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2.1 General
Sri Lanka has an extensive road network connecting not only all major cities and towns,
but also providing access to even the most remote villages. Out of these 1,! km of "
and # class roads, known as $ational %oads belong to the &entral 'overnment while &, (
and ) class roads belong to the *rovincial councils. +n spite of existence of this vast road
development, many roads are found to be highly congested due to the co,existence of high
intensity of motor traffic and an e-ually large volume of non,motori.ed traffic. Since the
implementation of free,market economic policies in 1ate 1/01s all major cities and town
centers have undergone rapid infrastructure development. 2ith all major roads passing
directly through these urban centers, considerable slowing down of traffic speeds and
fre-uent built,up of traffic jams have greatly reduced increased travel time between major
destinations. 3his situation not only has a direct adverse effect on economic development
of the country but has also given rise to high number of fatal road accidents.
3he Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject 4S3(*5 was the first project to be
implemented in Sri Lanka based on the concept of providing a new network of high speed,
limited access highways radiating from &olombo. 3he S3(* was initiated with the main
objective of providing improved access from &olombo to 'alle and 6atara in the
Southern *rovince. 3his project once completed will alleviate the critical traffic conditions
in the existing "7 coastal highway.
3he main component of the S3(* presently being implemented is the construction of an
ultimate dual carriage expressway 4Southern 8ighway5 between 9ottawa on the south,
eastern outskirts of &olombo and 6atara 4:igures 7.1 and 7.75. 3he project is financed
from parallel funding by the "sian (evelopment #ank 4"(#5 and the ;apan #ank for
+nternational &ooperation 4;#+&5. +t consists of two segments, i.e. about !! km long
stretch from 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetekma and about ! km stretch from
9urundugahahetekma to 6atara. 3he latter segment funded by "(# is known as the "(#
section, while the former segment funded by ;#+& is referred to as the ;#+& section. 3he
construction has already reached significant proportions over a large stretch of the "(#
section of the expressway, while construction works in the ;#+& section has just
commenced. "dditionally, a new access road from the "(# section of the expressway to
'alle, known as 'alle *ort "ccess %oad 4'*"%5 is been developed. 3his is a ! km long
<non,access controlled1 alignment which will ultimately be a four,lane dual carriage
3he S3(* will lead to economic advancement of the Southern *rovince and improvement
of living standard of the population in that area. +t will serve as a catalyst for raising the
economic growth of the region, which has so far achieved only a modest level of
development mostly through agricultural production, trade and tourism. 3his project will
blend effectively with several mega projects planned to be implemented in the Southern
*rovince including development of a new city =%uhunupura> located close to 8ambantota,
comprising an airport and a commercial port, expansion of 'alle 8arbour and extension of
existing southern railway line from 6atara up to 9ataragama. +t will have a direct
influence on four districts 4&olombo, 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara5, through which it passes
through. 3he combined population in these four districts amounts to about 7? percent of
national total of 1/ million. 3he poverty level in this region is estimated to be about 71
percent of its population and an efficient transportation link between this region and
&olombo has been a major constraint for slow economic growth.
2.2 Summary of Past Studies
3he evolution of a concept of a Southern )xpressway in late 1/@s, led to the conduct of
*refeasibilty Studies by %esources (evelopment &onsultant 4%(&5 41//A5 on the so
called =+nland 3runk %oad from Outer &ircular %oad to 'alle and 6atara>. 3his study
focused on B alternative traces from #andaragama on the proposed =Outer &ircular %oad>
to 6atara taking into account preliminary environmental considerations in the route
selection. #ased on the recommendations of the *re,:easibility Studies, %oad
(evelopment "uthority 4%("5 introduced the original highway trace referred to as
=Original %(" 3race> incorporating certain modifications. Cpon acceptance of
recommendations of this study, %(" commissioned a feasibility study and an )+" study.
(epartment of &ivil )ngineering, Cniversity of 6oratuwa 4CO65 conducted the )+"
study in 1//!, considering activities agreed upon at that stage with %(" and &)".
8owever, the project discontinued in 1//0 and therefore the )+" study report, although
submitted to &)" was not subjected to review process.
+n 1//0, through the financial assistance of "(#, 'overnment of Sri Lanka 4'OSL5 re,
activated the feasibility studies for the Southern )xpressway. 3he consultancy services for
conducting feasibility studies for providing improved capacity in the Southern 3ransport
&orridor were entrusted to 2ilbur Smith "ssociates +nc 42S"5 in association with %(&.
3he consultants submitted a (raft :inal %eport in B volumes, an +nitial )nvironmental
)xamination 4+))5 and +nitial Social +mpact "ssessment 4S+"5 in (ecember 1//@.
"s an outcome of the Southern 3ransport &orridor Study, more alternative traces evolved
and in consultation with %(", the consultants recommended a new alignment described as
the =&ombined 3race>. 3he &ombined 3race for about !D of its length followed the
Original %(" 3race while containing two major deviations near #andaragama at the
&olombo end and near Labuduwa at 'alle end, respectively. 3he CO6 was re-uested by
the %(" to conduct )+" studies based on the =Original %(" 3race> and the =&ombined
3race> and considering suitable reasonable alternatives. 3he )+" studies concluded that
construction of the Southern )xpressway along the &ombined 3race, with mitigation of
certain environmental impacts as suggested in the study report was the most
environmentally preferred option.
3his )+" study report was submitted to %(" in 1/// and was duly forwarded to &)",
"(# and other relevant government authorities. 3he &)" upon review of )+" study
report granted =&onditional "pproval> for the &ombined 3race and the )+" associated
with this route. 3he "(# also commissioned in 1///, a Summary )+" 4S)+"5 with
#aolloffet and "ssociates +nc. 4#E"5. 3he #E" also assisted %(" in responding to
public comments on the 1/// )+" by CO6. 3he S)+" report was also submitted to, and
approved by %("F&)".
Figure 2.1 National o!ation of t"e Sout"ern Trans#ort De$elo#ment Pro%e!t
Figure 2.2 Regional o!ation of t"e Sout"ern Trans#ort De$elo#ment Pro%e!t
%(" also entrusted Cniversity of &olombo to conduct a S+" of the &ombined 3race and
the :inal S+" report was submitted to %(" in 6arch 1///. #ased on the 1/// S+" %eport,
a :inal %eport on %esettlement *lan was completed by %(" with "(# assistance. 3he
%esettlement *lan is a detailed framework containing approved compensation policies and
procedures appropriate for the categories of impact identified in the S+" %eport, and
include a preliminary budget and an implementation schedule.

3he conditions of approval of the 1/// )+" by the &)" re-uired the recommended
=&ombined 3race> to be sited in such a manner to avoid 2eras 'angaF#olgoda Lake,
6adu 'anga and 9oggala wetlands. %(" re-uired the relocation of the &ombined 3race
primarily between *oddala ;unction and +maduwa, to move the expressway further away
from 'alle urbani.ed area. +n response to these conditions the &ombined 3race on which
:easibility Studies was conducted was partially replaced by the =:inal 3race>, as referred
to hereinafter.
3he detailed engineering studies of the S3(* along the :inal 3race was arranged to be
implemented in two sections. 3he section from 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetekma was to
be financed by the ;#+& and the remaining section from 9urundugahahetekma to 6atara
was to be financed by the "(#. 3hese two sections are commonly known as ;#+& section
and "(# section, respectively.
3he 2S" in association with %(&, *acific &onusltants +nternational 4*&+5 and #)&"
+nternational &onsultants were entrusted consultancy services for the detailed engineering
designs of the "(# section in October 1//@. 3he *&+ in association with ;apan #ridge E
Structure +nstitute +nc. and %(& were engaged to conduct detailed engineering designs for
the ;#+& section in 6arch 7.
2.2.& Im#li!ations of C'( Conditions of (##ro$al
3he :inal 3race which evolved largely in order to comply with &)" &onditions of
"pproval contained significant deviations from the &ombined 3race. 3hese deviations had
impacted land ac-uisition and resettlement as well as environmental management and
raised ade-uacy of environmental assessments conducted earlier. 3he new areas affected
by this change re-uired studies in order to ascertain environmental and social impacts, if
any, of the project that were not identified in previous studies. 3he (esign &onsultants
during the detailed design surveys on the :inal 3race prepared an updated S+" %eport and
some environmental assessment updates including an )nvironmental 6anagement *lan
4)6*5. 3his )6* on the :inal 3race has been prepared without the benefit of a full )+"
along that part of the road not coincident with &ombined 3race. Social +mpacts were also
not comprehensively assessed along some sections of the :inal 3race.
+n order to assess the magnitude and impact of changes that have occurred as a
conse-uence of change in alignment from the &ombined 3race to the :inal 3race an
agreement was reached between the "(# and the 'OSL that a supplementary study on
environmental assessment should be undertaken. +t was decided that this environmental
assessment would be undertaken by %(" through CO6. "ccordingly, CO6 was
entrusted to conduct a Supplementary )nvironmental "ssessment 4S)"5 and an Cpdating
of )6* of the S3(* by *roject (irector, *roject 6anagement Cnit 4*6C5 of the %(".
2.2.) U#dating and Re#orting imitations
"s per agreement reached with the %(",S3(*, based on the reviews, studies and
evaluations carried out, the CO6 is forwarding following two reports as final study
4i5 Supplementary )nvironmental "ssessment %eport 4S)"%5H and
4ii5 " draft updated )6* as per "(# )nvironmental "ssessment 'uidelines
7A and 'OSL re-uirements.
#oth reports are presented in two volumes, Iolume + , "(# Section E '*"% and Iolume
++ , ;#+& Section.
3he findings presented in the S)"% is based on review and analysis of available
background data and data ac-uired through field studies conducted within a limited scope
of work for such studies. 3he field studies mainly concentrated on the deviations of the
:inal 3race from the &ombined 3race and locations along that part of the :inal 3race
covered by the 1/// )+", where environmental settings have undergone marked changes.
3he impacts of on,going construction work along the "(# Section were also observed
and where presently adopted mitigation measures are inade-uate, additional mitigation
measures are proposed.
2.& General *et"odology Used in S'(R
"ll relevant reports and documents except the revised )6* were made available by %("
at the original commencement of studies in October 7B. Subse-uent to the
recommencement, the 2orking (raft )6* of ;anuary 7? was made available. " list of
reports and documents reviewed and referred to is given under %eferences.
)ach specialist member of the study team conducted an in,depth review of available
information pertaining to his or her area of expertise in the first phase. 3his review
enabled to identify the shortcomings and gaps in the available information. 3he entire
study team conducted a field reconnaissance survey of the highway trace in October 7B.
Cpon completion of this initial site visits and data review the general study methodology
to be adopted was agreed upon at a team meeting. :ollowing this, throughout the duration
of the study several field visits were made by team members focusing on issues within
their areas of interest. 3he field visits focused more on the deviations of the road trace.
3he '*"% was covered in detail by each team member.
3he review and -uantification of the physical differences was carried out by each expert
after comparing the 1/// )+"% and detailed designs done for the combined trace, with the
detailed design notes, design guidelines, layout plans, drawings and the design summaries
made available by the %(" for the :inal 3race.
3his work was carried out mainly through a study supported by necessary field visits
where clarifications are re-uired. )ach expert scrutini.ed respective sections for the
determination of the environmental assessment validity, appropriateness and applicability.
3his will be determined by the team based on the lines of the 1/// )+"% for the
&ombined 3race along with the layouts E documentation of the :inal 3race provided by
the %(".
(uring field visits the team members had a number of meetings and consultations with
relevant authorities to clarify pertinent issues. Several digital photographs were taken to
document the existing conditions. 3he ongoing construction practices were carefully
observed. 3he Sociologist and the "gricultural )conomist collected the relevant
information from sample surveys and from data available at (S offices.
3he identification of the environmental impacts that have a bearing on the design,
construction and operation of the project was based on the site visits by the experts,
project documentation with the %(" including the comments from the public and other
agencies. +n case the detail designs are not available, the team made interpretations and
recommendations based on the data made available.
3he methodology used for impact assessment was consistent with that adopted in 1///
)+". 3he project was divided into project elements covering investigation, construction
and operation stages. 3he affected environment was divided into environmental elements
considering the general environment of the area and the environmental issues highlighted
in the 3O%. 3hese environmental elements covered physicalFchemical aspects, biological
aspects and socialFsocio,economic aspects.
Once the elements are identified, it was possible to form the %elevance 6atrix. 3he
columns in the %elevance 6atrix were the identified project elements, while the rows
were the environmental elements. 3he list of environmental elements was divided among
study team core members in accordance with their specialties. 3his means that each
member was looking at few rows and all columns in the full matrix. #ased on the
assessments made by each member the 3eam Leader eventually finali.ed the full
%elevance 6atrix in consultation with the entire team.
Once the relevance matrix was prepared, the team was in a position to select areas that
need to be studied in detail. "ll impacts identified as =highly significant> in the %elevance
6atrix needs were studied in detail, in order to -uantify the impact, and recommend
mitigatory measures and monitoring plans. 3he impacts identified as =moderately
significant> were mentioned and avoided if possible, or mitigatory action and monitoring
plans recommended. 3he details of impact assessment and -uantification of impacts are
given Section 7.A.0. Cpon identification of impacts, suitable mitigatory measures were
+n order to ensure that anticipated impacts are not underestimated, or any unanticipated
impacts occur during the project implementation, the impacts of the project have to be
monitored. 3he parameters to be monitored were identified in pre,construction,
construction and operational stages in developing the monitoring plan. 3he fre-uency of
monitoring and the agencies responsible were established.
3he study team carried out a systematic study of the second draft )6* to identify the
contributions re-uired. "s a team, the experts conducted group work to identify the
contributions in each section. Significance of environmental aspects were classified so that
the extent of the contributions in relevant sections could be assessed using the "(#
guidelines. 3he team identified the additional details that have to be a part of the
environmental assessment study of the deviations. "s part of this work, the team targeted
sufficient discussions with the %(" regarding the reporting of the ade-uacy of )6* in
concerned sections to address the environmental aspects of the project, and also identified
additional monitoring and mitigation measures to be included in )6*.
2.&.1 Pur#ose+ S!o#e and Terms of Referen!e ,TOR-
3he objectives of the study by CO6 as extracted from the revised 3O% sent by the %(",
S3(* is as followsG
4i5 %eview all previous reports on the project pertaining to environmental issuesG
including the )nvironmental +mpact "ssessment 4)+"5 and Summary
)nvironmental +mpact "ssessment 4S)+"5, to determine their applicability to the
entire length of =:inal 3race> comprising both ;#+& and "(# funded sections and
4ii5 +dentify locations on the =:inal 3race> which re-uire further assessment in order to
update the draft )6*, and using parameters accepted for the original assessments,
conduct field surveys and other studies that may be re-uired in these locations
4using participatory techni-ues where appropriate5 to determine environmental and
social impacts and necessary mitigation measures.
7.7 %eview the second draft of )6* based on the additional information generated by
the studies to determine its ade-uacy to address the environmental impacts of the
entire project. (etermine additional monitoring and mitigation measures that
should be included in )6*. +nform client of any immediate actions that are
re-uired to ensure that sufficient environmental mitigation measures are being
applied particularly on the road sections, where construction works have already
started. +f the current mitigation measures are inade-uate to address adverse
impacts, recommend appropriate and ade-uate mitigation measures to be included
in )6*. +n this regard, advice on identifying dumping areas of unsuitable
excavated soil.
7.A #ased on the above reviews, studies and evaluations prepare two reportsG
4i5 S)"%H and
4ii5 " report that includes detailed comments on the draft )6* and how to
update it as per "(# )nvironmental "ssessment 'uidelines 7A and
'OSL re-uirements.
2.&.2 Study (rea
2.&.2.1 De$iations and Des!ri#tion
3he major deviations of the :inal 3race from the &ombined 3race have been identified in
order to identify the sections of the road that needs specific attention during environmental
assessment 43able 7.15. )ach expert in the study team 43able 7.75 looks at the major
deviations and other prominent sections of the study area pertaining to their expertise.
)ach expert considered the study area in line with the expertise associated with the study.
Ta.le 2.1 De$iations of t"e Final Tra!e from RD( tra!e and Com.ined Tra!e
(D/ Se!tion
Distan!e form Starting
Point ,C"ainage 01m-
RD( Tra!e De$iation
Com.ined Tra!e
De$iation ,m-
*inimum De$iation
from RD( or Com.ine
Tra!e ,m-

1 7? 7? 7?
7 1/ 1/ 1/
A B7? B7? B7?
B ? ? ?
? !7? !7? !7?
! ?? ?? ??
0 ! ! !
@ B B B
/ 70? 70? 70?
1 1 1 1
17 1 1 1
1A ? ? ?
1B @ @ @
1! 7 7 7
10 7 7 7
1@ ? ? ?
1/ ?
7 ?
71 B0? 7 7
77 07? 07? 07?
7A ? 1@7 ?
7B 7?? 10 7??
7? 7 1A 7
7! 17? / 17?
70 7 1A? 7
7@ ? 71 ?
7/ / 777? /
A @0? 1@0? @0?
A1 17? 17 17
A7 1A? 107? 1A?
AA B? 77? B?
AB B0? 77? B0?
A? A? 7 A?
A! 77? 1@? 77?
A0 17 10? 17
A@ B? 1?? B?
A/ 00? 1B 00?
B @B 1A7? @B
B1 / 1B7? /
B7 1B0? 1B0? 1B0?
BA 10? 117? 117?
BB 1@7? 1A7? 1A7?
B? 1/ 1B 1B
B! 1@ 1A 1A
B0 10? 0? 0?
B@ 1? B? B?
B/ 7?
2.&.2.2 Study Team
" multi,disciplinary team of the CO6 for the Supplementary )nvironmental "ssessment
Study 4S)"5 and Cpdating of )6* as per revised 3O%, is led by *rof. $.3. S. 2ijesekera
and *rof 46rs5 $. %atnayaka is the &o,3eam Leader. 3he core team as indicated in 3able
1.! comprises an )+" and *olicy Specialist, a 8ydrologist, an )cologist, a Sociologist, an
"gricultural )conomist, an )nvironmental )ngineer, a Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer, a
Landscape and "esthetics Specialist, a 3raffic )ngineerF3ransport *lanner and other &ivil
)ngineers. 3he team is also supported by engineers, field work teams supporting the
hydrologist, ecologist, sociologist, and many other workers and secretarial staff assigned
for field works, meeting and workshop, and report preparation. 3he study areas
which concentrated on and considered important by team members are given in 3able 7.A.
Ta.le 2.2 Core Study Team for t"e S'( and U#dating '*P
Name Position (ffiliation
1. *rof. $.3.S. 2ijesekera 3eam LeaderF8ydrologist CO6
7. *rof. 46rs5. $. %atnayaka &o,3eam LeaderF)+" and *olicy *lanner CO6
A. (r. *.*. 'unaratna (eputy 3eam Leader 4%eview and %eports5 CO6
B. (r. $.*.(. 'amage (eputy 3eam Leader,;#+& CO6
?. )ng. (.".;. %anwala (eputy 3eam Leader,"(# &onsultant, CO6
!. *rof. L.L. %atnayaka 3raffic )ngineerF3ransport *lanner CO6
0. (r. 8.S. 3hilakasiri Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer CO6
@. (r. 6. 2. ;ayaweera )nvironmental )ngineer CO6
/. (r. 46rs5 6.(."marasinghe )cologist Cniversity of 9elaniya
1. 6r. 9. ;inapala Sociologist &onsultant, CO6
11. (r. L.6. "beywickrama "gricultural )conomist Cniversity of %uhuna
17. "rcht. 46s.5 S.+. #alasuriya Landscape and "esthetics Specialist CO6
Ta.le 2.& Domains of Interest and *ain Study (s#e!ts of S#e!ialist Team *em.ers
S#e!ialist Team *
Domain of Interest2*ain Study (s#e!ts
(omain of +nterest
Cpstream , ?m upstream from combined trace centerline, ?m
upstream from final trace centerline, catchment boundary from the
combined trace centerline and catchment boundary from the final
trace centerline whichever is greater.
(ownstream , ?m downstream from combined trace centerline,
?m downstream from final trace centerline and as far as the
hydrologic and hydraulic effects propagate, whichever is greater.
6ain Study "spects
"ssess the physical environment in the above study domain on the
elements such as surface water E groundwater -uantity, flooding,
drainage congestion 4water logging5, soil erosion E siltation, irrigation
E flood protection schemes "ssess the impacts on the above elements
with special reference to the deviations and propose suitable
mitigatory measures, monitoring activities to be included in the )6*.
3raffic )ngineerF3ransport *lanner
(omain of +nterest
3he %ight of 2ay 4%O25 of the expressway including access roads at
interchanges and '*"%.
*ain Study (s#e!ts
Road Tra!e Design+ o!al Cir!ulation+ Road Safety (s#e!ts+
(!!idents+ Traffi! Congestion+ *itigation measures during design+
!onstru!tion and o#eration #"ases 3it" res#e!t to im#ro$ed
safety+ !ongestion and en"an!ement of ser$i!es for road users.
Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer
(omain of +nterest
3he major deviations of :inal 3race in the ;#+& section including a
survey of existing borrow pits and -uarries.
6ain Study "spects
"ll geotechnical aspects such as land form, earth stability, stability of
slopes , spoil disposal, borrow pit operation, blasting activities and
their impacts.
)nvironmental )ngineer (omain of +nterest
?m either side on the :inal 3race centerline .
6ain Study "spects
Surface water -uality, groundwater -uality , spoil disposal, solid waste
disposal. +dentification of all related impacts and propose mitigatory
measures and monitoring aspects.
(omain of +nterest
Observations on the terrestrial parts along the trace and the deviations
were limited to ?m on either side of the trace. +n localities where the
road trace traverses wetlands the natural boundaries of the wetlands
were taken as the boundaries of the domain of study as changes in
ecology of one place in a wetland is naturally transmitted throughout
the wetland.
6ain Study "spects
*lant, animal and bird diversity along the main trace is studied along
with detailed investigation on the diversity of flora and fauna of the
mangrove area at 6agalla, associated with the '*"%.
Study (omain
?m either side on the :inal 3race centerline. "ll resettlement sites.
6ain Study "spects
3he study on social impact was concentrated on two geographical
"ssess the impact on communities and other land uses in the
?m belt on both side of the road reservation.
%(" settlement sites to assess the impact on already resettled
"gricultural )conomist
)mployment and loss of income of ac-uired lands were considered
along the trace 4@m5. "gricultural impacts were considered in the
area of ?m of both sides from the %O2. +n case of other economic
activities such as fisheries and coir industry, susceptible area was
considered in spite of the distance. +n '*"% entire area of $ugaduwa
wetland was considered. :ield studies were conducted along the trace
to find impacts and input output relationships. "vailable land use
maps, repots and information from research institutions and local
government authorities were used in addition to field investigations.
Landscape and "esthetics
Study (omain
?m either side on the :inal 3race centerline. :or specific studies.
3he respective view areas for overall study aspects.
6ain Study "spects
3he Landform, "esthetic "spects, "pplication of
*esticidesF8erbicides in Landscaping, Land Cse %elated 6onitoring
will be reviewed and analy.ed in the significant deviations of the
"(# section and the '*"%.
2.&.& *a#s
" map of the study area giving details of land,use, roads, contours etc., and having both
:inal and &ombined traces was prepared by the team based on the information given at the
beginning of the work. 3he traces marked on the 1G?, topographic maps of the Survey
(epartment have been made available. (igital base data of the project in the scaling
1G?, have been used for the studies done for the %(" and upon re-uest these digital
data were provided.
2.&.) Ot"er /aseline Data
3he information collected by each specialist staff member of the study team in outline
form is presented below.
2.&.).1 4ydrology and Drainage
3he following information was collectedG
"vailable hydrological data from previous (rainage %eport 4CO65 and
8ydrological Study report.
%ainfall, evaporation, surface and groundwater, land use, topography, water
bodies and drainage patterns of the affected watersheds in the major deviated
sections and the '*"%
2.&.).2 Geote!"ni!al (s#e!ts
3he following information was collectedG
(esk study supported by field work considering topological maps, geological
maps, land use maps.
(ata from previous study reports, other data available with %(", +rrigation
(epartment, 'eological Survey and 6ines #ureau 4'S6#5
Site reconnaissance and field data collection along the of the major deviations
of :inal 3race in the main trace and '*"% including a survey of existing
borrow pits and -uarries.
2.&.).& 5ater 6uality+ (ir Pollution and Noise Control
3he information collection was confined to already established major deviations of the
:inal 3race and any other environmentally sensitive areas identified during site visits. 3he
water -uality parameters in any significant water bodies crossing the deviated sections of
the :inal 3race and the '*"% were measured. 3he baseline status of noise and air -uality
was estimated for environmental assessment.
2.&.).) '!ologi!al (s#e!ts
+dentification of critical localities that should be included in the )6* for monitoring will
be done depending on appropriate selection criteria based on the identified major
deviations and '*"%. %elevant dataFinformation will also be identified that are re-uired to
be monitored with the )6*.
2.&.).7 (gri!ulture and '!onomy
:ield visits along the existing trace covering the "(# main trace and '*"% was made
using participatory techni-ues for data collection. 3he identified major deviations and
other sensitive areas were studied. 3he important (S divisions were covered. Special
attention was paid to the earth work of +maduwa (S (ivision as the area is the catchment
of 9oggala Lake. '*"% was also considered as a sensitive area as many homestead
gardens are affected.
2.&.).8 ands!a#e and (est"eti!s
Landscape along major deviations and '*"%, historical and archaeological monuments,
places of worship and religious interest were identified using a review of previous reports
and field investigations and consultations of officials of (epartment of "rcheology.
2.&.).9 So!iologi!al (s#e!ts
3he information collection was carried out by the consultant together with his field
assistants from several sample locations of the entire trace and especially two major
deviations and '*"% was studied in detail using participatory approaches.
2.&.).: Trans#ortation and Traffi! Flo3
+nfrastructure facilities, existing public and private transport facilities, planned
development activities in the project area falling within the major deviations and along
'*"% were collected. %eview of relevant previous reports, consultations with officials of
%(", C(", and *rovincial &ouncils was carried out. *revious study reports of S3(* and
other relevant project reports were reviewed and site visits to clarifyFverify information
gathered in the selected stretches were performed.
2.&.).; 'n$ironment and Poli!y Planning
)nvironmental impacts identified by other resource personnel were incorporated to a
matrix to identify the impacts. *eriodic consultations with project staff and %(" officials
were carried out for data collection. *eriodic progress reports of resource personnel,
information provided by %(" officials were the sources of information for the impact
identification matrix preparation.
2.&.7 Field 5or1
:ield work was mainly carried out in order to get a better understanding about the
environmental impacts caused by the construction of the highway on the deviated trace
and any significant changes that had taken place in the un,deviated trace since the
previous environmental assessment in 1///. 3ables 7.B summari.e the details of field
visits carried out by each specialist staff member of the study team.
Ta.le 2.) Details of Field <isits
Date of <isit Field 5or1 Carried Out
B "ugust 7?
" preliminary visit to the road trace. 3he road trace was inspected at key places
such as 9urundugahahethekma, +maduwa, 'odagama etc.
B September 7?
&arried out a preliminary visit in selected locations of "(# trace with several
study team members.
1, 1A, 1?
September 7?
:ield visits and meetings with 'rama $iladari farmers in 'odagama 46 *iyasena,
'$5 8allala 4*'S *admasiri, '$5, $alawana, 4* 6 Senaratne, '$5, 9okmaduwa
42 9 "nurashantha, '$5 in 2elipitiya (S (ivision
9abaragala 4* 6 6udalige, '$5, (eegoda, 46 I Leelaratne, '$5 9odagoda and
8oradagoda '$ (ivisions
1A September 7?
&arried out a detailed site visit in the '*"% from 'alle to *innaduwa accompanied
by 6r. & ( 9arunaratna, %esettlement "ssistant.
7 September 7? " reconnaissance survey was done throughout the entire road trace
A September 7?
&arried out a preliminary visit in the trace from A?km ,BA km. Some of the water
stagnation, flooding E erosion areas were inspected.
A October 7? 6eeting with %(" officials in "(# section
B October 7? 6eeting with consultants of 8al &row and )&L
B,? October 7? :ield surveys of 3ourists at 8ikkaduwa and Cnawatuna, 'alle
? October 7?
" field reconnasiance visit of "(# Section and '*"% conducted with 6r. 6oses,
)ngineer, %("FS3(*.
! October 7?
+nspected the road trace from 9urundugaha 8etkma to #ogahagoda 4location of the
present %(" *roject Office5
0 October 7?
+nspected the road trace from #ogahagoda 4location of the present %(" *roject
Office5 to 'odagama.
1 October, 7B
&arried out a reconnaissance visit through "(# section of the highway with %("
1 October 7? to
77 October 7?
%apid assessment surveys in both sections of the road
17 October 7?
&arried out a detailed site visit in the '*"% with %(" officials from S3(*F"(#
'alle office at #addegama. *articipated in a monitoring committee meeting at this
office as observers.
1!, 10 October 7? &overed the :ield work from 'odagama to 9ananke
71 October 7?
&arried out a detailed reconnaissance survey of '*"% with (r. 'reen, "(#
77 October 7?
Studied %eligious interesting place E environmental sensitive place up to
7A October 7?
&arried out a visit to main trace and '*"%. %eviewed designs at %("FS3(* "(#
section project office at #addegama.. Studied and collected data along the '*"%
7 $ovember 7? &arried out a field visit for collection of water and peat samples.
/ $ovember 7?
"(# section of the trace and the '*"% was visited and localities of degraded
forests, forest plantations and rubber plantations were visited to gather information
over populations 4flora and fauna5 that have already affected by the cutting and
filling done with the highway construction.
1A $ovember 7? +nformal site visit on a heavy rainy day
7? 6ay 7?
" field reconnasiance visit of "(# Section conducted with 6r. 6oses, )ngineer,
2.&.8 *eetings and Consultations
2.&.8.1 *eetings
3his section refers to formal meetings between Study 3eam representatives, %(", "(#
and 6&,S3(*.
Ta.le 2.7 Details of *eetings .et3een Study Team+ RD(+ (D/ and *C0STDP
Date o!ation Parti!i#ants
1 September, 7B %(" CO6, %(" and 6&,S3(*
10 September, 7B "(# CO6, %(", 6&,S3(* and "(#
? October, 7B %(" CO6, %(" and 6&,S3(*
@ October, 7B "(# CO6, "(#
1B October, 7B %(" CO6, %(", S3(*,6&
7 ;uly 7? %(" CO6, %(" J S3(*, 6&,S3(*,, SecyK6inistry of 8ighways
B "pril 7? "(# CO6, "(#
1 ;une 7? "(# CO6, "(# &ompliance %eview 3eam
2.&.8.2 Consultations
3he specialist staff of the study team had many consultations with officers of the
%("FS3(* and other organi.ations and several individuals during their field visits and
other visits made for the purpose of information collection. 3he details of these
consultations are given in 3able 7.!.
Ta.le 2.8 Details of Consultations .y ,Team eader24ydrologist-
Date of
Personnel *et Details of dis!ussions 4eld
? September 7?
'alle %egional (irector of
"rcheology 6r. Senerath
"rcheological sites E the boundary
1, 1A, 1? September
'rama $iladari farmers in
'odagama 46 *iyasena, '$5
8allala 4*'S *admasiri, '$5,
$alawana, 4* 6 Senaratne, '$5,
9okmaduwa 42 9 "nurashantha,
'$5 in 2elipitiya (s (ivision
9abaragala 4* 6 6udalige, '$5,
(eegoda, 46 I Leelaratne, '$5
9odagoda and 8oradagoda '$
(iscussions on Socio economic data
collection relevant to '$ divisions.
1A September 7?
6r. & ( 9arunaratna, %esettlement
"ssistant, S3(*F%(" *roject
Office, 'alle.
8ad discussions regarding the
environmental impacts such as social
complaints regarding lowering of water in
dugwells, flooding and temporary
A September 7?
6r. ) 8 L S 6 'arusinghe
4)ngineer5, S3(*F%(" *roject
Office, 'alle.
8ad discussions regarding the key
environmental impacts on drainage, the
critical places where impacts are prominent.
3his information was helpful to plan the
next detailed site visits in the main road
trace where there are deviations.
A October7?
*roject manager of %(" 4"(#
section5 and other officers involved
in social impact monitoring
(ata and information of impact and
mitigatory measures.
B October 7?
3eam leader and the local
consultant on environment impact
monitoring 4"(# section5
Cnderstand their views on the impact of the
project on social environment and the
mitigatory management process so far
? October 7?
6r. 6oses, )ngineer, %("FS3(*,
community in affected area
On field discussions regarding road
construction and impact on deviations
B,? October 7?
3ourists at 8ikkaduwa and
Cnawatuna, 'alle
Sample data collection on tourism
! October 7?
6r. $ilafer 4)ngineer5,
S3(*F%(" *roject Office, 'alle.
6r. % 9 ( $ %anasinghe, (istrict
+rrigation )ngineer, *rovincial
+rrigation (epartment, 'alle
(iscussions regarding the impacts on the
irrigation schemes. Obtained the plans of
the irrigation schemes affected by '*"%.
8e agreed to send 3echnical Officers along
with us to the field to show schemes
affected by the deviated road trace.
! October 7?
&ommunity in *innaduwa,
(iigodaG 'alle, #addegama,
(odangoda, #ombuwela area
Sample data collection on socio,economic
0 October 7?
6r. 9asun 2anigasinghe J
)nvironmental Officer.
6s. 2ijewardena J *roject
(irector, S3(*
6r. 9 6 'uneratna,
)nvironmental )ngineer, 6r. 9arl
:ernando, 'eotechnical )ngineer,
8alcrow 4*roject Office5, "(#
Section, S3(*,'alle.
&ollected data regarding dugwell
waterlevels. 8ad discussions regarding
environmental impacts caused by the road
on drainage, erosion, and groundwater
levels etc. which were prominently based
on social complaints.
" brief encounter
8ad discussions regarding the prevailing
drainage impacts and impacts on
groundwater flow.
7?F1F0 "rct. "shly (e Ios.
%egulation of the archeological
1 October 7?
6r. 9asun 2anigasekara
4)nvironmental Officer, *6 office,
%(", *innaduwa, 'alle
(r. S ( 2anniarachchi
4)nvironmental Soil Scientist5
Sudarshi, "nanda 6awatha,
9ithulampitiya, 'alle
6r. ' ' #andula 4%egional
6anager5 3ea Small 8alding
"uthority, %egional Office 6atara
(iscussions on socio,economic impacts of
ongoing construction work.
1 October 7? to 77,
October 7?
&onsultation of stakeholders
4affected communities in road
adjacent environment and already
resettled communities in
resettlement sites and other local
agency officers5 +n both "(# and
;#+& sections5
(ata collection and documentation of their
views on the impact on social environment
and mitigatory measures.
17 October 7?
6r. 9asun 2anigasinghe J
)nvironmental Officer.
6s. 2ijewardena J *roject
(irector, S3(*
*articipated in a monitoring committee
meeting at this office as observers.
(iscussed about pollution aspects of on
going construction and impact on water
17 October7?
6r. 2ijepala, resident engineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama
*otential sites along the trace where
ecological impacts would be significant
*erception of the residents in the vicinity
about the potential impacts
1! October 7?
Sanath *admasiri
&hairman of the 9ananke
)nvironmental Society
6icro impact of the environment E
reconstructions stage
77 October 7?
Cdugama (ammike Sandarawala
%aja 6aha Iiharaya #addegama
%eligious impact of the road construction
before E after
77 October 7?
6r. $isahntha Land ower of the
private coconut state at #addegama
8istory at the that coconut state E impact
of the road trace
7/ October 7? (r. %aj Somadewa.
"rcheological E 8istorical sites with the
new road trace E village settlements
7 $ovember 7? &ommunity in the area covered
&onsultation during field visit for collection
of water and peat samples
/ $ovember 7?
*roject (irector of the "(#
section of the trace at the %("
office at 'alle, 6rs. 2ijeywardena
Sites where terrestrial fauna has been
disturbed visibly and potential remedial
/ $ovember 7?
6r. 9asun 2anigasekara,
)nvironmental Officer to the
Showed the localities where peacock
populations might have been under pressure
of fragmentation of rubber plantations by
the highway, areas of degraded forests and
forest plantations that might be subjected to
change due to exposure
/ $ovember7?
6rs. 9usumawathie, a long,time
resident of the mangrove area at
6agalle 4along '*"%5
8uman activitiesF livelihoods that are based
on the resources of the mangrove area at
&ommunity perception over the potential
impacts of the proposed road construction
along the north western margin of the
mangrove area
Seasonal variations in flooding, a-uatic
fauna and their effect on livelihoods, uses
of mangroves etc.
7? 6ay 7?
6r. &arl :ernando, 'eotechnical
Specialist and 6r. 9.8. 'unaratna,
)nvironmental Specilaist,
8alcrows &onsultants
)nvironmental impacts of ongoing
construction work, mitigatory measures
adopted, environmental monitoring
2.&.9 Im#a!t (ssessment
3he methodology adopted for impact matrices in the previous )+" %eport, had been
accepted by the &entral )nvironmental "uthority and therefore the same methodology was
2.&.9.1 Im#a!ts Identifi!ation
3he project is divided into a number of )+" elements, identified by the )+" 3eam in
consultation with %(" engineers. 7B *roject activities were identified, A activities
occurring during the investigation stage, 1B in the construction stage and 0 in the operation
stage. " list of the 7B *roject "ctivities is given in 3able 7.0. +t was noted that there was no
variation in the project activities of the '*"% and the "(# section.
Ta.le 2.9= ist of Pro%e!t (!ti$ities
". (uring +nvestigations and *reparation
'eotechnical +nvestigations
Land Surveying
Land "c-uisition
#. (uring &onstruction
&onstruction 6aterial )xploitation, 8andling, 3ransportation E Storage
Site &learing
&ut E :ill
#lasting E (rilling
Surfacing E *aving
Land %eclamation
(itching E (rainage
Spoil (isposal
"sphalt E &oncrete *lants
&onstruction of #ridges
&onstruction of &ulverts
"pplication of *esticidesF8erbicides in Landscaping
$umber, housing and Services for Labour :orce
(isplacement E Settlement of *eople
&. (uring Operation
'enerated E (iverted 3raffic
)ncroachment to previously inaccessible areas
%oad "ccidents
8a.ards (ue to 3ransport of 8a.ardous 6aterial
%oad maintenance work
%oadside (evelopment 4*lanned E Cnplanned5
:loods, )arth-uakes or "ny Other Cnforeseen "cts
3he affected environment was also divided into B! )nvironmental )lements, considering
the general environment of the area and the environmental issues identified in the previous
studies. 3hese environmental elements were subdivided into 1B *hysicalF&hemical
aspects, ? #iological aspects and 70 SocialF Socioeconomic aspects, as shown in 3able
Ta.le 2.:= ist of 'n$ironmental 'lements
(. P"ysi!al2C"emi!al (s#e!ts
"1 )arth
1.6ineral %esources
7.&onstruction 6aterials
A.)arth Stability
B Settlement and ground subsidence
"7 2ater
1.Surface 2ater Muantity
7.'roundwater Muantity
A.Surface 2ater Muality
B.'roundwater Muality
"A "tmosphere
1."ir Muality
7.$oise Level E Iibration
"B *rocesses
1.:loodsF8ydrology E (rainage patterns
7.Soil )rosion, Siltation E Sediment %unoff
A.+rrigation E :lood *rotection work
/. /iologi!al (s#e!ts
#1 :lora
1.3errestrial :lora 4)ndemic, 3hreatened or )ndangered species5
7."-uatic :lora
#7 :auna
1.3errestrial :auna
7."-uatic :auna
A."vi :auna
C. So!ial2 So!ioe!onomi! (s#e!ts
&1 Land Cse and *roperty Ialues
1.Land use *attern
7.Land tenure
A.Settlement pattern
B.Long 3erm *lans for Land Cse
&7 8uman "ctivities and Muality of Life
1.Social structure, Local Lifestyle and Ialues
7.*opulation, 6igration E Settlement
B."ccessibility and 6obility for $ormal "ctivities
?."ccessibility for Special Services,*olice, :ire protection, 8ospitals
!.*ublic 8ealth E Safety
@.Other infrastructure :acilities, 2ater Supply, 2astewater and Solid 2aste disposal,
*ower supply etc
/.Other 6odes of 3ransport and 3ransportation :acilities
1.'eneral Lifestyle
&A )conomic "spects
B.+ncome (istribution
!.#usiness Iolumes
0.*roperty Ialues
@. %ural )conomy
&B :eatures of "esthetic, 8istoric and &ultural +nterest
1.Iisual +ntrusion and Landscape
7.8istoric and "rchaeological 6onuments
A.*laces of worship and religious interest
B. 3extural -uality of structures
?. Iegetation E 8istoric value of trees
3he %elevance 6atrix was developed with these 7B identified project activities and B!
environmental elements. " scoping session was conducted by the entire team to identify
possible environmental elements that would have impacts. 3wo separate %elevance
6atrices were developed for the ;#+& section and the "(# section, in order to incorporate
the differences in the extent and the intensity of the impacts on the different environmental
2.&.9.2 T"e Im#a!t *atri!es
3he impact matrices developed for the "(# section and '*"% is shown in :igures 7.7
and 7.A. 3he team along with each subject specialist ranked the impacts in a scale of two
which differentiated the degree as =Signifi!ant> or =*arginal>. 3he scale was selected to
maintain the compatibility of the present work with the previous )+".
3he team with specific expert knowledge, details from literature surveys, results of
scoping and interviews, field measurements and following numerous meetings identified
the impact matrix indicated above. 3he summary of reasons for categori.ation is given in
3able )1.1 and )1.7 of "ppendix ).
Fig 202 T"e Im#a!t *atri> for t"e (D/ Se!tion
Fig 20& T"e Im#a!t *atri> for t"e Galle Port (!!ess Road
2.) Pur#ose of Re#ort and General (##roa!"
2.).1 Pur#ose of Re#ort
3he purpose of this report is to document the study findings of this Supplementary
)nvironmental "ssessment. +t is presented as a description of application of the 'eneral
6ethodology adopted in this study as outlined in Section 7.A.
2.).2 Re#ort Contents
3he report contents are developed mainly following the standard procedure adopted for an )+"
%eport and in compliance with "(# and &)" guidelines. 3he comments made and
modifications proposed by the %(" and "(#, following the submission of +nterim %eport,
have been incorporated. +n addition to descriptions in the main text, the anticipated
environmental impacts of the project, proposed mitigatory measures and details of proposed
environmental monitoring are tabulated in summary form for easy reference.