenoid  Switch. 
Complete  Set  Airplane  Bonding  and  Shielding. 
INSTRUMENTS: 
Compass.  2  Fuel  Quantity  Gauges 
Altimeter.  (Electric). 
Airspeed.  Ammeter. 
Airspeed  Pitot  Static  Tube.  Oil  Pressure Gauge. 
Tachometer.  I  Oil Temperature .Gauge. 
' Not  included  in  standard weight  of  1,380. 
-----C-145 SEAPLANE------
PERFORMANCE:  English Metric
High  speed, at  sea  level  145  m.p.h.  233  k.p.h. 
'Cruising speed .  130  mp.h ..  209  k.p.h. 
Landing  speed,  with  flaps  extended  50  m.p.h.  80 k.p.h. 
Climb  first  minute .  650  feet  198  meters 
Cruising  Radius  (with  52
1
12 U.  S. 
gallon  capacity) .  700  miles  1,127 kilometers 
Cruising Radius  (with  45  U.  S.  gal-
lon  capacity) .  600  miles  966 kilometers 
Cruising Radius  (with  35  U.  S. gal-
lon  capacity) ...  460  miles  740 kilometers 
Gasoline  consumption  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level) .  9
1
/ 2 gal. / hr.  36 liters/ hr. 
Air  mileage  per  gallon  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level)  13.7  miles  22  kilometers 
Service  ceiling .  . .  . 14,000 feet  4,268  meters 
'Cruising speeds  at  75 %  Horsepower. 
WEIGHT DATA: 
Gross  weight  2,550  lbs .  1,159  kil ograms 
' Empty  weight .  1,635Ibs.  74 3  kilograms 
Useful  load .  915  lbs.  4 16  kilograms 
Pay  load .  574  1bs.  260  kilograms 
Wing  loading .  14. 1 lhs ./ sq.  ft.  68.8  kilo./ sq.  m. 
Power  loading .  17 .6  lbs. / h.p.  8  kilo. / h.p. 
' Empty  weight  guaranteed  not  to  exceed  thi s  figure  by  over  2 So. 
AIRPLANE  DATA: 
Type .  4-place Cabin  Monoplane 
Number of engines  1  1 
Length,  overall .  26  ft.  5  in.  8.0  meters 
Span  (wing) .  34  ft.  2  in .  10.4  meters 
Height  (from  water  line)  7  ft.  6  in.  2.28  meters 
Wing  area  181  sq.  ft .  16.8  sq.  meters 
STANDARD  EQUIPMENT 
GENERAL  EQUIPMENT: 
Fuselage,  complete  with  Engine  Mount,  Windshield,  Windows 
and  Door  (Door  Lock  and  Keys  provided) .  (Pertinent  float 
Fittings  are  attach..d  and  entire  Structure  Corrosion  Proofed 
for  Seaplane use. ) 
1  Emergency Exit,  left  side  cabin. 
1  Pair Edo  Model  2425  Floats,  complete with  Water Rudders. 
1  Water Rudder Lift  Control. 
1  Complete  set  Water  Rudder  Control  Cables  and  Rudder  Lift 
Cables. 
1  Complete set  Float Attachment  Struts  and  Wires. 
1  Set Strut Steps. 
1  Complete Float Strut  Fairing  Assembly. 
1  Auxiliary  Seaplane Vertical  Fin. 
1  Wing,  complete  with  Statically  and  Dynamically  Balanced 
Ailerons.  (All  Metal  Parts  are  Corrosion  Proofed  for  Sea-
plane use). 
2  Wing Flaps.  . 
1  Wing Flap  Electrical  Operating  Mechanism. 
1  Fin  and Rudder. 
1  Stabilizer and Elevator. 
1  Set  Longitudinal Trimming Tabs  (on  Elevatoc). 
1  Parking Brake System. 
1  Pilot Individual Foot  Brake System. 
:t Automatic Tail Wheel Locking  Mechanism.  (For auxiliary  land-
plane use.) 
1  Landing Gear with Oildraulic-spriag Shock Absorbing Mechan-
ism,  7: 50x 10 Goodyear Wheels,  Hydraulic Brakes  (for auxiliary 
Landplane  use). 
1  Set  6: 50x 1 0  Tires  and  Tubes  (for  auxiliary  Landplane  use). 
1  Tail  Wheel  with  8-inch  Streamline  Tire  and  Oildraulic-spring 
Shock  Absorbing  Unit  (for  auxiliary  Landplane  use). 
1  Pilot Seat with  Safety  Belt. 
1  Co-pilot Seat  with  Safety  Belt. 
1  Rear Passenger Seat  with  Safety  Belt  (2  Passengers). 
4  Cabin  Ventilators  (All  Adjustable from  Pilot's Seat). 
Fuel  System  with  two  Wing  Tanks - total  fuel  capacity  both 
Tanks,  35  gallon. 
1  Oil System  complete with  3
1
/ 2 gallon  Tank. 
1  Quart Pyrene Fire  Extinguisher. 
"I  Bauer &  Black First  Aid  Kit. 
1  Set  Cabin Wall  Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
1  Set  Cabin  Seat Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
1  Airmaster Styled  Instrument  Panel. 
1  Set  Dual  Controls. 
1  Complete Set  Tie Down  Lugs. 
"I  Engine  Log  Book. 
"I  Aircraft Log  Book. 
"I  Airplane  Manual. 
POWER  PLANT  AND  ACCESSORIES: 
1  Curtiss  Fixed  Pitch  Metal  Propeller for  Seaplane  use. 
(Other  Power  Plant Accessories  same  as  C-145  Landplane.) 
ELECTRICAL  EQUIPMENT- (Same  as  C-145  Landplane. ) 
INSTRUMENTS - (Same  as  C-14 5  Landplane.) 
"Not included  in  standard weight of  1,635. 
-----C-14S PHOTOPLANE-----
PERFORMANCE:  Eng/ish
High  speed, at  sea  level. .. . .. . ... .  162  m.p.h. 
"Cruising  speed,  at  optimum  alti-
tude  (8,200 ft.)  151  m.p.h. 
"Cruising  speed, at  sea  level.  143  m.p.h. 
Landing speed,  with  /laps  extended  49  m.p.h. 
Climb first  minute ........... .  1,000 feet 
Cruising  Radius  (with  52 
1
/ 2 U.  S. 
gallon capacity) . . . . . . . . . . .  785  miles 
Cruising Radius  (with  45  U.  S.  gal-
Ion  capacity) .. .. ....... .  675  miles 
Cruising Radius  (with  35  U. S.  gal-
lon  capacity) ... . . . . . ...... ... . .  525  miles 
Gasoline  consumption  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level) . . . . . . . .  9 liz gal. / hr. 
Air  mileage  per  gallon  at  cruising 
speed  (sea  level) .  . . .  15  miles 
Service  ceiling . . .  . ......... 18,000 feet 
"Cruising speeds at  75 %  Horsepower. 
Metric
261  k.p.h. 
243  k.p.h. 
230  k.p.h. 
79  k.p.h. 
305  meters 
1,263 kilometers 
1,086 kilometers 
.845  kilometers 
36  liters/ hr. 
24  kilometers 
5,486  meters 
WEIGHT  DATA: 
Gross  weight.  . .. . . ... ..  2,350Ibs.  1,066  kilograms 
*Empty  weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1,400Ibs.  635  kilograms 
Useful  load .  950  Ibs.  431  kilograms 
Pay  load . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .  5741bs.  260  kilograms 
Wing  loading ...  13  Ibs. / sq.  ft.  63.4 kilo. / sq.m. 
Power loading .  16.2Ibs. / h.p.  7. 35  kilo./h.p. 
*Empty weight guaranteed  not  to  exceed this  figure  by over  2 %. 
AIRPLANE  DATA: 
Type . . ... .  4-place Cabin  Monoplane 
Number of engines .  1 1
Length . . .. .  24 ft.  8  in.  7.5  meters 
Span  (wing) .  34 ft.  2  in.  10.4  meters 
Height .  7  ft.  2.125  meters 
Wing  area .  181 sq. ft.  16.8  sq.  meters 
STANDARD  EQUIPMENT 
GENERAL  EQUIPMENT: 
Fuselage,  complete with  Engine Mount, Windshield, Windows 
and  Door  (Door  Lock  and  Keys  provided).  (Pertinent  Float 
Fittings  are  attached  and  entire  Structure  Corrosion  Proofed 
for  Seaplane  use.) 
Wing,  complete  with  Statically  and  Dynamically  Balanced 
Ailerons.  (All  Metal  Parts  are  Corrosion  Proofed  for  Sea-
plane use). 
2  Wing  Flaps. 
1  Wing  Flap  Electrical  Operating Mechanism. 
Fin  and  Rudder. 
Stabilizer and  Elevator. 
Set  Longitudinal Trimming Tabs  (on  Elevator). 
Parking  Brake System. 
Pilot Individual  Foot  Brake  System. 
Automatic Tail  Wheel  Locking Mechanism. 
Landing Gear with  Oildraulic-spring Shock Absorbing  Mech-
anism,  21-inch  Hayes  Streamline  Wheels,  Hydraulic  Brakes. 
Set  21-inch  Streamline Tires  and  Tubes. 
Tail  Wheel  with  8-inch  Streamline Tire and  Oildraulic-spring 
Shock  Absorbing Unit. 
** 1  Pilot  Seat  with  Safety  Belt. 
*' 1  Co-pilot  Seat  with  Safety  Belt. 
* * 1  Rear  Passenger Seat  with  Safety  Belt  (2  Passengers). 
4  Cabin  Ventilators  (All  Adjustable from  Pilot's  Seat). 
Cabin  Hearer. 
Set  Camera  Floor  Apertures  (Arranged  to  Customer's  Speci-
fications). 
1  Cameraman's  Seat. 
3  Auxiliary  Pilot Vision  Windows. 
1  Fuel  System  with  two  Wing  Tanks  and  one  Auxiliary  171/ 2 
U.  S.  gallon  Gasoline Tank - total  capacity  52 liz gallons. 
Oil  System  complete with  3 
1
/2  gallon Tank. 
Quart  Pyrene  Fire  Extinguisher. 
*1  Bauer &  Black  First  Aid  Kit. 
1  Set  Cabin  Wall  Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
1  Set  Cabin  Seat  Upholstering  (Laidlaw). 
1  Airmaster Styled  Instrument  Panel. 
1  Set  Dual  Controls. 
1  Complete  Set Tie  Down Lugs. 
*1  Engine Log  Book. 
*1  Aircraft  Log  Book. 
*1  Airplane  Manual. 
POWER PLANT AND ACCESSORIES-(Same as  C145 Landplane) 
ELECTRICAL  EQUIPMENT - (Same  as  C145  Landpl ane) 
INSTRUMENTS: 
Compass.  2  Fuel  Quantity  Gauges 
Altimeter  (Kollsman Sensitive, Type  (Electric). 
176-01, TemperatureCompensated).  Tachometer. 
1  Airspeed.  Ammeter. 
1  Airspeed  Pitot  Static  Tube.  Oil  Pressure Gauge. 
Oil Temperature  Gauge. 
**A complete set of standard passenger seats are provided to facilitate 
immediate  conversion  back  to  a  standard  4-place  airplane;  thus 
fitting  the  airplane for other varied  purposes. 
*Not included in standard weight of  1,400 
SPECIFICATIONS
-----C-165LANDPLANE----- WEIGHT DATA: English Metric
Grossweight. ................... 2,550lbs. 1,159 kilograms
*Empty weight.................. 1,655lbs. 752 kilograms
Usefulload.... .... .... .... ..... 895lbs. 407 kilograms
Pay load ........................ 549lbs. 250  
Wing loading .................. . 14.1lbs. / sq.ft. 68.8kilo./ sq.m.
Powerloading.................. 15.45lbs./h.p. 7.03 kilo./h.p.
*Empty weightguaranteednottoexceedthisfigure byover2%.
AIRPLANE DATA:
(Same as C-1 4 5 Seaplane)
STANDARD EQUIPMENT
GENERAL EQUIPMENT:
(Same as C-1 4 5 Seaplane)
POWER PLANT AND ACCESSORIES:
1 Curtiss Fixed Pitch Metal Propellerfor Seaplane use.
1 Warner 7-Cylinder Radial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H.P. @
2,100 r. p. m.
(OtherPower PlantAccessoriessameasC-145Landplane.)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT:
(Same as C-145 Landplane)
INSTRUMENTS:
(Sameas C-1 45Landplane)
-----C-165PHOTOPLANE-----
PERFORMANCE:
(Same as C-165 Landplane)
AIRPLANE DATA:
(Same as C-165 Landplane)
WEIGHT DATA: English Metric
Grossweight .................... 2,350Ibs. 1,066 kilograms
*Empty weight. ... .... .... ...... 1,420 Ibs. 644 kilograms
Useful load..................... 930Ibs. 422 kilograms
Pay load .......... ........ ...... 5741bs. 260  
Wingloading. . . ... ... .. . . . ... .. 13.lbs. / sq. ft. 63.4kilo. / sq.m.
Powerloading ................. . 14.2 Ibs. /h.p. 6.45 kilo.jh.p.
"Emptyweightguaranteednottoexceedthisfigurebyover2%.
STANDARD EQUIPMENT
GENERAL EQUIPMENT:
(Same as C- 145 Photoplane)
POWER PLANT AND ACCESSORIES:
1 Warner 7-Cylinder Radial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H. P. @
2,100r. p. m.
(OtherPowerPlantAccessoriessameasC145Landplane.)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT:
(Sameas C-1 4 5 Landplane)
INSTRUMENTS:
(Sameas C- 145 Photoplane )
---e---
PERFORMANCE:
**High speed, at sea level. .... ...
*Cruising speed, at optimum
altitude (8200ft . )... . .. . . . ....
*Cr uisi ng speed, at sea level......
Landing speed,withflapsextended
Cli mb fi r st minute... . .. . . .... . ..
Crui sing radius (with 52
1
1z U. S.
gallon capacity). ............ ..
Crui sing radius (with4 5U.S. gal-
Ion capacity). .... .. .. . . ... .. ..
Cruisingradius (with 35U.S.gal-
Ion capacity)........... .......
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
Airmil eage pergall on at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
English
165 m.p.h.
157 m.p.h.
149 m.p.h.
49 m.p.h.
1,125 feet
725 miles
620 miles
485 miles
10.8 gal. /hr.
13.8 miles
Service ceiling.... .... . .... . .. . .19,300feet
*Cruising speedsat 75% horsepower.
**PlacardedVv actualhi gh speed169m.p.h.
WEIGHT DATA:
Gross weight . ..... .. . .. . ... . . . ..
*Emptyweight. ... ... . ....
Useful load... .. . . . . ... . ........
Pay load .. ... ... . .. . ......... . ..
Wi ngloading... . . ..... . ... .. . ..
Powerloading... .... ..... . . ....
AIRPLANE DATA:
Type... .. ..... . .... .. . . . ... . ...
Numberofengines.... ... . .... ..
Length. ... . ... .. . .... ... . . . . . . ..
Span (wing). ..... . . .... .... . . ..
Height . . ... .. ... ..... .... . .... ..
Wing area. . ... ... . . . . . . . ... . ...
PERFORMANCE:
High speed,at sea level. . . ... . ...
*Cruising speed. .. .. . . ... . ......
Landingspeed,withflaps extended
Climbfirst minute...............
Cruising r adius (with 521/ Z U. S.
galloncapacity)...............
Cruisingradius (with45U. S. gal-
lon capacity) . ... ... .... .... . ..
Cr uisingradius (with 35 U.S. gal-
loncapacity) . .. ... .... . ... . .. .
Gasoline consumption at cruising
speed (sea level) ..............
Air mileage pergallonat cruising
speed (sea level) . ...... . . . ... .
2,350 Ibs.
1,400Ibs.
9501bs.
574Ibs.
13 Ibs./sq.ft.
14.2 Ibs./h.p.
4-place Cabin Monoplane
1
25 ft.
34 ft. 2 in.
7 ft.
181 sq. ft.
STANDARD EQUIPMENT
GENERAL EQUIPMENT:
(Sameas C- 145 Landplane)
POWER PLANT AND ACCESSORIES:
English
151 m.p.h.
135 m.p.h.
50 m.p.h.
730feet
650 miles
560 miles
4 30 miles
10.8 gal. /hr.
12. 5 miles
Service ceiling..... ..... ... .. ...15,000feet
*Cruisingspeeds at 75% Horsepower.
Metric
266k.p.h.
253 k.p.h.
240 k.p.h.
79 k.p.h.
34 3 meters
1,16 1kilometers
1,000kilometers
777kilometers
41 liters/hr.
22.2 kilometers
5,885 meters
1,066 kilograms
635 kilograms
430 kilograms
260  
63.4kilo. / sq.m.
6.45 kilo./h.p.
1
7.62 meters
10.4 meters
2. 125 meters
16.8sq.meters
1 Warner 7-CylinderRadial Air Cooled Engine, 165 H.P. @ 2100
r . p. m.
(Other PowerPlantAccessoriessameasC-145Landplane.)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT:
(Sameas C-145 Landplane)
INSTRUMENTS:
(Sameas C-145 Landplane)
-----C-165SEAPLANE-----
Metric
24 3 k.p.h.
217 k.p.h.
80.5 k.p.h.
222 meters
1,045kilometers
900kilometers
693kilometers
41 liters/hr.
20.1 kilometers
458 meters
CESSNA AIRCRAFT co.
WICHITA KANSAS U. S. A.
CableAddress: CESSCO. Wichita
co
Stearman natlona
(Photo by  Kenneth  D.  Wilson) 
Stearman  PT-27,  N66442,  restored  to  Canadian  markings 
by  Charles  Andreas  and  Byron  Fredericksen  received  the 
SRA  award for  the  Best  Stearman  PT.  . 
20
By  Thomas  E.  Lowe 
Stearman  Restorers Association,  Inc. 
823  Kingston  Lane 
Crys tal  Lake,  IL  60014 
The 7th National Stearman Fly-In was held at Gal es-
burg, Illinois during September 6-10, 1978 and enjoyed
the greatest success since its inception with a total of
64 Stearmans attending from all corners of the U.S.
In addition, numerous other antique, warbird, home-
built and modern aircraft swelled the ranks to help
provide an interesting and diverse fly-in for every-
one. All previous Stearman Fly-Ins had been three
day affairs, but since a larger number of Stearmans
always seemed to arrive one or two days early each
year , it was decided to expand the 1978 event to
five days. However, this year was no different as the
first arrival was John McCormick and John Hooper
from New Orleans, Louisiana who landed their Stear-
man N2S-5 at Galesburg on Saturday, September 1, a
full five days before the fly-in officially opened. They
later flew to Harvard, Illinois to spend some time at
Dacy Airport, the home of numerous Stearmans and
other antiques, and then returned again on Tuesday.
By Tuesday evening ten Stearmans were already at
Galesburg getting the fly-in off to another great early
start.
Wednesday was the first official day of the fly-in ,
however, no special events were scheduled except for
whatever flying anyone cared to do. There was quite
a bit of local flying, buddy rides, formation flights
and throughout the day more Stearmans arrived in-
cluding several groups of Stearmans that had flown
into Galesburg together. By that evening 21 Stear-
mans were lined up in the grass.
Thursday morning was spent in local flying and
in renewing old friendships and making new ones. At
noon most of the Stearmans flew the short distance
west to Monmouth to eat lunch at the Prime Beef
Festival in progress on the airport grounds and to
watch or participate in the first Stearman aerobati c
contest scheduled for that afternoon. The Stearman
aerobatic contest was pl anned to be a low-key, fun
affair not restricted by the usual requirements of a
formalized lAC type contest . It was to be a free styl e
event, the pilot flying whatever combination of ma-
neuvers that he wished , with the onl y requirement
being to remain above 1500 feet AGL. Onl y five pilots
could be tal ked into displaying their skills, John Mc-
Cormick, Jack Ruhlin , Dick Baird, Jim Leahy, and Tom
Lowe, three of which had never before flown in any
kind of aerobatic contest whatever. The airplanes
represented the entire range of Stearmans, stock Con-
tinental and Lycoming powered models, plus a 300
hp and 450 hp modified Stearman. Several Stearman
pilots volunteered to serve as the judges and each
pilot put on an interesting display of aerobatics. It
turned out to be a fun event and hopefully more pilots
will participate in the future.
At 6:00 P.M. ten Stearmans flew a formation flight
over Galesburg and by sundown 39 Stearmans were
present. Later that evening a cocktail party was held
at the Holiday Inn where the socializing was en-
hanced by wild flying stories that grew more unbe-
lievable as the evening wore on. Movies and slides
of previous Stearman Fly-Ins were shown and en-
joyed by all.
The beautiful weather that had graced Galesburg
and most of the rest of the country continued on Fri-
day and the day was filled with local flights, fly-bys,
formation passes, photo sessions and all the associ-
ated activities that normally ensue during a fly-in.
By evening, the grass area of the airport was vir-
tually overflowing with Stearmans and when the last
prop swung to a halt , 57 Stearmans were counted
reposing together in the grass. That evening all the
fly-in participants enjoyed a fine fish and chicken
dinner at the Galesburg American Legion Post.
Saturday began bright and early with the tradi-
tional dawn patrol flight to Monmouth, Illinois for
breakfast at the airport co mpliments of the Mon-
mouth Pilots Association. In the cool, damp dark-
ness of pre-dawn pilots and passengers alike strug-
gled to shake off the effects of a too short night's
sleep as they removed cockpit covers, pulled props
through, added oil, and hunted for the gas truck.
Soon the intermittent sputtering of a radial engine
broke the silence as it was coaxed into life and quickly
settled into a quiet, smooth rumble as all the cylin-
ders began working together. One by one the en-
gines turned over and precisely at official dawn the
Stearmans began rolling down the runway into the
cool air to be pleasantly surprised at the warm air
inversion that was encountered just a few hundred
feet above the earth. In all, 45 Stearmans circled over
Galesburg and flew to Monmouth. What a sight to
see numerous groups of four or five Stearmans wing-
ing together forming a larger gaggle that seemed to
darken the sky against the bright orange glow of the
rising sun.
The return flight to Galesburg was made in small
flights of several airplanes together and in somewhat
of a hurry as early morning haze and fog was begin-
ning to thicken and there was concern that the con-
trol zone at Galesburg could possibly go IFR. How-
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Custom 300 Ly-
coming powered
Stearman N2S-5,
N77636, was
flown from New
Orleans, LA by
Harry Thomas.
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Stearmans in flight
over the Galesburg
countryside include
Dick Schlegel 's Stear-
man PT-17, N59737,
Tom Lowe's Stearman
N2S-3, N66417, and
Gary Austin's Stea r-
man N2S-3, N4GA.
(Photo by
Kenneth D. Wilson)
Sam Saxton and Don
Dickert flew their all
white Stearman PT-
130 from Allentown,
Pennsylvania.
21
ever, the visibility remained VFR and on the flight
back AI Stix earned for himself and his Stearman PT-17,
N5521 N, the unwanted Hard Luck Award when his
engine began throwing oil all over and the oil tem-
perature went sky high. He landed safely at Gales-
burg and subsequent inspection found that the front
bearing on the crankshaft had failed, necessitating an
engine overhaul. During the afternoon the flying con-
tests were conducted and almost all the Stearman
pilots participated. At 4:00 P.M. another mass flight
of Stearmans was made over Galesburg and at 5:00
P.M. the airport was closed for a mini-air show fea-
turing Stearmans only. A good exhibition of low-
level aerobatics was given by Dr. Art Lindquist in his
300 hp 1937 Stearman, Jim Leahy in his stock 220 Con-
tinental N2S-3, and Bob Heuer in his 450 hp custom
Stearman.
22
The evening was completed with dinner and awards
presentation in the Galesburg Aviation hangar. Guest
speakers were Brigadier General John Conaway, Dep-
uty Director of the Air National Guard , and Jessie
Woods, who with her husband owned the Flying Aces
Air Circus during the 1920' s and 30' s which was the
longest continuously operating barnstorming air show
in history.
Sunday again began with a dawn patrol, but only
ten Stearmans were blessed with pilots who would
struggle out of bed so early in the morning two days
in a row. Another warm air inversion greeted them
shortly after becoming airborne and after touring the
Galesburg area they joined the others for breakfast
in the hangar. Throughout the morning many of the
Stearmans departed beginning their long treks home,
but one new arrival did land Sunday morning to bring
the attendance to 64, an all time high. That afternoon
a fine professional air show was presented for the
public featuring Frank Price, Pete Myers, Jim Leahy,
Bob Heuer, Dick Willetts, J. T. Hill and Darwin McClure.
By evening most all the Stearmans had departed,
but a few diehards remained for a couple more days.
Five days had been spent having fun and in paying
homage to the history and contributions made by
one of the greatest airplanes of all time. Ex-WW-II
Stearman pilots, students and instructors alike, were
reunited with the airplane that had meant so much to
them during man's greatest conflict and a lot of new
friends had been made. The 8th National Stearman
Fly-In is scheduled for Galesburg, Illinois on Sep-
tember 5-9; 1979. Anyone with any interest whatever
in Stearmans is cordially invited.
BORDEN'S  AEROPLANE  POSTERS 
FROM THE  1930'S 
,
Article Number  2, Poster  Number 2, Seri es  Number  1 
The  New  15 Passenger  Curtiss-Wright Condor Transport 
By  Lionel  Salisbury 
7  Harper  Road 
Brampton,  Ontario 
Canada  L6W 2W3 
Imagine! A passenger aircraft that includes a lava-
tory complete with mirror, hand basin with running
water and a vanity case! That's what the Curtiss-
Wright Condor Transport offered its passengers in
1933.
This is poster number two, from series number
one, of the Borden Company posters, that were pub-
lished in 1936. The three-view drawing is reproduced
full size from the back of the poster. The description
reproduced is also from the back of the item. The
originals were printed on a stiff card , approximately
19" x 11 /1 , and were published in black and white.
Collectors obtained their posters by submitting
proofs of purchase of tins of Borden' s Malted Milk.
A total of 19'photos were offered. Reprinted through
the courtesy of the Borden Company.
NEXT  MONTH  - Poster  number  3, of series  number  1 -
Captain  Frank  Hawks'  Northrop  Gamma The  Texaco  Sky-
Chief. 
23
I
NEW  15  PASSENGER  1933  CURTISS-WRIGHT  CONDOR TRANSPORT 
82'0"
HEW  15  PASSENGER 
1933  CURTlSS.WRIGHT  CONDOR  TRANSPORT 
.----1
 
 
""
 
" ll )

20'-4" ..

 
- - - -, 
-
- - j
.- - - '-'" --_.:...,. - -
    - -
The new Condor has been designed and built to
meet the requirements of transport operators who
today are demanding more speed and comfort for
the flying publi c. In addition to supplying additional
speed, the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Company in build-
ing this new Transport have likewise increased the
comfort and safety of air travel.

..... , ...............
:' ' , t"itA· , , I'
The power plants used consist of two of the new
geared 9 cylinder air-cooled Wright Cyclone R-1820F
engines, rated at 700 horsepower each at 1900 rpm.
These engines recently placed on the market weigh
only 1.22 pounds per horsepower and have a diameter
of 53
3
4 inches . These new li ghtweight per horsepower
engines give the Condor a top speed of 170 miles an
,
I
hour and a cruising speed of 145 miles an hour while
the landing speed i s approximately 10 miles slower
than that of current tri-motor transports.
Entering the cabin from the side, the passenger
finds the seats arranged in three rows abreast and
five deep facing forward . There is a twelve inch aisle
between the seats which are high backed and re-
"
II
It If
' I I,
"I.o. . JJ
'I I J
, "
, ; ,I
" "
" ,I
" '
't!l
24
clinable  with  deep  upholstering.  Cabin  walls  are  fitted 
with  sockets  for  tables  to  be  used  for  serving  meals, 
writing  letters,  or  for  businessmen  in  writing  reports, 
etc.,  while  enroute.  Some  of  the  chairs  in  the  cabin 
may  be  reversed  in  order  to  play  bridge  or  to  carry 
on  conversation  with  greater  ease.  Safety  belts  pro-
vided  are  of  a  new  type  adjustable  to  the  girth  of  the 
passenger  and  readily  openable.  The  cabin  interior 
is  finished  with  a  combination  of  fabric  and  leather . 
Refinements  in  passenger accommodations  include 
a  lavatory  complete  with  mirror,  hand  basin  with  run-
ning  water  and  vanity  case.  Each  seat  has  a  call  bell 
for steward  service,  and  there are ash  trays,  coat  racks, 
and  magazine  racks.  Tables  for  writing  or  card  games 
may  be  fitted  into  the  wall  sockets  mentioned  pre-
viously  and  provision  is  made  for  serving  meals  en-
route. 
The  pilots'  compartment  in  the  extreme  nose  of 
the  ship  is  entered  through  the  passengers'  cabin. 
Location  and  large  windows  give  unsurpassed  vision. 
Side  and  front windows  slide  fore  and  aft,  giving  free 
vision  in  rain .  The  instrument  board,  containing  all 
instruments required by the Department of Commerce, 
is  mounted  on  rubber  to  insure  vibrationless  opera-
tion.  Blind  flying  aids  include  the  Sperry  artificial 
horizon  and  direction  gyro.  The  wing  area,  including 
ailerons,  is  1208  square  feet.  Wings  are  of  all  metal 
construction  with  ribs  of duralumin  spaced  about  ten 
inches.  Mail  and  baggage  is  carried  underneath  the 
fuselage,  not in  the  wing.  Ample  space  is  provided  for 
radio  equipment  to  the  rear  of  the  pilots'  seats.  Ex-
ternal  lights  include  two  landing  lights  and  three 
navigation  lights.  Inside  lighting comprises  both  dome 
lamps  and  individual  reading  lights'. 
A  su mmary  of  the  performance  data  and  character-
istics  of the  new Condor is  as  follows: 
Length  Overall  ........... ... . .. .. . .....  48  ft.  10  in . 
Height Overall  ....... .. ... ..... .. ... . .. .  16  ft .  1  in . 
Wing Span  .. .. ... ... ... .... .............. . . . .  82  ft. 
Climb  at  Sea  Level  . . ............ .  850  ft.  per minute 
Service  Ceiling  ........... .............. ..  15,500 ft. 
Absolute  Ceiling .......... .. .. .. . .. ... .. ..  17,500  ft. 
Top  Speed  ..... ............ . . .. ... ... ....  170  mph 
Cruising  Speed  ... .... . .. ... . ...... ... ... .  145  mph 
Range  at  Cruising  Speed  . ...... ... ........ 560  miles 
Gasoline  Capacity  . ..... .. ... . .. .. .. .. ..  300  gallons 
Power  Plants  .. .. ......... 2-700  horsepower  R-1820F 
Wright Cyclones 
Carries  15  passengers,  2  pilots,  450  Ibs.  of  baggage 
and  express  and  200  Ibs.  of  mail ,  a  total  payload  of 
3200  pounds. 
WATKINS  SKYLARK  X-470E 
By Cedri c Galloway
14624 Willow Street
Hesperia, CA  92345 
(Photo Provided by the Author)
A  visiting  aircraft  to  any  airfield  is  bound  to  create 
a  great  deal  of  interest.  When  this  unusual  low  wing 
open  cockpit  monoplane  landed  at  the  Braley  School 
of  Flying  field  in  Wichita,  Kansas,  I  grabbed  my 
brownie  box  camera  and  was  on  hand  as  he  taxied 
up  to  the  flight  line.  In  1930  such  an  airplane  was  not 
seen  very often. 
The  pilot  had  stopped  in  for  gas  and  a  stretch  be-
fore  continuing  his  cross-country  flight.  Having  been 
at  the  school  but  a  short  time,  I  didn't  know  that  the 
Skylark  had  been  built right  there  in  Wichita. 
A  notice  printed  in  the  Wichita  Eagle  describes 
the  plane:  -
Another  new  airplane  being  produced  at  Wichita, 
Kansas,  is  the Watkins  Skylark,  a two-place open cock-
pit  monoplane  manufactured  by  the  Watkins  Aircraft 
Company.  This  ship,  a  low-wing  land  monoplane,  is 
powered  with  a  5-cylinder  LeBlond  radial  air-cooled 
engine  rated  at  60  horsepower  at  1,900  revolutions 
per  minute. 
The  fuselage  is  of  reinforced  shell  and  steel  tub-
ing  construction,  fabric  covered.  The  wings  are  of 
the  conventional  type  - two  box  spars  and  built-up 
truss  ribs.  The  wings  are  likewise  covered  with  fabric. 
The  plane  has  a  fuel  capacity  of  20  gallons  and  an 
oil  capacity  of 3  gallons.  The  Skylark  was  designed  by 
Wallace  C.  "Chef' Cummings. 
WATKINS  SKYLARK  X-470E  SPECIFICATIONS 
Span  . ... . ............ ... ........... ...... . ..  37  ft. 
Length  Overall  . ... . ... . .. ..... . .. .. .... .  23  ft.  6  in. 
Height Overall  .... . ... . ............. . . ...  6  ft.  5  in. 
Chord  ............ . . ... . ...... . .... .... ..  4  ft.  9'in. 
Total  Wing Area  . . ...... .. ............... 175  sq.  ft. 
Elevator Area  ........................... 13.8  sq.  ft. 
Weight  Empty  ........................... ..  885  Ibs. 
Useful  Load  ... . ..... .... .... . ............. 465  Ibs. 
Gross  Weight Loaded ....... ........ . .....  1,350  Ibs. 
Wing  Loading  ............... . . ...  7.7  Ibs.  per  sq.  ft. 
Power  Loading  .. .. ... . . . ... . ....... 20.7  Ibs.  per hp 
High  Speed . . ...... . .. . ... . . . ... .. ........ 103  mph 
Cruising  Speed  .. ... . ........... ... ........ 80  mph 
Climb  ..... . .. ......... . ..... .... . .  725  ft.  per  min. 
Service  Ceiling  . .. ... . .................... 13,000  ft . 
Absolute  Ceiling ......... .. . .. ... ..... ... .  16,000  ft . 
Fuel  Consumption  . ... .............. ....... 20  mpg 
It  has  been  stated  that  about  10  Skylarks  were  built. 
1..  
Officers 8. Members  of  EAA  Chapter 610 
Good  morning: 
It  is  an  accepted  fact  that  the  EAA  has  a 
most  outstanding  exhibit  of  historical  aircraft 
representing  the pioneer development  of aero-
nautics  and  it  would  seem  most  appropriate 
at  this  period  of  the  EAA  in  its  effort  to  keep 
the  history  of  aviation  accurate,  to  now  con-
sider  the  proper  recognition  of  those  aviation 
pioneers  who  truly  contributed  to  the  tech-
nical  design  and  construction  of  the  airplane 
and  its  power  plant  and  not  neglecting  to  rec-
ognize  those  who  contributed  and  "spark 
plugged"  the  airplane  by  the  fantastic  books 
which  have  been  compiled  covering  the  tech-
nical  factors  of  the  airplane  and  its  engine 
through  the  progressive  development  stages. 
There  are  many  who  have  noted  with  much 
interest  the  omission  of  so  many  contribu-
tors  to  the  development  of  the  airplane  in  na-
tional  recognition  which  surely  has  been 
strangely neglected. 
The  EAA  consists  of  a  strong  membership 
and  if  perhaps  EAA  Chapter  #610  could  pre-
sent  to  acceptance  by  the  Official  EAA  that  a 
national  recognition  program  on  a  sophisti-
cated  status  could  be  established,  then  avia-
tion  pioneers  could  be  selected  for  recogni-
tion  by  those  who  have  a  knowledge  of  avia-
tion  contribution. 
The  following  names  are  only  a  few  of  the 
neglected  aviation  pioneers  who  greatly  con-
tributed  their  "know  how"  to  the  design  and 
construction  of aircraft. 
Henery Kleckler, right hand man of G. H. Curtiss 
Charles  L.  Lawrance, Aero  Engineer 
Alfred  Verville, Aero Engineer 
Ed  Heath ,  Pioneer  light  plane  designer  and 
builder 
Charles Kirkham, Aero  Engineer 
L.  E.  Rausenbesger,  Aero  Engineer  (Designer 
of first  12 avo  engine  in  U.S.) 
Alfred  Lawson,  " Spark  Plug"  behind  the  first 
real  for sure  airl iner  in  U.S. 
John  B.  Rathbon, Technical  Books on  aviation 
Victor Page, Technical  Books  on  aviation 
Edward  P.  Warner, Aero  Engineer 
Holden  C. Richardson, Aero  Engineer 
Charles  H. Day,  Aero  Engineer 
A  study  would  be  required  regarding  the 
procedure  of  a  proper  recognition,  placing  it 
on  a  sophisticated  basis  and  recognizing  of 
aviation  pioneers who contributed  to aviation's 
fantastic  development. 
EAA  Chapter  #610  members'  interest  in  the 
recognition  for  aviation  pioneers  surely  is  an 
interest  that  coincides  with  the  EAA  preserva-
tion  of yesterday's  fantastic  aircraft . 
Here  is  wishing  EAA  Chapter  #610  luck  in 
presenting  the  plight  of  aviation  pioneers  to 
the Official  EAA  Board. 
Best  of  good  wishes, 
Ray  A. Watkins 
Classifieds 
AERONCA  0-58B,  1943  " Defender"  3000TI,  Good  Con-
dition,  Fabri c  Poor.  Continental  65  hp  recent  over-
haul.  Licensed  until  August  1979.  Asking  $3500.00. 
Call  319-267-2721  days  or 319-267-2673  nights and week-
ends  or  write  Jim  Shepard,  503  N.  Main  St.,  Allison, 
Iowa 50602. 
Wanted:  3-D,  35mm  slide  projector  or  viewer.  Con-
tact  David  Gustafson,  EAA  Headquarters ,  Box  229; 
Hales  Corners,  WI  53130  (414/425-.4860).
Calendar  Of  Events 
MAY  4-6  - BURLINGTON,  NORTH  CAROLINA  - Spring  Fly-In.  Planes 
to be  judged should  be  on  the  field  by 2 P.M.  on  the  5th. Awards  din-
ner Saturday evening. Sponsored  by EAA  Antique  Classic  Chapter  #3. 
For  further  information  contact  Geneva  McKiernan,  5301  Finsbury 
Place,  Charlotte,  North  Carolina 28211. 
MAY  20  - ROMEOVILLE,  ILLINOIS  - 1st  Annual  Fly-In  Breakfast  of  the 
year  at  the  EAA  building  at  Lewis  University Airport.  7 A.M.  to  1  P.M. 
For  further  information  contact  J.  P.  Fish,  P.O.  Box  411,  Lemont ,  il-
linois 60439: 
MAY  25-27  - WATSONVILLE,  CALIFORNIA  - 15th  Annual  Antique  Air-
craft  Fly-In  and  Air  Show at  the  Watsonville  Airport.  Co-sponsored  by 
the  Northern  California  Chapter ,  Antique  Airplane  Association  and 
Watsonville  Chamber  of  Commerce.  For  further  information  contact 
Earl  Swaney,  525  Saratoga  Avenue  #3,  Santa  Clara,  California  95050, 
(415)  645-3709'(days) ,  (408)  2%·5632  (evenings). 
JULY  8 - EASTON,  PENNSYLVANIA  - 3rd  Annual  Aeronca  Fly-In  at  the 
Easton  Airport .  Any  and  all  Aeroncas  invited.  10  A.M.  to  2:30  P.M. 
(Rain  Date  July 15).  Contad Jim  Polles, (215) 759-'3713  nights and  week-
ends. 
JULY  14-15  - ROMEOVILLE,  ILLINOIS  - 19th  Annual  Midwest  Fly-In 
and  Air  Show  at  Lewis  University  Airport.  Shows  t heme  and  feature 
will  be  W.W.  I aircraft.  Airport  will  be  re-named  to  add  to  the  illusion 
of  the  era.  Sponsored  by  Chapters  15  and  86.  For  further  information 
contact  J.  P.  Fish,  P.O.  Box  411 ,  Lemont ,  Illinois  60439: 
JULY  28  - AUGUST  4  - OSHKOSH,  WISCONSIN  - 27th  Annual  EAA 
Fly-In.  Plan  now - it 's  the  greatest  show on  earth. 
OCTOBER  12·14 - CAMDEN,  SOUTH  CAROLINA  - Fly·ln.  All  divisions, 
awards  will  be  presented .  For  further  information  contact  Geneva 
McKiernan,  5301  Finsbury  Place,  Charlotte,  North  Caroli na  28211. 
Sponsored  by  EAA  Antique  Classic  Chapter  #3. 
SEPTEMBER  5·9'- GALESBURG,  ILLINOIS  - 91h  Annual  Stearman  Fly·ln. 
Anyone  with  any  interest  in  Stearmans  is  cordially  invited.  For  further 
information  contact  the  Stearman  Restorers  Association ,  Inc.,  823 
Kingston  Lane, Crystal  Lake,  Illinois 60014. 
SEPTEMBER  27·30  - TULLAHOMA,  TENNESSEE  - 1st  Annual  Fly·ln.  Plan 
now for the greatest  show on  earth. 
FOR  THE  COMPLETE 
AVIATION  LIBRARY 
THE
FLYING AND GLIDER MANUAL
FOR:  1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1929-1933  MISCELLANY 
$2.50  Each  Post  Paid 
ORDER  FIVE 
AND  GET THE 
SIXTH  ONE 
FREE 
Total  Cost  For All  Six 
$12.50
Order From: 
EAA  AIR  MUSEUM  FOUNDATION 
BOX  469 
HALES  CORNERS,  WI  53130 
26