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HUMAN IMMUNEDEFICIENCY VIRUS

HIV-1, the basic pathogen of HIV-infection and AIDS can be found in North and South
America, Europe and Asia. HIV has the form of sphere with not more than 1-1! nm in
diameter. "# its structura$ organi%ation, it is c$ose to $enti&iruses. 'he &irus is be$ie&ed
to be most$# se(ua$$# transmitted, heterose(ua$ transmission is &er# important. 'he
main factors than cause a higher ris) of HIV-contamination are homose(ua$ re$ations and
se( promiscuit#, inc$uding intercourse with drug addicts who in*ect drugs intra&enous$#.
'ransp$antation and perinata$ transmission from mother to bab# are $ess important. HIV-
infected patients can be di&ided into groups according to ris) factors and possib$e wa#s
of transmitting the infection. 'he ranging of ris) groups in most ad&anced countries is
identica$ - homose(ua$ and bise(ua$ men +,-./, heterose(ua$ indi&idua$s with drugs
ta)en intra&enous$# +!0./, homose(ua$ and bise(ua$ indi&idua$s using drugs intra&enous$#
+1./, heterose(ua$ indi&idua$s +1./, chi$dren +1./, recipients of b$ood, b$ood
components or transp$ants +!./, hemophi$iacs +1./, other peop$e for whom the ris)
factor has not been determined +0./. 2enetrating the b$ood current HIV infects acti&ated
3D,4 +he$pers/ '-$#mphoc#tes using the 3D, mo$ecu$e as a receptor. HIV a$so infects
monoc#tes, macrophages, congenia$ ce$$s, e(pressiona$ 3D,-$i)e mo$ecu$es. 'he
contamination of monoc#tes and macrophages is not accompanied b# a c#topathic
effect, and the ce$$s become a permissi&e s#stem for the pathogen. 'he basic reser&oir
of HIV in the human organism is $#mphoid tissue with the pathogen being continuous$#
reproduced e&en in the ear$# stages of the s#mptom-free disease. In the centra$ ner&ous
s#stem, there can be obser&ed disturbed microg$ia$ ce$$s. 'he mechanism of
contamination of intestina$ epithe$ia$ ce$$s has not been disco&ered #et, the receptors
for HIV origination are $i)e$# to be membranous g$#co$ipides. Ear$# &irucemic stage. In
the ear$# stages of the infection, the &irus seems to be rep$icated poor$# in the course of
different periods. 'he presence of HIV in the b$ood can be re&ea$ed within different
spans of time. Virucemia reaches a high 1-1! da#s after the contamination and $asts unti$
specific antibodies appear +a period of serocon&ersation/. 'he ana$#sis of the $aborator#
data with $ong-$i&ing patients suggests that HIV can be e$iminated from the organism
on$# too rare$#. 5&er different time spans +up to 1-11 #ears/ no s#mptoms of the disease
with HIV-infected patients can be re&ea$ed. 'hroughout that period the bod# defenses
suppress the pathogen reproduction more or $ess effecti&e$#. 'he de&e$opment of the
HIV infection and AIDS is pro&o)ed b# a progressi&e defect in the immune mechanisms,
especia$$# b# decreasing the number of circu$ating 3D,4' ce$$s which is &er# important
to the rep$ication of the integrated HIV. 6ow doses of cocaine added to the infected
mononuc$ear ce$$ cu$ture intensif# HIV rep$ication possib$# on account of the increasing
s#nthesis of the monoc#te growth transforming beta factor. 'hat mechanism can
contribute to the fre7uenc# rate of AIDS de&e$opment with drug addicts. After a
s#mptom$ess period of &ariab$e duration 8-1. patients de&e$op a s#mptomatic HIV
infection and about 1-1. patients are doomed to de&e$op a c$inica$$# pronounced
AIDS. At present there can be differentiated fi&e c$inica$ stages of the HIV-infection. 'he
incubation usua$$# $asts !-, wee)s. 'he s#mptoms are simi$ar to those with infectious
mononuc$eosis or a chi$$. 9e&er, $#mphanginitis, a sore throat, m#a$gia, headache,
indisposition and sometimes a macu$atopapu$ar rash are most common. 'he s#mptoms
can be manifested with 1--:-. patients, howe&er for $ac) of pathognomonic signs
diagnostication mista)es ma# resu$t. Some primar# manifestations with most patients
ma# disappear. Howe&er, headache and adenopath# ma# $inger for a $ong time. 9e&er,
e(cessi&e o&ernight perspiration, feeb$eness, chronic diarrhea, genera$i%ed
$#mphadenopath# and headache with no specific or opportunistic infection in e&idence,
are indicati&e of the fact that a s#mptom$ess HIV-infection has turned into a
s#mptomatic one. Diarrhea can most probab$# resu$t from the HIV contamination of the
intestina$ mucosa. ;aposi<s sarcoma ma# de&e$op 7uite ear$#. 'he d#namics can show
anerg# and gi&e some other $aborator# proof of immunodeficienc#. 3ertain concomitant
infections tend to arise, especia$$# ora$ candidiasis, $eu)op$a)ia of ora$ mucosa, upper
and $ower respirator# tract infections and periodontium disorders. 'he basic
manifestations of opportunistic infections are pneumoc#stic pneumonia and
to(op$asmosis. Esophagea$ candidiasis, cr#ptococca$ pneumonia and meningitis,
recurrent herpetic infections with genera$ e(haustion in the bac)ground often de&e$op.
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