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CONTENT
Chapter
No. Description
1. INTRODUCTION
2. HISTORY OF UDRS
3. TECHNOLOGIES OF UDRS
4. ADVANTAGES
5. CONCLUSION
6. REFERENCES














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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION











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Umpire Decision Review System
The Umpire Decision Review System (also known as UDRS or DRS) is a new
technology based system currently being used on an experimental basis in the sport of
cricket. The system was first introduced in Test Cricket for the sole purpose of reviewing
the controversial decisions made by the on-field umpires in the case of a batsman being
dismissed or not. The new review system was officially launched by International Cricket
Council on 24 November 2009 during the first Test match between New Zealand and
Pakistan at the University Oval in Dunedin. It was first used in One Day Internationals in
January 2011, during England's tour of Australia/ The ICC had made the UDRS
mandatory in all international matches but it later decided to end the mandatory use of
DRS and now it will be up to both the teams to mutually agree on DRS use. However, the
ICC's executive board made it clear that the DRS would still be part of all ICC events and
that they support the use of technology and would continue to work on its development.
Components
There are basically three components in UDRS, although now two are used.
Hawk-Eye or Eagle Eye or Virtual Eye :ball-tracking technology..
Hot Spot (cricket): Infra-red imaging system
Snick meter
Hot spot's success rate is found to be 90-95%', New cameras were used in Border-
Gavaskar series in 2011-12 for viewers, which were vastly superior to those that had been
part of the DRS in the past.
System
Each team is allowed to make three unsuccessful review requests per innings during a
match (one per innings in one day cricket). A fielding team may use the system to dispute
a "not out" call and a batting team may do so to dispute an "out" call. The fielding team
captain or the batsman being dismissed invokes the challenge by signaling a "T" with the
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arms. Once the challenge is invoked, acknowledged, and agreed, the Third Umpire
reviews the play. While umpires may request the Third Umpire for certain close calls
such as line calls (to determine run outs and stumpings) and boundary calls, a challenge is
used in situations that may result in a dismissal: for example, to determine if the ball is a
legal catch (making contact with the batsman's bat or glove and not. touching the ground
before being held by a fielder) or if a delivery made the criteria for a leg before wicket
dismissal (hitting the ground in line or on the off side and hitting the batsman in line with
a path that would have hit the wicket). The Third Umpire then reports to the on-field
umpire whether his analysis supports the original call, contradicts the call, or is
inconclusive. The on-field umpire then makes the final decision: either re-signalling a
call that is standing or revoking a call that is being reversed and then making the
corrected signal. Each team can go for referrals until they use their share of unsuccessful
reviews. Under the DRS rule only clearly incorrect decisions are reversed; if the Third
Umpire's analysis is within established 'margins of error or is otherwise inconclusive, the
on-field umpire's original call stands.
When a not-out LEW decision is evaluated, and if the replay demonstrates the ball has
made impact more than 2.5m away from the wickets, the umpires also have to consider
another feature: the distance the ball has travelled between pitching and hitting the pad. If
that distance (between pitching and pad) is less than 40cm and if the ball has to travel
more than 2.5m to reach the stumps, then any not-out decision given by the on-field
umpire will remain not out. It has also been decided that if the batsman is more than 3.5m
from the wicket, then again not-out decisions will not be reversed. The only picture in
which an LEW decision will be reversed in favor of the bowler is if the batsman is more
than 2.5m away from the wicket, if the distance is less than 3.5m and the distance
between pitching and point of impact is more than 40cm. In that case, some part of the
ball must be hitting the middle stump, and the whole ball must be hitting the stumps
below the bails. In cases where the original decision is out, the 2.5m or 40cm distances
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do not apply, SS in that State Hawk Eye must show the ball to be completely missing the
stumps in order for the umpire to undo his decision.
Response
The Decision Review System has generally received positive response from players and
coaches since its launch, however there have been some criticisms as well. West Indies
legend Joel Garner labelled the system a 'gimmick'. Another West Indian Ramnaresh
Sarwan said that he was not a supporter of the experimental referral system. Former
umpire Dickie Bird also criticised the system, saying it undermines the authority of on-
field umpires. The cricketing board of India, (BCCI) is not in favour of using the system.
Pakistani spinner Saeed Ajmal expressed dissatisfaction over the Decision Review
System after semi-final of 2011 Cricket World Cup against India. He said that DRS
showed the line of the ball deviating more than it actually did.
The British company Hawk Eye published an official response on the Sachin Tendulkar
review, which proves that the decision reversal was right.
The first referral of the World Cup came after the 4th ball of the 2nd innings was bowled.
India's Shanthakumaran Sreesanth had bowled a yorker and the umpire declared it not
out. Dhoni referred it to the TV umpire and a replay showed it might have missed the leg
stump, so the original decision was upheld. The match marked the debut of the
controversial umpire referral system in World Cup cricket. UDRS was used in a thrilling
tie between India and England in Bangalore as MS Dhoni was annoyed by the. system
and said that it is an adulteration of human decision and technology, to which the ICC
replied that the players should know the technology before passing judgement on it JCC
later revised the guidelines of the 2.5m rule., Pakistan used DRS successfully against
Australia in their group A match. Australian captain Ricky Ponting edged a delivery from
Mohammed Hafeez and the umpire ruled it not out. The DRS system reversed this
decision. This was a critical turning point in the match. The Australian skipper admitted
after the match that he had edged the ball, but said he stayed at the crease because he has
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never been a walker. "There were no doubts about the nick - I knew I hit it," Ponting said.
"But as always, I wait for the umpire to give me out. That's the way I've always played
the game."








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CHAPTER 2
HISTORY OF UDRS







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History
The decisions before UDRS technology were very controversial, but with this players can
claim and find the accurate decisions by third umpire.
The new review system was officially launched by International Cricket Council (ICC) in
2009 during the first Test match between New Zealand and Pakistan and in One Day
Internationals in January 2011, during England v/s" Australia.
It was first used in One Day Internationals in January 2011, during England's tour of
Australia/ The ICC had made the UDRS mandatory in all international matches but it
later decided to end the mandatory use of DRS and now it will be up to both the teams to
mutually agree on DRS use. However, the ICC's executive board made it clear that the
DRS would still be part of all ICC events and that they support the use of technology and
would continue to work on its development.










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CHAPTER 3
TECHNOLOGY OF UDRS






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History
The Snick meter also known as Snicko, was invented by Allan Plaskett, in the mid-1990s.
Snick meter technology was first used in 1999 by Channel 4 in the UK, before being used
in India and Australia. It is used in televising cricket to graphically analyse sound and
video, and show whether a fine noise, or snick, occurs as ball passes bat. It was

Method
The Snick meter is composed of a very sensitive microphone located in one of the
stumps, connected to an oscilloscope that measures sound waves. When the ball nicks the
bat, the oscilloscope trace will pick up the sounds. At the same time, a high speed camera
records the ball passing the bat The oscilloscope trace is then shown alongside slow
motion video of the ball passing the bat, and by the shape of the sound wave you can
determine whether of not the noise picked up by the microphone coincides with the ball
passing the bat, and whether the sound seems to come from the bat hitting the ball or
from some other object.

Uses
This technology is used in televised cricket matches to graphically show the video of the
ball passing the bat at the same time the audio of any sounds at the time. It is only used to
give the television audience more information and to show if the ball did or did not
actually hit the bat. The umpires does not get the benefit of seeing 'snicko1.
As the ball passes the bat, there can be other noises that can be confused with the ball on
bat noises. The bat often hits the pads on the way through, making a sound at the same
time the ball passes the bat. The sound/sound wave is purportedly different for bat-pad
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and bat-ball, but this is not always clear. The shape of the recorded sound wave is the key
- a short sharp sound is associated with bat on ball. The bat hitting the pads or the ground
produces a flatter sound wave.
Note that the umpire does not have the benefit of the Snick meter, and must instead rely
on his senses of sight and hearing, as well as his own personal judgment.

















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HAWK EYE
Hawk-eyed is having very keen sight.
Hawk eye is a computer system used in Cricket and other sports to track the path of the
ball.
Hawk-eye is used in different departments of the game.
LBWs.
Wagon Wheels.
Destin.
Pitch Maps.
Beehives,
Rail cam-Ball speeds
Reaction Time.
LBWs
It shows would the ball have hit the stumps? Did the ball pitch in line? Did fte ball hit the
batsman in line
WAGON WHEELS
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The I's, 2's, 3's, 4's and 6's that make 50's or centuries are represented by the different
colors of the wagon wheel, which shows the areas of the field that the batsman has been
targeting.

It helps you in, how far a ball has turned or deviated after pitching, one color shows the
actual delivery which has turned or seamed, the other color shows, "if the ball hasn't
turned or seamed".
PITCH MAPS
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It shows where the ball has hit the pitch. It shows the complete package of deliveries'
where they have been dropped1, may be pitched or dropped in Good length, foil length,
short length. And also the deliveries will be represented in different colors. Each color
has its own identity representing runs, dots, boundaries, wickets etc.
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It shows how the ball passes the batsman. It shows the complete package of deliveries
where they have passed the batsman. Same as the pitch map the deliveries will be
represented by different colors. Each color has its own identity representing wickets.,
runs, dots, boundaries.


RAILCAM
It is a side view shot which shows the differences in speed, bounce. It represents the
bowlers variation.

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BALL SPEEDS
It also has the ability to show the speeds of the ball at different points. The different
points may be from releasing point to before the ball hitting the bat. The points are
releasing point, before pitching, after pitching and when the ball hits the bat.

REACTION TIME
It helps you hi showing how quick the bowler is, that is in how much time the ball has
reached from bowlers hand to the batsman. And also shows you the reaction time of a
fielder that is in how much time the fielder has taken his catch.

ZOOMER
Depending upon the lens the Zoom depends. The more the power of lens, the more the
Zoom.
Zoomer is used in, whether the ball has hit the bat or not. It is also used in, whether the
fielder has taken the catch clearly or not, that is without grounding the ball,
GPS
GPS stands for Global Positioning System.
It is the technology which has been recently introduced in Cricket (2006-2007), it has
already been introduced in Foot ball four years ago.
It is the equipment which has to be weared by a player on a chest or on a waist or hand. It
helps you in calculating the distance travelled by a player on a ground, distance between
the players, and also other positions.
Example
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When a fielder catches a ball by running a far distance. That distance will be
calculated
accurately by GPS,
The distance travelled by the batsman between the wickets can be calculated. In
2007 in a 20-20 match in Australia'between Australia and New Zealand, the
distance travelled by Micheal Hussey was 3-2 kms and distance travelled by
Nathan Bracken was 3.8 kms.
Hot Spot
Hot Spot is ah infra-red imaging system used in cricket to determine whether the ball has
struck the batsman, bat or pad. Hot Spot requires two infrared cameras on opposite sides
of the ground above the field of play that are continuously recording an image. Any
suspected snick or bat/pad event can be verified by examining the infrared image, which
usually shows a bright spot where contact friction from the ball has elevated the local
temperature. Where referrals to an off-field third umpire are permitted, the technology is
used to enhance the on-field umpire's decision-making accuracy. Where referrals are not
permitted, the technology is used primarily as an analysis aid for televised coverage.





Use
Its principal application in cricket is in deciding whether the .ball has struck the batsman's
bat or pad this determination being critical in determining if a batsman is dismissed or not
on appeal for LEW or eaughtln considering whether a batsman is out when the ball
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strikes bat then caught by a member of the fielding team or caught in front of the stumps
when ball hits pad, one of the most difficult decisions is whether the ball struck the pad
only, or the bat only, or (if it struck both) whether the pad or the bat was struck first. If
the ball strikes the bat only, or strikes the bat followed by the pad, then the batsman could
be out caught but not LBWJf the ball strikes the pad in front of the stumps or inline with
stumps, then the batsman could be out LB W but not caught. If the ball strikes the pad
followed by the bat, then the batsman could be out LBW or out caught if a fielder catches
the ball. The batsman's bat and pad are often close together, and it can be very hard to
determine by eye which was struck first, whereas the hotspot technology can often
resolve the question.
Hot-spot imagery is also used to show which part of the cricket bat hit the ball, as ideally
the batsmen try to "middle" the ball i.e. hit it where the sweet spot lies. Hot spot camera
provides some valuable information while analyzing the strokes played by a batsman.

Mechanism
Hot Spot uses two infra-red cameras positioned at either end of the ground. These
cameras sense and measure heat from friction generated by a collision, such as ball on
pad, ball on bat, ball on ground or ball on glove. Using a subtraction technique a series of
black-and-white negative frames is generated into a computer, precisely localising the
ball's point of contact.



History
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Hot Spot uses technology developed in the military for tank and jet fighter tracking.The
technology was founded by French scientist Nicholas Bion, before being worked upon by
many companies in Paris and being bought and adopted by the Australian Nine Network,
The technology was adapted for television by BBQ Sports, the Australian company
responsible for the Snickometer, in conjunction with Sky Sports,
The technology was first used during the first Test match of the 2006-07 Ashes at The
Gabba, on 23 November 2006.
The ICC announced that Hot Spot images would be available for use as part of its
ongoing technology trial during the second and third Tests (March 2009) in South Africa.
The system was be available to the third umpire in the event of a player referral,
Advantages/Disadvantages
Hot Spot has two main advantages over its competing technology, the Snickometer,
which is a sound-detection based system. Snickometer often produces inconclusive
results indicating contact (potentially any combination of bat, pad and ball) only, whereas
the Hot Spot clearly shows exactly what the ball strikes. Precise synchronisation of the
Snickometer sound with associated pictures takes time, making it currently not suitable
for use in the umpire decision review system.
Hot Spot technology, even though claimed to be extremely accurate, is not used in many
matches. The main reason for this is its expense: $6000 per" day for the use of two
cameras and $10000 for the use of four cameras. Warren Brennan, the owner of BBG
Sports, said the unwillingness of the International Cricket Council or national cricket
boards to pay to use the expensive technology had restricted its use: "We won't be
supplying Hot Spot to the World Cup next year, even for the semis or finals, if the cricket
boards want a feed of that for adjudication purposes, they should contribute to the costs.
The Ashes could be the last hurrah."
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In the India-England ODI Series in 2011, there were controversial decisions based on the
Hot Spot technology going against India's Rahul Dravid on mqre than one occasion
where Hot Spot replays proved inconclusive and yet Dravid was given out. On one
occasion, there seemed to be a nick which Hot Spot wasn't able to detect. These incidents
threw the role of Hot Spot technology into doubt once again.

















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CHAPTER 4
ADVANTAGES










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ADVANTAGES
By using UDRS system, the more accurate decision comes
Now ICC good move to apply in all fonnat of cricket to make it more interesting,
Player is having the choice if has some doubt in his mind regarding umpires
decision.

















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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS











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CONCLUSIONS
It is a good move of ICC to apply UDRS in all formates of Cricket to increase the level of
cricket and by using UDRS there is accuracy in decision and having minimum chances of
wrong decisions.
In addition, other forms of technology maybe used subject to ICC being satisfied that the
required standards of accuracy and time efficiency can be met.
















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REFERENCES












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REFERENCES
en.wikipedia.org/ www, gooele.com
www. cricinfo.com
www.starsports2.com