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SCIENCE

CHAPTER-1
CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS
Question 1:
Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air?
• Answer

• Discussion
Magnesium is very reactive metal. When stored it reacts with oxygen to form a layer
magnesium oxide on its surface. This layer of magnesium oxide is quite stable and prevents
further reaction of magnesium with oxygen. The magnesium ribbon is cleaned by sand paper
to remove this layer so that the underlying metal can be exposed into air.
Question 2:
Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reactions.
(i) ydrogen ! "hlorine → ydrogen chloride
(ii) #arium chloride ! $luminium sulphate → #arium sulphate !
$luminium chloride
(iii) %odium ! Water → %odium hydroxide ! ydrogen
• Answer

• Discussion
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Question 3:
Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for the following reactions.
(i) %olutions of barium chloride and sodium sulphate in water react to give insoluble barium
sulphate and the solution of sodium chloride.
(ii) %odium hydroxide solution (in water) reacts with hydrochloric acid solution (in water) to
produce sodium chloride solution and water.
• Answer

• Discussion
(i)
(ii)
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Question 1:
$ solution of a substance &'( is used for white washing.
(i) )ame the substance &'( and write its formula.
(ii) Write the reaction of the substance &'( named in (i) above with water.
• Answer

• Discussion
(i) The substance &'( is calcium oxide. *ts chemical formula is "a+.
(ii) "alcium oxide reacts vigorously with water to form calcium hydroxide (sla,ed lime).
Question 2:
Why is the amount of gas collected in one of the test tubes in $ctivity -.. double of the
amount collected in the other? )ame this gas.
• Answer

• Discussion
Water (/+) contains two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Therefore0 the amount of
hydrogen and oxygen produced during electrolysis of water is in a /1- ratio. 2uring
electrolysis0 since hydrogen goes to one test tube and oxygen goes to another0 the amount of
gas collected in one of the test tubes is double of the amount collected in the other.
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Question 1:
Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is dipped in it?
• Answer

• Discussion
When an iron nail is placed in a copper sulphate solution0 iron displaces copper from copper
sulphate solution forming iron sulphate0 which is green in colour.
Therefore0 the blue colour of copper sulphate solution fades and green colour appears
Question 2:
3ive an example of a double displacement reaction other than the one given in $ctivity -.-4.
• Answer

• Discussion
%odium carbonate reacts with calcium chloride to form calcium carbonate and sodium chloride.
*n this reaction0 sodium carbonate and calcium chloride exchange ions to form two new
compounds. ence0 it is a double displacement reaction.
Question 3:
*dentify the substances that are oxidised and the substances that are reduced in the following
reactions.
(i)
(ii)
• Answer

• Discussion
(i) %odium ()a) is oxidised as it gains oxygen and oxygen gets reduced.
(ii) "opper oxide ("u+) is reduced to copper ("u) while hydrogen (/) gets oxidised to water
(/+).
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Question 1:
Which of the statements about the reaction below are incorrect?
(a) 5ead is getting reduced.
(b) "arbon dioxide is getting oxidised.
(c) "arbon is getting oxidised.
(d) 5ead oxide is getting reduced.
(i) (a) and (b)
(ii) (a) and (c)
(iii) (a)0 (b) and (c)
(iv) all
• Answer

• Discussion
(i)(a) and (b)
Question 2:
The above reaction is an example of a
(a) combination reaction.
(b) double displacement reaction.
(c) decomposition reaction.
(d) displacement reaction.
• Answer

• Discussion
(d) The given reaction is an example of a displacement reaction.
Question 3:
What happens when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to iron filings? Tic, the correct answer.
(a) ydrogen gas and iron chloride are produced.
(b) "hlorine gas and iron hydroxide are produced.
(c) )o reaction ta,es place.
(d) *ron salt and water are produced.
• Answer

• Discussion
(a) ydrogen gas and iron chloride are produced. The reaction is as follows1
Question 4:
What is a balanced chemical equation? Why should chemical equations be balanced?
• Answer

• Discussion
$ reaction which has an equal number of atoms of all the elements on both sides of the
chemical equation is called a balanced chemical equation.
The law of conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed.
ence0 in a chemical reaction0 the total mass of reactants should be equal to the total mass of
the products. *t means that the total number of atoms of each element should be equal on
both sides of a chemical equation. ence0 it is for this reason that chemical equations should
be balanced.
Question 5:
Translate the following statements into chemical equations and then balance them.
(a) ydrogen gas combines with nitrogen to form ammonia.
(b) ydrogen sulphide gas burns in air to give water and sulphur dioxide.
(c) #arium chloride reacts with aluminium sulphate to give aluminium chloride and a
precipitate of barium sulphate.
(d) 6otassium metal reacts with water to give potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
• Answer

• Discussion
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Question 6:
#alance the following chemical equations.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
• Answer

• Discussion
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Question 7:
Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions.
(a) "alcium hydroxide ! "arbon dioxide → "alcium carbonate ! Water
(b) 7inc ! %ilver nitrate → 7inc nitrate ! %ilver
(c) $luminium ! "opper chloride → $luminium chloride ! "opper
(d) #arium chloride ! 6otassium sulphate → #arium sulphate !
6otassium chloride
• Answer

• Discussion
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Question 8:
Write the balanced chemical equation for the following and identify the type of reaction in each
case.
(a)6otassium bromide (aq) ! #arium iodide (aq) → 6otassium iodide (aq) !
#arium bromide(s)
(b) 7inc carbonate (s) → 7inc oxide (s) ! "arbon dioxide (g)
(c) ydrogen (g) ! "hlorine (g) → ydrogen chloride (g)
(d) Magnesium (s) ! ydrochloric acid (aq) → Magnesium chloride (aq) ! ydrogen (g)
• Answer

• Discussion
(a) 2ouble displacement reaction
(b) 8 2ecomposition reaction
(c) "ombination reaction
(d) 2isplacement reaction
Question 9:
What does one mean by exothermic and endothermic reactions? 3ive examples.
• Answer

• Discussion
"hemical reactions that release energy in the form of heat0 light0 or sound are called
exothermic reactions.
9xample1 Mixture of sodium and chlorine to yield table salt
*n other words0 combination reactions are exothermic.
:eactions that absorb energy or require energy in order to proceed are called endothermic
reactions.
;or example1 *n the process of photosynthesis0 plants use the energy from the sun to convert
carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen.
Question 10:
Why is respiration considered an exothermic reaction? 9xplain.
• Answer

• Discussion
9nergy is required to support life. 9nergy in our body is obtained from the food we eat. 2uring
digestion0 large molecules of food are bro,en down into simpler substances such as glucose.
3lucose combines with oxygen in the cells and provides energy. The special name of this
combustion reaction is respiration. %ince energy is released in the whole process0 it is an
exothermic process.
Question 11:
Why are decomposition reactions called the opposite of combination reactions? Write
equations for these reactions.
• Answer

• Discussion
2ecomposition reactions are those in which a compound brea,s down to form two or more
substances. These reactions require a source of energy to proceed. Thus0 they are the exact
opposite of combination reactions in which two or more substances combine to give a new
substance with the release of energy.
2ecomposition reaction1
"ombination reaction1
Question 12:
Write one equation each for decomposition reactions where energy is supplied in the form of
heat0 light or electricity.
• Answer

• Discussion
(a) Thermal decomposition1
(b) 2ecomposition by light1
(c) 2ecomposition by electricity1
Question 13:
What is the difference between displacement and double displacement reactions? Write
equations for these reactions.
• Answer

• Discussion
*n a displacement reaction0 a more reactive element replaces a less reactive element from a
compound.
where $ is more reactive than #
*n a double displacement reaction0 two atoms or a group of atoms switch places to form new
compounds.
;or example1
2isplacement reaction1
2ouble displacement reaction1
Question 14:
*n the refining of silver0 the recovery of silver from silver nitrate solution involved displacement
by copper metal. Write down the reaction involved.
• Answer

• Discussion
Question 15:
What do you mean by a precipitation reaction? 9xplain by giving examples.
• Answer

• Discussion
$ reaction in which an insoluble solid (called precipitate) is formed is called a precipitation
reaction.
;or example1
*n this reaction0 calcium carbonate is obtained as a precipitate. ence0 it is a precipitation
reaction.
$nother example of precipitation reaction is1
*n this reaction0 barium sulphate is obtained as a precipitate.
Question 16:
9xplain the following in terms of gain or loss of oxygen with two examples each.
(a) +xidation
(b) :eduction
• Answer

• Discussion
(a) +xidation is the gain of oxygen.
;or example1
(i)
(ii)
*n equation (i)0 / is oxidi<ed to /+ and in equation (ii)0 "u is oxidised to "u+.
(b) :eduction is the loss of oxygen.
;or example1
(i)
(ii)
*n equation (i)0 "+/ is reduced to "+ and in equation (ii)0 "u+ is reduced to "u.
Question 17:
$ shiny brown=coloured element &'( on heating in air becomes blac, in colour. )ame the
element &'( and the blac, coloured compound formed.
• Answer

• Discussion
&'( is copper ("u) and the blac,=coloured compound formed is copper oxide ("u+). The
equation of the reaction involved on heating copper is given below.
Question 18:
Why do we apply paint on iron articles?
• Answer

• Discussion
*ron articles are painted because it prevents them from rusting. When painted0 the contact of
iron articles from moisture and air is cut off. ence0 rusting is prevented their presence is
essential for rusting to ta,e place.
Question 19:
+il and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen. Why?
• Answer

• Discussion
)itrogen is an inert gas and does not easily react with these substances. +n the other hand0
oxygen reacts with food substances and ma,es them rancid. Thus0 bags used in pac,ing food
items are flushed with nitrogen gas to remove oxygen inside the pac,. When oxygen is not
present inside the pac,0 rancidity of oil and fat containing food items is avoided.
Question 20:
9xplain the following terms with one example each.
(a) "orrosion
(b) :ancidity
• Answer

• Discussion
(a) "orrosion1
"orrosion is defined as a process where materials0 usually metals0 deteriorate as a result of a
chemical reaction with air0 moisture0 chemicals0 etc.
;or example0 iron0 in the presence of moisture0 reacts with oxygen to form hydrated iron
oxide.
This hydrated iron oxide is rust.
(b) :ancidity1
The process of oxidation of fats and oils that can be easily noticed by the change in taste and
smell is ,nown as rancidity.
;or example0 the taste and smell of butter changes when ,ept for long.
:ancidity can be avoided by1
-. %toring food in air tight containers
/. %toring food in refrigerators
>. $dding antioxidants
?. %toring food in an environment of nitrogen