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You are on page 1of 32

C.-D. Munz

Universitt Stuttgart, Institut fr Aerodynamik und

Gasdynamik

Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70550 Stuttgart

Tel. +49-711/685-63401 (Sekr.)

Fax +49-711/685-63438

e-mail munz@iag.uni-stuttgart.de

Contents

I. Equations

II. Basic Discretization Methods

1. Finite Difference Schemes

2. Finite Volume Schemes

3. Finite Element Schemes

4. Grids Discretization in Space

III. Numerical Gasdynamics and Finite Volume

Schemes

VI. Numerical Solution of Incompressible and Weakly

CompressibleFluid Flow

1. Finite Difference (FD) Schemes

x

u(x) x) u(x

lim (x) u

0 x

+

=

2. Step: Choose finite differences and replace

derivatives by finite differences

3. Step: Order the difference equations

4. Step: Solve the system of difference equations

Basic idea:

Replace derivatives by difference quotients

PDE,ODE System of algebraic equations

PDE: partial differential equation, ODE: ordinary differential equation

Finite Differences

Taylor expansions

(1)

(2)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K +

=

i

3

i

2

i i 1 i

x u

6

x

x u

2

x

x u x x u x u

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K +

+ =

+ i

3

i

2

i i 1 i

x u

6

x

x u

2

x

x u x x u x u

Difference quotient for derivative: (2) (1)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

5

i

3

i 1 i 1 i

x O x u

6

x 2

x u x 2 x u x u +

=

+

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2

i

1 i 1 i

x O x u

x 2

x u x u

+

+

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) x O x u

x

x u x u

i

i 1 i

+

+

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) x O x u

x

x u x u

i

1 i i

+

central difference 2nd order

right-sided difference 1st order

left-sided difference 1st order

Finite difference for 2nd derivative: (1) + (2) + 2y(x

i

)

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2

i

2

1 i i 1 i

h O x u

h

x u x 2u x u

+

=

+

+

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

2

i

IV

4

i

2

1 i i 1 i

h O x u

12

h

x u h x u x 2u x u + +

= +

+

central difference quotient, 2nd order.

Finite differences of higher order need more than 3 points

Taylor expansion gives consistency = guarantee of

approximation assumption: u smooth enough

Conclusion Finite Differences

Approximate values are values at grid points

Simple coding also for complicated equations

Multidimensional extension is straightforward on Cartesian

grids

Extension to structured grids

Solution has to be smooth enough and can be approximated

by a smooth approximation

u

x

2. Finite Volume (FV) Schemes

( ) [ ] T , 0 D in 0 u f u

t

= +

smooth piecewise C boundary

k j fr C C , C D

j

k j j

j

= =

U

i

C

Discretization of space

Grid

Numerical scheme for conservation equations

( ) ( ) dt dS n t , x u f u C u C

1 n

n j

t

t C

n

j j

1 n

j j

+

+

=

r

[ ]

1 n n j

t , t C over n Integratio

+

Direct approximation of the integral conservation law

Basic Basic Basic Basic parts parts parts parts:

1. Discretization in space (quite general grids)

2. Reconstruction of local values

3. Appropriate approximation of the flux, numerical flux

Finite Volume Scheme in One Space Dimension

+ +

+ +

= +

1 n

n

1/2 i

1/2 i

1 n

n

1/2 i

1/2 i

t

t

x

x

x

t

t

x

x

t

0 dxdt t)) f(u(x, t)dx (x, u

( ) 0 u f u

x t

= +

Conservation equation

t

1 i

x

i

x

1 + i

x

1 n

t

+

n

t

x

t

2 / 1 i

x

2 / 1 i

x

+ i

x

Integration over [x

i-1/2

,x

i+1/2

]x[t

n

,t

n+1

]:

+ +

= +

+ +

1 n

n

1/2 i

1/2 i

t

t

1/2 i 1/2 i

x

x

n 1 n

0 t))dt , f(u(x - t)) , f(u(x )dx t u(x, - ) t u(x,

) g - (g

x

t

u u

n

1/2 - i

n

1/2 i

n

i

1 n

i +

+

=

flux numerical called is g

1/2 i+

Conclusions Finite Volume Schemes

Approximation of integral values

Consistent with integral conservation

No continuity assumption approximation of the integral

conservation law

Flux calculation is the basic building block based on

local wave propagation - Shock-capturing possible

Reconstruction to get local data

general grids

stable approximation of

underresolved phenomena

u

x

3. Finite Element (FE) Schemes

Approximation is a function usually continuous

=

=

N

1 i

i i h

(x) (t) c t) (x, u

basis functions

DOF

The DOFs are determined in such a way that the trial

function becomes a good approximation

Discretization in function space

here, for time

dependent problems

DOF = degrees of freedom (time dependent)

trial function

Often Used Basis Functions

Basis functions are defined to be local, e.g.,

nodal basis: DOF are values at some points of the grid cell

hat functions

modal basis: Coefficients of polynomials

= (x)

i

i 1 i i

x x x fr ) x (x

h

1

1 < < +

1 i i i

x x x fr ) x (x

h

1

1

+

< <

otherwise 0

Approximate Solution (Piecewise Linear)

Calculation of DOFs

Method of Ritz

The problem may be formulated as a

variational problem, too. Solve the variational

problem for the trial function

Collocation

The approximate solution solves the problem

at some points exactly:

Number of points = number of DOFs

Method of weighted residuals: Trial function

is inserted, DOFs are determined to minimize

the residual with respect to

Galerkin method: Orthogonality

Least squares method: Least sqare deviation

Calculation of DOFs

Method of Ritz

The problem may be formulated as a

variational problem, too. Solve the variational

problem for the trial function

Collocation

The approximate solution solves the problem

at some points exactly:

Number of points = number of DOFs

Method of weighted residuals: Trial function

is inserted, DOFs are determined to minimize

the residual with respect to

Galerkin method: Orthogonality

Least squares method: Least sqare deviation

Conclusion Finite Elements

- Data as degrees of freedom

of a trial function

- Difficult coding

- General grids

- Problems at strong gradients

- Continuous solutions and

approximations

u

Very recent approach: Discontinuous Galerkin schemes

for future aerodynamic codes ?

4. Grids Discretization in Space

The use of the grid may be different for different discretizaiton

methods

Finite differences

grid points with

approximate values

Finite volumes

Grid cells with

approximate

integral means

Finite elements

Support of trial

function

n

1

i i

a

Cartesian Grids

Simple generation

Good data management

Adaptation difficult

Limited to simple geometries

Curved boundary treatment on Cartesian

meshes possible, but difficult

equidistant non equidistant

Transformation of the equations from physical to logical space

( ) ( ):

r

)

r

u x u

2 , 1 with

2

2

1

1

=

m u

x

x

u

x

x

u

m m m

2 m

2

1 m

1

m

x x x

Derivatives:

Example continuity equation:

( )

( ) ( )

0

0

2

1

2

2

1

1

2

1

=

=

=

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

u

x

u

x t

x

u

t

Boundary-fitted Structured Grids

Requirement: Bijective transformation to a Cartesian grid

) , ( ) x , x ( : T

2 1 2 1

Function:

physical coordinates

logical coordinates

Boundary-fitted Structured Grid (H-Grid)

Transformation to a Cartesian grid

y

x

a b c d a b c d

y

x

e

a = a c b = b

d

f

f d e

a a c b b

Boundary-fitted Structured Grid (C-Grid)

y

x

d a = a b c = c

c c d

a a b

Boundary-fitted Structured Grid (O-Grid)

Unstructured Grids

Best approach for complex geometries

Usual triangles and quadrilaterals in 2D or tetrahedrons

and hexahedrons in 3D

Dual Grid

Grid cell edges of the dual grid cell is

defined by the lines between

barycenters and midpoints of edges of

the primal grid

e.g., implemented in Tau-Code of DLR

Airbus code for unstructured grids

flow direction

fan

spinner

Noise calculation of the inlet of turbo engine by solving

the linearized Euler equations

mean flow given by

RANS simulation

Source terms are

given by LES

Cooperation with

F. Thiele, Berlin

Numerical Results

Block-Structured Chimera-Type

Finite Difference (FD) Mesh

(5,469,928 points / DOF)

Mesh generation time: days

Fully Unstructured Tetrahedral

Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Mesh

(123,304 elements 2,466,080 DOF)

Mesh generation time: 55 s.

FD results (6.0 CPUh / ms) DG results (2.2 CPUh / ms)

Numerical Methods on Unstructered Grids

Methods for unstructered grids:

Finite volumes

Finite elements

The data management needs much more

overhead: Information about neighbors, edges, ..

Adaptation technically simple

Fluid Flow around a Sphere

Flexibility of Discontinuous Galerkin Schemes

our calculations

Literatur - Grundlagen

C.-D. Munz, T. Westermann: Numerische Behandlung

von gewhnlichen und partiellen Differenzial-

gleichungen, Springer-Verlag 2009, auch als e-book

ohne CD erhltlich

C.Hirsch: Numerical Computation of Internal and

External Flows, 2nd edition, Elsevier John Wiley and

Sons 2007

K. A. Hoffmann, S. T. Chiang: Computational Fluid

Dynamics for Engineers, Vol. I

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