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Angelica Joy S.

de Castro
BSA 5-2

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
 Proposed the Philosophical position of Positivism, which states that knowledge, can be derived
only from sensory experience, meta-physical speculations and intuitive insights.
 Theorized that the methods of Physical Science are regarded as the accurate means of
obtaining knowledge.
 Founder of Sociology.

Harriet Martneau (1802-1876)
 Her book ―Society in America‖ examines religion, politics, child rearing and immigration in the
young nation.
 Gives special attention to status distinctions and to such factor as gender and race.
 Emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade and population could have on the special
problems of contemporary society.
 Intellectuals and scholars should not simply offer observations of social conditions; they should
at upon their convictions in a manner that will benefit society.

Karl Max (1818-1883)
 People should take active steps to change society.
 Proposed Theory of Evolution or Class Conflict Theory.

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
 Believes that society operates according to fixed laws.
 Proposed that there is a parallelism between how society evolves in the same manner as
animal species do. This principle attributed Darwin’s Theory of ―Evolution of Species‖.
 The most intelligent and capable members of the society survive, while the less capable die
 Man as member of the society is in a never ending competition and the name of the game is to

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
 Protestants, the wealthy, males and disgusted killed themselves at a higher rate compared to
Catholics, Jews and the poor and the females and the contented.
 Suicide is not an ordinary phenomenon that could be interpreted by mere observations, but
rather a social product of many social factors that needs to be given emphasis and study
through research.
 Scientific measures in order to interpret social phenomena that give claimed to sociology as

Max Weber (1864-1920)
 It was Religion (Catholicism vs. Protestantism) that encourages social change.
 Protestantism is more likely will embrace and open to change and encourages greater
economic development.

Albion Small – established the American Journal of Sociology.
W.E.B Du Bois – conducted research on race relationship in the U.S.
Talcott Parsons – demonstrated with models hoe the parts of society harmoniously work together.
Robert K. Merton – sociologists need to develop middle-range theories as explanations of human behavior
that go beyond the particular observation or research but avoid sweeping generalizations that
attempt to account for everything.
C. Wright Mills – urged sociologists to get back to social form.

Serafin N. Macarig, the first Filipino to acquire a doctorate degree in Sociology and published a
book entitled An Introduction to Sociology in 1938.
Fr. Valentin Matin (1950) introduced Sociology in the Philippines. The approaches introduced in the
studying Sociology during this period more theoretical rather than scientific and experimental.
During the same period , AW Salt and Murray Bartiett offered Sociology course in the UP. Clyde
Hetlin Siliman University in Dumaguete , and the two Filipino social scientist, Conrado Benitez and Luis
Rivera were among the first teacher of Sociology in the Philippines.
In 1952, Filipino Pioneers in Sociology organized the Philippine Sociological Society which main
trust is to collect, interpret and proposed possible solutions to different Philippine sociological phenomena.
The findings of this organization were soon published through its annual publication, Philippine Sociological
In 1957, the community Development Research Council (CDRC) was created to conduct and
support social science researchers.
In 1960, Fr. Frank Lynch SJ, founded the institute of the Philippine Culture of Ateneo De Manila
University it spearheaded the research on economic development.
In 1972, Xavier University was given credit as the first school, which opens a program in Ph.D. in
sociology. Though, U.P was the first school that offered a bachelor Degree in Sociology. Since then,
Sociology became a partner of the government in shaping public policies on urbanization, labor problems,
population and other social dilemmas.

Science can be divided into the natural science and the social science. The natural science attempt
to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment, while social science attempt to
objectively understanding the social world and include the following:
1. Political Science focuses on politics or government.
2. Economics analyzes the production, distribution, and allocation of the material goods and services
of a society.
3. Anthropology which primary focuses on preliterate people and attempt to understand culture.
4. Psychology which concentrates on processes that occur within the individuals.

Because sociology focuses on all the characteristics of a human society, it has considerable overlap with
other disciplines. Closely related fields in the social sciences are political science, anthropology, history
science, criminology, demography, economics and psychology.
1. Political Science - Political science and sociology are very closely related. Political science deals
with the political activities of man. It studies social groups organised under the sovereignty of the
state. ―Historically, sociology has its main root in politics and philosophy of history "- Morries
Ginsberg.‖ Political is embedded in the social that if political science remains distinct from
sociology, it will be because of the breadth of the field calls for the specialist, not because there are
any well-defined boundaries marking it off from sociology"- Garner. Sociology is the science of
state and government. Sociology is the young science and political science is older science.
2. Anthropology - The relation between sociology and anthropology is widely recognized today.
Anthropology is concerned not with particular man but with man in groups, with races and peoples
and their happenings and doings. According to Hoebel, "Sociology and Social Anthropology are, in
their broadest sense one and the same". Sociology has borrowed many concepts log, cultural
patterns, cultural configuration, etc., from socio-cultural anthropology. Anthropology as a discipline
is so closely related to sociology that the two are frequently indistinguishable. Sociologists in their
3. History Science - Sociology and history are very much interrelated. Like political science, sociology
is becoming one of the most genuine fruits of history to which it is intimately connected. History is
the reconstruction of man's past. It is the story of the experience of mankind and the record of the
human past. History is the microscope of the past, the horoscope of the present and the telescope
of the future. Sociology is the science of society, on the other hand is intrested in the present. It
tries to analyse human interactions and interrelations with all their complexity and diversity. It also
studies the historical development of societies. History with its record of various social events of
the past offers data facts to sociologists. History is a storehouse of records, a treasury of
knowledge. Historians also use sociology. 'History is past sociology', and 'Sociology is present
History'-G.E. Howard.
4. Criminology - is the scientific study of the causes of crime and how it may be prevented. It is
basically a subfield of sociology, but it has grown so large that it is usually treated as a separate
course in higher education.
5. Demography - studies the distribution of population by age, sex, marital status, and other
characteristics. It also focuses on population changes—movement from place to place, trends in
fertility rates, and birth- and death rates. One emphasis relates population size to the potential for
economic growth.
6. Economics - Sociology and economics as social sciences have close relations. According to
Thomas, ―Economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology ". Dr.
Alfred Marshall defines economics as " On the one side the study of wealth and on the other and
more important side a part of the study of man ". Sociologists have contributed to the study of
different aspects of economic organization. Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships but
economics deals with only those social relationships which are economic.
7. Psychology - Sociology and psychology are contributory sciences. Psychology has been defined
as the study of human behaviour. In the words of Thouless, ―Psychology is the positive science of
human experience and behaviour ". As Krech and Crutchfield define, ―Social Psychology is the
science of the behaviour of the individual in society ". Social psychology helps us a great deal in
facing several social problems. Murphy ―Social psychology is the study of the way in which the
individual becomes members of and functions in a social groups ". Sociology analyses social
processes but social psychology analysis mental processes of man.