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January arrived unceremoniously and those of us
in the eastern half of the USA are suffering from ex-
treme, sub-normal temperatures. Not many of our an-
tiques and classics will be flying or operated during
these periods of bone-chilling cold. A few fortunate
owners have heated hangars or pre-heating facilities
to warm up their engines before flying, but the bulk of
us just allow our aircraft to rest until the conditions
improve for near-normal flight conditions. Some of us
who had the time were able to enjoy the warmer cli-
mate for a brief holiday relaxation period and yours
truly accepted an invitation from a good friend to spend
a few days with them in Key West, Florida.
Being North Carolinians, we expect the day after
Christmas to be chilly but not overtaxed with the ex-
tremely cold temperatures we have been experiencing.
Arriving at the airport we loaded the luggage into our
"spam can" and soon realized the temperature was 6° F!
With the help of jumper cables and an extra battery,
fifteen minutes of attempts, a few sputters, and cool-
ing time for the starter she did fire, and away we flew
to St. Augustine, Florida for our midpoint refueling
St. Augustine has a fine airport, an EAA Chapter,
many antique, classic and custombuilt aircraft, together
with a fine group of pilots who were all sitting in the
lounge, sporting winter apparel. Abnormally low tem-
peratures had invaded this section of Florida and power
failures were frequent as the locals had purchased and
were utilizing small portable electric heaters in their
homes and businesses, thus over-taxing the supply of
electricity. We departed, wishing them success in get-
ting their power restored. Being vectored west of Vero
Beach and then direct to Key West we experienced a
most pleasant trip over central Florida and into Key
West International airport. Our visit to this historic
area was our first and we enjoyed the fishing, sight-
seeing and even a ride on the Young America replica
sailing vessel, sporting full sails in 15 knot winds.
Florida has a lot to offer during the winter months
and this brings to our attention the upcoming big event
in Lakeland, Florida on March 15-22. This will be the
Seventh Annual Sun 'n Fun Fly-In. Mark these dates
on your calendar and make plans to be there. Some of
us have attended the six previous events and have
watched with admiration the great success these fine
people have achieved through their endeavors to make
this annual event a continuing success. All you could
desire is available: camping on the site, daily fly-bys,
By  Brad  Thomas 
By Brad Thomas 
Antique/Classic Division 
air shows, exhibits, forums, and warm weather. So many
of us get "cabin fever" during the winter months, that
even the thought of traveling to the warm climates
and participating in the Sun 'n Fun Fly-In make the
pleasant spring days appear closer.
Those of you who are not flying your antique or
classic because of the winter weather , why not enter
into a progressive maintenance program on the bird
while it rests. While the time is available, clean the
engine, check the wiring and plugs, fabric, cotter pins,
bolt torques, lubricate needed parts and hinges, and
give the plane a general overall look-see.
I have never checked my aircraft without finding
some item, small as it may be, which did not need at-
tention relative to maintenance or replacement. Elimi-
nate errors by using a check list made up by yourself
or the one supplied by the manufacturer, if available.
We frequently have seen many aircraft parked during
the winter with the tires deflated to about one half
of normal. The use of a portable air tank or even a hand
pump and a tire gauge will keep those tires at the proper
inflation and will definitely help to eliminate cracking
of the walls. If the fuel tanks are not full, then routinely
drain the sumps to remove any possible accumulation
of water that may collect during the cold winter months.
It will not be long before March arrives and we can have
that aircraft ready for the trip to Lakeland or just to
fly around the patch when spring does arrive.
We have received several fine comments from our
membership regarding methods to increase our mem-
bership and enhance our image. Some of the sugges-
tions and proposals are new and will be considered at
the Board of Directors meetings. We probably cannot
initiate every proposal that has been suggested, but
after each has been analyzed, a pattern of thoughts
will emerge, giving us guidance in planning for the
We are a unique group of dedicated enthusiasts
whose purpose is to encourage the restoration, mainte-
nance and flight of antique and classic aircraft; also
to compile information about these planes and continue
to record the history of this era of aviation. We con-
duct meetings, displays and educational programs rela-
tive to aviation and in particular, concerning antique,
classic and historical aircraft and engines. We have
come a long way since the initial formation of this
Division in EAA, and through our dedication and en-
thusiasm we shall continue to grow and assure our
future in aviation.
919/368-2875 Home 214/727-5649
919/368-2291 Office
7745 W. 183RD ST. P.O.BOX 145
913/681-2303 Home 815/923-4591
913/782-6720 Office
Ronald Fritz Morton W.Lester
15401Sparta Avenue P.O.Box 3747
Kent City, MI 49330 Martinsville,VA 24112
616/678-5012  703/632-4839 
Claude L..Gray.Jr. ArthurR.Morgan
9635SylviaAvenue 3744 North 51st Blvd.
Northridge,CA 91324 Milwaukee, WI 53216
213/349-1338  414/442-3631 
DaleA.Gustafson John R.Turgyan
77? Shady Hi ll Drive 1530 Kuser Road
Indianapolis. IN 46274 Trenton,NJ 08619
317/293-4430  609/585-2747 
AI Kelch S. J. Willman
66 W. 622N. MadisonAvenue Box 2672
Cedarburg, WI 53012 Oshkosh,WI 54901
414/377-5886  414/235-1 265 
Robert E. Kesel GeorgeS. York 
455Oakridge Drive 181 SlobodaAve. 
Rochester ,NY 14617 Mansfield,OH 44906 
716/342-3170  419/529-4378 
John S. Copeland Stan Gomoll Gene Morris
9Joanne Drive 1042 901h Lane,NE 27 ChandelleDrive
Vestborough .MA01581 Minneapolis,MN 55434 Hampshi re.IL 60140
617/366-7245 6121784-1172  312/683-3199 
Publisher Editor 
Paul H.Poberezny GeneR.Chase 
Seen at Oshkosh ' 80 was this beautiful Rare 1930Stearman 4E flown by owner
1945 Beechcraft D17S Staggerwing Danny R. Wine (EM 98146. Al C 4261 )
owned by Lewis W. Lindemer (EAA at the 1980 National Stearman Fly-In.
56710,  AI C  2806), 45 E. Golden Lake See storyon page 5.
Road .Circle Pi nes,MN 55014. (Photo by Kenneth D. Wi lson)
(Photo by Ted Koston)
Straightand Level .. .by Brad  Thomas  . . ... . .. . . . . 2
A/C News Gene  Chase  . ..................... 4
The Ninth Annual Stearman Fly-In ...
by John  M. Crider, Jr.  ........ . ... ...... .. ... ... 5
To Rebuild A PA-12 J. M. Thede  ....... . .... .  10 
The First Lockheed Cedric  Galloway  ........ 14
New Restoration Of A Curtiss Robin .. .
by Gene  Chase  .... ... .... . .... . . ... . .. ... ..... 17
Sky Pal 32Bravo Kary/  Herman  . . ............ 18
HowTo Build The Famous "Demoiselle" Santos-
Dumont's Monoplane- PartII ...
by Arthur E. Joerin  and A. Cross, A.M .  .... .. . . . . 20
Vintage PlanesIn Brazil J. C. Boscardin  .. . . . 24
Calendar Of Events ............................... 25
Page 5 Page 14 Page 24
Editorial Policy: Readers are encouraged to submi t stori es and photographs. Pol i cy opi nions expressed in arti cles are 
solely those of the authors. Responsibi lity for accuracy in reporting rests enti rel y with the contributor. Material should be 
sent to:Gene R. Chase.Editor .The VINTAGE AIRPLANE,P.O.Box 229,Hales Corners.WI 53130. 
Readers are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Associate Editorships are aSSigned to those writers who submit 
five or more articles whi ch are published in THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE during the current year. Associates receive a bound 
volume of THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE and a free one-year membership i n the Division for thei r efforts. POLICY - Opinions 
expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility f or accuracy in reporting rests entirely with the contributor. 
THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE (ISSN 0091-6943) is owned exclusively by EAA Antique/Classi c Divi si on. Inc.. and is publ ished 
monthly at Hales Corners, Wisconsin 53130. Second Class Postage paid at Hales Corners Post Office, Hales Corners, 
Wisconsin 53130. and additional mai ling offi ces. Membership rates for EAA Ant ique/Classi c Division. Inc.. are $14.00 per 12 
month period of which $10.00 is for the publication of THE VINTAGE AIRPLANE. Membership is open to all who are interested 
in aviation. 
ADVERTISING - Antique/Classic Division does not guarantee or endorse any product offered through our advertising. We 
invite constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtai ned through our advertising so that cor· 
rective measures can be taken. 
CESSNA  150/152  CLUB 
A  club  for  owners  and  enthusiasts . of  the  Cessna 
1501152  line  has  been  formed.  Monthly  newsletters, 
money  saving  discount  offers,  safety  and  maintenance 
tips,  repair  articles  and  product  evaluation  are  services 
that  members  will  receive.  The  club  was  formed  by 
N.  F.  "Skip"  Carden,  III,  who  will  serve  as  Executive 
Director.  Skip  has  over  11  years  experience  directing 
airplane  clubs.  Interested  persons  should  contact:  The 
Cessna  150/ 152 Club,  P.  O.  Box  15388,  Durham,  NC 
The  annual  Antique  Airplane  Association/Air  Power 
Museum  Fly-In  held  traditionally  during  the  week  pre-
ceeding  Labor  Day  at  Blakesburg,  Iowa,  have  changed 
the  dates  to  August  16-23  for  1981.  This  should  avoid 
a  conflict  with  the  opening  of  schools  for  those  families 
with  school  age  children  who  wish  to  attend. 
The  following  items  are  needed  to  carryon  the  pro-
grams  of  the  EAA  Air  Museum  Foundation.  If you  can 
help,  please  contact  EAA  Headquarters,  telephone  4141
425-4860.  Donations  to  the  Museum  are  tax  deductible. 
*Air  operated automotive bumper jack 
*Planer (wood) 
*Wing fittings  for  Curtiss JN4D 
*Miscellaneous  aviation  mechanic hand  tools 
*Tools for  V-1650  Merlin engines 
*Complete  engine  or  parts,  Merlin  V-1650 
*Semi-tractor, double  or single axle 
*Modern  NA V /COM radios  for  B-25  and  Lockheed 
12 aircraft 
(Photo Copyrighted by Chris Sorensen)
This 1930 Stearman, N788H, si n 6003,
is registered as a Model 6L. Powered
by a 165 hp Continental engine, it is
painted in the colors of an Army YPT-
9B. Owner is Ray H. Stephen and the
plane i s pictured here in 1978 as a part
of the Hill Country collection at Morgan
Hill , California.
*Hydraulic Mule 
*Hydraulic Maintenance Stands 
*Metal  to  metal  seat belts 
*28  volt  rectifier - 100 amp 
*Mechanics  wash  tank 
*Spark plug  cleaner 
*Belt grinder 
*Lawn  mower  blade balancer 
*Caterpillar or  crawler  tractor  with  front  end  loader 
*1 set Aeronca  C-3 flying  wires 
*Engine rebuilding stand for  automotive engines 
*Overhaul Manual and Parts List for  Me  109 (Spanish 
*Wright  Cyclone  R-1300-1A  engine  for  the  Museum's 
North  American T-28A 
*Sewing  machine  with  zig-zag  attachment  for  flag 
repair, etc.,  at Oshkosh 
Lionel  J .  Salisbury  who  authored  the  series  of  Bor-
den and Thompson  Malted Milk Products airplane posters 
from  the  1930's  which  ran  for  about  two  years  in  The
VINTAGE AIRPLANE, is  planning  to  publish  a  book  on 
these  posters.  To  complete  his  collection  he  still  needs 
the  two  posters  titled  "The Stout Sky  Car"  and "Captain 
Jimmy  and  His  Dog Scottie". 
Of  the  several  EAAers  who  so  generously  sent  their' 
posters  to  us  for  copying  and  subsequent  reproduction 
in  the  magazine,  not  a  one  had  the  above  mentioned  is-
sues .  Lionel  requests  that  anyone  having  either  or  both 
posters,  please  send  them  to  him  so  he  can  make  copies. 
He  will  return  the  originals  to  the  sender.  Lionel's  ad-
dress  is:  Seven  Harper  Road,  Brampton,  Ontario  L6W 
2W3,  Canada. 

September 3-7, 1980
(Photo by Dick Stouffer)
A line up of many of the Stearmans attending the Nati onal Stearman Fly-In at Galesburg, Illinois. Photo taken
from " Griff" Griffin' s Stearman.
By John  M.  Crider, Jr. (AIC  5824) 
1606 Blake Drive 
Richardson,  TX 75081 
(All Photos  by Kenneth D.  Wilson , Except As Noted) 
The month of September has a special significance
to Stearman pilots and enthusiasts , for the Wednesday
foll owing Labor Day marks the start of the Annual
National Stearman Fly-In at Galesburg, Illinois. T h e r ~  
those who fly or admire, or at one time trained in the
Stearman, gather for five days of fell owship centered
around this marvelous old bi plane.
The Fly-In opened this year with a clear, cool day
and blue skies painted with high , white clouds. By six
o'clock Wednesday eveni ng, 15 Stearmans were graz-
i ng in the grass at th e north end of Galesburg Munici-
pa l Airport whil e th eir pil ots and passengers renewed
old fri endships or start ed new on es . That night , the
early a rrivals got a previ ew of the film showing de-
t ails of work at the Stearman Aircraft Company during
the la t e 1930's.
Thursday morning , ea rly ri sers at the Gales burg
Holiday Inn peeked out their windows to see overcast
ski es and a s teady rain . The warm front that had patched
Wednesday's skies with hi gh cirrus , was crossing over
Ga lesburg. By 9:00 a.m., however , the rain had stopped,
and by 10:00 Fl y-In parti cipa nts were enjoying a three
thousa nd foot ceiling and 15 mil es of visibility . Th e
only casualty of the night's storm was the new grass
runway that Sam Mendenhall ha d spent all summer
preparing . Wednesday , it had shown signs of drying
out from the eight-inch downpour that soaked Gales-
burg th e previous weekend. But Thursday morning' s
Stearman E75, N99266 was one of two identical matched Stear-
mans sporting a bright yellow and black paint scheme. It was
flown by Thomas and Don Randolph.
rain kept the yellow crosses on the grass and the Stear-
mans on the concrete. The weather also slowed new ar-
rivals to a trickle. By noon Thursday, only four more
Stearmans had landed, and arriving pilots told of hav-
ing to divert around rain showers or thunderstorms.
In the hopes of having a larger number of partici-
pants later, the aerobatic contest was rescheduled for
Friday. Thursday was dedicated to formation flying,
buddy hopping and story telling. Stearmans taxied in
and out , and the chipmunks hiding in the grass scat-
tered in all directions. Singly and in formation , the
Stearmans spread out from the field. Over town, for-
mations wheeled in V's , diamonds, or echelons , while
out over the cornfields , single Stearmans looped and
By late afternoon, most planes were back on the
ground. The field was becoming quiet as pilots topped
off their tanks and checked dipsticks . Then at six o'clock
sharp, Dan Wine and his Stearman 4E crossed the field
boundary and all that changed. People began running
and shouting to one another and taking pictures. Dan's
beautiful black and yellow Model4E was the first civilian-
model Stearman ever to land at the Fly-In. Built in 1930
and powered by a 450 hp R-1340 WASP radial engine,
NC663K can cruise at speeds up to 160 mph. Dan said,
however , that he prefers an "economy" cruise of 130
mph which lowers fuel consumption to a mere 24 gal-
lons per hour. (See photo on back cover of this issue . ..
Last year , the airplane developed an engine vibra-
tion while at the Antique Airplane Association Fly-In
in Blakesburg, Iowa and had not been able to reach
Galesburg. But this year, NC663K not only succeeded
in reaching the National Stearman Fly-In, it was a cen-
t€T of attention from the moment it touched down. Dan
purchased the airplane four years ago from Bob Penny
of Southern California. It is one of only three Model
4E's still in existence and is the only stock one flying.
Bill and Beth Mason also arrived Thursday evening.
Their flight to Galesburg took around 30 hours of fly-
ing time, but then it's a long way from the San Francisco
area to Galesburg. Their flight earned them the Tired
Butt award for flying the longest distance to the event.
By sundown there were 34 Stearrrians on the ground.
They ranged from immaculately restored airplanes, like
Dan Wine's 4E, to the duster flown up from Mississippi
by Pete Jones . Pete's airplane showed that it worked
hard for its living, and it was good to have the working
Stearman represented at the Fly-In. How many of the
neatly restored PT's and N2S's looked just like Pete's
only a few years ago?
Thursday evening saw another fine party at Tootie's
Friday morning it began raining again. At the field,
the irregular pattern of raindrops ricocheting off taut
fabric became a steady rhythm as the rain and wind
increased. Even in the rain, Rick and the other line per-
sonnel were out on the field cheerfully handing up the
gas hose as the rain ran down their sleeves . The people
at Galesburg Aviation were proud that they had man-
aged to obtain a special load of 80 octane for the Fly-
In. John Lewkowicz was one of the hardy few who
camped out at the airport in spite of the weather. When
asked if he was having to bailout his tent each morning,
he only laughed and said, "No problem."
By afternoon the rain stopped and the weather cleared.
Pilots began organizing and practicing for Saturday's
formation contest as well as hopping passengers. Those
climbing above 2,200 feet found a layer of warm, smooth
air above the cool chop next to the ground.
The additional rain kept the grass runway closed for
the third consecutive day and eventually, for the entire
Fly-In, while the low ceilings forced another postpone-
ment of the aerol'iatic contest. Still, everyone enjoyed
a good afternoon of flying. The Stearmans were draw-
ing attention from all quarters. Truck drivers along the
highway by the airport were blowing their airhorns in
salute as they sped by. More and more townspeople be-
gan coming out to see the biplanes take off and land.
The only incident took place Friday afternoon and
wound up uneventfully . Willard Duke was flying forma-
tion with three other Stearmans when the rear cockpit
throttle linkage failed. Willard was left with 1600 ' rpm
and what must have seemed like a long way back to the
airport . After he had the field made, Willard shut the
engine dowtJ. , the prop stopped turning, and he made a
safe but soggy landing in the grass. It turned out that
his passenger for that flight had been a photographer
from the Galesburg Register Mail. The next morning
Willard and his forced landing were on page one.
For the second year, one of the most popular figures
at the Fly-In was Deed Levy, Chief Experimental Test
Pllot of Stearman Aircraft Company during much of its
corporate existence. Deed's wealth of history, anecdotes
and information kept him at the center of a circle of
Stearman enthusiasts all week.
Stearmans continued to arrive despite the weather
and at 7:20 P.M. the sun set on· 52 Stearmans at Gales-
burg airport. Friday night the Stearman enthusiasts
dined and danced at the Elks Club.
Saturday's events began early as pilots and their
passengers piled out of the sack early for the popular
Stearman N2S-5, N52129, was a new restoration by Jack Fox
of Monett, Missouri .
Stearman, N60657, received the SRA Blood, Sweat
&Tears Award for workmanship and effort for Teddy
and Joe Shelor.
Dawn Patrol to Monmouth, Illinois . But as Greg Toland
drove the olive drab bus to the airport, the ground fog
began thickening. The sun rose at 6:33 A.M., but the
Stearmans had to stay on the ground. Still, everyone
was treated to the sight of the sun rising on a fog-
shrouded field of Stearmans. At that moment it was not
hard to imagine that the year was 1942 and that this
was Randolph Field instead of Galesburg.
Gradually the visibility improved and by 7:25 A.M.
the first 1000 feet of Runway 20 was filled with idling
Stearmans impatiently waiting for VFR minimums. At
7:27 A.M. the visibility reached three miles, and in the
space of three or four minutes, some 30 Stearmans be-
came airborne. Many of the airplanes joined in a huge
"V" formation and after circling town, crossed over the
airport west bound for Monmouth. The rising sun glinted
off pockets of ground fog that still lay in the valleys.
Several hundred. feet above the ground the air was
warm. When the last plane landed, there were 41 Stear-
mans on Monmouth airport, and for the second year in
a row the flight to Monmouth was accomplished without
incident. Pilots and their passengers adjourned to break-
fast prepared by the Monmouth Flying Club. After
breakfast the long-delayed aerobatic contest was held.
This year, ten pilots participated in the fun-type contest .
By one o'clock the Stearmans were back at Galesburg,
and Bob Cassens began briefing pilots for the flour-
bombing contest. Shortly afterwards , sacks of flour be-
gan raining down around the target barrel out in the
grass . In addition to flour bombing, the contest also
included the traditional short-field take-off and ac-
curacy landing competitions. The use of the intersect-
ing runway by tower controlled aircraft forced the Stear-
mans to make tight left turns after take-offs and bomb-
ing runs. The north side of Galesburg airport quickly
This beautiful silver Stearman in U.S. Navy Instru-
ment Trainer markings was flown by Ray Snyder
from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
became a hornet's nest of activity. At three o'clock, Bob
Cassens once again masterfully briefed his irreverent
group of aviators, this time for the formation contest .
Five flights competed, including one flight made up
entirely of 450 hp Stearmans. The last formation land-
ed just in time to beat the thundershower which sent
everyone running for the tents and washed out the Mini
Air Show that had been planned for five o'clock.
Wet but happy, everyone headed back for the Holi-
day Inn where the dinner and awards banquet were
held Saturday evening. After a delicious meal, catered
and served by the Inn's staff, Fly-In guests were intro-
duced. They included the honorable Robert W. Kimble,
Mayor of Galesburg; Larry Asaro, the City Manager;
Deed Levy , Chief Test Pilot for Stearman Aircraft
Company; and Mrs. Marilyn Carr, Lloyd Stearman's
daughter. Thanks were expressed to the many people
and organizations that had made the Fly-In possible.
Dusters and Sprayers Supply, Inc. awarded three
beautiful trophies to the airplanes which they felt
represented outstanding restorations. In future years
there will be one award each for the Company's choice
of Best PT, Best N2S and Best Civilian Restoration.
This year , however, one trophy went to Bill Wilkins
and his N2S-1, N50142. Bill's Stearman, which was 60
percent destroyed by a tornado this summer, had been
flying only a little over 12 months following a rebuild-
ing process that took 25 years.
John Hooper, who sponsored the aerobatic contest,
presented plaques to each pilot who participated in that
competition and also presented some comical awards.
Various other individuals' accomplishments and foul-
ups were recalled and recognized with appropriate'awards.
Bob Cassens announced the results of the day's con-
tests. The work done by Bob and his staff of judges and
300 hp custom Stearman, N52967, was flown by John Schoonhoven from his private strip at Evergreen, Colorado.
starters, produced a very enjoyable afternoon for all
those who participated.
Pete Jones and his duster received a special award
recognizing the contribution that the blue-collar Stear-
man makes to the Fly-In.
Tom Lowe, President of ,the Stearman Restorers As-
sociation and Ken Wilson, the Association's Historian,
presented the SRA Awards. Tom and Ken also announced
that they have been collecting material and research-
ing Stearman history for several years and that they
plan to co-author a book on the history of the Stearman
Aircraft Company.
~ t e   r m   n A sprayer, N52470, flown by Pete Jones for
a delivery to a new owner for restoration at Galesburg. The
first working, Ag Stearman to attend the Fly-In for several
As Sunday morning wore on, more and more Stear-
man pilots checked the weather , said good-bys and head-
ed home. The final count was 61 Stearmans in atten-
dance. Had the weather been better during the early
days of the Fly-In , an even greater number might have
Sunday afternoon, the townspeople of Galesburg and
the remaining Stearman pilots were treated to an air
show featurir:.g parachute jumpers J. T. Hill and Jim
White; Bob Heuer and Dave Dacy each performing aero-
batics in his 450 hp Stearman and Jim Leahy's aero-
batics in his stock 220 hp N2S-3. Pete Meyers performed
in his Decathlon, Rick Cunningham in his Bucker Jung-
mann, and Ed Merchant flew his Pitts Special. The
crowd again enjoyed the antics of Dick Willets and his
Crazy Cub act, and the fly-by of three F-4 Phantoms from
the Springfield, Illinois Air National Guard was another
high point of the show.
Those who participated in this year's Fly-In again
enjoyed the fellowship that has brought back Stear-
man lovers year after year . To see old friends , to make
new ones is the essence of the Nationall Stearman Fly-
In. The tenth National Stearman Fly-In will be held
September 9th through the 13th, 1981. Those who enjoy
flying, talking about, or just looking at Stearmans will
find those five days to be very special ones.
Stroh's Award - Stearman N2S-3, N9914H, Jim Leahy
Best Hangar Pilot - Bob Simmons, Stearman PT-17,
Tired Butt Award - Stearman PT-13D, N65874, Bill
and Beth Mason
Hard Luck Award - Stearman N2S-3, N64993 , Peter
SNAFU Award - Stearman PT-17 , N72AA , Willard
Hero's Award - Stearman PT-17C, N300E, Ralph Ras-
Early Bird Award - Stearman PT-17, N66740, Dick
Baird and Stearman N2S-3 , N66263, Rick Baird
(owned by Jim Furlong)
Short Field Take-Off Contest - Stearman N2S-5, N631E,
Peter Reed
Spot Landing Contest - Tom Beaver
Flour Bombing Contest - Stearman PT-17 , N55170,
Bill McBride
Formation Flying Contest - Stearman N2S-5, N520HT,
Harry Thomas; Stearman N2S-2, N60562, John Hoop-
er; Stearman PT-17, N72AA, Willard Duke; Stear-
man N2S-3, N61P, John Crider
Stearman Aerobatic Contest - 1st Place - Stearman
PT-17, N79535, John Ruhlin; 2nd Place - Stearman
PT-17, N66740, Dick Baird; 3rd Place - Stearman
N2S-2, N60562, John McCormick
Special Award - Stearman A 75N1 duster, N52470,
Pete Jones
Special Award - Stearman N2S-1, N50142, Bill Wi lkins
Military Restoration - Stearman, N69654, Dick Fritz
and Jerry Wetterling
Civilian Restoration - Stearman 4E, NC663K, Dan Wine
Lloyd Stearman Memorial Award - Lawrence Palmer-
Ball , Jr.
Bill Adams Memorial Award - Monmouth Pilots As-
"Outfit" Contributor's Awan,i For 1979- LaVerne Heck,
for her article, "TO SOLO A STEARMAN"
Best Stearman PT - Stearman PT-13D, N4599N, Tom
Best Stearman N2S - Stearman N2S-3, N66302, Chuck
Andreas and Byron Fredericksen
Best Custom Stearman - Stearman N2S-5, N9078H,
"Griff' Griffin
Best Civilian Stock Stearman - Stearman PT-17,
N60323, Larry Kampel
Blood, Sweat & Tears - Stearman, N60657, J oe and
Teddy Shelor
The National Stearman Fly-In was just one of the many stops made by Bill and Beth Mason in their "Big Red"
on a several month trip from California to the east coast and return.
A PA-12 
By J.  M. Thede 
EAA  122712, AIC 3708 
Elmuale,  Ontario, -Canada 
Towing the fuselage home to start the restoration project.
January 15, 1975 brought bad news , the engineer
doing the annual inspection of my PA-12 discovered that
the wing fabric, although looking good, would not pass
the fabric punch test and both wings would have to be
recovered before the aircraft could be certified airworthy.
I had purchased C-FZJI four years previously and had
flown it in most Canadian provinces and several of the
northern United States. During this time I had noticed
many "rough edges" on the plane which some day I had
hoped to improve. Now, I decided, was the time ... I
would rebuild the entire aircraft. I only had two problems,
(a) no workshop, as the house I was living in at the time
was very small and had no basement, and, (b) no experi-
ence in fabric or metal work.
Hans Mayer, EAA 58867, came to the rescue. He
was building a VP-2 at the time and upon hearing what
I had in mind he immediately offered me the use of his
old workshop (he had just finished building a new one)
which was just the right size for the fuselage. Hans
also volunteered his time and experience with the re-
covering work. He had worked in a glider factory in
Europe and had lots of fabric experience. As owner of
a machine shop he also had the skill and equipment for
any metal repairs needed.
On January 30, I dismantled the aircraft thinking
at this time that I would be reassembling it in 6 months
or so (ha, hal . I towed the fuselage behind my land rover
to Hans' workshop not realizing that it would be 2V2 
years before I towed it back again. The local FBO at
the Midland, Ontario airport had said that I could store
and work on the wings at the back of his hangar and so
the following day I stripped the fabric from the wings.
This of course was the easy part. I figured that since the
wings were the largest part of the aircraft, it would be
best to attack them first and have them finished before
I started on the rest of the pieces; knowing that the
largest part.'l were finished might give me strength to
I first cleaned the dirt and old fuel stains from leak-
ing gas tanks from the aluminum ribs. A close inspec-
tion of the structure revealed no serious damage or cor-
rosion. New wing tip bows had been installed shortly
before I bought the aircraft and as they were warp free,
so these were sanded and varnished. Fittings were re-
moved, cleaned, inspected, painted and reinstalled. All
ribs were examined and a few small bends and dents
were straightened. Aileron cables and bellcranks were
removed, inspected, reinstalled and lubricated. All elec-
trical wiring, nuts, bolts and PK screws were checked
and replaced as necessary . About two feet of leading
edge was replaced on each wing as it was badly dented.
In the entire project this was one of the few areas we
should have done further work ' on. I wish now that I
had installed hew leading edges over the entire length
of the wings as the small dents which were inconspicuous
at the time, showed up more after the aircraft was cov-
ered and painted. The ailerons were similarly rebuilt
and fitted on the wings and checked for smooth opera-
tion. The wings and ailerons were entirely zinc chro-
mated and we were ready for inspection. The engineer
signed both wings off for recovering and after covering
all chafe points with tape and installing inter-rib brac-
ing tape we were ready to cover.
I had decided to cover with Lincoln cloth (similar to
Ceconite) and use butyrate dope but did not know where
to begin. Hans made a few quick measurements, tried
the fabric envelopes on for size (we had to cut open the
end of the envelope as it did not fit the wing tip bow at
all) and began applying the glue to the left wing. It was
much easier and faster than I had thought . The follow-
ing day we applied heat to the wing with an iron to
shrink the Lincoln cloth and then brushed on the first
The instrument panel, before . ..
coat of dope. Two days later the right wing was also
covered. Then came the rib stitching, one of the worst
jobs of the whole project. The first rib took me two hours
and I wore out one pair of running shoes travelling from
one side of the wing to the other. Having a short memory,
I had to check a textbook everytime I tied the approved
rib stitching knot. Eventually I caught on to the opera-
tion and things went a little faster although I had some
sore fingers for a while. Next I doped on drain grommets,
reinforcing tape and grommets for inspection covers.
I also added reinforcing patches around a.Jl openings
and over the grommets. I brushed on two more coats
of Rand-o-proof and set the wings aside.
I then took a one week holiday and attacked the fuse-
lage with great vigor. Stripping the fabric, removing
the engine, landing gear, instruments, floor boards,
and controls I was soon left with a bare frame. At this
point it became obvious that I had been carrying around
a lot of excess black tape which had been used in the
past to fasten electrical wiring, fuel lines and other
assorted objects to the frame. Also there was consider-
able excess wiring on the plane which had simply been
cut off whenever the item it was connected to was re-
moved. I found two broken wooden stringers which had
been fastened together with masking tape at the time
of the last recovering instead of being replaced. Although
the aircraft was basically in excellent condition I found
many examples of sloppy workmanship in the past.
The fuselage tubing looked good but just to be sure
I sandblasted the entire frame to remove all paint and
dirt. All tubing was closely inspected and the bottom
longerons were checked with a centerpunch for deteri-
oration. Fortunately no rust was found. Some of the
longerons had been bent slightly by the tightening of
the old fabric. These we straightened with a large rub-
. .. and after.
Cathy Thede lends a helping.hand.
bel' mallet. All welds were inspected and the only prob-
lems were a few broken welds on the channels which
support the wooden stringers on top of the fuselage .
These were quickly repaired and the fuselage was painted
with zinc chromate and enamel.
I work for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
and was able to use one of their wood working shops
for cleaning and painting small parts and cutting new
floor boards. I also stored the engine here and my fiancee
volunteered to clean it up and give it a new paint job.
I had taken the rudder, elevators and stabilizers home
where I stripped and checked them and applied new fab-
ric to them on my front lawn. Thus I had four different
working places.
I then started to reassemble the fuselage . First, all
control systems were reinstalled. Everything was lubri-
cated and checked for tightness and smoothness of opera-
tion. New floors , stringers, battery box frame , electri-
cal wiring were added. As the old instrument and elec-
trical panels were cracked and full of miscellaneous
holes new ones were planned, built and installed. An
entire Airtex interior (headliner, side panels, seats, fire-
wall cover) was installed with much fiddlework. A fish-
ing rod tube was installed and a strobe light was added
on the bottom of the fuselage just forward of the tail.
The door was reworked, a new handle was fabricated
Hans Mayer shows the author how to shrink the Lincoln cloth.
out of aluminum and installed, and a locking mechanism
was designed and added. The fuselage was inspected
and signed off for covering by a mechanic.
I used three large pieces of Lincoln cloth to cover
the fuselage and one small piece for the cabin roof. I
brushed on a coat of Rand-o-proof then added reinforc-
ing patches, tapes, grommets , and inspection rings and
rib stitched the fin. Not having any spray equipment
available I brushed on two more coats of Rand-o-proof
and 7 coats of aluminum butyrate. I tried applying two
coats with a paint roller but this appeared to give a
pebbling effect to the finish so I gave up. The fuselage
was sanded between every second coat.
The landing gear was covered and installed using
new bolts , rubber bumpers, and bungees. To install
the bungees , Hans made a special tool which allowed
us to stretch them into place without using too many
strange words. The main wheels and brake system were
disassembled, cleaned and inspected. P A-12 brakes are
notoriously poor but it is amazing mine had worked at
all with all the gunk and rust found inside them. I had
the brake frames chrome plated to prevent -any further
deterioration and reassembled the system using new
springs, retainers and seals. They have since worked
considerably better although are still not perfect. The
main wheel bearings, showing no signs of wear, were
repacked and replaced and the wheels installed on the
landing gear. While cleaning and inspecting the tail
wheel assembly the bearings fell apart in my hands ,
so I figured it was time for new ones. To protect the new
bearings Hans made a new very tight fitting hub cap
for the tail wheel.
Instruments, panel lighting, radio, push-pull controls
and plumbing were then installed in and behind the
new instrument panel and the electrical wiring, fuse
system and switches were added to the electrical panel.
Three new instrument panel covers were made by form-
ing the aluminum over wooden patterns. A new trim
panel which covers the dual throttle controls was fabri-
cated for the left side of the cockpit and another one
was made for the door. Microphone and earphone jacks
were installed in the left trim panel, and a push to talk
switch was added to the top of the stick. The headset
system is a lot better than tryinb to fumble for a micro-
phone when you're on final approach.
My uncle volunteered to make genuine walnut knobs
for the throttles, trim control, door handle and stick
tops. When everything had been fitted to the instru- -
ment panel , electrical panel and two side trim panels
they were all removed, painted with zinc chromate.
covered with naugahide and reinstalled.
The boot cowl was stripped of many layers of old
paint; several bends and wear points were repaired and
it was covered with zinc chromate and installed. All new
side windows were cut from plexiglass and a new wind-
shield was purchased. The heating system was improved
by changing the position of the intake for the air supply
so it provides more air to the heater and by modifying
the heat muff so the fresh air picks up more heat from
the muffler before it passes into the cabin. Together
with the tighter fitting windows and door and upholstery
insulation the heater now makes it possible to fly in
winter with only a light jacket when previously I had
to wear a snowmobile suit.
I then transported the engine. fuselage and other
parts to the airport and began final assembly using all
new hardware. I installed the motor mount and motor
and had the engineer do a compression test. He decided
it needed a top overhaul so I pulled the engine and took
it to a reputable engine shop. In addition to the top over-
haul they rebuilt the carburetor, and added 2 new primer
lines so that I now can prime all four cylinders before
starting,  which  is  a  definite  advantage  for  winter  fly-
ing.  The  engine  was  gone  for  a  month  and  I  spent  that 
time  preparing  the  fuselage  for  painting,  installing  the 
muffier,  painting  small  parts  and  labeling  the  cockpit 
controls.  Finally  the  engine  came  back  and  it  was  per-
manently  installed  and  all  the  controls  and  plumbing 
I  then  turned  my  attention  to  the  cowling.  I  had  al-
ready  purchased  a  new  nose  bowl  (at  great  expense)  as 
the original  was dented and cracked.  When  we examined 
the  rest  of  the  cowling  Hans  decided  to  make  all  new 
panels.  This  took  a  lot  of  cutting  and  fitting  but  they 
were  eventually  completed  and  installed.  Next  I  made 
a  complete  set  of new  baffies  as  the  old  ones  were  badly 
Meanwhile  the  engineer  had  sprayed  several  coats 
of aluminum butyrate dope  on  the wings  and now  every-
thing  was  ready  for  painting.  Over  the  past  two  years  I 
had  done  a  lot  of  thinking  about  the  color  scheme  and 
had  finally  settled  on  Lock  Haven  Yellow  with  Hershey 
brown  trim.  I  gave  some  consideration  to  the  original 
paint  scheme  but  decided  against  it.  When  rebuilding 
the  plane  I  had  no  intention  of restoring  it to  the  exact 
original  state.  I  enjoy  using  it  on  cross  country  trips 
and  with  this  in  mind,  made  several  changes  and  im-
provements  during  the  project,  thus  detracting  from  the 
originality  of the  aircraft.  I  masked  off the  fuselage  and 
told  the engineer to  call  me  when  he was finished  spray-
ing  the  butyrate  colors.  Since  I  had  no  experience  in 
spraying nor equipment for  the job I  figured it was  worth 
the extra  money for  him to  do  it. 
I  checked  both  fuel  tanks  and  found  several  minor 
leaks.  I  attempted  to  solder  these  twice  before  deciding 
to  remove  all  the  old  solder  in  the  area  of the  leaks  and 
start  from  scratch.  After  soldering  and  vacuuming  out 
the  tanks  I  filled  them  with  fuel  and left  them for  three 
days . Thankfully  there were  no  leaks. 
With  the  assistance  of  several  friends  the  wings 
and  struts  were  installed  in  short  order.  The  fuel  tanks 
were  added  and  new  fuel  gauges  (cork  float  and  wire) 
were  made  and  installed.  All  fairings  and  covers  were 
inspected  and  either  reworked  or  replaced  by  new  ones 
made  up  to  fit  better  than  the  old  ones.  I  then  installed 
the  tail  feathers  and  hooked  up  all  controls  and  check-
ing same for  smooth  operation.  I  vacuumed  out  the fuse-
lage,  installed  the  seats  and  seat  belts  and  called  the 
engineer  for  final  inspection.  After  rigging  the  aircraft 
and  completing the final  inspection  he weighed the plane 
and computed the weight and balance. The plane weighed 
ten pounds  more  than it had  prior  to  the rebuild  and the 
extra  weight  was  probably  due  to  the  added  interior 
trim,  upholstery,  insulation  and  strobe  light.  He  then 
signed  the  log  books  and  completed  the  necessary  paper 
work.  As  I  hadn't  flown  since  dismantling  the  aircraft 
I  asked  the  engineer  to  make  the  test  flight.  Every 
builder  knows  the  feeling  of seeing  his  machine  fly  for 
the  first  time  and  C-FZJI  flew  perfectly  on  the  first 
flight.  After  2'>-2 years  and  2,500  man  hours  of  work  I 
felt as if a great weight had been lifted from  my shoulders . 
The aircraft is  still  powered  by  the original  Lycoming 
0-235-C  100  hp  engine  as  when  it  was  built  in  1947.  It
cruises  at 105  mph  using  5  imperial  gallons per hour. 
Since  the  rebuild  I  have  flown  the  plane  about  300 
hours  including  three  trips  to  Oshkosh ,  one  to  Sun  'N 
. Fun  and  several  times  north  to  James  Bay.  I  have  re-
cently  added  a  vacuum  system,  directional  gyro,  artifi-
cial  horizon,  intercom  and  a  heating  system  for  the 
rear  seat.  Thanks  to  a  lot  of  patience  and  the  help  of 
several  friends  I  am  enjoying  owning  and  flying  a  great 
classic  aircraft. 
The  first  Loughead  airplane  still  under  construction.  A  seaplane  powered  by  a  Kirkham  6  cylinder  engine 
with  the  Kirkham  horseshoe-shaped  radiator. 
By Cedric Galloway
EAA 35278, A IC 152
14624 Willow Street
Hesperia, CA 92345
Photos Courtesy of Lockheed Aircraft Corp .
When we hear the word "Lockheed", we visualize
fast , streamlined and graceful airplanes . But they were
not always that way. Everything has to have a begin-
ning. Even the name became "streamlined" after a time.
Allen Loughead, the son of John and Flora Haines Loug-
head, whose Scotch-Irish name, in its phonetic spelling,
became Lockheed.
Allen was the youngest of four children. The family
lived in Niles , California inland from the southeast
shore of San Francisco Bay. Allen's parents separated
when Allen was quite young, and his mother took the
children to Alma in the Santa Cruz foothills , where she
operated a thirty-five acre fruit ranch . College trained
and talented, Mrs. Loughead derived extra income from
writing novels and poetry. Allen, slowed by poor health,
never finished grammar school , but his mother supplied
an 'education with her fine tutoring.
Young Loughead and his older brother Malcolm en-
joyed ranch life, but much preferred tinkering with
machinery. At seventeen Malcolm got a job as a mechanic
in San Francisco, working on White steam motorcars .
Allen also left the ranch when he reached seventeen,
and went up to the big city. His first job was in a hard-
ware store at $10 a week, but he soon took a lower pay-
ing job as an automobile mechanic, like his brother Mal-
Meanwhile Victor , the eldest of the three brothers ,
worked as a consulting engineer in Chicago, where he
spent bis spare time as an aerodynamist and a writer .
His "Vehicles of the Air" and "Airplane Design for
Amateurs" were widely read, discussed and used by
would-be aeronauts, including his brothers.
Through Victor , Allen found work in 1910 as an
airplane engine mechanic in Chicago and soon a chance
to take his first flight in an airplane. He met George
Gates, the proud builder of a pusher biplane with a home-
made 4-cylinder , 50 hp engine. Gates discovered he
couldn't fly it alone because the control system required
manipulation of . the ailerons, rudder , and elevators in
three separate operations. He asked Allen if he could
operate the ailerons. Allen had never handled an air-
plane but was not lacking in self-confidence.
"Sure," he said.
They warmed up the engine, Allen climbed aboard
the flimsy contraption, sat behind Gates, and wrapped
rags around the aileron control wires to keep his hands
from slipping. The plane took off, circled the field and
landed safely, making probably the first dual controlled
flight of its type in aviation history.
The thrill lingered with him as he tuned the power-
plant for the plane of his employer, James E. Plew, a
truck distributor who was trying to break into aviation.
Plew's Curtiss-type pusher, with a 35 hp engine, was
made ready for demonstration flights from a nearby
race track. The pilot was having difficulty in getting
the plane off the snow covered ground When he finally
gave up, Plew decided to call the demonstration off. Allen
pleaded with Plew to let him have a try at getting the
plane into the air. With Plew's O.K. , Allen retuned
the engine, and with higher rpm he was able to coax
the flimsy pusher into the air, gradually oriented him-
self to the controls and the shoulder harness that worked
the ailerons. Jerkily he circled around and around the
oval track and landed in one piece. Of his first solo he
says: "It was partly nerve, partly confidence, and partly
damn foolishness, but I was now an aviator!"
Allen had about an hour and a half in the air when
he began working as a "flying instructor". He also had
a brief career as an exhibition flyer , which came to
an abrupt end at Hoopeston, Illinois. Piloting a water-
soaked and underpowered Curtiss , Loughead left the
ground in fine style, but could not gain altitude. His
flight into the late afternoon dusk was suddenly inter-
rupted by contact with some telegraph wire lines. The
fragile Curtiss came to rest in a tangle of wires, hang-
ing with one wing impaled on the crossarm of l'! pole.
Allen switched off the engine, which was still running,
and scrambled unhurt from the wreckage.
Experiences on the country-fair circuit taught Loug-
head what was good - and bad - about the flying
machines of 1911. Not trusting his luck too far , and with
a wife to support, he returned to San Francisco to work
in a garage until such time as he might be able to build
an airplane of his own. The design for a three-place
seaplane was already occupying his mind. It should be
a tractor type , with engine in front, he was tired of wor-
rying about a heavy motor mounted behind, hanging
there in readiness to crush the pilot should the plane
come down nose first.
Allen often discussed aerodynamics with his brother
Ma·lcolm, and at length the two mechanics joined up to
build their own plane. A hydroplane was the logical
choice because of the unlimited facilities in and around
the Bay area , and San Francisco's long-time interest
in boating. To give the impression that they were not
building their first plane, they designated the design
as Model G.
The brothers kept their jobs and worked every other
waking moment on their airplane. Truly, one of the
earliest of homebuilts. They rented a former garage at
the corner of Pacific A venue and Polk Street, and for
the next year and a half, that corner was the scene of
ever-increasing activity as the new airplane took shape.
Max Mamlock of the Alco Cab company became interested
in their project and invested $4,000 to help them along.
The first Loughead-built airplane was a sizable ship.
A biplane, its upper wingspread was 46 feet and its
triangular fuselage was 30 feet long. It weighed 2,200
pounds gross, and it carried a useful load of nearly 600
pounds. It was equipped with midwing ailerons and, in
the manner of French design, the entire tail swung on
a universal joint. The main center float was built like
a sled, and outrigger pontoons kept the wing tips from
dipping into the water . When its Kirkham 6-cylinder
engine burst its crankcase after fifteen minutes of opera-
tion, the designers substituted an 80 hp watercooled
V-8 powerplant, retaining the Kirkham's horseshoe-
shaped radiator . The Model G had only one instrument,
an old tachometer taken from a motor boat.
On the afternoon of June 15, 1913, Allen and Mal-
colm eased their creation into the waters from the beach
at the foot of Laguna Street , just west of the Army's
transport dock at Fort Mason. Allen climbed in, started
the engine, and swinging into the wind, got the G up on
The seaplane after i nstallation of V-8, 80 hp engi ne and con-
venti onal-type radiator. San Francisco Worlds Fai r, 1915.
The Model G taxiing out for take-off.
Audrey Munson in cockpit of the Model G at Santa Barbara.
She was a movie actress.
the  step.  Soon  the  slapping  of  the  waves  below  ceased 
and  the plane  was  airborne. The  ship  was  very  sensitive 
to  handle,  but  a  short  hop  was  enough  to  &how  that 
months  of  work  had  produced  success.  Allen,  highly 
pleased, returned to  the beach  and  took  Malcolm  aboard. 
This  time  the  "hydro-aeroplane"  made  a  10-mile  flight, 
cruising  around  the  island  of Alcatraz,  soaring  in  grand 
style some  300 feet  above  Market Street. 
The Loughead's  Model  G  was  one  of the first success-
ful  tractor-type  seaplanes  ever  built.  It was  highly 
unusual  for  this  tender  age  of  flight  in  that  it  could 
carry more  than one person. 
The  G  was  well  proven,  but  a  minor  landing  mis-
hap  and  general  economic  conditions  put  the  plane  in 
storage  for  two  years.  Allen  went  back  to  his  old  trade 
of  keeping  San  Francisco  motorcars  in  running  condi-
tion.  Malcolm,  ranging  further  afield,  tried  to  sell  the 
Chinese  a  Curtiss  pusher,  only  to  have  the  plane  con-
fiscated  as  contraband  by  the  British  at  the  outbreak 
of World  War 1. 
The  opening  of  the  San  Francisco-Panama  Exposi-
tion  in  1915,  inspired  the  Loughead  brothers  to  dust 
off  the  Model  G,  and  with  fresh  capital ,  they  repaired 
the  plane,  replacing  the  horseshoe  radiator  with  a  con-
ventional  type.  They  obtained  the  flying  concession  at 
the  Pan  Pacific,  and  during  the  fifty  flying  days  at  the 
fair,  they  safely  carried  more  than  600  passengers  and 
made  themselves  $4,000. 
Allen  and  Malcolm  decided  to  move  to  Santa  Bar-
bara  after  the  exposition  closed.  Since  the  gas  tank  of 
the  Model  G  held  only  8  gallons ,  the  boys  couldn't  at-
tempt  to  fly  the  ship  the  300  odd  miles  south  so  they 
packed  the  plane  in  crates  and  shipped  them  by  trairi. 
Early  1916  found  them  settled  in  Southern  Cali-
fornia  and  launching  a  new  project:  The  Loughead  Air-
craft  Manufacturing  Company.  For  the  third  time,  the 
energy  and  obvious  ability  of  Allen  and  Malcolm  at-
(Publicity Photo)
Audrey Munson and Malcolm Loughead in the cockpi t of the
Model G. 
tracted  financial  backing.  It came  in  this  instance  from 
Burton R. Rodman, a  Santa Barbara machine shop owner. 
The  new  company  proposed  to  build  a  10  passenger 
flying  boat,  an  unprecedented  design  which  called  for 
slow  and  painstaking  workmanship.  The  second  Loug-
head  airplane  will  be  the  subject  of  the  next  article  in 
this series. 
Back  to  the  Model  G,  the  brothers  often  flew  it  to 
keep  up  their  flying .  It was  finally  retired  in  1918. 
With scant sentiment, the engine was sold and the frame-
work  of  the  Lougheads'  first  airplane  was  junked  for 
Of Men  and  Stars.  A  History  of  Lockheed  Aircraft  Cor-
poration,  by  Philip  L.  Juergens. 
Revolution  in the Sky, by  Richard S. Allen. 
1941 Ryan PT-22, a/n 41-15425 photographed by Ted Koaton
at Fond du  Lac, Wlsconaln In Auguat, 1976.
The photos on this page were con-
tributed by long-time EAAer John
"Jack" Rathjen, RFD 1, Ft. Calhoun,
Nebraska 68023. Jack's EAA number
is 2576 and his Antique/Classic Divi-
sion number is 272.
J ack is the proud owner of this re-
cently-restored 1929 Curtiss Robin ,
Serial Number 477. Jack's son, Bi ll
Rathjen, EAA 122305 rebuilt the plane
from the ground up and from the photos
it appears his craftsmanship and atten-
tion to detail are fi rst rate.
We hope the Rathjens will bring this
beauty to Oshkosh '81. We beli eve it
will be the first appearance of a Wright
J6-5 powered Curtiss Robin at the Osh-
kosh Convention.
By Gene Chase
Jack  Rathjen  and  his  newly  restored  1929 
Curtiss  Robin. 
November  15,  1980  . .. Jack  makes  the  first  take-off  after  rebuild.  Plane  Bill  Rathjen,  who  did  a  great  job  of  authentically 
is  based  at Bil-Lo  Airport, Ft.  Calhoun,  Nebraska.  restoring  the  Robin. 
Karyl Herman after her memorable flight In Sky Pal.
s\tt:\ Pal
At the 1980 Continental Luscombe Association (CLA)
fly-in, we had the biggest collection of Luscombes ever
to assemble at one time in one place; 71 during the last
weekend of May. At this fly-in, an event occurred which
I'd like to share with you.
The first hint of this event-to-be came on Friday when
Phantasy (my Luscombe, N2368K) and I flew to Colum-
bia , California, landed, and parked next door to some of
our favorite neighbors, our club president Loren Bump's
pretty polished A model , and Sky Pal , a comfortably
familiar partner (whom we followed home from Osh-
kosh '79). Now I'm sure many of you Luscombe Lovers
are aware that Tim Bowers' Sky Pal is the 1979 EAA
Convention's Grand Champion Classic aircraft. Mighty
fine company to be among.
Soo after getting parked and then greeting our
friends , some of whom we hadn' t seen for a whole year ,
Tim Bowers and I were chatting. Almost in passing,
Tim casually mentioned that he'd decided he wanted me
to fly Sky Pal. Me? Almost as casually, I responded
that he'd just given me a superb compliment for which
I was thankful (how many people, even friends , offer
to let you fly a champion airplane?); but I really couldn't
fly Sky Pal , as much as I'd like to. No, I simply couldn' t 
fly the one-and-only classic champion ... Not much
more was said about it , and we moved on to other topics.
Saturday morning several of us were up at 5:30 for
the best flight of the day - Dawn Patrol - which is
never better than at the setting of Columbia - foggy
mists lying in the valleys while the sun peeks and then
By  Karyl Herman 
EAA  112967, A IC 3772 
725 Shelter Creek  Lane, #225 
San Bruno,  CA  94066 
Photos  by the Author 
suddenly blossoms over the Sierras. After gently roll-
ing into the grass , we park and go have breakfast.
Then it's time for the scheduled events - the flour-
bombing/spot and short-field landing contests - a ll
in one flight. Phantasy and I "bomb" the flour-bombing,
get calculatedly lucky in the spot (first place), forget
to stop short and keep rolling to the turn-off (worst
place), and park.
By now there are quite a few of the "wheels-on-
backwards" type aircraft entering the pattern. Columbia
is a restored Gold Rush town, and a favorite fly-in spot
for weekend pilots . Taking a hangar-flying break be-
side the parked Luscombes , our illustrious neighbor
starts pushing Sky Pal out to go flying. I inquire if Tim
needs any help, and he says, yeah, come on, you' re going
to fly.
After a close-encounter-of-the-Bonanza-kind and after
the dust settles, Tim bids me to come on and get in. No,
Tim, really I can't . Oh come on, it's just like your plane.
Not by a long shot! (It may be the same model with the
same engine, but no way is it "just like" my plane -
no plane is just like a champion!) Standing by the left
door, Tim says to come on and get in again, and I meekly
obey. (Oh no, he's going to let me fly from the left seat.)
While fastening the seatbelt, he starts explaining the
switches for the radio and generator . At that point , I
get just a wee bit apprehensive - you mean I'm going
solo? Timmy, aren't you going up with  me?? No, go fly
- and enjoy yourself! I don't , I really don't believe this
is happening. But Tim .. . He shuts the doot , stands
back and waves. Smiling. (How can he be so casual?)
Well, might as well get on with it. Fit the headset ,
find the mags and pull-to-start, and 32B comes to life
with the accustomed Luscombe sound. By now, the air-
port manager has closed the grass trip, so we begin to
taxi for take-off on the paved runway. Whoops, watch
it, the rudders are different and need more pressure.
Using some brake to correct for the lack of rudder input
in the turn, I discover that 32Bravo's brakes are notice-
ably better than 68Kilo's . After almost fouling up the
first turn, I get the feel for the rudders and don' t need
brakes to steer anymore.
In the run-up area, everything checks out as ready,
and we wait for some landing traffic before rolling into
place. As we do so, that familiar feeling of excitement
in the pit of my stomach makes itself known - the same
feeling I get whenever I haven't flown for a while and
am about to do so (but I've already flown twice today,
so the excitement must be due to being in Sky Pal).
Slowly adding power and starting to roll while waiting
for something to feel different, the tail comes up on
schedule and soon we're airborne! Ah , that sure feels
good - hold her down in ground effect and let the speed
build up. Nice, that familiar feeling again. Hold her
down to the end of the runway, then pull back on the
stick for my favorite zoom climb on take-off. All right!
Feels good! About 2 G's on the meter, airspeed bleed-
ing off, now push over - don' t stall it .. .
Now we must do a fly-by for the CLAers down there.
Check for traffic, turn crosswind, check again and turn
downwind. Verifying altitude and airspeed takes a
couple of seconds longer than usual - I have to find the
instruments; they're not quite where I'm used to finding
them. Hey, this plane really feels great - so smooth
and purring, it feels comfortable and familiar. Slow
down on base and final to allow enough room between
us and that 150 ahead so we can have room to build up
speed again for the fly-by ... The Cessna doesn' t clear
the runway until the end, so we have to settle for a
high fly-by. We'll have to go around and try that again,
it just won' t do to make a low speed fly-by.
This time around, I begin to think (and get nervous)
about the landing coming up after the next circuit of
the pattern. As we turn crosswind, someone comes up
on the radio and says for me to leave the pattern and
wait. Okay, but who's that? It's Tim and   ~ c i l Shuman
in Cecil's Luscombe, and they're coming up to get some
in-flight photos. OK guys , I'll be over here near the bridge.
In the meantime, let's get a better feel for this plane.
Trying some maneuvers and having difficulty finding
instruments to verify what I'm doing, I decide to forget
about looking at the panel (pretty though it is) and just
fly the airplane by the "seat of my pants". Oh yes, that
works out much better. I do remember to check the oil
pressure/temperature from time to time, but ignore
everything else.
Soon Cecil 's Luscombe is in sight, and with him
another Luscombe - Al LaForge's "Lady Bug" with
brother Fred flying. We switch frequencies so we can
chat and so Tim can get us where he wants us for the
pictures. Oh dear, I don' t know if I really want to fly
Sky Pal in tight formation . .. Oh well, just fly the
plane and everything will be all right . Sure enough,
it is . We fly around, changing places several times , and
the only thing I miss is having the D-windows for spot-
ting my partners. So I tell myself to just pay attention
to the plane I'm flying wing on, and let the other guy
worry about me. Works out great!
Entering the pattern and back on Unicom, Tim hand-
signals for me to take the lead for a fly-by at about 100
feet . Gee, this is great , I almost wish it would go on and
on. Hey gang, look at us-I'm flying the Grand Champion!
Wow! What an indescribable feeling! This really is
happening ...
Turning downwind, the upcoming landing becomes
a decision to make, shall I stall it or wheel it? It might
be nice to try a stall landing, my tail wheel always shim-
mys, so I almost never do one. On the other hand, I'm
more comfortable doing wheelies ... Aw shucks , wheelies
look so good, and I'm happier doing them, let's wheel
Sky Pal on. Turning final, I realize that this historic
(for me) flight is almost over, and what a privilege it
has been. This is definitely one for my logbook, which
shows nothing but "68K", page after page, since I got
my Luscombe. Yes, that's right, 32B is only the second
Luscombe I've soloed. Coming down the last few feet
on final , I let Sky Pal tell me what to do and, "just like"
my Luscombe, she does and soon our main!'> chirp on
the runway - stick forward - and she rolls straight
as an arrow. No rudder-fanning at all, just wait for the
tail to settle to the ground and then add some power for
taxi to the parking area.
Shutting down and climbing out, I'm ecstatic - Tim
let me fly Sky Pal, the Grand Champion Classic!! What
a privilege! Thank you, Tim Bowers, for a flight I'll
never forget!
Tim and Barbara Bowers' 2132B, Karyl Herman's 2368K, Loren
and Adele Bump's 71134.

By Arthur E. Joerin 
A. Cross, A. M. 
The  Santos-Dumont  "Demoiselle": 
Historical  Background 
By George Hardie,  Jr. 
EAA Historian 
Part  II 
Having finished the steering arrangement it would
be wise to take up the construction of the wings. The
wings of the "Demoiselle" are made entirely of bamboo
rods with bamboo or ash lateral beams as shown in
Plate V. However, Clement Bayard, at whose factory
in France these monoplanes are being manufactured,
makes them of poplar or ash. Aluminum tubes have also
been used. It would be advisable, however, to stick to
the bamboo rods which served Santos-Dumont so well.
In order to secure the curves as shown at the top of
Plate V, on the left, it would be sufficient to bend the
rods over a form by force. They may also be bent by
means of a string tied to the ends, drawing them to-
gether, and then plunging them into boiling water for
about 15 minutes. The rods should be given plenty of
time to dry before the strings are removed and they
are placed in position. They will retain their shape if
given time to dry, so no attempt should be made to hasten
matters. If the builder desires to use wood he may pro-
ceed in like manner. The curve is almost the true arc
of a circle.
It  is not necessary to bend the rear lateral rod. It 
suffices to bend the one in front . The whole plane struc-
ture is kept rigid by guide wires running from the rods
to the frame as shown in Plate I. 
In order to attach the cloth to the extremities of the
rods, it is not necessary to employ any other method than
that shown at C, Plate III. This is the best method
known. As with the steering device the front ends of
the rods have to be covered by means of cloth hemmed
over . This diminishes the friction of the air against the
rods. Santos-Dumont has not always used the same
method of attaching the cloth, but the method shown
here is the one he used on the machine with which he
made the famous flight, and is the method which the
builder is advised to follow.
In the original flyer there was a rod just above the
head of the pilot . It has been thought advisable, however,
to leave this rod out. Santos-Dumont is quite short , and
when he was in the pilot's seat, his head did not reach
the rod . In the machines now being manufactured in
France, the rod is omitted.
The wings completed, it would be well to next under-
take the construction of the frame. The wheels are easily
made, for, save that they have a longer hub, they are
very similar in construction to the ordinary bicycle
wheel. In the construction of these wheels it would be
well to use strong wire spokes, for at times, when the
machine strikes the ground suddenly, great stress is
put upon them. Santos-Dumont experimented a long
time with the wheels before he finally settled on a hub
Building Santos-Dumont mono-
planes  at  the  Clement  Bayard 
factory  in  France. 
length of 6 in. This he found was strong enough to sup-
port the machine when he used a 35 hp motor. If a lighter
motor is used, the size of the wheel hubs may be modi-
fied. These hubs are, as may be seen in the drawings,
simply put on over the tubes and fastened by a cotter
pin. The tubes should be allowed to extend out several
inches beyond the end of the hub. Great care should be
taken in the selection of this lower tube, for almost the
entire weight of the machine comes upon it. It is not
necessary to provide any special bearings for the wheels,
as it is intended they should work with a slight friction.
It may readily be seen that the wheels are inclined to-
ward one another at the top. The angle of inclination of
that part of the tubing, which forms the axle, is 1 to 9.
This manner of placing the wheels prevents them from
being broken when subjected to a slight jar if the machine
takes to the ground unexpectedly.
The connection of the tubing with the framework of
bamboo is somewhat difficult , but the details of as-
sembling are always the same in principle, and are shown
on Plate VII. The pieces, which are to hold the tubes
are introduced, the shoe is firmly bolted. (See Detail
of Assembly "A" on Plate VII .) If the builder does not
care to prepare these special pieces, the flattened end
of the tube may be affixed to a square piece of metal
by means of an additional bolt. It is considered bett-er,
however , to prepare these special pieces as receptacles
for the ends of the tubes.
It would be imprudent and dangerous to make a
hole in any of the three main bamboo rods which con-
stitute the frame of the machine, for this would detract
from their strength. When we _are ready to attach the
tubing to the frame, it would be well to follow the
method shown on Plate VII . (Detail of Assembly of a
Post with the Bamboo.) Out of a piece of sheet metal a
joint may be formed so as to make a receptacle for the
end of the tube. Provision should be made by a small
piece of metal so that the bamboo will be protected if
the end of the tube should strike it. Pieces of sheet metal
can be wound around the bamboo rod as indicated on
the drawing.
Let us now call your attention to the joint at the
junction of the lower bamboo rods with the two upright
tubes at the inside bearing of each wheel. This fork-
like joint should be brazed in the manner of a bicycle
frame. It may also be forged or made of a piece of sheet
metal forced into shape. There may be some play at the
joint, but this does not matter, as the wire stretchers,
to be put on afterward, will give the necessary strength,
and prevent the pieces from gliding one upon the other.
The machine thus far completed, we may proceed
to attach the piano wire stretchers, and then the wires
controlling the horizontal and vertical rudders and gov-
erning the warping of the planes. The rudder controls
may be installed in accordance with the builder's ideas,
and the motor controls will vary, of course, with the
type of motor used. In the "Demoiselle" the wire regulat-
ing the horizontal rudder is attached to a lever within
easy reach of the pilot's right hand. The vertical rudder
is governed by a wheel at the pilot's left hand. The lever
which controls the warping of the planes is placed be-
hind the pilot's seat. Santos-Dumont operated this by
bending his body to the right or left, the lever fitting
into a tube fastened to his coat in the rear. A side move-
Left hand Wing
of the"Demoisellc"
metal Gau5e  IYE'16 
Sheet meta/ 
Leather seat 

L-___________________ ___ --------- - -
This view gives a good Idea of the location of the gasoline tank and the radiator.
How Santos-Dumont conveyed his aeroplane to the aviation field.
General Dimensions of the "Demoiselle"
O</i?d  f ' Gau"e NE' 2S
reI'"    the  reet  UPOD 
PLATE YI 1'Au"'S 3
The  whuls  are  6/cy cle, wheels  19ii;"1( 'll'
upon  whlch-the 
/s  to s/t 
View of the "Demoiselle" showing position of motor and
ment pulls the rear end of the wing opposite to the side
to which the pilot leans. The balancing of the whole
apparatus, is, therefore, in a manner , automatic. The
pilot has but to bend over to one side in order to balance
the machine. Springs are introduced on the wires which
control the rudders of some of the machines so as to bring
the rudder back to its normal position without effort
on the part of the operator. The seat is a piece of canvas
or leather stretched across the two lower bamboo rods
just behind the wheels.
Santos-Dumont had his motor control so arranged
that he could regulate the supply of gasoline by his foot.
The spark switch may be placed on the steering lever.
These controls may be arranged differently, however ,
with other motors.
It is of prime importance that the motor should be
perfectly balanced. It should be direct connected to the
axle holding the propeller. The gasoline reservoir is
located behind the pilot's seat, the fuel being forced up
into a smaller one just above the motor. In his remark-
able flight from St. Cyr to Buc, the inventor of the mono-
plane used a two-cylinder Darracq motor of 30 hp, which
gave the propeller 1000 rpm. It weighed a little of 99
lb. The ent ire machine weighed 260 lb. without the pilot.
At the end of the crankshaft, opposite the propeller ,
is a pinion and eccentric working the oil pumps. This
pinion also meshes with the gear which operates the
water pumps . The cams which raise the valves at the
same time operate the magneto. The radiator , which
is composed of a great many small copper tubes con-
nected up to a larger tube at the front and rear, is placed
under the main surface of the wings and extends from
the front to the rear of the planes.
- ofJplicp plale: Nq J.9
Details of the "Demoise"e"
TRU rS 2
5t iffening tIJbe
Ther? Bamboo P/eces ""'"" '-'
for the back lon,Ri t IJd· 7{t - .
i nal beams or. t he r 8amb(}(} of the
wings enter mt o _____-
Frame c(}nneded
these tIJbes attne.loid 01'
the 3 tubes
Tube tor rib I \

tJamboo 01' Frame .
The lateral tubes arV'
f lattenedand 3re .
Joi nedby a boJt at
t he midd/(' C317e
. ..,-
  i 'hole/olel a
whicl7are rastened
the wlrpstretchers
Some of the aircraft displayed in the Museu Aeroespacial - Campo Dos Afonsos - Rio. On the left are the
Santos Dumont 14 BIS and Demoiselle, a Muniz M-7, a CAP 4 and others.
By J. C. Boscardin 
EAA  127040, A IC 4376 
Silveira Peixoto  1077 
80,000 Curitiba Panama 
Photos  Courtesy  of the Author 
_J 't .......  '---. 
1929 Curtiss Fledgling, a pioneer Brazilian airmail plane.
Like  some  other  large  countries  with  partially  de-
veloped  areas,  Brazil  has  had  a  dual  attitude  regarding 
the  importance  of  aircraft  since  the  beginning  of  this 
There  have  been  short  periods  of  time  when  both 
private  concerns  and  government-sponsored  facilities 
have  attempted  to  design  and  build  aircraft.  Since  1910 
the·military has assembled and operated imported planes 
and  after  1930  several  U.  S.  and  German  types  have 
been  built under license. 
In  Rio  de  Janeiro,  in  1914,  the  Brazilian  Navy  or-
ganized  a  naval  aircraft  facility  where,  with  the  help 
of a  Mr. Horton Hoover,  and  others , many  naval  aircraft 
were  constructed.  This  American  individual  is  named 
because  he  remained  in  Brazil  where  he  worked  in  an 
institute  at  the  State  University  in  Sao  Paulo  under 
Frederico  Brotero  making  several studies , some  of which 
had been  contracted by  the Navy. 
The group designed  and built various  airplanes  using 
native  Brazilian  materials  such  as  wood,  plywood  and 
fabric.  Wood was used for  longerons, struts and propellers. 
Between  1930  and  1950,  this  group  known  as  the 
I.P.T.  turned  out  some  2  dozen  prototypes.  The  most 
prominent  plane  was  a  high  wing  monoplane  similar  to 
A view inside the Museu Aeroespacial - Campo Dos Afonsos -
Rio. The Curtiss Fledgling on the left is airworthy.
the J-3 Cub, produced in 1934. This aircraft called the
"Paulistinhas" was powered by a 3 cylinder, 45 hp engine
and approximately 1,000 examples were manufactured.
While this work was being done in Sao Paulo State,
a Naval factory in Rio was assembling imported planes
a.nd manufacturing under license such types as the Focke-
Wulf FW-44 and FW-56. After the start of WWII pro-
duction changed to Fairchild PT-19s and later to Fok-
ker trainers.
The private aviation industry in Rio was represented
by a naval shipbuilder, Henrique Lage who owned a
sizeable facility and hired the French designer, Mr. Renee
Vandaelle. By 1934 the serialized production of planes,
the M-7 and M-9, designed by Guedes Muniz had begun.
Mr. Muniz studied in France where he constructed one
or two prototypes as a student. The M-7 and M-9 were
biplane trainers powered by Gipsy engines.
In 1938-39 the Henrique Lage factory began to pro-
duce the HL series. The HL-1 was a Piper-like high
wing monoplane and the HL-6 was a low wing aerobatic
trainer. Even a single, light trimotor craft was built.
After 1945 there was a "house cleaning" program
and many training and general use aircraft used during
WWII were scrapped. Many good, vintage aircraft in
flyable condition were dismantled and the components
simply disappeared. More than 2,000 airplanes dis-
tributed during the war effort to clubs and schools,
were reduced to a few dozen. Planes like the Focke-
Wulf Strosser were lost while some American Fleet
2's and British Tiger Moths survived.
Nowadays it isn't uncommon to see a PT-19 in use
by an Aero Club as an aerobatic trainer. A single PT-22
is being flown by one of the clubs.
We were highly frustrated when governmental ac-
tion resulted in the scrapping of two FW-44's. We have
succeeded in restoring a Fleet 2 and some gliders in-
cluding a Kranich II which is one of the most gratify-
ing of all to fly.
At one time during 1944 a Brazilian facility was pro-
ducing one plane a day including a large number of
Piper-like monoplanes, the M- 7, a biplane trainer re-
sembling Moths and Buckers, and the HL-6, a 2 place
low wing aircraft with very good performance.
In 1960 we helped with the restoration of one of
the last HL-6 aircraft. This gave us a good opportunity
to evaluate its performance and other general character-
istics . I think this plane constitutes the biggest in-
EAA member J. C. Boscardin and a Fleet biplane. Fairchild
PT-' 9 in background.
terest for the foreign reader and I will try to obtain
some figures. Examples of the HL-6 can be seen in two
Brazilian museums, one in Sao Paulo and the other in
Afonsos-Rio which also displays a flyable Curtiss
As late as 1950 there were some Ju 52's, Weihe's, and
even a flyable Me 108 but they have since vanished.
American types such as Wacos and Stearmans have
deteriorated from abandonment mostly because of a
lack of operable powerplants.
Today we can only see a possible restoration project,
some Aeronca Chiefs, 2 or 3 Luscombe Silvaires, a
Bucker Jungmann or two, and perhaps 2 or 3 Tiger
MARCH 15-22 - LAKELAND, FLORIDA - 7th Annual Sun 'N Fun EM
Fly-In. First big fly-in of the year. Don't miss it - make your plans
Classics, Homebuilts, Ultralights and Warbirds invited. Awards
and banquet Saturday night. For further information, contact Geneva
McKiernan, 5301 Finsbury Place, Charlotte, NC 28211.
JUNE 5-7 - MERCED, CALIFORNIA - 24th Annual West Coast Antique
Fly-In sponsored by the Merced Pilot's Association. Early Bird re-
ception, dinner and dance Friday night; Award Banquet Saturday
night; Air Show Saturday and Sunday. For further information, con-
tact Don or Dee Human, 209/358-3487 or write, Fly-In Committee,
P.O. Box 3212, MerCed, CA 95340.
AUGUST 1-8 - OSHKOSH, WISCONSIN - 29th Annual EAA Fly-In
Convention. It is never too early to start making plans for the world's
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national Championships.
Annual EAA National Fall Fly-In. Don' t miss this one.
OCTOBER 16-18 - CAMDEN, SOUTH CAROLINA - Fly-In. Antiques,
Classics, Homebuilts, Ultralights, and Warbirds invited. Awards
and banquet Saturday night. For further information, contact Geneva
McKiernan, 5301 Finsbury Place, Charlotte, NC 28211 .
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Engine  must be  complete.  Al  Kelch,  622  North  Madison 
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1929,  1930,  1931 
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monthly  issues  of  The  Vi ntage  .Alrplane,  one  year  membership  in  the  EAA  and  separate  membership 
cards. Sport Avial/on not included. 
•  Membership  in  the  International  Aerobatic  Club,  Inc.  is  $16.00  annually  which  includes  12  issues
lAC  of Sport Aerobatics.  All  lAC members are required  to  be members  of EAA 
•  Membership  in  the  Warbirds  of  America,  Inc.  is  $20.00  per  year,  which  includes  a  subscription  to
WARBIRDS  Warbirds  Newsletter.  Warbird  members  are  required  to  be  members  of  EAA 
• Membership  in  the  EAA  Ultralight  Assn.  is  $25.00  per  year  which  includes  the  Ultralight  publication 
_  ($15.00  additional  for  Sport  Aviation  magazine) .  For  current  EAA  members  only,  $15.00,  which  includes 
Ultralight publication. 
P.  O.  BOX 229  HALES  CORNERS,  WI  53130