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K.S. ADHAV, A.S. NIMKAR, M.V. DAWANDE, M.R. UGALE

Department of Mathematics, SandGadge Baba Amravati University, AMRAVATI (444602)

E-mail: ati_ksadhav@yahoo.co.in

Received June 8, 2007

Bianchi type V string cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid is considered

in general relativity. It is interesting to note that cosmic strings with bulk viscous fluid

do not exist in Bianchi type V cosmology. Hence the vacuum model is constructed.

Key words: Bianchi type I space time, cosmic strings, bulk viscous fluid.

1. INTRODUCTION

Bianchi type cosmological models are important in the sence that these are

homogeneous and anisotropic, from which the process of isotropization of the

universe is studied through the passage of time. Moreover, from the theoretical

point of view anisotropic universe have a greater generality than isotropic models.

The simplicity of the field equations made Bianchi space time useful in

constructing models of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies.

The origin of our universe is one of the greatest cosmological mysteries even

today. The exact physical situation at early stage of the formation of our universe is

still unknown. The concept of string theory was developed to describe events of the

early stage of the evolution of the universe. The general relativistic treatment of

strings was initiated by Stachel (1980) and Letelier (1983). The gravitational

effects of cosmic strings have been extensively discussed by Vilenkin (1981), Gott

(1985), Letelier (1983) in general relativity. The string cosmological models with

magnetic field are investigated by Chakraborty (1991), Tikekar & Patel (1992).

Bhattacharjee and Baruha (2001) studied the problems of cosmic strings taking

Bianchi type cosmologies with a self interacting scalar field. Cosmic strings are

important in the early stages of evolution of the universe before the particle

creation. The present day observations do not rule out the possible existence of

large scale networks of strings in the early universe. Reddy (2003) shown that, the

cosmic strings which have received considerable attension in cosmology do not

exist in the frame work of Rosens (1973) bimetric theory of gravitation.

Rom. Journ. Phys., Vol. 54, Nos. 12, P. 207212, Bucharest, 2009

K.S. Adhav et al. 2

208

The role of viscosity in cosmology has been investigated by Weinbergs

(1971), Nightingale (1973), Heller and Klimek (1975). Viscosity is important in

cosmology for a number of reasons. Misner [1967, 1968] has studied the effect of

viscosity on the evolution of cosmological models. Collins and Stewart (1971)

have studied the effect of viscosity on the formation of galaxies.

Santosh et al. (1985) obtained exact solutions for isotropic homogeneous

cosmological model with bulk viscosity. Yadav et al. (2006) have studied some

Bianchi type I Viscous fluid string cosmological models with magnetic field.

Yadav, Rai and Pradhan (2006) have found the integrability of cosmic string in

Bianchi type III space time in presence of bulk viscous fluid. Xing-Xiang Wang

(2004) discussed Kantowski Sachs string cosmological model with Bulk

Viscosity in General Relativity.

Also several aspects of viscous fluid cosmological models in early universe

have been extensively investigated by many authors. Krori and Mukherjee (2000),

Singh and Beesham (2000), Bali and Sharma (1995), Bali and Upadhaya (2003)

have discussed locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-I string cosmological

models with bulk viscosity. Bianchi type-V cosmological models have been

studied by other researcher, Reddy (2006), Roy and Prasad (1994), Farnsworth

(1967) in different context. Recently Pradhan et al. (2006) studied tilted Bianchi

type I cosmological models filled with disordered radiation in presence of a bulk

viscous fluid & head flow also Raj Bali & A. Pradhan (2007) have studied Bianchi

type III string cosmological models with Time dependent Bulk Viscosity.

The purpose of the present work is to obtain vacuum Bianchi type V string

cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid. Our paper is organized as follows.

In section 2, we derive the field equations and their solution in Bianchi type

V String cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid. The last section contains

some conclusions.

2. FIELD EQUATIONS OF STRING COSMOLOGICAL MODEL WITH BULK

VISCOUS FLUID

We consider the Bianchi type-V space-time in the general form

( )

2 2 2 2 2 2x 2 2

ds = dt + A dx +B e dy +dz , (1)

where A and B are functions of t only.

The energy momentum tensor for a cloud of string dust with a bulk viscous

fluid as given by Letelier (1979), Bali and Upadhaya (2003) is

( )

j j j j j

i i i ; i i

T v v x x v g v v = +

l

l

(2)

where v

i

and x

i

satisfy the condition

1 0

i i i

i i i

v v x x , v x = = = . (3)

3 String cosmological model in general relativity

209

Here is coefficient of bulk viscosity,

l

;l

= is scalar expansion, is the

proper energy density of cloud of strings with particles attached to them. is the

string tension density, v

i

is the four velocity of the particles and x

i

is a unit space-

like vector representing the direction of strings. If the particle density of the

configuration is denoted by

p

then we have

=

p

+ (4)

The Einsteins field equations with gravitational units 8 G = C = 1 read as

1

2

j j j

i i i

R Rg T = (5)

where

j

i

R is the Ricci tensor, R = g

ij

R

ij

is the Ricci scalar.

In comoving co-ordinate system, we have

(0 0 0 1)

i

v , , , = and

1

( 0 0 0)

i

x , , ,

A

= . (6)

The field equations (5) with (2) subsequently lead to the following system of

equations:

2

44 4

2

2

1

2 =( )

B B

A

B B

+ + (7)

44 44 4 4

2

1

A B A B

A

A B AB

+ + = (8)

2

4 4 4

2

2

3

2

A B B

A

AB B

+ = (9)

4 4

2 2 0

B A

B A

= (10)

where the index 4 at the symbols A and B denotes ordinary differentiation with

respect to t. The physical variables namely the scalar expansion have the

following expressions for the above metric (1):

4 4

2

A B

A B

= + (11)

From equation (10), we get A = B (12)

Without loss of generality, we can take = 1. We get, A = B. (13)

With the help of equation (1), the set of equations (7)(9), reduces to

2

44 4

2

1

2 ( )

B B

B

B B

+ = +

(14)

2

44 4

2

1

2

B B

B

B B

+ =

(15)

K.S. Adhav et al. 4

210

2

4

2

3

3

B

B

B

=

(16)

Solving equation (15), (16), we get

44

6 (3 )

B

B

= (17)

The field equations (14)(16) are highly non-linear three differential

equations in five unknown parameters B, , , , . One additional constraint

relating these parameters is required to obtain a determinate solution. Therefore,

we assume a relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity (), scalar expansion

() and density () given by

3 = (18)

Using above equation (18) into equation (17), we have B

44

= 0 (19)

Integrating, we obtain A = B = C

1

t+C

2

(20)

where C

1

and C

2

are constants of integration.

Comparing equations (14) and (15), we get, = 0. (21)

2

1

2

1 2

3( 1)

( )

C

C t C

=

+

(22)

( )

( )

2

1

1 1 2

1

3

C

C C t C

=

+

when C

1

= 1 then we get = 0 and = 0.

= 0 & = 0 which immediately shows that cosmic strings do not occur in

Bianchi type V space time with bulk viscosity.

Hence Bianchi type V string cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid in

general relativity can be expressed as

( ) ( )

2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2

( )

x

ds dt C t C dx C t C e dy dz = + + + + +

Which can be reduced (after a proper choice of coordinates and constants) in

the form

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

( )

x

ds dT T dX T e dY dZ = + + + . (23)

3. STRING COSMOLOGICAL MODEL WITHOUT BULK VISCOUS FLUID

In this section we obtain a string cosmological model without bulk viscous

fluid. The field equation (5) with equation (2) (only without bulk viscous fluid at

string), lead to the following

2

44 4

2

2

1

2

B B

A

B B

+ = (24)

5 String cosmological model in general relativity

211

44 44 4 4

2

1

0

A B A B

A

A B AB

+ + = (25)

2

4 4 4

2

2

3

2

A B B

A

AB B

+ = (26)

4 4

2 2 0

B A

B A

= (27)

By the same arguments as in section 2, the equation (24)(27) reduces to

2

44 4

2

1

2

B B

B

B B

+ =

(28)

2

44 4

2

1

2 0

B B

B

B B

+ =

(29)

2

4

2

3

3

B

B

B

=

(30)

To obtain a determinate solution of the above equations (28)(30) which are

highly non-linear field equations, we assume a relation = i.e. proper energy

density for a cloud string is equal to the string tension density. (31)

From equations (28) and (29), we obtain = 0, hence = 0.

From equations (28), (30) and (31), we obtain

B

44

= 0 (32)

Integrating it, we obtain

A = B = C

3

t + C

4

(33)

where C

3

and C

4

are constants of integration.

Compairing equation (28) and (29), we obtain

= 0

= = 0 (34)

which immediately means that Bianchi type V string cosmological model do not

exist without bulk viscous fluid in general relativity. Hence in this case also we

obtain the vacuum model given by equation (23).

4. PHYSICAL AND KINEMATICAL PROPERTIES

Spatial Volume V = g = (C

1

t +C

2

)

3

e

2x

, where C

1

and C

2

are constants.

Expansion Scalar =

l

;l

= 3B

4

/ B = 3C

1

/ (C

1

t +C

2

)

Shear Scalar

2

=

2

1

1 2

7

2

C

C t C

+

K.S. Adhav et al. 6

212

Decelaration Parameter q = 0. Therefore universe is accelerating due to

introduction of bulk viscosity. As such present day observations suggest that our

universe is accelerating.

CONCLUSION

It may be noted, here, that Krori et al. (1994) have shown that in the context

of general relativity cosmic strings do not occur in Bianchi type V cosmology.

Our finding is similar to above. It is also observed that bulk viscosity plays no role

in the evolution of the universe.

REFERENCES

1. Bali R., Sharma, K., 1995, Astrophys. Space Sci., 275, 485.

2. Bali R., Upadhaya, R.D., 2003, Astrophys. Space Sci., 288, 287.

3. Bali R., Pradhan A., 2007, Accepted, gr-qc/06/018, V2.

4. Bhattacharjee, R., Baruah, K.K., 2001, Pure. Appl. Math. 32, 47.

5. Chakraborty, S., 1991, Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 29, 31.

6. Collins, C.B., Stewart J.M., 1971, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 153, 419.

7. Farnsworth, D.L., 1967, J. Math. Phys. 8, 2315.

8. Gott, J.R., 1985, Ap. Phys. J., 288, 422.

9. Heller, M., Klimek, Z., 1975, Astrophys. Space Sci., 33, 37.

10. Krori, K.D., Chaudhary, T., Mahanta, C.R., 1994, Gen. Rel. Gra. 26, 265.

11. Krori, K.D., Mukherjee A., 2000, Gen. Rel. Gra. 32, 1429.

12. Letelier, P.S., 1983, Phys. Rev. D. 28, 2414.

13. Letelier, P.S., 1979, Phys. Rev. D. 20, 1294.

14. Misner, C.W., 1967, Nature 214, 40.

15. Misner, C.W., 1968, Astrophys. J. 151, 431.

16. Nightingale, J.P., 1973, Astrophys. J., 185, 105.

17. Pradhan A., Rai., A., 2006, gr-qc/0212108 V1.

18. Reddy, D.R.K., 2003, Astrophys. Space Sci., 286, 397400.

19. Reddy D.R.K., Rao, M.V.S., Rao G.K., 2006, Astrophys. Space Sci. (Communicated).

20. Rosens N., 1973, Gen. Rel. Grav., 4, 435.

21. Roy, S.R., Prasad A., 1994, Gen. Rel. Grav. 26, 939.

22. Santosh, N.O., Dias, R.S., Banerjee A., 1985, J. Math. Phys. 26, 878.

23. Singh T., Beesham A., 2000, Gen. Rel. Grav. 32,607.

24. Stachel, J., 1980, Phys. Rev. D 21, 2171.

25. Tikekar, R., Patel, L.K., 1992, Gen.Rel. Grav., 24, 397.

26. Vilenkin, A., 1981, Phys. Rev. D 23, 852.

27. Weinberg, S., 1971, Astrophys. J. 168, 175.

28. Yadav, M.K., Rai A. and Pradhan, A., 2006, Int. J. Theory Phys. Accepted, Preprint gr-

qc/0611032.

29. Wang, Xing Xiang, 2004, Astrophy. Space Sci., XXX, 18.

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