The following Design Criteria shall apply to all mechanical Equipment. The
given Design Criteria identify the minimum Equipment requirements. The
project specific requirements are outlined in Contract Annex 6 !lant
concept and process description" and Contract Annex # $cope of %or&s"
All Equipment to 'e supplied shall 'e of ro'ust design and manufacture
and shall correspond to state of the art of cement manufacturing
technology. $elected Equipment shall have a high degree of availa'ility(
require minimum maintenance and operate with high efficiency. Electrical
and thermal energy consumption shall 'e low. Equipment shall 'e
designed for heavy)duty industrial application( capa'le of handling very
a'rasive materials in dusty environments. The Equipment shall 'e suita'le
for continuous operation at uniform maximum load without adverse effect
on the life or maintenance of the Equipment under prevailing conditions.
*urthermore it shall 'e suited to all local climatic and operating conditions
at the site. +uildings( housings and frames shall 'e protected against
corrosion( especially for plant located in the neigh'orhood of an ocean or a
sea and for Equipment handling raw material as slag and petco&e in
am'ient temperature. ,ixing of material with moisture content over - .
with cement or clin&er in Equipment when the internal temperature is 'elow
the dew point shall 'e for'idden. Equipment such as 'uc&et elevator( 'ag
filter and components such as ducts shall 'e insulated when the
temperature of the casing can go 'elow the dew point of one of the gas
components. Anti)corrosion) and anti)coating mechanisms shall 'e part of
the Equipment.
The Equipment shall 'e designed with sufficient safety margins from a
technical and process performance point of view. /t shall 'e capa'le of
restarting after stopping due to power failure or other process related
interruptions i.e. interloc&".
-.-.- 0otary 1iln
-.-.-.- !rocess Technological Dimensioning of 1iln
 The maximum gas velocity at the cylindrical &iln inlet section shall 'e
-2.3 m4s. 5as velocity to 'e 'ased on project gas flow and inside
lining without &iln charge.
-.-.-.3 ,echanical Dimensioning of 1iln $hell
 The reference stress i.e. compound stress made of shear and
'ending stress" on the &iln shell shall not exceed 36 74mm
 The Contractor shall prove the &iln design 'y static load calculations(
as well as 'y su'mitting shear( 'ending and reference stress
 *or 8 support &ilns( &iln shell material shall 'e -6,o8 or equivalent"
starting from &iln discharge to tire 93 including first section uphill".
The remaining shell can 'e made of $386:053 or equivalent.
 *or 3 support &ilns( 62. of the &iln length from &iln discharge( shell
material shall 'e -6,o8 or equivalent". The remaining shell can 'e
made of $386:053 or equivalent.
 The thic&ness changes from one &iln shell section to the other shall
not exceed 36. e.g. ;2)62 4 62)<6 4 <6)86 4 86)36mm".
 The tire shell section has to 'e equipped with a chamfer = -6>" to
smoothen the thic&ness change to the neigh'oring shell section.
-.-.-.8 1iln Tires and 0ollers
 The first and the last tire must have the same diameters and width
that a spare tire would fit on 'oth places.
 The support rollers of the first and the last station and their 'earings
must 'e interchangea'le.
 The &iln shall 'e equipped with automatic hydraulic axial thrust
equipment or equivalent.
 Each &iln support roller 'earing has to 'e equipped with two
temperature sensors( which allow easy identification of heat source
radial or axial part of the 'earing".
 The roller 'earing housing must 'e equipped with an oil sight glass
for chec&ing oil level
 The 'earings must have lu'rication with forced oil circulation for slow
inching" rotation speed. ?il filter must 'e installed in the stream
coming from the pump.
 The specific 'earing pressure must 'e 'elow <.6 74mm
radial load
on 'earing divided 'y projected 'earing area"
 The surface of roller stations pits must 'e sealed oil)tight to prevent
that oil penetrates into the concrete pier.
 The @ertAian pressure on &iln tires shall not exceed <62 74mm
rigid supports or 662 74mm
for supports with self)alignment
 The Contractor shall prove the &iln tire designs 'y static load
calculations( which show 'ending stress and @ertAian pressure.
 ?n two station &ilns( supports with self)alignment capa'ilities( to
maintain a uniform contact 'etween tires and rollers( are mandatory.
-.-.-.< 1iln Drive
 The installed maximum &iln speed shall 'e B4C 6 rpm.
 The &iln speed range must 'e minimum from -2. to -22..
 Two station kilns have to be driven by the support rollers (by
 /n case of friction drive( the rollers have to 'e driven mechanically 'y
gear reducers no hydraulic drive".
 The auxiliary drive must 'e designed for a fixed speed ≤ 2.- rpm and
include an over running clutch and anti)roll'ac& devices.
-.-.-.6 +ric& 0etaining and @eat !rotection $ystems
 Conical &iln shell outlet for 'ric& retention is preferred for &ilns with
diameters BC<.6 m. Cone angle must 'e =-3> to allow use of
standard 'ric&s.
 A dou'le 'ric& retainer or a compara'le design" with a minimum
height of 62 mm( made of heat resistant steel shall 'e foreseen in
diameter distance from the &iln outlet segments to allow < to 6 uncut
'ric& rings.
 ,inimum specific installed cooling air flow is 6 m
4s per m shell length
to 'e cooled. ,inimum requirement is to simultaneously cool 32. of
the &iln length with this specific cooling air flow. The system must
allow to move these 32. within 62 . of the total shell length on the
discharge side.
 Additional cooling air fans for cooling of the tire shell sections uphill
and downhill" with minimum 32 m84s per tire must 'e provided.
This requirement does not apply to the feed side tire.
 7ose ring cooling air noAAles shall 'e arranged evenly around 862
degrees of the &iln circumference.
 ,inimum nose ring cooling air shall 'e 2.88 m
4s per meter of &iln
shell circumference. The air pressure at the noAAle inlets shall 'e
minimum 32 m'ar. *or &ilns with diameter ≥ <.6 m( two cooling air
fans shall 'e provided.
 1iln drive and roller 'earings shall have a heat shield to protect them
from heat emitted 'y the &iln.
-.-.-.6 1iln Discharge @ood
 Air velocity in the &iln hood reference is smallest horiAontal cross
section at the cooler roof level or a'ove" shall 'e less than 6 m4s at
project gas flow.
 The tertiary air duct ta&e)off shall 'e from the &iln hood.
 The seal 'etween the &iln discharge hood and the grate cooler shall
'e of the la'yrinth type.
 Arrangement of 'eams of 'urner platform shall ta&e into account the
requirements of accessi'ility of seals for maintenance purposes.
 ?penings shall 'e provided at &iln hood 'ac& wall and at &iln hood
side walls for o'servation of 'urner and flame and clin&er discharge.
 $ufficient num'er of openings shall 'e provided for manual or
automatic cleaning with shoc& 'lowers of inclined sections.
1.2 Bearings
The Contractor shall ensure that the 'earings used in his supply shall 'e of
the standard types and siAes produced 'y the /nternational 'earing
manufacturers. ,oreover( he shall provide a list of all 'earings mounted in
the equipment as well as in all electric motors.
All roller bearings contained in main process equipment such as kiln
drive, I fan, cooler e!haust fan which normally will operate
continuously "# hours are to be si$ed for a theoretical lifetime of at
least %&&,&&& hat full load.
1.3 Gears and Red!ers"
All large gears( reducers and girth gears shall 'e designed for at least
-22D222 wor&ing hours lifetime.
The safety factors 4 service factors regarding pitting formation dura'ility"
and tooth 'rea&age strength" according to one of the following design
standards( D /7 88E24/$?47iemann4A5,A( shall 'e stated 'y the
Detailed data shall 'e received from the Contractor for recalculation of
large gears( 'ased on the method of 7iemann.
5ears( special reducers and girth gears which do not fulfil the a'ove
requirement may 'e rejected.
 Dura'ility $5 -(8
 $trength $+ -.;
1.# Main Pr$!ess E%i&'en( )ri*es
-.<.- 5eneral
The Contractor shall include design details for the purpose of carry out a
design review regarding the specified criteria and the general set)up e.g.
self)aligning4fixed pinion( material( profile correction". The design review
has to ta&e place 'efore manufacturing to allow for modifications( if
*or this purpose the Contractor has to include an arrangement drawing and
the information requested 'elow.
-.<.3 Dynamic of Entire Drive Train
The design of the entire drive train from motor or F$D where applica'le" to
wor&ing machine has to 'e verified( and if required( de)tuned regarding the
dynamics of the torsional and 'ending system. The final results shall 'e
presented to the ?wner 'efore manufacturing to allow for modifications( if
-.<.8 Couplings
The coupling shall have elastic and damping properties in order to
compensate for the tolerated deviation from ideal alignment and to reduce
load pea&s in the drive train.
-.<.< 5ear Drives 5eneral
The mechanical safety factors for 'rea&age( pitting and scuffing of gears
for crushers( 'all mills and &ilns shall 'e computed according to /$?
6886 or D/7 8EE2. 0efer to the /$? Technical 0eport /$?4T0 -8E;E)
-43 for the calculation of /$? scuffing safety.
The safety factors shall 'eG
!itting safety B -.-
+rea&age safety B -.<
$cuffing safety B -.6
The gear reducers shall 'e designed for a lifetime of not less than -22H222
hours of operation.
Contractor shall provide a print out of the calculation showing all decisive
input values geometry( &inematical data( quality of gearing(
correction factors and the operational coefficients such as application
factor( transverse coefficient( face coefficient( dynamic factor( power
distri'ution factor( etc." and the resulting stresses( allowa'le levels
and the safety factors.
Additionally the teeth profile modifications shall 'e listed and provided with
Contractor shall provide detailed interloc&ing diagram showing warning and
trip limits with descriptions of actions to 'e ta&en at warning limit to
avoid tripping.
-.<.6 Closed 0educers
The gears and speed reducers shall 'e designed for an input speed of
maximum -622 rpm for 62 @A motors or -;22 rpm for 62 @A motors.
Iarge gears and speed reducers for Equipment( such as crushers(
raw mill( cement mill and where otherwise applica'le( shall 'e
designed for input speeds of -222 rpm for 62 @A motors or E22 rpm
for 62 @A motors. Exceptions are only allowed for 'all mills equipped
with central drives. /n this case $upplier shall prove that the specified
speed limits cannot match his standard design for reducers.
The housing of reducers shall 'e equipped with a fine dust filter maximum
-2 Jm" in the desiccant 'reather.
Design and heat dissipation calculations of the external oil cooling
Equipment are su'ject to approval in writing 'y the ?wner.
/nspection doors and openings have to 'e positioned for easy visual
inspection of gear wheels and for maintenance purposes.
0educer and motor for all mills raw) and cementitious materials" shall 'e
equipped with condition monitoring Equipment including at least
vi'ration sensors( temperature measurements( pressure
measurements and oil sample points.

All vi'ration sensors shall 'e appropriately positioned to
accurately reflect the vi'ration of the gear i.e. casing near
'earing in horiAontal( vertical and axial direction".

Kseful measurement points which are not yet equipped with
vi'ration sensors shall 'e prepared4machined for future
temporary or permanent vi'ration measurements. 7ear
'earings provisions shall 'e ensured for measurements in the
horiAontal)( vertical) and axial directions. !rovisions for tooth
condition monitoring should 'e positioned in parts of the
structure near the tooth meshes for measurements in the main
load directions or in other accessi'le positions.

All the vi'ration sensors shall 'e wired to a central collecting
point 'eside the reducer. There the signals can 'e pic&ed up 'y
handheld measurement Equipment.

A transfer of these signals from there to the central control
room and4or modem access to them is to 'e ena'led.

The reducers shall 'e equipped with an appropriate oil filter in
the main oil)supply line. *ilter fineness shall not exceed <2 µm

0educers with rated power higher than -222 &% and with
external lu'rication shall 'e equipped with a fine filtration unit
not exceeding -2 µm a'solute".
-.<.6 ?pen 5ear Drives girth gear and pinion drives"
Conventional &iln drives with girth gear have to 'e equipped with self)
aligning pinions. ?ther designs are su'ject to written approval 'y the
*or conventional girth gear4pinion &iln drives the module has not to 'e
smaller than 86 mm
The tooth type for &ilns has to 'e spur gear helix angle 2>"
The gear quality according to /$? -83;)- shall 'eG

*or &ilnsG Ievel -2 or 'etter for the helix deviation level ; or

*or millsG Ievel ; or 'etter
The width to diameter ratio of pinions shall 'e = 3.
?pen gear drives shall have inspection doors in the protection cover which
allow to chec& 'ac& lash and tip clearance on 'oth sides of each
Additional inspection door have to allow direct sight on the wor&ing flan& of
pinion and girth gear to chec& and adjust the spray lu'rication
Equipment and measure radial and axial run)out.
A'ove the inspection doors dust deflectors have to 'e mounted in order to
avoid dust avalanches contaminating the pinion.
5irth gears have to 'e made of two halves.
?n &ilns( the two halves of the girth gear have to 'e joined 'y ,ulti)
:ac&'olt Tensioners from $K!E0+?IT$L.
Either circulating lu'rication Equipment with filter units or spray type
lu'rication Equipment shall 'e applied.
$pray type lu'rication Equipment design shall fulfill the following criteriaG

$pray noAAles must 'e aligned on wor&ing flan& of the pinion
not on girth gear".

The function of each noAAle has to 'e controlled flow
monitoring of air and lu'ricant".

The pre)commissioning procedure shall 'e documented in

Drum)heating Equipment including heat sensors shall control
minimum and maximum temperatures of lu'rication drums.

Iu'rication unit shall 'e equipped with auxiliary devices
preventing contamination e.g. 'arrel( drum pump".

Iu'ricant lines shall 'e trace heated and insulated( as required
'y local climatic conditions( to ensure correct operating
temperatures at start)up.
Circulation type lu'rication equipment design shall fulfill the following

/t has to 'e designed for high viscosity oil circulation e.g. low
speed pumps( suita'le filter siAe( heating system".

The pump unit shall 'e redundant equipped with additional
pump on stand)'y".

The oil flow and filter condition have to 'e controlled condition
and alarm signal in control room".
Any application of lapping compound a'rasive lu'ricant" on the gears is

-.<.# @ydraulic Drives
@ydraulic drives shall 'e of the hydrostatic type.
@ydraulic drives shall 'e of the compact typeM factory assem'led as far as
possi'le on a rigid frame and shall 'e arranged for easy handling and
installation. A stand)'y pump shall 'e included.
@ydraulic drives shall include &idney filters for the main hydraulic system.
1.5 H+dra,i! Pressre -(a(i$n
@ydraulic stations shall 'e of the compact typeM factory assem'led as far
as possi'le on a rigid frame and shall 'e arranged for easy handling and
installation. @ydraulic stations shall 'e installed in dust proof housing
ensuring easy access for maintenance and handling of hydraulic fluids and
lu'ricants. *loors shall have oil resistant( easy to clean surfaces.