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The entire Literature review has been organized in three parts:
Studies on factors determining consumer attitude and behavior towards
Internet shopping:
Most of the studies conducted in the recent years in field of online shopping behavior and attitude have been
focusing on the factors influencing the online shopping attitudes and behavior. But, different researchers have
diverse opinions and focus, while studying the impact of these factors on the online consumer buying behavior
and attitudes. For example, there is a segment of researchers who have tried to explain the consumer attitude and
intentions for online shopping by taking theories like Theory of Reasoned Action, Technology acceptance model or
Theory of Planned Behaviour as a basis and have tried to extend them further by adding more web specific
factors to them(Cheung, Zhu, Kwong, Gloria, and Limayem, 2003), whereas there has been another segment who
have derived relationships between various factors and customer satisfaction with reference to the Internet
shopping experience in the form of dependent and independent variables. Further, there have been researchers
who have further organized and compiled the previous researches done in this field so as to pave way for future
researches. These researchers have also contributed in terms of designing structured frameworks for online
consumer attitude, intention and buying behavior.
Web experience
The literature review done by Constantinides (2004) helps in identifying the web experience components and their
role as the first step in shaping the online consumer’s behavior. He has added web experience as a controllable
element in his model depicting factors that influence the online buying behavior. He has further explained web
experience factor by classifying it in three sub-categories which are the building blocks of the web experience.
These three sub-categories are Functionality factors (usability and Interactivity), Psychological factors (trust) and
Content factors (aesthetics and Marketing Mix). The following figure as adopted from his article presents a brief
description of the number of references in support of each of these factors:
Source: Constantinides, E.(2004). Influencing the online consumer’s behavior: the
web experience. Journal of Internet Research. Vol 14 No.2, pp. 114, figure 2.
Literature review
Li and Zhang (2002, p.508) have defined online buying behavior or Internet shopping/buying behavior as “the
process of purchasing products or services via the Internet”; which according to Liang and Lai (2000), is similar to
the traditional five steps process of consumer buying behavior (as cited by Li and Zhang, 2002). They have also
defined online shopping attitude as the psychological state of the consumers in terms of Internet shopping (2002).
Li and Zhang (2002) have analysed 35 empirical studies on online shopping attitudes and behavior conducted
during the period of January 1998 to February 2002 and have finally identified 10 inter-related factors for which
the reviewed studies have significant empirical evidences. These 10 factors have further been classified into five
independent factors (viz. external environment, demographics, personal characteristics, vendor/service/product
characteristics, and website quality) and five dependent factors (viz. attitude towards online shopping, intention to
shop online, decision making, online purchasing, and consumer satisfaction.)
Another exhaustive literature review in this field has been by Cheung et al. (2003). They have examined a total of
351 articles in the area of online consumer behavior from 1994 to April 2002. They have attempted to link together
the concepts of intention, adoption and continuance and form a base model- a Model of Intention, Adoption and
Continuance (MIAC) for the development of an online consumer behavior framework. Further, the various factors
as mentioned by various researchers in their study have been categorized under five major domain areas viz.
individual/consumer characteristics, product/service characteristics, medium characteristics, and online merchant
and intermediary characteristics. According to them, online purchase intention and adoption has been extensively
studied and there are lots of empirical evidences available, but research on continuance or consumer online
repurchase is in its infancy. The following figure describes the MIAC model as suggested by Cheung et al.
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Framework of online consumer behavior
Source: Cheung, C.M.K., Zhu, L., Kwong, T., Chan, G.W.W. & Limayem, M.(2003).
Online Consumer Behavior: A Review and Agenda for Future Research.
Proceedings of the 16th Bled eCommerce Conference, eTransformation. 194-218
A recent study conducted by Kuczmarski and James (April 2008) further contribute to
the available body of literature by adding that consumers prefer online stores to actual stores due to
potential reasons like convenience, cost and selection.
Trust as a factor
Studies also indicate that trust remains a crucial factor in e-commerce and in influencing the purchase
decision of online shoppers. Consumers prefer to shop from trusted websites. Researches reveal that
trust is a factor which also helps in forming long-term customer relationships (Dwyer, Schurr & Oh,
1987; Gefen & Straub, 2003; Kim, Xu & Koh, 2004). Some researchers like Lee (2002), Liebermann
and Stashevsky (2002), McKnight et al.(2002), Suh and Han(2002) and Liang and Lai(2002) have
even argued that a new step has been added to the online buying process and that is the step of
building trust or confidence (as cited by Constantinides, 2004). The available literature explains that
trust facilitates e-commerce and online transactions, but at the same time the consumer’s lack of trust in online
vendors continues to remain a hindrance in the growth of e-commerce. (Ba & Pavlou, 2002; Gefen and Straub,
2003; Gefen, Karahanna & Straub, 2003; Kim, Xu & Koh, 2004; Lim, Sia, Lee & Benbasat, 2006; Pavlou & Gefen,
2004). Gefen(2002) and Kim, Xu & Koh (2004) have stated that a key challenge to e-commerce is that creating
trust typically requires multiple interactions and superior service over a period of time(as cited by Lowry et al.,
2008).
Brand has also been established as one of the factors influencing the customer trust for a website (Bart, Shankar,
Sultan & Urban, 2005; Yoon, 2002). Ward and Lee(2000) conducted a research to examine whether consumers
use brands as sources of information when shopping on Internet and they concluded that branding can facilitate
consumers’ acceptance of e-commerce. Lowry, Vance, Moody, Beckman & Read (2008) have studied the impact
of “branding alliances and web-site quality” on the consumer trust of e-commerce websites. They explored the
usage of branding alliances and website quality by the less familiar websites to enhance the consumer trust and
suggested that branding and web-site quality can significantly increase the initial consumer trust in the e-
commerce websites.
Ballantine(2005) has studied the effects of interactivity and the amount of product information provided by an
online shopping environment on consumer satisfaction. A web-based experiment was conducted where
respondents were exposed to a simulated online retail store. Findings indicate that these two factors had a
significant effect on the consumer satisfaction.
Tangibility also remains an important factor in influencing the purchase process of Internet shoppers. Melian-
Alzola and Padron-Robaina(2006) have analysed the role and importance of the tangible elements of purchase
processes in business to consumer(B2C) e-commerce, and the impact on overall perceived quality and the
customers’ attitudes. Their research concluded that that four attributes – navigation, signposting, tools and
explanation – explain the tangible dimension in electronic commerce. They revealed that design was an important
factor of overall perceived quality and the willingness to recommend the purchase experience to others.
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Security of transactions is another factor that remains as a matter of concern for e-
commerce consumers. According to a study conducted by American Banker in 2007,
one-third of Canadians refused to shop online due to fear of identity theft. Web
assurance services help in building up the trust and confidence of such consumers.
In an experimental study undertaken by Mauldin and Arunachalam (2002), the
impact of web assurance services and retailer disclosures on purchase intent was
studied. They have defined web assurance as the measures taken to reduce information risks and
increase online purchasing by improving the reliability of certain information on the website. Their
findings indicate that web assurance. In this research they considered TRUSTe, WebTrust and VISA
web assurance services for the study. Their findings indicate that there were no significant differences
in intent to purchase among the three assurance providers. Mauldin and Arunachalam have also
studied the impact of product and retailer familiarity on the buying behavior of online consumers in the
above mentioned study and they suggest that web assurance is insignificant when product familiarity is
higher, or in other words, where product familiarity is lower, intent to purchase is higher with web
assurance. Retailer familiarity is not found to be significant in any of the conditions. Further, their study
also reveals that retailer disclosures are sufficient to impact buying intention of online consumers; the
web assurance services studied in the above study did not provide any additional assurance beyond
the retailer disclosures. They have further emphasized that comfort with the Internet, general intent to
buy online, and website design played significant role in influencing purchase intention. Although security is a
major concern of online buyers, their study indicates that information risk generally did not significantly influence
purchase intention, which explains why web assurance is generally not significant in their study.
Bruce, Katherine and Murphy (2008) have further explored the prior studies on web assurance models to provide
detailed explanation on current reporting requirements, differences among web assurance services and
perceptions of consumers regarding these services. The study concludes that consumers give importance to web
assurance services, but younger consumers place greater value on these services rather than older consumers.
Technology Acceptance Model as a basis for research on
Literature review
In an attempt to design a structured framework for the effects of different factors on “consumer attitude towards
Internet shopping and their intentions to shop online”, Monsuwe, Dellaert and Ruyter (2004) have reviewed the
various researches conducted in the field. They have used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a base and
suggested a framework based on previous research on consumer adoption of new technologies and services. The
Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) has served as a basis for various researches conducted in the
Information systems field. In order to support the selection of TAM as a basis for their research work, Monsuwe
et.al, 2004 have cited Chen et al.(2002), Moon and Kim(2001) and Lederar et al.(2000) who suggest that although
this model is specifically designed to understand the adoption of a new computer – based technology in the
job/workplace, it has also proven to be suitable as theoretical foundation for adoption of e-commerce as well. The
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) suggests the “usefulness”, “ease of use” and the later addition of
“enjoyment” (Davis et al., 1992) as the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards adopting a new technology.
This attitude, further, has a strong and positive effect on consumers’ intentions to actually use the new technology
or system (Bobbitt and Dabholkar, 2001; Davis, 1993). While redefining the three constructs in context of online
shopping Monsuwe et.al.(2004, p.107) have referred to “usefulness” as the “consumers’ perceptions that using the
Internet as a shopping medium enhances the outcome of their shopping experience”. Similarly, they have
redefined “ease of use” as the consumers’ perception that the process leading to online shopping will require
minimum effort and will be easy. Further, according to them, the “enjoyment” construct refers to the fun and
playfulness of the Internet shopping experience. While “usefulness” has a weak direct link to attitude, it shows a
strong direct link towards intention to shop online (Davis et al., 1989). It is also linked with “ease of use” to
determine consumers’ attitude towards online shopping. Hence, “ease of use” has a direct as well as indirect
effect on consumers’ intention to shop online.
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Using TAM as a basis for the study, the framework proposed by Monsuwe, Dellaert
and Ruyter(2004) not only includes the functional/utilitarian and hedonic dimensions
like “ease of use”, “usefulness”, and “enjoyment” which affect the consumers’
attitude and intention towards Internet shopping, but they have also included some of
the exogenous factors recommended by various researchers in the framework such
as “consumer traits”(Burke, 2002; Dhabolkar and Bagozzi, 2002; Brown et al., 2001;
Eastin and LaRose, 2000), “situational factors”(Wolfinbarger and Gilly,2001; Avery, 1996), “product
characteristics”(Grewal et al., 2002; Elliot and Fowell, 2000), “previous online shopping
experiences”(Shim et al., 2001; Eastlick and Lotz, 1999) and “trust in online shopping”(Yoon, 2002;
Lee and Turban, 2001)
Monsuwe et.al. in their research, have mentioned about the various researches done in order to
extend the TAM by suggesting additional factors. For example, Venkatesh (2000), who has proposed
integrating factors like “control”, “intrinsic motivation”, and “emotion” into the existing Technology
Acceptance Model which are considered to be strong determinants for “ease of use” construct of TAM.
Dabholkar and Bagozzi (2002) have given an attitudinal model of technology based self-service by
suggesting two exogenous factors like “consumer traits” and “situational influences”. Further, they
have cited O’Cass and Fenech (2002) who have added seven key consumer characteristics namely
“opinion leadership”, “buying impulsiveness”, “satisfaction with websites”, “web shopping
compatibility”, “shopping orientation”, “Internet self-efficacy”, and web-security” to the model.
Further, they have substantiated their model by citing the classification given by Hirschman and Holbrook (1982)
who have categorised Internet shoppers in two categories; one is of the “problem solvers” and other category is of
those seeking for “fun, fantasy, arousal, sensory stimulation, and enjoyment”. Monsuwe et al. suggest that this
classification also supports the basic three constructs of TAM which affect the consumers’ attitude towards Internet
shopping as “ease of use” and “usefulness” reflect the utilitarian aspect and “enjoyment” is in sync with the
hedonic aspect of the model.
The above explanation given by Monsuwe et al. is similar to the categorization of the shopping orientations by
Bellenger, Robertson and Greenberg(1977) as convenience versus recreational orientation (as cited by Kim,
LaRose, 2004)
Various researches have been conducted to identify the underlying dimensions for the basic constructs of the TAM
model. These latent dimensions can be further used to understand how these constructs get influenced by various
exogenous factors. For example, Mathwick et al. (2001) have added two interesting latent dimensions to the
“usefulness” construct” “Consumer Return on Investment(CROI)”, and “service excellence”. Monsuwe, Dellaert
and Ruyter (2004) have defined “CROI” as a “perceived return on cognitive, behavioural or financial investment
made by the consumer.” Whereas, “service excellence” evaluates the delivered promises against the
performance. If both these dimensions are satisfied, then consumers will judge the Internet shopping performance
positively (Mathwick et al., 2002) which adds to the perceived “usefulness”. Zeithamal et al. (2002) have stated
that “site characteristics” such as search functions, download speed and navigation also acts as a determinant in
shaping “ease of use” construct of the TAM model. But, Monsuwe et al. (2004, p.109) have a different opinion
regarding this dimension. They have stated that “...these site characteristics merely influence the “ease of use” of
a particular web site or online store, and not the Internet as a shopping medium in general…”
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Online Shopping orientations
Kim and LaRose (2004) have defined shopping orientation as a shopper’s attitude
toward shopping activity that may vary with the situation rather than an invariant
personality trait of the shopper. They have cited the categorization given by
Bellenger, Robertson and Greenberg (1977) which classifies shoppers on the basis
of their shopping orientation into convenience versus recreation oriented. Kim and LaRose (2004) also
posit that shoppers may possess multiple orientations depending upon the expected outcome of a
shopping experience and may demonstrate a regulated/utilitarian or an unregulated/recreational
shopping orientation depending upon the environmental stimuli. Their study also shows that these two
shopping orientations are not mutually exclusive and interactive web features may draw shoppers with
convenience orientation into unregulated buying.
Li, Kuo and Rusell(2006) have also studied the impact of shopping orientations on online consumer
behavior alongwith other factors like demographics, channel knowledge and perceived channel
utilities. Primary data was collected by a research company using an online survey of 999 U.S.
Internet users. They have classified Internet users as frequent, occasional and non-buyers. Findings
indicated that frequent web buyers have a higher degree of perceived channel utility for the purpose of
communication, distribution and accessibility. Similarly channel knowledge also has a positive effect on
the Internet buying and it also has a reciprocal influence on the perceived channel utilities. Their study also
indicates that frequent web buyers value convenience more than experience(touch and feel of the product)
whereas those who are non-web buyers have a higher degree of experience orientation. Recreation and economy
orientation are found to be similar for the three types of Internet buyers. The study of the demographic factors
revealed that male are more frequent web buyers than women, better-educated consumers shop more frequently
online and consumers with higher income are more likely to be in frequent web buyer category. Age was not
significant as far as frequency of web buying was concerned.
Note: Most of the researchers feel that the classical consumer behavioral theories
used for can only act as a starting point for understanding the online consumer
behavior. There is no structured framework for explaining the online consumer
behavior; the studies are mostly fragmented. Researchers have suggested
different factors and frameworks, but there is a lack of a cohesive theoretical base
to the online consumer behavior.
Ba, S.L., and Pavlou, P.A. Evidence of the effect of trust building technology in electronic markets: Price premiums
and buyer behavior. MIS Quarterly, 26, 3 (2002), 243–268.
Gefen, D., and Straub, D.W. Consumer trust in B2C e-commerce and the importance of social presence:
experiments in e-products and e-services. Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, 32, 6
(2004), 407–424.
Gefen, D.; Karahanna, E.; and Straub, D.W. Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model. MIS
Quarterly, 27, 1 (2003), 51–90.
Kim, H.-W.; Xu, Y.; and Koh, J. A comparison of online trust building factors between potential customers and
repeat customers. Journal of the AIS, 5, 10 (2004), 392–420.
Lim, K.H.; Sia, C.L.; Lee, M.K.O.; and Benbasat, I. Do I trust you online, and if so, will I buy? An empirical study of
two trust-building strategies. Journal of Management Information Systems, 23, 2 (Fall 2006), 233–266.
Pavlou, P.A., and Fygenson, M. Understanding and predicting electronic commerce adoption: An extension of the
theory of planned behavior. MIS Quarterly, 30, 1 (2006), 115–143.
Dwyer, F.R.; Schurr, P.H.; and Oh, S. Developing buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51, 2 (1987),
11–27.
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Everard, A.P., and Galletta, D.F. How presentation flaws affect perceived site quality,
trust, and intention to purchase from an online store. Journal of Management
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and Agenda for Future Research. Proceedings of the 16th Bled eCommerce Conference, eTransformation. 194-
218
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Abstract:
Customers in an Internet shopping environment actually play dual roles. One is the role as a customer in a
shopping place, and the other is the role as a user of information technology. In both cases, the level of
satisfaction is of great concern. In this vein, a way of measuring the satisfaction level that takes both roles into
account is needed. However, in past research indexes for consumer satisfaction and indexes for user information
satisfaction have been developed separately in the fields of marketing and management information systems.
Because of this lack of interaction between the two streams of research, an index for electronic commerce
consumers that has its base in the dual roles has not been developed and tested. In this research, an instrument
for measuring electronic commerce consumer satisfaction was proposed and validated using a sample of over
400 customers. The relationship between the index and consumers’ purchasing intention was also examined.
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Title:
Development of electronic commerce user-consumer
satisfaction index (ECUSI) for Internet shopping
Author(s):
Namjae Cho, Sanghyuk Park
Journal:
Industrial Management & Data Systems
Year:
2001
Volume:
101
Issue:
8
Page:
400 - 406
ISSN:
0263-5577
DOI:
10.1108/EUM0000000006170
Publisher:
MCB UP Ltd
Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of consumers' shopping orientation on their
satisfaction level with the product search and purchase behavior using multi-channels.
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 181 students in a large US mid-western university provided usable
responses to the survey. Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses were employed to examine
the research questions.
Findings – The results showed that more than three quarters of the respondents shopped via the internet and
catalogs, and about 95 percent shopped at non-local retailers. About 60 percent reported that they never shopped
from TV shopping channels. Confident/fashion-conscious shopping orientation and catalog/internet shopping
orientation were found to be key predictors of customer satisfaction level with information search via multi-
channels. Both confident/fashion-conscious consumers and mall shopping-oriented shoppers were more satisfied
with store-based retail channels for apparel purchases, whereas non-local store-oriented shoppers and
catalog/internet-oriented shoppers were more satisfied with non-store-based retail channels for their apparel
purchases.
Research limitations/implications – The sample of this study was biased by gender and age. For the apparel retail
industry, this paper offers practical knowledge about the relationships between shopping orientation and
consumer search and purchase behavior in a multi-channel retailing context.
Originality/value – No study has utilized the shopping orientation framework to explain consumer behavior in a
multi-channel environment. This study provides understanding of consumer product information search behavior
on four dimensions (price, promotion, style/trends, and merchandise availability) via multi-channels.
Title:
The effects of shopping orientations on consumers' satisfaction with product
search and purchases in a multi-channel environment
Author(s):
Hyun-Hwa Lee, Jihyun Kim
Journal:
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management
Year:
2008
Volume:
12
Issue:
2
Page:
193 - 216
ISSN:
1361-2026
DOI:
10.1108/13612020810874881
Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Article Information:
Title:
Attitude toward internet web sites, online information search, and channel
choices for purchasing
Author(s):
Yoo-Kyoung Seock, Marjorie Norton
Journal:
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management
Year:
2007
Volume:
11
Issue:
4
Page:
571 - 586
ISSN:
1361-2026
DOI:
10.1108/13612020710824616
Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
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Abstract:
Purpose – This study aims to examine the influence of attitudes toward particular clothing web sites, specifically
favorite ones, on information search at those web sites and on the choice to purchase items from those web sites
and from non-internet channels after finding the items at the web sites.
Design/methodology/approach – Using survey data from 414 US college students who had online shopping
experience and favorite clothing web sites that they especially like to visit, hypothesized relationships among
attitude toward internet web sites, online information search and channel choices for purchasing were tested using
path analysis.
Findings – Results showed that participants' attitudes toward their favorite clothing web sites had a direct, positive
effect on their intentions to search for information at those web sites as well as intentions to purchase clothing
items from those web sites after finding the items there. Additionally, operating through information-search
intentions at the web sites, participants' attitudes toward those web sites had an indirect, positive effect on their
intentions to purchase clothing items from non-internet channels after finding the items at the web sites.
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Research limitations/implications – Results cannot be generalized to the larger
population of young consumers and to other consumer groups. Future research
should include other population groups.
Practical implications – This research provides insights into how college students'
attitudes toward internet web sites affect their information search at the web sites
and their channel choices for purchasing. Our results suggest potential benefits of
multi-channel retailing for online clothing retailers targeting US college students and the importance of
building effective web sites to elicit those consumers' positive attitudes toward the web sites.
Originality/value – This study is the first to investigate young adult online shoppers' attitude towards
internet web sites and their information search and channel choices for purchasing.
Keywords:
Consumer behaviour, Information retrieval, Internet shopping, Purchasing, United States of America
Article Type:
Research paper
Article URL:
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/13612020710824616
Article Information:
Title:
Do determinants of online shopping differ for personal shoppers and professional
shoppers?
Author(s):
Amit Bhatnagar
Journal:
EuroMed Journal of Business
Year:
2007
Volume:
2
Issue:
1
Page:
87 - 102
ISSN:
1450-2194
DOI:
10.1108/14502190710749974
Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Document Access:
Existing customers:
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Purchase this document:
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Abstract:
Purpose – Individuals use the web for shopping for both personal and professional objectives. The purpose of this
paper is to show that the demographic profile of individuals who shop online for personal reasons is different from
that of those who shop for professional reasons.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on marketing literature, hypotheses were generated regarding the
relationships between proclivity to purchase online and demographics. The data were collected through online
surveys, and the hypotheses tested with an ordinal regression model.
Findings – This research indicated that individuals with children, high incomes, and large internet experience are
more likely to shop online for personal purposes and younger men with large internet experience are more likely to
shop online for professional purposes.
Research limitations/implications – One of the limitations of this study is that it focuses on only the demographic
determinants, and ignores others, such as reputation and size, service quality, overall ease of use and usefulness
of the web site, etc.
Article Information:
Title:
Attitude and age differences in online buying
Author(s):
Patricia Sorce, Victor Perotti, Stanley Widrick
Journal:
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management
Year:
2005
Volume:
33
Issue:
2
Page:
122 - 132
ISSN:
0959-0552
DOI:
10.1108/09590550510581458
Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Document Access:
Existing customers:
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Abstract:
Purpose – This paper examines the shopping and buying behavior of younger and older online shoppers as
mediated by their attitudes toward internet shopping.
Design/methodology/approach – Over 300 students and staff from a US university completed a survey regarding
their online shopping and buying experiences for 17 products.
Findings – The results show that, while older online shoppers search for significantly fewer products than their
younger counterparts, they actually purchase as much as younger consumers. Attitudinal factors explained more
variance in online searching behavior. Age explained more variance in purchasing behavior if the consumer had
first searched for the product online.
Research limitations/implications – The limitations of the present research are threefold. First, the sample was
restricted to university faculty, staff and students. Second, a better measure of the hedonic motivation construct is
needed. Third, additional independent measures such as income should be included to understand the additional
demographic factors related to online purchase.
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Practical implications – Retailing managers can make use of the results as describing multifaceted nature of
online shopping and buying behavior. Age differences (in both directions) were seen for many product categories.
In addition, results indicate that how one measures online shopping impacts on one's understanding of age effects
on internet shopping. Age was negatively correlated with online pre-purchase search but was positively correlated
with online purchasing when pre-purchase search behavior was taken into account.
Originality/value – The present study advances knowledge of the nature of the
relationships among age, attitudes, and online shopping and buying behavior.
Article Information:
Title:
Print and Internet catalog shopping: assessing attitudes and
intentions
Author(s):
Leo R. Vijayasarathy, Josep.h M. Jones
Journal:
Internet Research
Year:
2000
Volume:
10
Issue:
3
Page:
191 - 202
ISSN:
1066-2243
DOI:
10.1108/10662240010331948
Publisher:
MCB UP Ltd
Document Access:
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Abstract:
The use of print catalogs for direct marketing has a long history of success. Today, telecommunication networks,
such as the Internet, offer the potential to reach a larger market through the use of online catalogs that could be
dynamic, flexible, and consumer-responsive. This paper reports the results of an empirical study that compared
individuals’ attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet catalogs. The findings suggest that individuals
perceived differences between the two catalog media on the shopping factors of reliability, tangibility, and
consumer risk. Further, product value, pre-order information, post-selection information, shopping experience, and
consumer risk emerged as the factors that influenced attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet
catalogs.
Title:
Non-functional motives for online shoppers: why we click
Author(s):
Andrew G. Parsons
Journal:
Journal of Consumer Marketing
Year:
2002
Volume:
19
Issue:
5
Page:
380 - 392
ISSN:
0736-3761
DOI:
10.1108/07363760210437614
Publisher:
MCB UP Ltd
Document Access:
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Abstract:
This study applies Tauber’s personal and social motives, as representative of Sheth’s non-functional motives for
shopping, to Internet shoppers. Two studies are conducted; in the first a sample of current online shoppers is
surveyed on how well Tauber’s motives describe their motivation for Internet shopping. Projective technique is
used in the second study, in which a group of consumers are asked to discuss how the motives may impact on
online shoppers, as a means of explaining how the motives apply in the Internet setting. Results suggest that
Tauber’s non-functional motives can be adapted to the twenty-first century mode of shopping. This leads to some
strong implications for researchers and practitioners who so far have concentrated on the functional aspects of
Internet shopping with respect to gaining shopping market share.
Title:
Factors affecting intentions to purchase via the internet
Author(s):
W.C. May So, T.N. Danny Wong, Domenic Sculli
Journal:
Industrial Management & Data Systems
Year:
2005
Volume:
105
Issue:
9
Page:
1225 - 1244
ISSN:
0263-5577
DOI:
10.1108/02635570510633275
Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Document Access:
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Abstract:
Purpose – To investigate web-shopping behaviour in Hong Kong: identification of the general attitude towards
web-shopping; relationships between past web-shopping experience, attitude towards web-shopping, adoption
decisions, search behaviour and web-shopping intentions; and influences of promotional offers and product
categories on web-shopping intentions.
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Design/methodology/approach – Relevant hypotheses were constructed and a web-
based questionnaire survey was than conducted using technically educated
subjects. The proposed hypotheses were statistically tested and principal
components analysis and structural equations were used to produce a structural
model.
Findings – Web-shopping intentions are directly affected by web-search behaviour
and web-shopping adoption decisions, and are indirectly affected by web-shopping attitudes, past
web-shopping experiences and past experience with the web. Web-search behaviour was a stronger
factor than adoption decision in terms of influencing web-shopping intentions. The presence of
promotional offers had a positive effect on web-shopping intentions, and web-shopping intentions
were different for different product categories.
Research limitations/implications – The sample employed was composed of technically educated
undergraduates and graduates and thus limiting generalizations to a higher levels.
Practical implications – Experienced internet users and experienced web-shoppers are more likely to
be potential future web-shoppers. Those who have a general dislike for shopping and who tend to buy
in a great haste when the purchase becomes absolutely necessary may eventually be another group
to become web-shoppers.
Originality/value – The primary value of this paper lies in extending the understanding of Hong Kong web-shopper
behaviour, and in developing an empirical model that can partly explain the processes leading to web-shopping
intentions
methodology/approach – The data base for this study was obtained from a sample of 191 individuals who had
purchased on the internet and the techniques used in the statistical analysis of the data were as follows: principal
components analysis, structural equations and regression analyses.
Findings – Two dimensions – cost and guarantee – explain value in e-commerce. In the data resulting from the
analyses, guarantee turns out to be a more important factor with respect to overall perceived quality and
consumer attitudes than cost.
Research limitations/implications – If a company manages to improve its e-commerce transaction results, this will
have a favorable effect on overall perceived quality and consumer attitudes. In other words, the result is as
important as the process for a successful purchase.
Practical implications – The scale, integrated for the dimensions “guarantee” and “cost” should help firms to
identify and improve their B2C e-commerce results from the customer perspective. Consequently, it will have a
positive effect on overall quality, disposition to repeat and disposition to recommend.
Originality/value – Companies operating on the internet will find a number of suggestions in this paper on how to
achieve competitive advantage through the successful management of their websites, improving results –
guarantee and cost – to customers.
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