You are on page 1of 48


Learn|ng Lessons from Northern Ire|and

Þaper for the
Un|ted Nat|ons Cff|ce for Þro[ect Serv|ces (UNCÞS)

8ronagh n|nds, Çueen's Un|vers|ty 8e|fast
Çu|nt|n C||ver, Stratagem
Iu|y 2008

lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 1
ln March 2008 a delegaLlon of lraql ÞarllamenLarlans, from lraq's ConsLlLuLlonal
8evlew CommlLLee and Councll of 8epresenLaLlves, Lravelled Lo norLhern lreland Lo
sLudy Lhe peace process. 1he sLudy Lour, funded by Lhe Luropean unlon Lhrough Lhe
unlLed naLlons uevelopmenL Croup lraq 1rusL lund (unuC l1l), was supporLed by
Lhe Cfflce of ConsLlLuLlonal SupporL of Lhe unlLed naLlons AsslsLance Mlsslon for lraq
(CCS - unAMl) and unlLed naLlons Cfflce for Þro[ecL Servlces (unCÞS), and arranged
locally by SLraLagem.
1he SLudy vlslL enabled Lhe lraql delegaLlon Lo engage ln dlalogue wlLh pollLlcal, clvlc
and communlLy leaders ln norLhern lreland. 1helr focus was on: negoLlaLlng peace,
lmplemenLlng Lhe peace agreemenLs and Lhelr leglslaLlve requlremenLs, esLabllshlng
lnsLlLuLlons Lo dellver power-sharlng and underpln confllcL resoluLlon, and lead and
faclllLaLe reconclllaLlon and peace-bulldlng processes generally. 1he delegaLlon was
able Lo explore Lhe dlfflculLles and well as successes and dlscuss Lhe challenges LhaL
remaln ln a peace process LhaL ls sLlll a 'work ln progress'.
1hls documenL has been prepared Lo consolldaLe and exLend Lhe learnlng from Lhe
SLudy vlslL. lL draws on noLes of dlscusslons durlng Lhe sLudy vlslL, shorL follow-up
papers wrlLLen by conLrlbuLors Lo Lhe programme, subsequenL lnLervlews wlLh
addlLlonal key flgures, and maLerlals gaLhered from organlsaLlons who have asslsLed
and sLudled Lhe norLhern lreland confllcL and Lhe peace process.
1he auLhors are graLeful Lo: Slr Ceorge Culgley (senlor buslness leader), Slr nlgel
PamllLon (Pead of Lhe norLhern lreland Clvll Servlce), Mr Chrls Maccabe (senlor
norLhern lreland Cfflce offlclal), ur uuncan Morrow (CLC of Lhe norLhern lreland
CommunlLy 8elaLlons Councll), Þrofessor Adrlan Cuelke (Cueen's unlverslLy),
Þrofessor 1ony Callagher (Cueen's unlverslLy), Þrofessor 1om Padden (Cueen's
unlverslLy), ur ÞeLer Shlrlow (Cueen's unlverslLy), Þrofessor Þaul ArLhur (unlverslLy
of ulsLer), ur Mlchael PamllLon (unlverslLy of ulsLer), ur CaLhy Cormley-Peenan
(unlverslLy of ulsLer), ur nell !arman and ur kaLy 8adford (lnsLlLuLe for ConfllcL
8esearch), ur uavld SLevens (Corrymeela CommunlLy / lrlsh Councll of Churches), ur
uebble uonnelly and Ms Amanda SLewarL (norLhern lreland Þollclng 8oard),
Þrofessor Monlca McWllllams and Ms Ann Pope (norLhern lreland Puman 8lghLs
Commlsslon), Mr Aldan llLzpaLrlck and Mr Claran 8radley (LquallLy Commlsslon for
norLhern lreland), Ms lrances McCandless and Mr Seamus McAleavey (norLhern
lreland Councll for volunLary AcLlon), Mr !ohn C'larrell (lrlsh Congress of 1rade
unlons), Mr ualre McClll (SLudy vlslL 8apporLeur). We also drew on Lhe work of Lhe
Lames / 8radley ConsulLaLlve Croup on Lhe ÞasL.

8ronagh n|nds
Çu|nt|n C||ver
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 2
1. Northern Ire|and Conf||ct
key factors |n the peace process
kema|n|ng cha||enges
2. Secur|ty and Þub||c Crder
Þo||c|ng pr|nc|p|es
Commun|ty po||c|ng
3. Lqua||ty, numan k|ghts and keconc|||at|on
Ia|r emp|oyment
I|ags and emb|ems
Statutory equa||ty duty
Lqua||ty |essons
numan r|ghts
Legacy of the past
Lducat|ng the next generat|on
4. 1he ko|e of C|v|| Soc|ety
C|v|| soc|ety
1he bus|ness sector
1rade un|ons
Churches and fa|th-based organ|sat|ons
S. Mak|ng and Imp|ement|ng Agreements
Þo||t|ca| |eadersh|p
Þo||t|ca| party perspect|ves
Negot|at|ng the Agreement
Imp|ement|ng aspects of the Agreement
D|fferences and common ground between po||t|ca| part|es
Þo||t|ca| comprom|ses
6. Iac|||tat|ng and Adm|n|ster|ng the Þo||t|ca| Þrocess
1rack 2 d|p|omacy
Secur|ng a negot|at|ng process
Adm|n|strat|ve |eadersh|p post-Agreement
Support|ng a departmenta| M|n|ster
Lnab||ng the power-shar|ng Lxecut|ve
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 3
1 Northern Ire|and Conf||ct
1.1 Introduct|on
An lmporLanL prerequlslLe Lo 'lesson-learnlng' ls Lo avold derlvlng prescrlpLlons of
whaL Lo do from oLher socleLles faclng very dlfferenL problems and challenges.
lmlLaLlon ln peace processes can lead Lo borrowlng mechanlsms LhaL are noL
necessarlly approprlaLe ln anoLher seLLlng and Lo Lhe aLLlLude LhaL Lhe formulas used
ln one socleLy are panaceas for oLhers, wlLh lnevlLable problems and seLbacks.
Powever, Lhere ls much Lo be learned from comparlson - comparlson played an
lmporLanL role ln Lhe norLhern lreland peace process - and Lhe noLlon of 'lessons Lo
be learned' permlLs Lhe posslblllLy of negaLlve as well as poslLlve lessons. 1here ls
muLual beneflL ln lesson sharlng. lf ldeas on how Lo overcome confllcL are exporLed
Lo and lmlLaLed ln oLher socleLles, lL ls easler Lo persuade people ln norLhern lreland
LhaL Lhey should look poslLlvely on whaL has been achleved. 1he same moLlve lay
behlnd SouLh Afrlca's encouragemenL Lo norLhern lreland ln Lhe 1990s. lL ls for lraq
Lo recreaLe a socleLy and devlse Lhe lnsLlLuLlons LhaL reflecL lLs own ldeals and values.
lLs greaL rlver valleys cradled Lhe world's flrsL clvlllsaLlon over 3,000 years ago and
Lhe lnlLlaLlon of wrlLlng, and lraq gave Lhe world lLs oldesL sLory, Lhe Lplc of
Cllgamesh. ln Lhe succeedlng mlllennla lL has been consLanLly sucked lnLo Lhe vorLex
of world pollLlcs.
1here ls deep undersLandlng of Lhe human Lragedy and Lhe challenges ln bulldlng
peace, sLablllLy and prosperlLy beLween Lhose who have suffered confllcL. norLhern
lreland's experlences of emerglng from 800 years of confllcL and unlLlng all people
around a vlslon of a shared fuLure ls sLlll a 'work ln progress', buL Lhere ls an agreed
framework wlLhln whlch Lhe fuLure can be crafLed by persuaslve argumenL noL by
force of arms. Many ln norLhern lreland are wllllng Lo be parL of Lhe neLwork of
frlendshlp supporLlng lraq Lo shape lLs own desLlny.
Lxperlence suggesLs LhaL creaLlng a non-vlolenL conLexL and esLabllshlng Lhe
framework for lncluslve dlalogue LogeLher provlde a rouLe ouL of confllcL,
• Leadershlp for compromlse and peace-bulldlng, almlng for an agenda for
naLlonal reconclllaLlon, ls vlLal,
• Þower-sharlng can be a poslLlve way forward, bulldlng parLnershlps Lo blnd
groups LogeLher raLher Lhan perpeLuaLlng dlvlslons,
• ulalogue, bullL on paLlence, perslsLence and hope, ls crlLlcal however long lL
• undersLand Lhe need Lo bulld LrusL and engage ln confldence-bulldlng
• Þrlnclples of equallLy, rlghLs and [usLlce are cenLral,
• lncluslon and parLlclpaLlon of all players, pollLlcal and oLher groups (even
Lhose who dlsagree), musL be won,
• 8ecognlse and blnd ln clvll socleLy,
• lull soverelgnLy requlres flndlng Lhe rlghL role for exLernal sLakeholders,
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 4
• ÞrosperlLy ls bullL on ensurlng conLrol and falr dlsLrlbuLlon of resources,
• naLlonal unlLy means worklng for an agreed soluLlon LhaL reflecLs dlfferlng
ldenLlLles and asplraLlons,
• 'noLhlng ls agreed unLll everyLhlng ls agreed' Lles parLles lnLo dlalogue and
1.2 Context
AL Lhe hearL of Lhe norLhern lreland confllcL was Lhe perslsLence of a paLLern of
pollLlcal, soclal, economlc and personal relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhelr orlglns ln Lhe colonlal
pollLlcs and economlcs of Lhe 1600s and 1700s. lreland was evenLually dlvlded lnLo a
norLhern parL wlLh a ÞroLesLanL and unlonlsL ma[orlLy and a souLhern parL wlLh a
CaLhollc and naLlonallsL ma[orlLy whlch became lndependenL from 8rlLaln. WlLhln
norLhern lreland parLlLlon was vlolenLly conLesLed from Lhe ouLseL and dlvlslon
beLween ÞroLesLanL and CaLhollc, unlonlsL and naLlonallsL deflned pollLlcs. Access Lo
employmenL, houslng and governmenL was subsLanLlally less for CaLhollcs Lhan for
AglLaLlon for clvll rlghLs and counLer proLesLs ln Lhe 1960-70s descended lnLo lnLer-
communal vlolence followed by Lhe arrlval of 8rlLlsh Lroops, lnLernmenL, kllllng of
clvlllans, abollLlon of Lhe norLhern lreland governmenL, emergency powers and Lhe
growLh of paramlllLarles on boLh sldes. WlLh mass fllghL of communlLles lnLo 'safe'
areas an esLabllshed paLLern of separaLed llvlng was relnforced. vlolence dld noL
resulL ln Lhe LoLal collapse of Lhe sysLem, and afLer Lhe mld-1970s, 93° of deaLhs and
ln[urles were among Lhe urban poor, dlsLlncL rural areas and Lhe securlLy forces. 1he
lmpacL of Lhe confllcL led Lo: an lncrease ln segregaLlon beLween Lhe Lwo maln
communlLles, especlally ln soclal houslng communlLles, Lhe deaLh of around 3,600
persons and physlcal ln[ury Lo beLween 30-30,000 people (populaLlon 1.6m), a
growLh ln posL LraumaLlc sLress dlsorder ln beLween a LenLh and a flfLh of Lhe
populaLlon, an economy overLly llnked Lo Lhe publlc secLor, lnLerface walls, and
oLher boundarles such as roads and lndusLrlal zones, beLween Lhe Lwo maln
populaLlons ln clLles and many prlnclpal Lowns, and an envlronmenL condlLloned by
vlolence and eLhno-secLarlan aLavlsm. 1hroughouL, mosL pollLlcal parLles ln norLhern
lreland appealed Lo one or oLher of Lhe eLhno-naLlonallsL blocs for Lhelr voLes, ofLen
on Lhe basls of Lhe 'zero-sum game' l.e. lf Lhelr slde wlns, our slde loses.
1he underlylng pollLlcal challenge was Lhe absence of a sufflclenL base for leglLlmaLe
governmenL. 8oLh sldes could clalm LhaL vlolence was a necessary evll, requlred Lo
correcL a prlor ln[usLlce: acLlon agalnsL an un[usL sLaLe on one slde and acLlon ln
supporL of Lhe elecLed governmenL on Lhe oLher. 1he resulL was a splral where Lhe
sLaLe, whose clalm Lo Lhe monopoly of Lhe use of leglLlmaLe force was challenged,
resorLed Lo emergency securlLy laws whlch ln Lurn undermlned Lhe sLaLe's leglLlmacy
and narrowed Lhe dlsLlncLlon beLween force and vlolence on whlch Lhe unlque
leglLlmacy of Lhe sLaLe and Lhe rule of law depends.
1.3 key factors |n the peace process
8eachlng pollLlcal accommodaLlon led Lo: endorsemenL and pracLlce of power-
sharlng, pollLlcal adversarles symbollcally worklng LogeLher ln a generally agreeable
manner, a slgnlflcanL decllne ln sLaLe and paramlllLary vlolence, demlllLarlsaLlon and
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 3
decommlsslonlng of l8A weaponry,
embeddlng of robusL anLl-dlscrlmlnaLlon
leglslaLlon, lndusLrlal developmenL and growLh of a servlce economy. 1hls was Lhe
resulL of a 'long peace process' LhaL emerged ln Lhe 1980s, wlLh small sLeps and
regular seLbacks, flowlng ln a predomlnanL dlrecLlon around a serles of crlLlcal
landmarks: Anglo-lrlsh AgreemenL (1983), Lalks beLween Lhe leaders of naLlonallsm
(Pume-Adams 1988-93), re-engagemenL of unlonlsLs ln pollLlcal dlalogue (8rook-
Mayhew 1alks 1991-92), uownlng SLreeL ueclaraLlon (1993), paramlllLary ceaseflres
(1994), lorum for Þeace and 8econclllaLlon (1994-1996), MlLchell Þrlnclples (1996),
8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL (1998),
elecLlon Lo an Assembly and lnLermlLLenL
devoluLlon (1998-2007), ÞaLLen 8eporL on pollclng reform (2000), SL Andrews
AgreemenL (2006), and re-esLabllshmenL of devoluLlon (2007).
Cbservers polnL Lo some key elemenLs ln Lhe roadmap Lo peace ln norLhern lreland:
A|ternat|ves to v|o|ence: Þurely securlLy soluLlons Lo vlolenL confllcL cannoL esLabllsh
a basls for susLalnable peace ln a socleLy where communlLles musL ulLlmaLely llve
LogeLher and share Lhe ouLcomes (as 8rlLlsh pollcy came Lo recognlse). 1he
alLernaLlve was Lo remove lnequallLles, esLabllsh an open economy, promoLe
lnLercommunlLy relaLlons and lnslsL on power-sharlng.
Internat|ona| sponsorsh|p: Where naLlonallsm and clalms Lo absoluLe soverelgnLy
are Lhe axls of Lhe pollLlcal dlspuLe, lnLernaLlonal sponsorshlp can prove vlLal ln
sLablllslng peace. ln Lhls case, generaLlon of a 8rlLlsh-lrlsh alllance and Lhe supporL of
Lhe Lu and Lhe uSA creaLed a pollLlcal mass Lo lsolaLe Lhose unwllllng Lo seek a
shared ouLcome and provlde confldence on fundamenLal lssues of securlLy and
Inc|us|on: lull lncluslon ln democraLlc pollLlcs on Lhe basls of commlLmenL Lo purslng
goals by excluslvely peaceful means and an end Lo paramlllLary and LerrorlsL acLlvlLy
offers opporLunlLy and lncenLlve. 1he peace process was noL advanced on Lhe basls
of defeaLlng any parLy and prevlous combaLanLs were noL excluded.

Stab|||ty: 1o have a real chance of belng sLable, a seLLlemenL musL lnclude all Lhe key
players Lo make sure LhaL as many as posslble have a sLake ln Lhe new fuLure. LfforLs
had Lo be made Lo re-lnLegraLe Lhose who could noL accepL Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday)
AgreemenL and lncluslon of former combaLanLs. 1he seLLlemenL LhaL led Lo Lhe
formaLlon of Lhe admlnlsLraLlon ln 2007 flnally lncludes all.
Þower-shar|ng: Speclflc mechanlsms were needed Lo ensure access Lo governmenL
from across socleLy, raLher Lhan proLecLlng Lhe prlnclple of ma[orlLy rule LhaL
enLrenched permanenL rule of one 'dlsLlncL' group over anoLher.
ku|e of Law: LxamlnaLlon of Lhe lnsLrumenLs of law enforcemenL and a radlcal
overhaul of pollclng were lmporLanL. Whlle noL lnlLlally agreed by elLher unlonlsLs or
republlcans Lhe ÞaLLen reporL esLabllshed lnLernaLlonal consensus on pollclng reform
whlch now commands wldespread leglLlmacy.

1he lrlsh 8epubllcan Army was Lhe largesL paramlllLary group
ln general naLlonallsLs/republlcans refer Lo lL as Lhe Cood lrlday AgreemenL whlle unlonlsLs refer Lo
lL as Lhe 8elfasL AgreemenL. 1he 2006 SL Andrews AgreemenL supplemenLed lL.
‘Political’ prisoners were given early release (but not amnesty) from 1998-2000.

lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 6
Consent, numan k|ghts and Lqua||ty: Þrlnclples LhaL Lranscend naLlonallsms were
requlred as Lhe basls for pollLlcal leglLlmacy. 1hese were: no consLlLuLlonal change
wlLhouL consenL of all (ln norLhern lreland) and lrlsh unlLy only by consenL of all
(norLh and SouLh of lreland). 1hls ls underplnned by overL commlLmenL Lo human
rlghLs and equallLy of opporLunlLy for all. AgreemenL over soverelgnLy was unllkely ln
Lhe absence of any of Lhese.
1hese are supplemenLed by a number of lessons abouL negoLlaLlon processes:
D|a|ogue: 1here ls no alLernaLlve Lo resolvlng dlspuLes. norLhern lreland's process
proved more proLracLed Lhan lL need have been because noL all ma[or pollLlcal
parLles were prepared Lo slL LogeLher ln Lhe same room and Lalk dlrecLly Lo each
Improv|ng understand|ng and re|at|onsh|ps: 1he !"#$%&& of negoLlaLlons among
represenLaLlves of dlfferenL communlLles brlngs abouL greaLer comprehenslon of Lhe
poslLlons and perspecLlves of oLhers. Whlle Lhls does noL mean necessarlly any
convergence ln vlewpolnLs, lL helps Lo avold confllcLs over mlspercepLlons of Lhe
oLher's vlews. lL also Lends, however slowly, Lo lessen Lhe lnfluence of 'bad falLh'
lnLerpreLaLlons of Lhe lnLenLlons of adversarles, whlch ls necessary lf Lenslons are Lo
be reduced Lo a level aL whlch parLles can have a buslness-llke relaLlonshlp.
Lxterna| env|ronment: 1he exLernal envlronmenL, lncludlng help ln Lhe medlaLlon
process lLself, maLLers. Þeace processes lnvolve Laklng rlsks. lf pollLlclans are Lo be
persuaded Lo do so, Lhey have Lo feel LhaL Lhe exLernal envlronmenL ls elLher helpful
Lo Lhe process or else LhaL lL leaves Lhem wlLh no oLher alLernaLlve. lf Lhe exLernal
envlronmenL offers one or oLher of Lhe parLles Lhe opporLunlLy Lo avold Lhe
compromlses LhaL any peace process ls llkely Lo enLall Lhey are llkely Lo Lake lL.
Iac|||tat|on: LxLernal faclllLaLlon and medlaLlon can be cruclal. When dlalogue ran
lnLo dlfflculLles uS SenaLor Ceorge MlLchell and Lhe 8rlLlsh and lrlsh CovernmenLs
ln[ecLed fresh ldeas and momenLum Lo help break Lhe log[am.
Comprom|se: ÞarLles musL be prepared Lo compromlse and accepL LhaL Lhere ls
never a perfecL ouLcome for any parLy. norLhern lreland was a confllcL where
parLles' ob[ecLlves seemed muLually lncompaLlble and none was golng Lo caplLulaLe
Lo Lhe oLher. Lach has Lo be prepared Lo concede someLhlng Lo galn anyLhlng,
oLherwlse Lhe prospecL ls lndeflnlLe sLalemaLe.
Suff|c|ent Consensus: 1he prlnclple of ºsufflclenL consensus", borrowed from SouLh
Afrlca, was adopLed for negoLlaLlons ln norLhern lreland, lL meanL maklng every
efforL Lo reach as wlde a consensus as posslble on Lhe varlous elemenLs of Lhe
seLLlemenL. 1he underlylng noLlon of whaL was consLlLuLed ºsufflclenL consensus"
was LhaL agreemenL on any subsLanLlve polnL requlred Lhe supporL of a ma[orlLy of
unlonlsL and a ma[orlLy of naLlonallsL represenLaLlves.

Þrofessor Adrlan Cuelke noLes LhaL Lhls had pracLlcal pollLlcal lmpllcaLlons for Lhe process slnce
conslderable efforL had Lo be made Lo keep small LoyallsL parLles llnked Lo vlolenL organlsaLlons ln Lhe
negoLlaLlons Lo saLlsfy Lhe prlnclple as some unlonlsLs (Lhe uuÞ and ukuÞ) chose noL Lo conLlnue Lhelr
parLlclpaLlon afLer Slnn leln enLered Lhe Cood lrlday/8elfasL AgreemenL Lalks.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 7
Mutua| benef|t: A seLLlemenL ls noL posslble unless and unLll parLles can see, or be
persuaded, LhaL Lhelr lnLeresLs ulLlmaLely converge and Lhere ls a prlze whlch all can
share Lo muLual beneflL.
Durab|||ty: A seLLlemenL requlres a normaLlve foundaLlon or raLlonale Lo endure. lL
cannoL slmply be based on Lhe exlsLlng balance of forces, always sub[ecL Lo change,
any dlspensaLlon relylng on balance of forces can rapldly desLablllse. lnLernaLlonal
norms and how oLher socleLles emerglng from confllcL have managed dlvlslons and
reached agreemenL are lmporLanL. So norLhern lreland looked Lo Lhe SouLh Afrlcan
LranslLlon durlng lLs peace process as oLhers are now looklng Lo norLhern lreland.
Agreement takes t|me: Arrlvlng aL Lhe polnL of lmplemenLlng agreemenL can Lake a
conslderable perlod of Llme, for example, Lwelve and a half years from Lhe l8A
ceaseflre ln 1994 Lo dlrecL agreemenL on power-sharlng beLween Lhe key
proLagonlsLs (uuÞ and Slnn leln). Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhls relnforces LhaL dlfflculLles
can be overcome ln Lhe end and Lhere ls llghL aL Lhe end of Lhe Lunnel.
C|v|| Soc|ety Lngagement: CreaLlng a new fuLure ls noL [usL Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe
pollLlclans buL of clvll socleLy as well. lf Lhe pollLlcal process falls, lL ls clvll socleLy LhaL
pays Lhe prlce ln Lerms of quallLy of llfe and losL opporLunlLy. Clvll socleLy has a
cruclal role ln remlndlng Lhe pollLlcal process consLanLly Lo perslsL wlLh dlalogue, of
Lhe need for compromlse and Lhe prlze of a beLLer llfe whlch success wlll dellver.
1.4 kema|n|ng cha||enges
8eachlng pollLlcal agreemenL ls a sLage ln a peace process. lL ls noL Lhe end, nor does
lL consLlLuLe Lhe whole peace process, neverLheless, pollLlcal leadershlp ls lmporLanL.
ln norLhern lreland several aspecLs of Lhe seLLlemenL have noL been lmplemenLed,
Lhere has been dlsagreemenL on whaL consLlLuLes lmplemenLaLlon, and oLher
maLLers LhaL are cruclal Lo long-Lerm peace and sLablllLy have noL been sufflclenLly
Lead|ng a shared future: Sharlng ls easler Lo promoLe from ouLslde where lL can be
concelved of as an lnLellecLual exerclse ln dlplomacy, Lhan from wlLhln a polarlsed
socleLy whlch has gone Lhrough decades of vlolence. ÞollLlcs of susplclon remaln lf
boLh sldes conLlnue Lo promoLe Lhe seLLlemenL as Lhe 'leasL worsL' opLlon, Lhls klnd
of leadershlp has consequences.
Gr|d|ock potent|a|: Absence of a shared vlslon among governmenL parLles can mean
emphasls on process raLher Lhan ouLcomes as parLles seek Lo promoLe Lhelr own
lnLeresLs and prlorlLles. 1hls lncreases Lhe poLenLlal for muLual veLo and grldlock wlLh
Lhe pollLlcal sysLem's requlremenL for balance conLlnulng Lo ouLwelgh LrusL and
efflclency. lurLhermore, wlLh no avallable mechanlsm for Lhe alLernaLlon of
governmenL greaL aLLenLlon ls needed Lo prevenL cllenLellsm and corrupLlon.
Þo||t|cs: 1he norLhern lreland pollLlcal sysLem devlsed Lo resolve lnLer-communlLy
anLagonlsm and compeLlLlon of naLlonallsms makes lL dlfflculL Lo develop a pollLlcs ln
whlch people change vlews on Lhe basls of persuaslon raLher Lhan on Lhe basls of
naLlonal ldenLlLles. 1he unanswered quesLlon ls wheLher Lhe sysLem of governmenL
ln Lhe peace agreemenL lnsLlLuLlonallses dlvlslon on a naLlonal/communal basls ln
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 8
Lhe longer Lerm, or by esLabllshlng sLablllLy lL creaLes Lhe condlLlons Lo reduce
dlvlslon Lhrough pragmaLlc coallLlons beLween people who were prevlously enemles.
Þo||t|ca| part|es: PlsLorlcal focus on Lhe consLlLuLlonal lssue has drlven creaLlve
pollLlcal LalenL ln soclal and economlc maLLers away from elecLed pollLlcs lnLo clvll
socleLy organlsaLlons, many of whlch have llLLle llnk Lo represenLaLlve pollLlcs.
Þo||c|ng & Cr|m|na| Iust|ce: ulsagreemenL on effecLlve pollclng and devoluLlon of
pollclng and crlmlnal [usLlce underllnes Lhe conLlnulLy of susplclon around Lhe use
and conLrol of force and vlolence.
Þaram|||tar|sm: 1here has been no slgnlflcanL decommlsslonlng of loyallsL
paramlllLary weaponry. ÞaramlllLary bodles ofLen command a degree of communlLy
leglLlmacy and exerclse communlLy conLrol. 1hey are lnLerLwlned wlLh communlLy
sLrucLures and acLlvlLy, and changlng Lhls ls a long and complex process.
Legacy of the past: Lack of agreemenL on Lhe causes of Lhe confllcL and on how Lo
handle Lhe dllemmas of Lhe legacy of Lhe pasL creaLes uncerLalnLy. lL fuels allegaLlons
LhaL democraLlc pollLlcs ls un[usL or lmmoral, seen by some as preferrlng lnLegraLlon
of 'Lhe perpeLraLors' ln governmenL over [usLlce for vlcLlms. 1here ls a sense ln
deprlved communlLles, experlenclng Lhe mosL confllcL, LhaL Lhe peace dlvldend has
been llmlLed.
L|m|ted peace d|v|dend: 1here ls endurlng poverLy and soclal excluslon wlLhln
communlLles LhaL bore Lhe brunL of confllcL and a sense LhaL whlle Lhe confllcL has
been resolved aL Lhe ellLe level lL remalns dlfflculL aL ground level where Lhe peace
dlvldend has been llmlLed. 1here ls a growLh ln new forms of anLl-soclal behavlour.
Uncerta|n peace: 1he concern wlLhln secLlons of Lhe ma[orlLy ÞroLesLanL communlLy
LhaL Lhe peace process has favoured Lhe CaLhollc communlLy may helghLen over
fuLure consLlLuLlonal lnsLablllLy. uemographlc shlfLs suggesL Lhe poLenLlal of a
CaLhollc ma[orlLy purslng unlflcaLlon wlLh lreland wlLhln 33 years.
Þo|ar|sat|on, segregat|on and |nter-commun|ty re|at|ons: norLhern lreland remalns
dlvlded by culLure, educaLlon and resldence, wlLh no serlous lnsLlLuLlonal reform
ouLslde pollLlcs and pollclng. MosL people llve ln segregaLed communlLles and many
are lnLoleranL of Lhe 'oLher' communlLy. Whlle pollLlcal sLablllLy depends on supporL
from across socleLy, secLarlan pollLlcs remaln as parLles depend on dlvlded
consLlLuencles for Lhelr power. 1he absence of a dynamlc Lo solve lssues of 'Lhem
and us' conLlnues Lo represenL a serlous LhreaL.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 9
2 Secur|ty and Þub||c Crder
2.1 Segregat|on

uesplLe Lhe decllne ln vlolence, many people llvlng ln segregaLed communlLles sLlll
fear, or are lnLoleranL of Lhe 'oLher' communlLy. SegregaLlon has grown, evldenced
by Lhe bulldlng of new and sLrengLhenlng of esLabllshed lnLerface walls. non-vlolenL
confllcL remalns a domlnanL feaLure ln 8elfasL and elsewhere because of Lhe
exlsLence of 'Lhe LerrlLorlal Lrap', l.e. Lhe way Lhe prlnclpal communlLles are dlvlded
from each oLher by walls and oLher feaLures. 1he dlsparaLe ldeologlcal boundarles
are malnLalned by a deLermlned lack of lnLeracLlon across Lhe lnLerfaces. 1he
ma[orlLy of lnhablLanLs wlLhln each segregaLed space alm Lo maxlmlse Lhelr group's
sLaLus relaLlve Lo Lhose Lhey are opposed Lo. 1helr ldenLlLles are consLrucLed wlLhln
Lhe boundarles of Lhls space, drawlng on lnLrospecLlon and hlsLorlcal memory. As Lhe
pollLlcal process advances lL ls obvlous LhaL Lhe mosL endurlng problem ls LhaL of
physlcal separaLlon beLween Lhe Lwo prlnclple communlLles.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 10
2.2 Þarades
Þrocesslons, demonsLraLlons, commemoraLlons, feasL days, and even funerals ofLen
provlded Lhe conLexL for publlc dlsorder ln norLhern lreland. Many Lowns and
vlllages are vlewed as elLher predomlnanLly ÞroLesLanL or predomlnanLly CaLhollc,
and parLlcular slLes such as war memorlals or churches ofLen Lake on speclal
slgnlflcance as eLhnlc markers. 1he symbollsm assoclaLed wlLh many parades ls
percelved by some as deeply offenslve, and resldenLs ln several areas Lhrough whlch
parades pass have organlsed opposlLlon Lo speclflc parades LhaL Lhey conslder Lo be
LhreaLenlng and lnLlmldaLlng.
1he mosL lnLracLable parade dlspuLes are a mlcrocosm of Lhe broader confllcL,
represenLlng conLesLaLlon over LerrlLorlallLy and Lhe expresslon of rellglous, pollLlcal
and eLhnlc ldenLlLles. A number of parade dlspuLes escalaLed ln Lhe mld-1990s. AL
LhaL Llme, Lhe power Lo lmpose resLrlcLlons on parades was vesLed ln Lhe pollce.
lurLhermore, Lhe sLaLuLory crlLerla gave prlmacy Lo Lhe poLenLlal for dlsorder, whlch
meanL LhaL Lhe pollce were ofLen seen Lo yleld Lo Lhe greaLesL LhreaL, Lhe law was
wldely crlLlclsed for provldlng an lncenLlve for Lhose who LhreaLened dlsorder.
lollowlng a revlew of Lhe law governlng publlc assembly, new leglslaLlon
Lhree ma[or changes:
• 1he esLabllshmenL of a Þarades Commlsslon, an lndependenL seven
member clvlc body broadly represenLaLlve of all affecLed consLlLuencles, Lo
whom Lhe legal powers Lo lmpose condlLlons on parades were Lransferred
from Lhe pollce.

• 1he exLenslon of Lhe sLaLuLory crlLerla Lo shlfL Lhe focus away from poLenLlal
dlsorder Lo concenLraLe Lo a greaLer degree on Lhe lmpacL a parade mlghL
have on communlLy relaLlonshlps and Lhe human rlghLs of oLhers.
• A sLaLuLory duLy on Lhe Þarades Commlsslon Lo faclllLaLe medlaLlon, Lo
emphaslze Lhe lmporLance of local dlalogue ln avoldlng legal ad[udlcaLlon by
brlnglng abouL early and muLually saLlsfacLory resoluLlon of dlspuLes.

Many lessons can be drawn:
Negot|ated management: 1he pollclng of publlc proLesL ls a slgnlflcanL deLermlnanL
of pollce-communlLy relaLlons. ln norLhern lreland's LranslLlon, Lhe pollclng of
parades shlfLed from an 'escalaLed force' model Lo one of 'negoLlaLed managemenL'.
1ra|ned c|v|c actors: Clvlc acLors can play an lmporLanL role ln sLewardlng,
monlLorlng and medlaLlng conLenLlous dlspuLes. 1he developmenL of such roles,
however, requlres lnvesLmenL ln Lhe provlslon of approprlaLe Lralnlng programmes.
Loca| agreement: Local agreemenL, posslbly reached wlLh Lhe asslsLance of a neuLral
Lhlrd parLy medlaLor, ls Lhe besL way of ensurlng a susLalnable resoluLlon, and
avoldlng an lmposed legal declslon (whlch should always be regarded as a lasL

'()*+$ '"#$%&&+#-& ./01 2$3 1998
See furLher hLLp://
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 11
Independent body: 1he Lransfer of ad[udlcaLory powers on parades from Lhe pollce
Lo a represenLaLlve clvlc body helped new pollclng sLrucLures Lake rooL by shleldlng
Lhe new pollce servlce from Lhese charged pollLlcal declslons. lmporLanLly,
developmenLs ln Lhe managemenL of parade dlspuLes were lnexLrlcably llnked wlLh
Lhe broader pollce reform process LhaL resulLed from Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday)

Interpret|ng human r|ghts standards: lnLernaLlonal and reglonal human rlghLs
sLandards lay down ob[ecLlve parameLers for Lhe ad[udlcaLor, whlch all parLles can
supporL. Powever, wlLhln Lhese parameLers, Lhere ls much room for negoLlaLlon
abouL how Lhe varlous lnLeresLs aL sLake mlghL besL be muLually respecLed. lL ls
lmporLanL Lo Lry Lo develop background consensus abouL how lnLernaLlonal human
rlghLs sLandards should be lnLerpreLed ln llghL of local clrcumsLances. ln Lhls regard,
Lhe recenL 43"53%6+$ 7%8+%9 #: '5"5;+-6 ln norLhern lreland made furLher

2.3 Þo||c|ng pr|nc|p|es
An effecLlve and broadly accepLed pollce organlsaLlon ls an lmporLanL elemenL of any
modern socleLy and a cruclal lngredlenL ln any successful pollLlcal LranslLlon. 1he
pollce are ofLen Lhe mosL vlslble aspecL of a represslve sLaLe, and are one sLaLe
agency LhaL clLlzens engage wlLh, confronL, suffer from and see operaLlng on a dally
basls. ln socleLles ln confllcL Lhe pollce are ofLen ldenLlfled as an lnsLrumenL of sLaLe
pollcy, and of supporLlng and susLalnlng an unpopular governmenL, raLher Lhan
proLecLlng Lhe rule of law and Lhe rlghLs of Lhe people. ln a process of soclal and
pollLlcal change, or ln esLabllshlng a new pollLlcal reglme, reform of Lhe pollce can be
a key lndlcaLor of LhaL change, and Lhe new eLhos of pollclng can be an lndlcaLor of
Lhe asplraLlons of Lhe new governmenL ln lLs relaLlons wlLh wlder socleLy.
Þollce reform has been vlLal Lo peace-bulldlng and pollLlcal LranslLlon ln recenL
processes of confllcL LransformaLlon, for example ln SouLh Afrlca, 8osnla, kosovo and
norLhern lreland, hlghllghLlng:
Leg|t|macy: 8eform of Lhe pollce ls ln parL abouL esLabllshlng Lhe leglLlmacy of Lhe
pollce ln Lhe eyes of wlder socleLy, lL also serves as an lndlcaLor of lnLenL Lo Lhe
lnLernaLlonal communlLy. lL needs Lo be done publlcly and vlslbly, and be based on
prlnclples of Lransparency, accounLablllLy, and lncluslveness. 1he reform process wlll
beneflL from lnLernaLlonal supporL, guldance and advlce, Lhe process should lnclude
Lhe parLlclpaLlon of represenLaLlves of lnLernaLlonal pollclng organlsaLlons.
Interna| Support: Þollce reform needs Lo secure Lhe acLlve supporL of senlor flgures
wlLhln Lhe exlsLlng pollclng sLrucLures who are ofLen well placed Lo ldenLlfy areas ln
mosL need of change and poLenLlal blockages Lo change, and have ldeas on how Lo
change and resLrucLure Lhelr organlsaLlon effecLlvely. lnLernaLlonal pollclng
organlsaLlons can help by worklng wlLh exlsLlng pollce sLrucLures Lo lmplemenL

Speclflcally, recommendaLlons of Lhe lndependenL Commlsslon on Þollclng: '#*+$+-6 +- /#"3<%"-
0"%*5-; = 2 /%9 >%6+--+-6. (?<% '533%- 7%!#"3)
See Lhe 0-3%"+@ A#-&(*353+8% 7%!#"3 of Lhe SLraLeglc 8evlew of Þaradlng hLLp://
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 12
reform. Securlng pollce supporL should noL obscure Lhe need Lo address pasL lssues
of corrupLlon, human rlghLs abuse or pollce lmpunlLy.
kepresentat|veness: 1he new pollclng body should asplre Lo be broadly
represenLaLlve of eLhnlc, raclal and rellglous dlverslLy wlLhln Lhe sLaLe and should
also alm Lo lncrease Lhe gender balance wlLhln Lhe organlsaLlon.
numan k|ghts: Any pollclng organlsaLlon should be based on lnLernaLlonal human
rlghLs prlnclples and sLandards LhaL should underpln all elemenLs of pollclng pracLlce.
All aspecLs of Lralnlng should be human rlghLs proofed.
Accountab|||ty: 1he new pollclng organlsaLlon should be open, LransparenL and
accounLable Lo Lhe pollLlcal sLrucLures and also Lo wlder clvll socleLy. 1here should be
an lndependenL body responslble for overseelng sLraLegy and pollcy, whlch should
lnclude a range of pollLlcal and lndependenL flgures. 1here should be an lndependenL
Cmbudsman responslble for lnvesLlgaLlng complalnLs agalnsL pollce offlcers.
Serv|ce Cr|entat|on: 1he new pollce organlsaLlon should be orlenLaLed Lo provldlng a
servlce Lo Lhe people, raLher Lhan belng an agenL of force for Lhe sLaLe. lL should be
operaLlonally lndependenL of Lhe sLaLe, whlle remalnlng accounLable Lo wlder
Þartnersh|p Work|ng: lL ls recognlsed LhaL provldlng safeLy and securlLy exLends
beyond Lhe capaclLy of Lhe sLaLe pollce body, whlch Lherefore needs Lo be wllllng
and able Lo work ln parLnershlp wlLh a range of oLher bodles lncludlng: Lhe wlder
crlmlnal [usLlce secLor, oLher bodles and organlsaLlons responslble for safeLy and
securlLy, human rlghLs groups, nCCs and Lhe buslness communlLy. (See uÞÞs below).
Dem|||tar|sat|on: 1he pollce should noL be a mlllLary-llke body (alLhough lL may need
Lo bear arms). 1hls should be reflecLed ln appearance (unlform, cloLhlng, emblems),
equlpmenL, vehlcles, command sLrucLures and Lralnlng, and Lhe need for lndlvldual
offlcers Lo be able Lo operaLe wlLh dlscreLlon and a degree of lndependence.
Use of Iorce: ln Lheory Lhe sLaLe exerclses conLrol over Lhe leglLlmaLe use of force ln
Lhe area under lLs [urlsdlcLlon and Lhe pollce are Lhe prlnclpal body auLhorlsed Lo use
force ln socleLy. 1hls responslblllLy should be exerclsed wlLh exLreme dlscreLlon, be
sub[ecL Lo Lhe prlnclples seL down ln lnLernaLlonal human rlghLs sLandards, and be
accounLable Lo lndependenL overslghL and revlew. Abuse of Lhe rlghL Lo use force
wlll serve Lo undermlne Lhe leglLlmacy of any pollce organlsaLlon.
2.4 Commun|ty po||c|ng
8ackground: 1he lndependenL Commlsslon on Þollclng (ÞaLLen Commlsslon 2000),
followlng Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL, recommended LhaL pollclng should
be decenLrallsed and Lhere should be local dlalogue beLween Lhe pollce and
communlLy. ln response, ulsLrlcL Þollclng ÞarLnershlps (uÞÞs) were esLabllshed ln
2003. 1here are 26 uÞÞs, one for each councll dlsLrlcL, 8elfasL has four subgroups. A
uÞÞ ls a parLnershlp beLween Lhe local councll and Lhe communlLy comprlslng
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 13
counclllors nomlnaLed by Lhe councll and lndependenL members drawn from Lhe
local communlLy and appolnLed by Lhe norLhern lreland Þollclng 8oard.

ko|es and kespons|b|||t|es: 1o meeL Lhelr sLaLuLory duLles uÞÞs: (l) $#-&(*3 wlLh Lhe
publlc Lo flnd ouL Lhelr concerns on pollclng and crlme ln Lhe dlsLrlcL, (ll) +;%-3+:B *#$5*
!#*+$+-6 !"+#"+3+%& from Lhe consulLaLlon and recommend Lhese Lo Lhe ulsLrlcL
Commander for lncluslon ln Lhe Local Þollclng Þlan, (lll) @#-+3#" pollce performance
agalnsL Lhe ob[ecLlves ln Lhe Local Þollclng Þlan and Lhe norLhern lreland Þollclng
Þlan as lL relaLes Lo Lhe dlsLrlcL, (lv) %-656% wlLh Lhe communlLy Lo galn Lhelr co-
operaLlon wlLh Lhe pollce ln prevenLlng crlme, and (v) 5$3 as a general forum for
dlscusslon and consulLaLlon on pollclng Lhe dlsLrlcL.
Commun|ty consu|tat|on & engagement: ÞaLLen seL ln place pollclng accounLablllLy
sLrucLures LhaL were unlque aL LhaL Llme, parLlcularly ln Lhe esLabllshmenL of uÞÞs
wlLh connecLlon Lo Lhe local communlLy. MosL lmporLanL are local communlLles
meeLlngs aL whlch uÞÞ members llsLen, offer reassurance and agree Lo Lake acLlon
on concerns abouL pollclng. Slnce 2003, uÞÞs have held over 700 publlc meeLlngs
glvlng local people Lhe opporLunlLy Lo ask quesLlons of Lhe pollce servlce across
norLhern lreland's vlllages, Lowns and clLles.
1hrough consulLlng a wlde range of
lnLeresL groups, parLlcularly Lhose dlsaffecLed from pollclng, Lo hear aL flrsL hand
Lhelr speclflc concerns, uÞÞs have creaLed a beLLer undersLandlng of whaL Lhe
communlLy wanLs from lLs local pollce servlce. uÞÞs commlssloned four Þubllc
ConsulLaLlon Surveys, Lhe largesL ever underLaken on pollclng ln norLhern lreland.
Local communlLles are aL Lhe hearL of local pollclng and have a volce ln shaplng
pollclng prlorlLles.
Inf|uence & |mpact: uÞÞ success ls evldenced Lhrough lnfluence on pollclng prlorlLles
aL local and norLhern lreland level. 8y ldenLlfylng local pollclng prlorlLles and
formulaLlng local soluLlons Lo local problems, Lhe plans have helped make norLhern
lreland one of Lhe safesL places Lo llve ln Lhe unlLed klngdom. uÞÞs have conLrlbuLed
Lo lncreased confldence ln pollclng, and by worklng on crlme prevenLlon ln
parLnershlp wlLh Lhe pollce Lhey helped Lo reduce crlme over Lhe lasL flve years


Shap|ng good pract|ce: uÞÞs are vlewed, naLlonally and lnLernaLlonally, as a model
of good pracLlce on communlLy lnvolvemenL and overslghL of pollclng. 1hey have
been showcased, hosLlng vlslLors from across Lhe world. 1he model ls helplng shape
Lhe developmenL of slmllar parLnershlps ln Lngland and Wales and lreland.

1he number of local counclls wlll be reduced Lo 11 by 2011, so Lhere may be fewer uÞÞs ln Lhe
fuLure. 1he Þollce (nl) AcL 2000, as amended by Lhe Þollce (nl) AcL 2003, seLs ouL Lhe general
funcLlons of uÞÞs. 1he uÞÞ Crder 2003 made changes Lo Lhe legal framework, prlmarlly Lo
Lemporarlly exLend Lhe llfespan of exlsLlng uÞÞs beyond Lhe local governmenL elecLlons and enable
uÞÞ lndependenL members Lo assume Lhe role of vlce Chalr. 1he SL Andrews AgreemenL AcL 2006
provldes auLhorlLy for reconsLlLuLlon of uÞÞs ouLslde Lhe Lrlgger of Lhe local governmenL elecLlon.
uurlng 2007/08, 4,476 members of Lhe publlc aLLended uÞÞ publlc meeLlngs.
ln Lhe Aprll 2008 Cmnlbus survey 83° reporLed confldence ln pollclng compared wlLh 73° ln Aprll
2003, represenLlng an lncrease of elghL polnLs slnce uÞÞs were esLabllshed ln 2003. 1here has been a
13° reducLlon ln recorded crlme ln Lhe lasL flve years.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 14
3 Lqua||ty, numan k|ghts and keconc|||at|on
3.1 Ia|r emp|oyment
ulscrlmlnaLlon ln employmenL and allocaLlon of houslng were ma[or sources of
communlLy dlvlslon, Lhus, equallLy and human rlghLs are cenLral Lo Lhe resoluLlon of
Lhe confllcL. uesplLe a uk anLl-dlscrlmlnaLlon conLexL,
leglslaLlon lnLroduced by Lhe
8rlLlsh CovernmenL ln 1976 maklng dlscrlmlnaLlon ln employmenL unlawful and
seLLlng up a lalr LmploymenL Agency ln norLhern lreland neverLheless meL wlLh
reslsLance. 1he lnlLlal leglslaLlon was crlLlclsed for a number of reasons: an Agency
acLlng as [udge and [ury, Lhe Agency's lack of auLhorlLy Lo approach flrms for
lnformaLlon, appeal of Agency declslons Lo CounLy CourL [udges who were noL
speclallsLs ln equallLy law, and weak enforcemenL powers.
lollowlng reporL by Lhe norLhern lreland SLandlng Advlsory Commlsslon on Puman
8lghLs sLrengLhened leglslaLlon was lnLroduced ln 1989. 1he changes led Lo: a sysLem
of complalnLs Lo equallLy law speclallsLs ln speclal lndusLrlal courLs called lndusLrlal
1rlbunals, workplace monlLorlng Lo ensure proacLlve aLLenLlon Lo addresslng under-
represenLaLlon, a newly consLlLuLed lalr LmploymenL Commlsslon (Lo replace Lhe
Agency) Lo 'pollce' monlLorlng, and, lmporLanLly, Lhls Commlsslon could apply
afflrmaLlve acLlon measures. SLraLegles lncluded:
Workp|ace Leaders: 8eLween 1976 and 1989 hlgh proflle employers were ldenLlfled
and challenged Lo lead change ln percepLlons: ShorLs alrcrafL facLory, Parland and
Wolff shlpyard, Cueen's unlverslLy, banks, lnsurance companles, car sales companles
and oLher large lndusLrlal employers.
Lmp|oyers: lrom 1989 a proacLlve 'carroL and sLlck' approach was used Lo ensure
employers applled Lhe leglslaLlon. 1he sofL approach provlded encouragemenL and
asslsLance. 1he Lough approach pursued cases Lhrough lndusLrlal 1rlbunals.
Industr|a| 1r|buna|s: 1he Commlsslon's approach was relnforced ln early declslons by
lndusLrlal 1rlbunals maklng slgnlflcanL awards Lo employees agalnsL employers found
Lo be dlscrlmlnaLlng.

Iorma| Invest|gat|ons: lormal lnvesLlgaLlons were carrled ouL lnLo employmenL
pracLlces ln dlfferenL secLors of lndusLry and commerce.
D|rect|on: Lmployers could be requlred Lo Lake poslLlve acLlon measures. 1he
Þowers of ulrecLlon were used [usL Lwlce, slmply havlng Lhem provlded sufflclenL
Mon|tor|ng: MonlLorlng and measurlng progress ls essenLlal. unless Lhe problem ls
logged and recorded Lhan people chose noL Lo acknowledge lL. Lmployers had Lo
make annual monlLorlng reLurns on workforce composlLlon.
Þub||c|ty: Lmployee complalnanLs were proLecLed Lhrough confldenLlallLy buL Lhe
Commlsslon publlshed flndlngs of lnvesLlgaLlons, regular reporLs on monlLorlng
resulLs and successes ln lndusLrlal 1rlbunals. Adverse ad[udlcaLlon and publlclLy were

1he uk CovernmenL also lnLroduced Sex ulscrlmlnaLlon leglslaLlon around Lhe same Llme
Awards of £23k-£23k were large awards ln Lhe early 1990s
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 13
regarded as so damaglng by employers LhaL Lhey worked wlLh Lhe Commlsslon and
gradually Lhelr ouLlook and approach changed Lo a more poslLlve vlew of equallLy.
3.2 I|ags and emb|ems
llags and emblems are used Lo mark ouL LerrlLory ln Lhe communlLy, and Lhey used
Lo be used ln varlous workplaces aL cerLaln Llmes of Lhe year. 1hey slgnalled LhaL
some dld noL wanL 'Lhe oLher slde' ln Lhelr place of work, and 'Lhe oLher slde' dld noL
wanL Lo go lnLo such a workplace. 1he concepL of a 'chlll facLor' emerged Lo descrlbe
Lhelr lmpacL on equal access Lo employmenL. Lven lf Lhere was no dlrecL lnLenLlon Lo
dlscrlmlnaLe, Lhe workplace was noL frlendly Lo Lhe 'oLher' communlLy.
And so Lhe lalr LmploymenL leglslaLlon began Lo Lackle Lhe maLLer of unlonlsL/8rlLlsh
flags, emblems and parades ln and around Lhe workplace as a funcLlon of
employmenL and a case of lndlrecL dlscrlmlnaLlon, hlgh proflle employers were
pursued Lo eradlcaLe Lhe pracLlce as parL of Lhelr equal opporLunlLy employmenL
1he maLLer of flags and emblems ln wlder socleLy has noL been properly addressed.
As dlvlslons grew naLlonallsL/lrlsh flags and emblems [olned unlonlsL/8rlLlsh
expresslons. 1he flylng of Lhe (8rlLlsh) unlon llag on local governmenL and oLher
publlc bulldlngs ls a conLenLlous lssue. A llags Crder regulaLes publlc dlsplays on
governmenL bulldlngs now wlLh no slgnlflcanL conLenLlon over flylng Lhe 8rlLlsh flag
for 17 days a year only. Local counclls are sLlll looklng for speclflc dlrecLlon and Lhls
may be lncluded ln forLhcomlng regulaLlons on local governmenL reform. Local
counclls and communlLy assoclaLlons have an lmporLanL role Lo play ln Lhe removal
of offenslve murals LhaL mark ouL LerrlLory and are 'owned' by one slde or Lhe oLher.
LffecLlve pollclng of flags and emblems ls necessary and publlc agencles musL
enforce Lhe law rlgorously.
3.3 Statutory equa||ty duty
1he lalr LmploymenL Commlsslon was lnLegraLed lnLo a slngle equallLy auLhorlLy
called Lhe LquallLy Commlsslon for norLhern lreland ln 1999 along wlLh a number of
oLher equallLy bodles (on gender, race and dlsablllLy). ln LoLal, Lhe slngle LquallLy
Commlsslon was glven responslblllLy for nlne equallLy areas and addlLlonal powers Lo
monlLor and oversee lmplemenLaLlon of a sLaLuLory equallLy duLy placed on publlc
All publlc auLhorlLles ln norLhern lreland (and some ln 8rlLaln wlLh funcLlons ln
norLhern lreland) musL malnsLream equallLy lnLo Lhelr pollcles. 1hey do Lhls Lhrough
equallLy plannlng and equallLy prooflng, each has Lo deslgn a flve-year equallLy
scheme, assess exlsLlng and new pollcles and reporL annually on progress.
lrom Lhe earller falr employmenL experlence lL was anLlclpaLed LhaL placlng
responslblllLy for Lhe equallLy mechanlsm on Lhe publlc auLhorlLles Lhemselves
would creaLe lLs own momenLum. ConsulLaLlon wlLh nCCs aL Lhe core of Lhe duLy ls
lmporLanL buL engagemenL capaclLy musL be bullL wlLh LargeLed nCCs.
1here ls evldence of small changes ln publlc pollcy and Lhere have been a number of
LquallLy Commlsslon lnvesLlgaLlons and [udlclal revlews. SLraLeglc lmpacL,
enforcemenL and sancLlons remaln maLLers of concern.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 16
3.4 Lqua||ty |essons
Agreed mechanlsms: Clearly agreed mechanlsms Lhrough employers and Lhrough
publlc agencles represenLlng Lhe SLaLe are requlred. Cn conLenLlous lssues
employers prefer speclflc dlrecLlon on whaL Lhey can and cannoL do raLher Lhan
lssulng a general dlrecLlon (e.g. Lo provlde a harmonlous worklng envlronmenL) and
leavlng lL up Lo Lhem Lo declde how Lo achleve lL.
1ransparency and clarlLy: LffecLlve work on equallLy ls long-Lerm, palnsLaklng and
dlspuLed. lL ls lmporLanL Lo gaLher facLs and have Lhe evldence publlclsed.
LngagemenL and leadershlp: Þasslng Lhe change dynamlc Lo Lhe employer or publlc
agency ls effecLlve. Pavlng Lo log and engages employers and Lhelr sLaff ln havlng Lo
examlne Lhelr poslLlon and focus on Lhe lssues and consequences. Workplaces ln
norLhern lreland are generally free of Lenslons now.
1ransferablllLy: Successful powers ploneered ln one area can be applled Lo oLhers
e.g. from falr employmenL Lo sLaLuLory equallLy duLles or flags and emblems.
lormallse new approaches: A sLrucLured, and effecLlve, approach Lo recrulLmenL and
promoLlon became Lhe norm based on good pollcles supporLed by [ob descrlpLlons,
personal speclflcaLlons, crlLerla, shorL-llsLlng and lnLervlew noLes. 8esLrlcLlng access
Lo employmenL Lhrough famlly followlng famlly lnLo parLlcular workplaces has gone.
Long-Lerm galns: Lmployers' lnlLlal reslsLance Lo regulaLlon of hlrlng pracLlces has
been replaced by supporL for equallLy: (l) Lhe rlgorous employmenL process enables
Lhem Lo hlre Lhe besL person for Lhe [ob, (ll) Lhey have leglslaLlve proLecLlon Lo
remove flags and emblems LhaL were a source of dlsrupLlon Lo Lrade. Lmployers
belng able Lo say 'lL ls noL us, lL ls Lhe law' has been helpful. 1here ls recognlLlon of
Lhe need for equallLy laws, even ln maLLers affecLlng freedom of acLlon and
LquallLy lmplemenLaLlon unlLs: 1he publlc secLor model of lmplemenLlng and
malnsLreamlng equallLy Lhrough core unlLs: (l) an LquallLy unlL was esLabllshed
wlLhln governmenL's personnel funcLlon from Lhe 1970s Lo lmplemenL falr
employmenL ln Lhe clvll servlce, (ll) Lhe Local CovernmenL SLaff Commlsslon was seL
up Lo supporL compllance ln local governmenL, (lll) a SLaff Commlsslon on educaLlon
also worked closely wlLh equallLy auLhorlLles.
ConLexLual changes: Models of company ownershlp changed, some became parL of
lnLernaLlonally owned companles wlLh lnLernaLlonal lnvesLmenL, whlch made
progress easler. 1he move Lo a common educaLlon currlculum enabled CaLhollcs as
well as ÞroLesLanLs Lo geL lnLo Lechnlcal [obs and englneerlng.
lnLegraLed LquallLy: Þloneerlng a new equallLy approach coverlng nlne equallLy
grounds has been challenglng, especlally where Lhere are dlfferenL laws for dlfferenL
grounds. A Slngle LquallLy 8lll (belng prepared) would harmonlse leglslaLlon and
brlng poslLlve acLlon, malnsLreamlng and anLl-dlscrlmlnaLlon approaches LogeLher.
1hls elevaLes Lhe concepL of 'falrness', promoLes a poslLlve approach ln advance of,
as opposed Lo regulaLlon and llLlgaLlon afLer, a problem emerglng.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 17
3.S numan r|ghts
ln Llme of war and vlolenL confllcL Lhe concepL of clLlzenshlp ofLen becomes
problemaLlc and human rlghLs are mosL llkely Lo be abused. ln a clvll confllcL Lhe
noLlon of a common clLlzenshlp may be refused and rlghLs denled Lo Lhe 'oLher' slde.
8uL, recognlLlon of Lhe rlghLs and dlgnlLy of some obllges Lhem Lo conslder Lhe
vlewpolnLs and asplraLlons of oLhers. A ma[or aspecL of confllcL resoluLlon, brlnglng
all sldes LogeLher, lmplles rebulldlng a common clLlzenshlp bullL on common rlghLs.
1he norLhern lreland Puman 8lghLs Commlsslon was creaLed by Lhe 8elfasL (Cood
lrlday) AgreemenL and esLabllshed by Lhe uk ÞarllamenL ln Lhe norLhern lreland AcL
1998, Lhe maln leglslaLlon lmplemenLlng Lhe AgreemenL. 1he Commlsslon's
professlonal sLaff of 22 serves one full-Llme and nlne parL-Llme Commlssloners,
appolnLed afLer a compeLlLlve selecLlon process lnLended Lo secure plurallsL
represenLaLlon of norLhern lreland socleLy. lunded Lhrough Lhe uk CovernmenL's
norLhern lreland Cfflce, Lhe Commlsslon, whlle sub[ecL Lo Lhe normal accounLablllLy
and flnanclal conLrols of any publlc body, ls lndependenL ln Lerms of lLs pollcy.
1he Commlsslon ls recognlzed by Lhe un and Lhe Councll of Lurope as a member of
Lhe lnLernaLlonal 'famlly' of around 70 naLlonal human rlghLs lnsLlLuLlons (nP8ls),
alLhough wlLh speclal sLaLus on accounL of lLs sub-naLlonal [urlsdlcLlon. lLs deslgn and
operaLlon comply wlLh Lhe Þarls Þrlnclples, Lhe un sLandards for lndependenL nP8ls.
lL engages wlLh lnLernaLlonal human rlghLs sysLems, ln parLlcular Lhe unlLed naLlons
and Lhe Councll of Lurope sysLems, and conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe perlodlc reporLlng
sysLems for parLlcular LreaLles. 1he Commlsslon's work, based on lnLernaLlonally
accepLed human rlghLs sLandards and drawlng on Lhe body of lnLernaLlonal human
rlghLs LreaLy law and 'sofL law' sLandards, seeks Lo lmprove Lhe proLecLlon,
promoLlon and fulfllmenL of all clvll, pollLlcal, economlc, soclal and culLural rlghLs.
1he Commlsslon has powers of lnvesLlgaLlon and llLlgaLlon. lLs maln acLlvlLles are: (l)
revlewlng compllance of law and pracLlce wlLh Lhe uk Puman 8lghLs AcL 1998, (ll)
monlLorlng compllance wlLhln norLhern lreland of Lhe unlLed klngdom's obllgaLlons
under lnLernaLlonal human rlghLs lnsLrumenLs and engaglng wlLh and reporLlng Lo
LreaLy bodles, (lll) recelvlng complalnLs (around 1,000 a year) from lndlvlduals,
provldlng legal advlce, medlaLlng and asslsLlng or brlnglng maLLers Lo courL, (lv)
lnvesLlgaLlng and maklng recommendaLlon on sysLemlc problems ln such areas as
prlsons and healLh, (v) monlLorlng, advlslng on and provldlng human rlghLs educaLlon
and Lralnlng ln Lhe school currlculum and wlLh oLhers such as Lhe pollce, (vl) advlslng
reglonal and naLlonal governmenL and publlc bodles on Lhe compaLlblllLy of rlghLs
wlLh leglslaLlon and pollcy, (vll) developlng proposals for a consLlLuLlonal-level 8lll of
8lghLs for norLhern lreland, (vlll) llalslng wlLh lLs slsLer body ln Lhe 8epubllc of
lreland, Lhe lrlsh Puman 8lghLs Commlsslon, wlLh whlch lL ls developlng a non-
blndlng CharLer of 8lghLs for Lhe lsland of lreland, (lx) co-operaLlng wlLh oLher
human rlghLs and equallLy agencles aL reglonal and naLlonal level, and wlLh naLlonal
lnsLlLuLlons ln oLher counLrles.
8||| of k|ghts: Cf Lhe lnLernaLlonal sLandards, Lhe only one enforceable ln norLhern
lreland courLs ls Lhe Luropean ConvenLlon on Puman 8lghLs. 1he Commlsslon has
Lhe legal duLy Lo advlse Lhe uk governmenL on Lhe scope for a consLlLuLlonal-level
8lll of 8lghLs for norLhern lreland, Lo lnclude rlghLs noL proLecLed by Lhe Luropean
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 18
ConvenLlon Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe parLlcular clrcumsLances of norLhern lreland. 1he
Commlsslon wlll submlL lLs advlce Lo governmenL ln uecember 2008. lL wlll Lake
accounL of a number of consulLaLlons and dellberaLlons lncludlng LhaL of a 8lll of
8lghLs lorum, esLabllshed by governmenL ln uecember 2006 and comprlslng
represenLaLlves from local pollLlcal parLles and clvll socleLy, whlch reporLed ln 2008.
1he Commlsslon lnLends LhaL Lhe 8lll wlll look forward, bulldlng on advances already
made ln equallLy, pollclng and pollLlcal admlnlsLraLlon, and also be gulded by Lhe
pasL, undersLandlng LhaL Lallorlng Lhe 8lll Lo norLhern lreland's needs means
esLabllshlng whlch rlghLs were abused, neglecLed or resLrlcLed and need proLecLlon
ln Lhe fuLure.
Dea||ng w|th the past: 1he Commlsslon has underLaken work on Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of
deaLhs, ln Lhe conLexL of over 3,300 confllcL-relaLed deaLhs. lL belleves LhaL any
'LruLh process' musL be based on wldespread consulLaLlon ln order Lo command Lhe
greaLesL posslble publlc confldence. lL has concerns around Lhe adequacy and
lndependence of Lhe lnqulry sysLem seL up Lo lnvesLlgaLe cases where sLaLe colluslon
ln kllllngs has been alleged. 1he Commlsslon meeLs wlLh vlcLlms and represenLaLlve
groups and has a vlcLlms' worklng group, produced a vlcLlms' reporL, and faclllLaLed
dlscusslons on dlsclosure wlLh Lhe pollce, publlc records offlce and lnformaLlon
Counter terror|sm: 1he Commlsslon ls convlnced of Lhe need Lo proLecL human
rlghLs ln Lhe conLexL of combaLlng Lerrorlsm. lL wanLs Lo see rapld normallsaLlon of
securlLy and pollclng arrangemenLs ln norLhern lreland, lncludlng proper overslghL of
lnLelllgence operaLlons. lL opposes 'exLraordlnary rendlLlon'.
Conf||ct |ntervent|on: As a body creaLed by Lhe peace process, Lhe Commlsslon
encourages dlalogue and a human rlghLs-based approach as Lhe way forward ln
resolvlng communlLy Lenslons. ln parLnershlp wlLh Lhe CommunlLy 8elaLlons Councll
and Lhe lnsLlLuLe for ConfllcL 8esearch lL underLakes Lo provlde Lralnlng ln human
rlghLs sLandards wlLhln Lhe framework for confllcL resoluLlon.
3.6 Legacy of the past
ln Lhelr lnLerlm SLaLemenL ln May 2008 Lhe ConsulLaLlve Croup on Lhe ÞasL

ouLllned Lhelr vlews and maLLers LhaL wlll recelve furLher aLLenLlon ln Lhelr flnal
reporL, whlle some commenLs seem obvlous Lhey are neverLheless conLroverslal.
1hey keep ln mlnd Lhe goal of bulldlng a shared fuLure, and Lhey suggesL LhaL 'a
space should be creaLed for Lhose who wlsh Lo Lell Lhelr sLory'.
V|ct|ms and surv|vors: vlcLlms and survlvors come from all parLs of Lhe communlLy,
Lhelr hurL caused by 8epubllcans, LoyallsLs and Lhe SLaLe yeL Lhelr grlef was Lhe
same. PealLh and welfare needs are noL belng meL and become more acuLe wlLh
Def|n|t|on and h|erarchy of v|ct|ms: '1he pollLlclsaLlon of vlcLlms appears Lo be
perpeLuaLlng Lhe paln raLher Lhan heallng lL', furLhermore, ln some cases vlcLlms and

Co-chalred by Slr 8obln Lames and Mr uenls 8radley. 1he vlews expressed come from Lhe lnLerlm
SLaLemenL ln May 2008 of 1he ConsulLaLlve Croup on Lhe ÞasL.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 19
survlvors Lhemselves are uslng Lhelr paln Lo conLlnue dlvlslon, and people need Lo be
helped Lo deal wlLh Lhelr Lrauma ln a way LhaL can creaLe a beLLer fuLure.
Apprec|at|on of the 'other': 1he Croup wonders lf 8epubllcans appreclaLe Lhe depLh
of hurL LhaL exlsLs ln Lhe unlonlsL communlLy and suggesLs LhaL more needs Lo be
done Lo convlnce people LhaL Lhey wlll never agaln Lake up arms. 1hey acknowledge
LhaL 'Lhe re-emergence of Lhe l8A dld noL [usL happen, Lhe condlLlons had Lo be
Lhere for Lhls Lo Lake place' along wlLh Lhe 'prlmal secLarlan vlolence by LoyallsL
paramlllLarles who mosLly LargeLed CaLhollcs slmply because of Lhelr rellglon'. 1hey
ask loyallsLs Lo fulfll Lhelr sLaLemenL of ab[ecL and Lrue remorse by decommlsslonlng
Lhelr weapons.
State's ro|e: SocleLy cannoL lgnore LhaL Lhe SLaLe someLlmes acLed lllegally wlLh
elemenLs acLlng ouLslde Lhe law on occaslons, and lL could be sald lnnocenL people
were allowed Lo dle Lhrough handllng of lnLelllgence. unlonlsLs flnd lL hard Lo come
Lo Lerms wlLh Lhe facL LhaL Lhe SLaLe played a combaLlve role and someLlmes wenL
beyond Lhelr own rules of engagemenL. '1he SLaLe lLself needs Lo acknowledge lLs
full and complex role ln Lhe lasL 40 years'.
Informers: '1he use of lnformers . corroded Lhe fabrlc of our communlLles and Lhe
consLanL pressure now for exLended lnformaLlon abouL lnformers Lo be revealed
only serves Lo furLher undermlne Lhe well-belng of communlLles Lo a degree LhaL
could be polsonous.'
1ruth and Iust|ce: '1ruLh and [usLlce' are among ma[or challenges and whlle Lhey are
noL muLually excluslve Lhey are noL always aLLalnable. Many people wanL
prosecuLlons even lf Lhose prosecuLed serve [usL Lwo years under Lhe early release
scheme. Securlng [usLlce ls less llkely wlLh each passlng day and Lhere musL be
honesLy abouL whaL any courL or lnqulry can dellver. 1he publlc needs Lo undersLand
Lhe llmlLaLlons ln securlng convlcLlons and, lf Lhls ls reallLy, people musL be Lold Lhls
Lo prevenL false hopes. 1he Croup's approach Lo 'LruLh' wlll focus on a soluLlon Lo
Lhe problem noLlng LhaL Lhere are 'ways of seeklng LruLh LhaL do noL lnclude long
drawn ouL [udlclal processes.' 1he 8rlLlsh and lrlsh CovernmenLs can share
lnformaLlon LhaL wlll allow vlcLlms ln Lhe SouLh of lreland Lo geL as much LruLh as
posslble. 1he lrlsh CovernmenL wlll be encouraged Lo acknowledge Lhe hurL and
susplclon LhaL remaln wlLhln some unlonlsL communlLles. '1ruLh' wlll form an
lmporLanL parL of Lhe reporL and recommendaLlons.
Þo||t|ca| Leadersh|p: ueallng wlLh Lhe pasL was Lhe blggesL omlsslon from pollLlcal
agreemenLs and Members of Lhe Assembly musL glve a lead and be held Lo accounL.
ÞollLlcal wlll Lo banlsh secLarlanlsm as Lhe mosL polsonous legacy of Lhe pasL ls
requlred. 'Cur local pollLlclans have a cholce - Lhey conLlnue Lo acL ln Lhls
anLagonlsLlc way and use Lhe pasL for selflsh pollLlcal alms and allow Lhemselves Lo
be gulded only by Lhe hurL on elLher slde. Cr Lhey can become sLaLesmanllke round
Lhls mosL dlfflculL lssue.'
C|v|c Soc|ety: 1he Croup ls crlLlcal of Lhe lack of engagemenL ln Lhelr work by
slgnlflcanL secLors of clvlc socleLy, many appear lndlfferenL and some decllned Lo
submlL ldeas. 1hls runs counLer Lo Lhe conLrlbuLlon clvlc socleLy made Lo brlnglng
abouL Lhe condlLlons for peace and ensurlng LhaL Lhe essenLlal fabrlc of socleLy was
kepL golng durlng Lhe darkesL days. Clvlc socleLy faces Lhe ongolng legacy of Lhe pasL
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 20
aL a pollcy level and ln Lhe dally pracLlcal ouLworklng of Lhelr responslblllLles as
prolonged vlolence and pollLlcal sLalemaLe polnL Lo a deeper malalse for whlch every
lnsLlLuLlon and secLor ln socleLy musL share responslblllLy. Church leadershlp ls vlLal
on secLarlanlsm. 1he Croup's reporL wlll address Lhe wlder socleLal conLexL.
keconc|||at|on: 1he Croup sLresses Lhe need Lo nurLure generoslLy ln relaLlonshlps
and Lo address Lhe legacy of Lhe pasL so as Lo promoLe Lhe goal of reconclllaLlon
whlch remalns an llluslve and conLesLed concepL: 'we musL recover a poslLlve and
dynamlc undersLandlng of whaL reconclllaLlon means, and wlll look llke', 'for some of
us Lhls wlll mean belng reconclled Lo Lhe facL LhaL our fuLure ls LogeLher, LhaL we do
share Lhe land and lLs resources and a common sense of belonglng Lo Lhls place. lor
all of us lL wlll mean brlnglng a new measure of common purpose reflecLed ln greaLer
coheslon, sharlng and lnLegraLlon ln our communlLles. We have no cholce - Lhere ls
no beLLer fuLure LhaL ls noL a shared fuLure and Lhere ls no shared fuLure wlLhouL
reconclllaLlon.' 'AcknowledgemenL of wrong dolng - saylng sorry - and Lhe glvlng
and recelvlng of forglveness are noL slgns of weakness buL of greaL sLrengLh and
courage. 1he deepesL and mosL profound legacy of our pasL ls our anLagonlsm and
dlvlslon.' 1he reporL wlll seL a benchmark Lo [udge effecLlveness ln reachlng a
measure of reconclllaLlon ln Lhls generaLlon Lo ensure Lhe legacy ls noL passed Lo 'Lhe
vlcLlms who are noL yeL born'.
3.7 Lducat|ng the next generat|on
lor hlsLorlcal reasons schools ln norLhern lreland are dlvlded on Lhe basls of rellglon.
A secLor of schoollng ls owned by Lhe CaLhollc Church, wlLh mosL sLaff and puplls
CaLhollc. 1he 'sLaLe' sysLem of schools ls run by local educaLlon boards wlLh mosL of
Lhe sLaff and puplls ÞroLesLanL. Slnce 1981 a Lhlrd secLor of rellglously lnLegraLed
schools has developed Lo caLer for puplls from all denomlnaLlonal backgrounds, wlLh
currenLly abouL 6 per cenL of puplls aLLendlng. lew schools operaLe a rellglous LesL
for pupll admlsslons, so mosL rellglous separaLlon ls volunLary. 1here ls a small secLor
of schools ln whlch all lnsLrucLlon ls provlded Lhrough Lhe lrlsh language. All of Lhese
schools are funded from Lhe publlc purse, wlLh mosL recelvlng 100° supporL for
runnlng and caplLal cosLs. 1here are, ln addlLlon, a small number of lndependenL
ChrlsLlan schools whlch do noL seek publlc funds ln order Lo malnLaln a currlculum
whlch ls dlsLlncLlvely lnfluenced by Lhe 8lble.
1hls dlverse paLLern of ownershlp of schools, and lLs llnk Lo Lhe wlder rellglous,
pollLlcal and naLlonal dlfferences ln our socleLy, ls lllusLraLlve of a dllemma for
educaLlon ln any socleLy wlLh soclally slgnlflcanL eLhnlc dlvlslons. 1radlLlonally Lhe
role of educaLlon has been Lo promoLe soclal coheslon and a sense of unlLy. ln
pracLlce, however, Lhls ofLen leads Lo asslmllaLlon pressures ln whlch Lhe ldenLlLles
of mlnorlLy communlLles are relegaLed (someLlmes by defaulL, someLlmes as a
maLLer of sLaLe pollcy). A conLrasLlng vlew, someLlmes labelled as mulLlculLurallsm,
recognlzes Lhe rlghL of mlnorlLy communlLles Lo run Lhelr own schools ln order Lo
preserve ldenLlLy and culLure.
1he problem wlLh Lhls ls LhaL lL may encourage Lhe developmenL of a 'sllo' socleLy
and dlscourage any dlscourse of a common good. Achlevlng Lhe balance beLween Lhe
commonallLy and coheslon, and equallLy and recognlLlon of mlnorlLles on Lhe oLher
hand, remalns Lhe dllemma for educaLlon ln dlvlded socleLles.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 21
When pollLlcal vlolence broke ouL ln Lhe 1960s many commenLaLors felL LhaL
separaLe schools musL have had some lnfluence on communlLy dlvlslon. ln Lhe
ensulng dlscusslon Lhree dlsLlncLlve poslLlons emerged. Some argued LhaL puplls ln
separaLe schools were lnLroduced Lo culLurally dlsLlncLlve worlds due Lo Lhe use of
dlfferenL LexLbooks and currlculums LhaL helped Lo relnforce a sense of dlfference
beLween Lhe Lwo maln communlLles. ln Lhls vlew Lhe problem could be correcLed by
Lhe developmenL of new currlculum programmes and common LexLbooks.
A second vlew was LhaL Lhe 'hldden currlculum' of schools also played an lmporLanL
role ln relnforclng a sense of dlfference beLween puplls. 1hls could be manlfesLed
Lhrough Lhe symbols and rlLuals LhaL were prlvlleged wlLhln dlfference schools, or
Lhe lmpllclL value aLLached Lo dlfferenL pracLlces. ln Lhls vlew, change aL Lhe level of
Lhe currlculum was lnsufflclenL and someLhlng more was needed Lo break down Lhe
lnsLlLuLlonal barrlers beLween puplls.
A Lhlrd vlew suggesLed LhaL Lhe problem ln norLhern lreland was llnked Lo a
relaLlonshlp of domlnaLlon/oppresslon beLween Lhe ma[orlLy (ÞroLesLanL)
communlLy and mlnorlLy (CaLhollc) communlLy. ln Lhls vlew Lhe problem was less Lo
do wlLh lgnorance or mlsundersLandlng, and more Lo do wlLh lnequallLy and
ln[usLlce, furLher lmplylng LhaL Lhe lssue of separaLe schools was largely lrrelevanL Lo
undersLandlng or Lackllng communlLy dlvlslon, ln facL, separaLe CaLhollc schools
were lmporLanL Lo Lhe CaLhollc communlLy as Lhey provlded Lhe maln publlc space ln
whlch ldenLlLy could be expressed and an lmporLanL source of [obs (as Leachers).
Lvldence was avallable Lo supporL all Lhree clalms and Lhere was no consensus on
whlch offered Lhe mosL 'accuraLe' dlagnosls of Lhe slLuaLlon. ln Lhe absence of
consensus educaLlonallsLs engaged ln a range of lnLervenLlons.
1he earllesL form of lnLervenLlon was aL Lhe level of Lhe currlculum. lnlLlally Lhls
focused on Lhe developmenL of new hlsLory programmes and LexLbooks, followed by
a programme for rellglous educaLlon and a communlLy relaLlons lnlLlaLlve Lermed
LducaLlon for MuLual undersLandlng. 1he programmes for Lhe Leachlng of rellglous
educaLlon were lnnovaLlve Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL Lhey were developed as a [olnL acLlvlLy
by Lhe four maln ChrlsLlan Churches. Powever, Lhe provlslon of mulLlple opLlons ln
Lhe programme llmlLed Lhe exLenL Lo whlch lL provlded a genulne basls for cross-
communlLy undersLandlng. ln addlLlon, Lhe programme has been crlLlclzed for an
over-emphasls on ChrlsLlanlLy and a lack of maLerlal on oLher falLh LradlLlons.
1here have been a number of lLeraLlons of Lhe hlsLory currlculum over Lhe years, Lhe
mosL recenL verslon offers an approach Lo Lhe hlsLory of Lhe confllcL ln norLhern
lreland whlch seeks Lo help puplls undersLand such Lhemes as:
• 1he way LhaL hlsLorlcal narraLlves unfold over Llme.
• 1haL acLlons or evenLs have consequences.
• Many aspecLs of Lhe pasL are unproblemaLlc and lndlcaLlve of a shared or
agreed undersLandlng.
• 1here are aspecLs of Lhe pasL whlch are conLesLed, elLher ln Lerms of Lhelr
slgnlflcance for Lhe hlsLorlcal narraLlve or Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhelr lmpacL.
lor Lhese Lhe approach Laken ls Lo encourage young people Lo look for
evldence LhaL helps Lhem Lo undersLand why such dlvergenL lnLerpreLaLlons
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 22
mlghL exlsL. More generally Lhe hlsLory currlculum encourages Lhe search
for evldence when lssues are unclear or conLesLed. 1hls approach ls
dlfferenL from many oLher conLexLs where parallel narraLlves are offered -
Lhe vlew here ls LhaL Lhere ls much hlsLory held ln common and Lhls should
be acknowledged.

1he oLher slgnlflcanL currlculum developmenL ln recenL years has been a programme
of clLlzenshlp educaLlon. 1hls ls lnLeresLlng ln a conLexL llke norLhern lreland where
Lhere ls no consensus on Lhe basls for clLlzenshlp: ls one 8rlLlsh, lrlsh, Luropean or
whaL? ln mosL [urlsdlcLlons clLlzenshlp educaLlon focuses on Lhe lnsLlLuLlons and
processes LhaL are held as common Lo a naLlonal communlLy, buL norLhern lreland ls
characLerlzed by confllcL over Lhese. lor Lhls reason Lhe clLlzenshlp programme
focuses less on Lhe subsLance and more on Lhe processes of clLlzenshlp. 1he goal ls
Lo provlde young people wlLh Lhe language and concepLs whlch wlll allow Lhem Lo
conLrlbuLe, as acLlve clLlzens, Lo Lhe consLrucLlon of a new socleLy.
lor Lhls reason Lhe clLlzenshlp currlculum ls organlzed around four Lhemes:
• uemocracy and parLlclpaLlon
• LquallLy
• 8lghLs and responslblllLles
• ulverslLy

ln addlLlon, Leachers are encouraged Lo develop examples and conLenL Lo lllusLraLe
Lhese Lhemes aL Lhree levels: for norLhern lreland, for 8rlLaln and lreland, and for
Lurope and beyond.
1he second maln area of lnLervenLlon lnvolved conLacL programmes whlch broughL
young ÞroLesLanLs and CaLhollcs LogeLher ln shared acLlvlLles. lnlLlally Lhls lnvolved
shared hollday programmes, buL laLer developed lnLo school-based lnlLlaLlves.
Powever, desplLe lnLernaLlonal evldence on Lhe efflcacy of conLacL work, Lhe
programmes ln norLhern lreland provlded Lo be very llmlLed, non-developmenL, and
marglnal Lo Lhe core buslness of schools.
All avallable evldence suggesLs LhaL, aparL from a few excepLlonal examples, mosL of
Lhe conLacL work had llLLle lmpacL. ÞarLly ln response Lo Lhls, Lhe mosL recenL
lnlLlaLlve ln Lhls area seeks Lo develop collaboraLlve neLworks of ÞroLesLanL, CaLhollc
and lnLegraLed schools whlch focus on shared classes ln hlgh sLaLus currlculum areas
and Lhen bullds work focused on reconclllaLlon on Lop of Lhls. 1hls work ls sLlll aL an
early sLage of developmenL.

1he Lhlrd maln area of lnLervenLlon ls Lhe developmenL of new lnLegraLed schools for
puplls from all denomlnaLlonal backgrounds. 1he flrsL opened ln 1981 due Lo acLlon
by commlLLed and ploneerlng parenLs and over Lhe nexL decade anoLher dozen
schools opened. 1he governmenL formally commlLLed Lo supporL Lhe secLor ln 1989

lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 23
from when Lhe raLe of growLh lncreased. 1here are abouL 63 lnLegraLed schools wlLh
abouL 6 per cenL of pupll enrolmenL.

Powever, Lhe conLlnulng raLe of growLh ls lnsufflclenL Lo lmpacL Lhe overall sysLem.
1hus, parLly for Lhls reason, Lhe new lnlLlaLlve on promoLlng cross-secLoral school
collaboraLlon descrlbed above was advanced wlLh Lhe alm of creaLlng a more
lnLegraLed sysLem.

1hls represenLs an lmpresslve demonsLraLlon of parenL power - an almosL unlque example of an
enLlrely new secLor of schools developed Lhrough parenLal commlLmenL.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 24
4 1he ko|e of C|v|| Soc|ety
4.1 C|v|| soc|ety
Many from buslness, Lrade unlons, nCCs and Churches belleved Lhey had Lo play an
acLlve role ln flndlng soluLlons Lo Lhe confllcL and lssues LhaL could undermlne Lhe
peace process. SomeLlmes a dual approach was Laken wlLh behlnd Lhe scenes
dlscusslon accompanled by moblllsaLlon of publlc campalgns. Clvll socleLy leaders
exerLed pressure for peace, an end Lo vlolence and pollLlcal sLablllLy for economlc
and soclal progress, e.g. a publlc campalgn under Lhe banner '1lme's 8unnlng CuL'
encouraged pollLlcal parLles Lo lmplemenL Lhe AgreemenL. 1hey undersLood LhaL Lhe
marglnallsed and allenaLed underclass musL be enrolled as sLakeholders.
ln Lhe new posL-agreemenL era lL ls sLlll lmporLanL for 5** elemenLs of clvll socleLy Lo
conLlnue Lo work ln close parLnershlp LogeLher and wlLh pollLlclans. ÞollLlcs ls Lhen
asslsLed and supporLed Lo Lake lLs proper place, noL as an end ln lLself or as a means
of expresslng Lhe ldenLlLy of parLlcular groups, buL as a means Lo Lhe achlevemenL of
a socleLy, all of whose clLlzens are able Lo develop Lhelr full poLenLlal.
ÞollLlcs ls Lhe necessary medlum wlLhln whlch quesLlons of power musL be worked
ouL. Powever, a healLhy socleLy ls one where pollLlcs lnvlgoraLes buL does noL
monopollse llfe. 1he more vlbranL clvll socleLy ls, Lhe more llkely lL ls LhaL such a
healLhy slLuaLlon wlll be achleved. lor example, clvll socleLy leaders esLabllshed 1he
Cne Small SLep Campalgn Lo encourage lndlvlduals Lo Lake personal responslblllLy
one sLep aL a Llme.
4.2 1he bus|ness sector
Cpposlng asplraLlons of ÞroLesLanLs/unlonlsLs and CaLhollcs/naLlonallsLs had
creaLed noL only deep dlvlslon wlLhln norLhern lreland buL also gave rlse Lo bad
relaLlons beLween Lhe Lwo parLs of Lhe lsland. 8uslness felL LhaL, whaLever Lhe
slgnlflcance of Lhe 8order ln pollLlcal Lerms, lL should be lrrelevanL ln economlc Lerms
ln Lhe era of globallsaLlon and Luropean unlon. 8uslness felL LhaL everyone could
beneflL by lmprovlng relaLlons and explolLlng Lhe poLenLlal for economlc and
buslness co-operaLlon beLween Lhe Lwo parLs of Lhe lsland. 8uslness organlsaLlons
LhroughouL Lhe lsland gave a deLermlned lead and made more progress Lhan anyone
LhoughL posslble 20 years ago. 1rade has doubled and a slngle energy markeL has
been developed for Lhe whole lsland ln order Lo capLure economles of scale and
lmprove compeLlLlveness.
8uslness ploneered Lhe process of creaLlng frlendller relaLlonshlps beLween boLh
parLs of Lhe lsland whlch ln Lurn conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe lmprovemenL of relaLlonshlps
wlLhln norLhern lreland. 8uslness encouraged pollLlcal parLles Lo perslsL wlLh Lhe
dlscusslons whlch ulLlmaLely led Lo Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL ln 1998 and
Lo deal consLrucLlvely wlLh Lhe dlfflculLles whlch emerged afLer Lhe AgreemenL.
ln order Lo focus efforLs as sharply as posslble, Lhe leadlng buslness and Lrade unlon
bodles acLed LogeLher as Lhe Croup of LlghL. 1he Croup formed ln Lhe mld 1990s, aL
a Llme when sLreeL vlolence and dlsorder erupLed agaln over parades, wlLh loss of
llfe, mllllons of pounds worLh of damage Lo properLy, and severe dlsrupLlon of
everyday llfe all over norLhern lreland. Alarmed aL Lhe apparenL drlfL back Lo Lhe
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 23
communlLy breakdown of Lhe worsL days of Lhe 1970s, Lhe Croup became engaged
ln Lrylng Lo persuade Lhose lnvolved ln Lhe mosL dlfflculL parades dlspuLe Lo seLLle
Lhelr dlfferences peacefully. 1he vacuum caused by Lhe fallure of Lhe pollLlcal parLles
Lo creaLe vlable pollLlcal lnsLlLuLlons had Lo be fllled.
LfforLs were devoLed durlng Lhe nexL flve years Lo urge socleLy Lo sLop looklng back,
Lo dlsengage from Lhe pasL and Lo focus on grasplng Lhe prlze of a beLLer fuLure. A
serles of publlc sLaLemenLs from Lhe Croup ln Lhe press and on 1v and radlo argued
LhaL, ln a hlghly compeLlLlve world, norLhern lreland could never succeed unless
prlorlLy was glven Lo Lhe developmenL of Lhe economy Lo lmprove Lhe sLandard of
llvlng and quallLy of llfe for Lhe enLlre communlLy. 1he communlLy was urged Lo
supporL Lhe pollLlcal parLles as Lhey sLruggled Lo reconclle Lhelr dlfferences.
1he Croup meL Lhe pollLlcal parLles frequenLly boLh publlcly and prlvaLely buL dld noL
lecLure or crlLlclse Lhem for noL movlng on more qulckly, knowlng how dlfflculL Lhelr
Lask was. When Lhe pollLlcal process sLalled, buslness encouraged Lhe parLles Lo keep
golng and gave sLrong publlc supporL when Lhere were slgns of progress. 8uslness
remalned scrupulously lmparLlal, lLs sole commlLmenL was Lo a !"#$%&& whlch had Lo
produce a pollLlcal seLLlemenL for peace and sLablllLy. LveryLhlng LhaL could be done
Lo Lhrow welghL behlnd Lhe process was done, lndlvldual buslnesses supplemenLed
Lhe collecLlve Croup of LlghL wlLh dlsLlncLlve conLrlbuLlons.
ln Lhe perlod lmmedlaLely precedlng Lhe seLLlng up of Lhe norLhern lreland LxecuLlve
ln May 2007 Lhe new 8uslness Alllance encouraged pollLlcal parLles Lo focus on a
beLLer fuLure and agree Lhe formaLlon of a local admlnlsLraLlon LhaL could geL Lhe
economy on Lo a new Lra[ecLory and enhance opporLunlLles for everyone. ÞarLles
responded well and spenL monLhs slLLlng round Lhe same Lable debaLlng Lhe
economy, Laklng evldence from a wlde range of lnLeresLs, and produclng a serles of
reporLs Lo Lhe 8rlLlsh CovernmenL on whaL needed Lo be done. All Lhls was golng on,
on an lnLer-parLy basls, )%:#"% pollLlcal agreemenL was reached. 1helr recognlLlon of
Lhe lmporLance of economlc prlorlLles had grown enormously over Lhe prevlous 12
A peace process needs Lo be fully lncluslve, leavlng people on Lhe ouLslde ls a reclpe
for dlsaffecLlon and fuLure dlsasLer. Means have Lo be found Lo lnLegraLe Lhose who
have been acLlvely lnvolved ln Lhe confllcL lnLo normal day Lo day llfe and enable
Lhem Lo make Lhelr conLrlbuLlon Lo bulldlng Lhe fuLure. AbouL 30,000 people were
found gullLy by Lhe courLs of confllcL-relaLed offences (lncludlng murder) and served
prlson senLences. When LhaL number ls added Lo lmmedlaLe and exLended famllles,
qulLe a hlgh proporLlon of Lhe populaLlon of 1.7 mllllon people ls more or less
dlrecLly affecLed by Lhe klnd of fuLure Lhese ex-prlsoners are Lo have.
Slr Ceorge Culgley chalred a group of represenLaLlves of ex-prlsoners from )#3<
sldes of Lhe confllcL, ldenLlfylng Lhe obsLacles Lo Lhelr lnLegraLlon lnLo normal socleLy
- lnLo employmenL, for example, and negoLlaLed wlLh Lhe CovernmenL for Lhe
esLabllshmenL of a 1ask lorce (on whlch Lhe ex-prlsoners were well represenLed) Lo
devlse soluLlons.
1he maln paramlllLary organlsaLlon on Lhe CaLhollc/naLlonallsL/8epubllcan slde goL
rld of lLs weapons under Lhe supervlslon of Lhe lnLernaLlonal uecommlsslonlng body
seL up for Lhe purpose. ÞaramlllLary organlsaLlons on Lhe ÞroLesLanL/unlonlsL/
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 26
LoyallsL slde have noL yeL done so. Some of Lhelr members are engaged ln crlmlnal
acLlvlLy llke drug deallng and exLorLlon and are responslble for lncldenLs of nasLy low-
level vlolence. 1here are houslng esLaLes where paramlllLarles Lake upon Lhemselves
Lhe responslblllLy for pollclng. 1hls unsaLlsfacLory slLuaLlon ls one lndlcaLor LhaL
peace-bulldlng and Lhe achlevemenL of a normal socleLy ln norLhern lreland ls sLlll a
ºwork ln progress". CLher paramlllLarles are worklng Lo end Lhls slLuaLlon asslsLed by
an Advlsory Croup, comprlslng buslness and professlonal people and rellglous and
communlLy leaders, led by Slr Ceorge Culgley.
8ecause of Lhe focus on Lhe prlze whlch peace and sLable pollLlcal lnsLlLuLlons can
brlng, Lhere ls a real sense of purpose and expecLaLlon. 1here ls a chance, for Lhe
flrsL Llme ln 40 years, Lo: concenLraLe efforLs on creaLlng a world-class economy and
a world-class socleLy, aLLracL more lnvesLmenL from overseas, develop a larger
prlvaLe secLor base, become a reglon wlLh an lmpresslve exporL performance, creaLe
hlgher pald [obs, ralse Lhe sLandard of llvlng and Lhe quallLy of llfe, Lackle Lhe
problems of dlsadvanLage and poverLy, sLreamllne Lhe publlc secLor where
necessary, and creaLe a susLalnable and balanced economy.
4.3 1rade un|ons
1he Lrade unlon movemenL ln Lhe norLh and SouLh of lreland ls organlsed by Lhe
lrlsh Congress of 1rade unlons (lC1u), lL has a norLhern lreland CommlLLee.
lL has a
hlsLory of worklng for peace, soclal [usLlce and agalnsL vlolence and secLarlanlsm
durlng confllcL ln norLhern lreland. unlon leaders were promlnenL flgures ln Lhe clvll
rlghLs movemenL ln Lhe laLe 1960s.
1hroughouL Lhe clvll dlsLurbances, LerrorlsL aLLacks and secLarlan assasslnaLlons of
Lhe 1970s and 1980s unlons played a cruclal role as one of Lhe elemenLs LhaL
prevenLed sllppage lnLo ouLrlghL clvll war. Workplaces were largely free from
secLarlan sLrlfe even ln Lhe worsL of Lhese years. unlon leaders and acLlvlsLs worked
Lo keep workplaces open durlng pollLlcally-moLlvaLed work sLoppages, Lo prevenL
lnLlmldaLlon of workers by paramlllLarles and Lo mlnlmlse Lhe effecL of polarlslng
flags and emblems. ln 1974 when loyallsLs (unlonlsLs) broughL Lhe economy Lo a
sLandsLlll wlLh Lhe ulsLer Workers SLrlke, unlon leaders bravely buL unsuccessfully led
a reLurn-Lo-work march Lo Lhe mosL symbollc ÞroLesLanL workplace ln norLhern
lreland, Lhe Parland and Wolff shlpyard.
1hls was one of a number of Lrade unlon-led lnlLlaLlves for peace and soclal sLablllLy
LhaL lncluded: Lhe 'A 8eLLer Llfe for All' campalgn, demonsLraLlons afLer a massacre
of ÞroLesLanL workers ln 1976, a Þeace 1raln from uublln Lo 8elfasL, supporL for Lhe
cross-communlLy organlsaLlon Women 1ogeLher, and Lwo pro[ecLs focused on anLl-
secLarlanlsm ln Lhe workplace 'CounLeracL' and '1rademark'. ln auLumn 1993, a
leadlng Lrade unlonlsL headed a proLesL march by shlpyard workers Lo defuse a very
dangerous slLuaLlon followlng an l8A bomblng ln Lhe hearLland of loyallsm. 1he
norLhern lreland CommlLLee of Lhe lrlsh Congress of 1rade unlons broughL LogeLher

1he lrlsh Congress of 1rade unlons (lC1u) ls Lhe umbrella organlsaLlon for Lrade unlons on Lhe
lsland of lreland, sLrlvlng Lo achleve economlc developmenL, soclal coheslon and [usLlce by upholdlng
Lhe values of solldarlLy, falrness and equallLy. norLhern lreland CommlLLee (nlC) of Lhe lC1u
represenLs 36 Lrade unlons wlLh 230,948 members across norLhern lreland
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 27
10,000 people ln a peace demonsLraLlon ln Lhe cenLre of 8elfasL. lC1u collaboraLed
wlLh Lhe buslness secLor ln worklng Lo focus pollLlclan's aLLenLlon on agreelng a
peace seLLlemenL LhaL would seL Lhe basls for sLablllLy and economlc and soclal
4.4 NGCs

norLhern lreland's nCCs are generally referred Lo as Lhe volunLary and communlLy
secLor, wlLh communlLy organlsaLlons belng smaller, locally based groups. 1here are
3,000 ln a populaLlon of 1.73 mllllon. Around 600 ldenLlfy Lhemselves as havlng a
peace bulldlng or cross-communlLy role as a prlmary funcLlon.
nlCvA, Lhe
represenLaLlve body for nCCs,
esLabllshed alms and values Lo gulde Lhe work of
Lhe secLor ln a dlvlded socleLy. 1hese commlLLed Lo opposlng vlolence and
dlscrlmlnaLlon of any klnd, equallLy, dlverslLy and soclal [usLlce, lndependenL non-
parLlsan acLlon, and an acLlve anLl-secLarlan approach.
1he secLor ls a mlcrocosm of socleLy wlLh dlverse vlews across Lhe full range of
unlonlsL, naLlonallsL, republlcan, loyallsL and 'cenLre ground' parLles. Many able
lndlvlduals opLed ouL of malnsLream pollLlcs and lnLo volunLary and communlLy
organlsaLlons. 1he Cpsahl 8eporL ln 1993 noLed ºbecause of Lhe naLure of norLhern
lrlsh pollLlcs and Lhe democraLlc deflclL ln whlch Lhey are played ouL, some of Lhe
brlghLesL LalenLs have chosen Lo puL Lhelr energles lnLo Lhe volunLary secLor raLher
Lhan lnLo formal pollLlcs. 1hls furLher underllnes Lhe lmporLance of Lhe volunLary
secLor and lLs poLenLlal conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe search for a seLLlemenL and Lhe process
of reconsLrucLlon LhaL would need Lo follow lL."

1he role of clvll socleLy and communlLy-based organlsaLlons ln a dlvlded and confllcL-
rldden socleLy musL be more Lhan slmply noL exacerbaLlng exlsLlng Lenslons. A
fundamenLal dlfference ls Lhe lmperaLlve Lo conLrlbuLe Lo bulldlng peace and
sLablllLy. 1hese organlsaLlons are Lhe maln rouLes for Lhe ground work LhaL enables
many people Lo puL Lhe bulldlng blocks for peace ln place and emerge from confllcL
prepared for change, skllled and wllllng Lo work wlLh oLhers Lo rebulld socleLy. Some
are Lhe brldges beLween dlvlded communlLles, acLlng Lo susLaln fraglle relaLlons and
rebulld fracLured relaLlonshlps. CLhers challenge pre[udlces wlLhln Lhe communlLles
LhaL Lhey serve.
CrganlsaLlons ln norLhern lreland Lalk abouL 'slngle ldenLlLy' work, LhaL ls worklng
wlLhln one communlLy, and cross-communlLy work, LhaL ls worklng wlLh Lhe 'oLher'
communlLy. AnoLher way of descrlblng Lhls ls '8ondlng & 8rldglng', LhaL ls, bulldlng
bonds wlLhln one's own communlLy and bulldlng brldges wlLh Lhe 'oLher'
communlLy. 1he bond-bulldlng needs Lo be underLaken ln such as way as Lo enable
relaLlons wlLh Lhe 'oLher', for example, worklng Lo reduce raLher Lhan relnforce

Also nCCs, non-governmenLal organlsaLlons known as: volunLary and communlLy organlsaLlons ln
norLhern lreland, CSCs, clvll socleLy organlsaLlons, and C8Cs, communlLy based organlsaLlons ln lraq.
1he volunLary and communlLy secLor accounLs for 4.3° of CuÞ, employs c 30,000 and lLs annual
lncome ln Lhe year 2000 was £637 mllllon. MosL organlsaLlons are small wlLh 60° havlng an lncome of
less Lhan £100,000, over half of Lhe lncome of Lhe secLor ls accounLed for by 7° of Lhe organlsaLlons.
nlCvA (Lhe norLhern lreland Councll for volunLary AcLlon) ls Lhe represenLaLlve body for volunLary
and communlLy groups ln norLhern lreland. See
A. Þollak, A ClLlzen's lnqulry: 1he Cpsahl 8eporL on norLhern lreland. LllllpuL Þress uublln 1993.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 28
pre[udlces LhaL develop wlLhln segregaLed communlLles. Slngle ldenLlLy work carrles
Lhe danger of consolldaLlng an ldenLlLy ln lsolaLlon from and ln compeLlLlon wlLh
surroundlng communlLles and on lLs own does llLLle Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
undersLandlng of oLhers.
Whlle crude 'conLacL work' (slmply puLLlng people ln a
room LogeLher ln Lhe hope LhaL Lhls wlll encourage Lhem Lo geL along) mlghL do llLLle
Lo lncrease undersLandlng or Lo examlne Lhe lssues LhaL dlvlde, slngle ldenLlLy work
wlll noL conLrlbuLe Lo brldglng dlvlslons unless lL ls parL of a process wlLh some sorL
of cross-communlLy work as lLs evenLual goal.
norLhern lreland has a CommunlLy 8elaLlons Councll Lo bulld relaLlons across Lhe
secLarlan dlvlde. lL was flrsL esLabllshed ln Lhe 1970s and Lhen abollshed when Lhe
flrsL power-sharlng (beLween opposlng communlLles) governmenL was agreed - Lhe
governmenL LhoughL Lhe problem of relaLlons beLween dlvlded communlLles was
solved because some pollLlcal parLles were worklng LogeLher. Cf course Lhls was noL
Lhe case and Lhe Councll was relnsLaLed. lL commlsslons research, develops
lnlLlaLlves and funds local groups and oLher organlsaLlons Lo bulld endurlng good
relaLlons and greaLer lnLegraLlon beLween communlLles. 1he Þeace Þeople, Lhe
Corrymeela CommunlLy, ÞroLesLanL and CaLhollc LncounLer, Co-operaLlon lreland,
Lhe Clencree CenLre for 8econclllaLlon and many oLher groups promoLe encounLer
and work for reconclllaLlon beLween Lhe Lwo communlLles.
1hose who suffer mosL from confllcL usually llve ln more dlsadvanLaged areas, Lhls ls
Lrue on boLh sldes on Lhe confllcL. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL opposlng sldes ln Lhese areas
have equal capaclLy Lo represenL Lhelr communlLles and engage wlLh each oLher.
ÞoverLy and dlscrlmlnaLlon had prompLed CaLhollcs Lo develop an lnfrasLrucLure of
communlLy organlsaLlons. Slmllar communlLy leadershlp skllls had Lo be nurLured
wlLhln ÞroLesLanL areas before cross-communlLy neLworklng, parLnershlps and
bulldlng shared endeavour beLween opposlng communlLles was posslble. Some
lnvolved had a background ln paramlllLary organlsaLlons lncludlng former llfe-
senLence prlsoners who lnfluenced on Lhe ÞroLesLanL/loyallsL ceaseflres ln 1994.

CooperaLlon across Lhe dlvlde was culLlvaLed Lhrough bulldlng common cause and
acLlon whlch ln Lurn bullL confldence and lncreased LrusL. Women found lL easler Lo
collaboraLe Lhan men dld, durlng Lhe helghL of Lhe confllcL Women's CenLres from
boLh sldes worked LogeLher on advocacy campalgns for fundlng Lo susLaln servlces
for women. 1he ulsLer Þeople's College's broughL dlverse groups LogeLher Lo work
on a shared communlLy leadershlp programme. 1hrough conLacL and shared
experlence people developed and undersLood Lhe concerns of Lhe 'oLher slde', and
reached across Lhe dlvlde Lo offer advlce and models of successful pracLlce. Many

CommunlLy Coheslon: a 8eporL of Lhe lndependenL 8evlew 1eam Chalred by 1ed CanLle, Pome
Cfflce, London, 2001 noLes: ºSeparaLe educaLlonal arrangemenLs, communlLy and volunLary bodles,
employmenL, places of worshlp, language, soclal and culLural neLworks, means LhaL many
communlLles operaLe on Lhe basls of a serles of parallel llves. 1hese llves ofLen do noL seem Lo Louch
aL any polnL, leL alone overlap and promoLe any meanlngful lnLerchanges."
LoyallsL leader CusLy Spence launched Lhe CommunlLy uevelopmenL ln ÞroLesLanL Areas reporL,
chalred Lhe press conference LhaL announced Lhe uvl, 8ed Pand Commando and uuA ceaseflres, and
wenL on Lo oversee hls pollLlcal parLy's negoLlaLlon of Lhe Cood lrlday AgreemenL - Lhe ÞuÞ
(Þrogresslve unlonlsL ÞarLy) assoclaLed wlLh Lhe uvl (ulsLer volunLeer lorce).
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 29
'pollLlcally acLlve' people had Lhelr horlzons wldened Lhrough dlscusslon of lssues of
dlsadvanLage and powerlessness common Lo Lhelr communlLles.
lnLerfaces are Lhe polnLs aL whlch dlvlded communlLles meeL. 1hey are places of fear
wlLh slgnlflcanL lnLer-communal sLrlfe and random assasslnaLlons. 1he mosL wldely
recognlsed lnLerfaces are Lhe physlcal barrlers of 'peace-walls' along 'peace-llnes',
Lhe brlck walls and sLeel fences LhaL dlvlde one communlLy from anoLher, one even
runs Lhrough a publlc park and roads also serve as lnLerface 'markers'.
8elfasL, formerly Sprlngfleld lnLercommunlLy uevelopmenL Þro[ecL, runs [olnL
acLlvlLles Lo reduce vlolence along secLarlan lnLerfaces or peacellnes. lL organlsed a
moblle phone neLwork so LhaL responslble communlLy leaders on elLher slde could
keep ln Louch durlng perlods of helghLened Lenslon so as Lo averL vlolence wherever
posslble. nCCs have medlaLed behlnd Lhe scenes, Lhe MedlaLlon neLwork asslsLed ln
a range of confllcLed slLuaLlons, mosL noLably parades.
lL ls noL always easy for people Lo meeL people from Lhe 'oLher' communlLy ln a
deeply segregaLed socleLy. 1o overcome Lhls problem non-parLlsan organlsaLlons
provlded 'neuLral venues' or 'safe spaces' LhaL were free from physlcal danger where
dlfflculL dlalogues could Lake place. 1hese peace-bulldlng organlsaLlons bullL Lhelr
repuLaLlons on equal respecL, accesslblllLy and provlslon for all and Lhls allows Lhem
Lo underLake slgnlflcanL work. Some were able Lo encourage pollLlclans Lo Lake parL
ln prlvaLe dlalogues well before lL was publlcly posslble Lo Lalk LogeLher. 1he Þeople's
College broughL communlLy leaders LogeLher ln dlfflculL Llmes such as ceaseflre
breakdowns Lo share concerns and Lransfer messages from one slde of Lhe
communlLy Lo Lhe oLher.
CLher organlsaLlons faclllLaLe dlalogue wlLhln 'slngle ldenLlLy' communlLles and ln
cross-communlLy forums on conLenLlous sub[ecLs such as ldenLlLy, hlsLory, culLure,
LradlLlon and equallLy. CommunlLy ulalogue's shorL leafleLs provlded lnformaLlon
abouL opposlng poslLlons on conLroverslal lssues ln Lhe AgreemenL lnvlLlng people Lo
ask Lhemselves Lhree quesLlons: whaL do l wanL? whaL do need? whaL can l llve
wlLh? and Lhen Lo ask Lhemselves Lhe same quesLlons from Lhe polnL of vlew of Lhe
'oLher' communlLy. 1he leafleLs reproduced ln Lhe maln dally newspapers clrculaLed
wldely and formed Lhe basls of dlscusslon ln local communlLles.
1he Cpsahl Commlsslon was an excepLlonal pro[ecL. An lndependenL commlsslon seL
up by a small group of academlcs and communlLy acLlvlsLs, lL flred lmaglnaLlons
abouL whaL was posslble and encouraged creaLlve Lhlnklng. lL engaged everyone, noL
[usL pollLlclans, ln glvlng ldeas for Lhe fuLure of norLhern lreland wheLher on
consLlLuLlonal or pollLlcal maLLers, securlLy, rellglon, educaLlon or any oLher lssue.
1he Commlsslon saL for a year, recelvlng wrlLLen and verbal submlsslons from
pollLlcal parLles, clvlc and church leaders, communlLy groups, women's groups,
young people and oLhers. lLs hlghly lncluslve process held publlc hearlngs across Lhe
norLh and SouLh of lreland and ln 8rlLaln. lL publlshed lLs own recommendaLlons and
all submlsslons unless confldenLlallLy was requesLed. lL lnLroduced Lhe Lerm 'parlLy of
esLeem' Lo slgnal equal respecL for Lhe asplraLlons of boLh sldes of Lhe communlLy. ln
Lhe year LhaL followed Lhe Commlsslon, work was underLaken by Lhe foundlng group

nell !arman & Chrls C'Palloran, Þeacellnes or 8aLLleflelds, CommunlLy uevelopmenL CenLre, 8elfasL
2000 para 13
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 30
Lo anlmaLe Lhe Commlsslon's reporL and proposals across clvll socleLy and wlLh Lhe
8rlLlsh and lrlsh CovernmenLs who descrlbed Lhe work as belng of 'greaL and lasLlng
4.S Churches and fa|th-based organ|sat|ons
1hroughouL Lhe confllcL rellglous bodles were ofLen seen as dlvlslve forces LhaL
played as much parL ln polarlslng communlLles as provldlng supporL and comforL Lo
Lhelr own membershlp. Cn Lhe oLher hand, some falLh-based organlsaLlons
underLook encounLer, ouLreach, and soclal acLlon acLlvlLles. 8ellglon plays a
profoundly amblguous role ln confllcL slLuaLlons. Cn Lhe one hand, lL can encourage
haLred. Churches can relnforce communlLy dlvlslon and harden boundarles.
8ellglon can glve dlvlne sancLlon Lo naLlonallsms, pollLlcal poslLlons and vlolence.
Churches Lend Lo reflecL people's fears, communlLy dlvlslons and communlLy
experlence of vlolence and LhreaL - Lhey can also ampllfy fears - raLher Lhan acL as
agenLs of change or Lransformers or confllcL. ÞroLesLanL Churches ln norLhern
lreland ofLen Lalk abouL law and order, reflecLlng a communlLy under slege, and Lhe
CaLhollc Church ofLen Lalks abouL [usLlce, reflecLlng a communlLy feellng of
Cn Lhe oLher hand, rellglon can be a force for resLralnL - Lhe preachlng and llvlng ouL
of non-reLallaLlon, forbearance and forglveness has had real soclal consequences.
Churches ln norLhern lreland opposed Lhose who espoused vlolence. Worklng
LogeLher Lhey helped lessen Lhe rellglous/ pollLlcal symblosls.
1he developlng paLLern of church leaders and oLhers meeLlng LogeLher has been a
slgnlflcanL publlc wlLness. Churches have been encouragers of pollLlclans seeklng
pollLlcal compromlse. lndlvlduals and groups have worked for peace and
reconclllaLlon. lalLh groups esLabllshed conLacL and dlalogue wlLh paramlllLary
organlsaLlons, clergy and oLhers acLed as go-beLweens llnklng Lhem Lo Lhe peace
process, helplng Lo broker ceaseflres and wlLnesslng Lo decommlsslonlng.
1he lrlsh Councll of Churches and Lhe 8oman CaLhollc Church LogeLher ran a peace
educaLlon programme ln schools. ln Lhe perlod up Lo Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday)
AgreemenL, churches encouraged pollLlclans Lo keep Lalklng and were generally
supporLlve of Lhe agreemenL wlLhouL Lelllng people how Lo voLe. lollowlng Lhe
agreemenL ÞroLesLanL Churches goL lnvolved ln Lhe LoyallsL Commlsslon and Lhe
CaLhollc Church ln pollclng.
A ma[or challenge faclng churches ls leadershlp ln sharlng Lhe fuLure. lssues around
shared worshlp and maLLers of church unlLy remaln sLumbllng blocks for many
church members. 1he slmple pracLlce of bulldlng nelghbourllness and frlendshlp ls
essenLlal ln a socleLy LhaL has Loo few frlendshlps across rellglous, pollLlcal and soclal
dlvldes. Þeace-bulldlng means puLLlng good relaLlons and heallng a broken socleLy aL
Lhe hearL of mlnlsLry.
Churches are presenL ln every communlLy ln norLhern lreland and Lhey have a sLory
of moral reflecLlon, soclal care, forglveness and reconclllaLlon LhaL should be ln a
poslLlon Lo conLrlbuLe slgnlflcanLly Lo human flourlshlng. Many church-grounded
bodles have Lhe resources Lo connecL wlLh Lhe mosL marglnallsed, relnvesLlng Lhelr
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 31
surpluses Lhrough soclal economy buslnesses, charlLles, cooperaLlve and muLual
socleLles, communlLy developmenL lnlLlaLlves and phllanLhroplc donaLlon.
lalLh-based lnlLlaLlves can offer slgnlflcanL bondlng, brldglng and lnvesLmenL soclal
caplLal and may be one elemenL of a sLraLegy for communlLy coheslon and
developmenL Lo Lackle soclal excluslon and economlc and physlcal regeneraLlon ln
nelghbourhoods and socleLy-wlde. A number of faceLs are requlred Lo develop and
assess Lhe lmpacL of falLh-based organlsaLlons:
• A clear deflnlLlon and undersLandlng of Lhe dlsLlncLlon beLween lnLer-falLh
and lnLer-culLural pracLlces Lo map Lhe exLenL of lnLer-falLh work and Lhe
flnanclal and resource conLrlbuLlon made by volunLeers.
• Cpen debaLe abouL Lhe complexlLles of rellglous ldenLlLy and how Lhls
lmpacLs on Lhe use of shared space, urban plannlng, servlce dellvery,
educaLlonal currlcula, publlc ceremony, eLc.
• A governance lnfrasLrucLure LhaL respecLs prlnclples of equallLy and
dlverslLy wheLher worklng ln a falLh-domlnanL or secularlsed envlronmenL.
• A needs assessmenL of poLenLlal parLners ln lnLer-falLh pracLlce.
• CapaclLy-bulldlng Lo bulld experLlse ln research, consulLaLlon and pollcy
developmenL engagemenL wlLh communlLles and governmenL.

lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 32
S Mak|ng and Imp|ement|ng Agreements
S.1 Þo||t|ca| |eadersh|p

Þeace and confllcL llLeraLure Lends Lo accord opposlLe labels of leadershlp Lo explaln
behavlours, assumes an onus on leadershlp Lo flnd a way ouL of confllcL and polnLs
up Lhe need for acLor LransformaLlon and/or changes of leadershlp. 'under-
appreclaLlng Lhe lmporLance of ellLe declslons and acLlons hlnders confllcL
managemenL efforLs and falls Lo place blame where blame ls due.'
As elsewhere,
Lhere are dlfferenL leadershlp propulslons and sLyles among pollLlclans ln norLhern
lreland: collecLlve versus lndlvldual leadershlp, Lhe phenomenon of pollLlcal prlsoner
as pollLlcal leader, relucLanL leadershlp, sofL-skllled leadershlp, and elasLlc band
CrlLlcs have commenLed on Lhe lack of pollLlcal skllls and lnLellecLual capaclLy, or
made pe[oraLlve or sanlLlsed assessmenLs of Lhe personallLles lnvolved. 'uurlng
peace negoLlaLlons Lhe prlmary funcLlon of leaders ls Lo dellver Lhelr own people.
AsslsLlng Lhelr opponenLs ln Lhe process ls secondary'. Cn Lhe oLher hand lL 'requlres
leaders Lo puL Lhe long Lerm lnLeresLs of Lhelr naLlon ln achlevlng a durable
seLLlemenL before Lhe shorL Lerm galns LhaL could be achleved by prolonglng Lhe
confllcL'. 1hese conLradlcLlons - dellverlng peace and malnLalnlng parLy unlLy -
requlred dlfferenL role prlorles wlLh dlfferenL effecLs buL boLh are equally lmporLanL.
varlous narraLlves emphaslze leaders' capaclLy Lo lnfluence Lhe process LhaL derlves
from lnfluence of offlce, of evenLs and/or of personallLy. A peace process and lLs
relaLlonshlps are schlzophrenlc: publlc lnLeracLlons are choreographed, Lhere are
conLradlcLlons ln aLLlLudes and acLlons of leaders Lowards lnlLlaLlves, parLlclpaLlon ln
lnlLlaLlves ls lnconslsLenL, behavlour aL home and abroad ls conLradlcLory.
Cverall, pollLlcal leadershlp has suffered from confused roles, undermlned capaclLy
and negaLed effecLs arlslng from: moral and eLhlcal dlmenslons, borrowlng lessons
from oLher leaders, over-personallsaLlon of Lhe peace process, and Lhe naLure of
relaLlonshlp-bulldlng ln an adversarlal process. lour conLradlcLlons lllusLraLe Lhe
naLure of leadershlp llmlLaLlon:
• uolng Lhe rlghL Lhlng versus securlng Lhe besL posslble deal,
• needlng lnfluenLlal pollLlcal leaders versus wanLlng Lo work wlLh pollLlclans
wlLhouL 'dlrLy hands',
• locuslng on small cohorL of leaders versus broadenlng Lhe range of pollLlcal
ellLes who could help broker deal,
• 8ulldlng relaLlonshlps among players versus Lhe adversarlal naLure of mulLl-
parLy negoLlaLlons.

1he mulLlple conLradlcLlons and lnconslsLencles lnherenL wlLhln peace process
leadershlp ls besL descrlbed as 'chameleonlc leadershlp': an lnconsLanL form of
pollLlcal leadershlp whlch shlfLs accordlng Lo Lhe oplnlon of oLhers and Lhe cllmaLe ln

Cormley-Peenan, C. (2007) ÞollLlcal Leadershlp and Lhe norLhern lreland Þeace Þrocess,
8aslngsLoke: Þalgrave-Macmlllan.
8rown 2001 quoLed by CaLhy Cormley-Peenan
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 33
whlch lL exlsLs, [usL as a chameleon changes colour Lo blend wlLh lLs background (and
llghL, LemperaLure and mood).
Whlle pollLlcal leaders anywhere musL dlsplay skllls of defLness, reacLlon and
flexlblllLy, Lhls approach ls more accepLable ln a 'normal socleLy' Lhan ln a dlvlded
socleLy because of Lhe normaLlve assumpLlons abouL how Lhlngs 'should' be as
opposed Lo how Lhey are ln 'reallLy'. 1he dlchoLomles of heroes and vlllaln, poslLlve
and negaLlve leaders, lgnore Lhe dlfflculLles ln asslgnlng vlllalny ln LranslLlonal
socleLles. 1he concepL of chameleonlc leadershlp does noL.
S.2 Þo||t|ca| party perspect|ves
1he vlews expressed below are Lhose of pollLlcal parLles, gaLhered ln dlscusslons
lndlvldually and ln a cross-parLy forum.
1hey cover Lhe negoLlaLlon process, Lhe
8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL and SL Andrews AgreemenL, lmplemenLaLlon of
aspecLs of Lhe AgreemenL, dlfferences and common ground beLween parLles and
compromlses made. Þeople wlLhdrew from pollLlcal parLles Lhrough fear or
dlsllluslonmenL, Lhus membershlp of parLles ls low. Among Lhose who do parLlclpaLe,
Lhere ls a hlgh level of acLlvlLy. 1urnouL aL elecLlons has decllned sllghLly recenLly Lo
60-62° from 68-70°.
S.3 Negot|at|ng the Agreement
UUÞ: 1he uuÞ was Lhe longesL esLabllshed parLy of governmenL and ls now Lhe
second largesL unlonlsL parLy. ln Luropean Lerms lL ls a parLy of Lhe cenLre-rlghL. lL
played a slgnlflcanL role ln negoLlaLlons, faclng a dlfflculL year ln 2001 because of Lhe
rlsks lL Look and sufferlng spllLs and elecLoral seLbacks slnce Lhen. Powever, Lhese
are noL as lmporLanL as havlng made a conLrlbuLlon Lo a peaceful and sLable fuLure.
1he uuÞ ls happy Lo co-operaLe wlLh Lhe 8epubllc of lreland, buL belleves lL ls beLLer
Lo be ln Lhe uk as norLhern lreland dlffers soclally and culLurally from Lhe resL of
S|nn Ie|n: Slnn leln ls Lhe largesL naLlonallsL parLy. An lndependenL pollLlcal parLy,
Lhe l8A ls noL lLs mlllLary wlng alLhough lL has slmllar alms. When Lhe 8rlLlsh
CovernmenL reallsed lL could noL deal wlLh Lhe slLuaLlon as a securlLy problem Slnn
leln enLered negoLlaLlons wlLh lLs pollLlcal mandaLe. 1he l8A ended lLs armed
sLruggle ln !uly 2006 Lo asslsL Lhe peace process when opponenLs Lrled Lo collapse
Lhe peace process and Lhey are unllkely Lo reLurn Lo vlolence. Slnn leln's pollLlcal
work Lo end 8rlLlsh lnLerference and brlng abouL lrlsh unlLy wlll conLlnue. SLeps
Lowards lrlsh unlLy have been Laken LhaL lnclude: an all-lreland dlmenslon and
lnsLlLuLlons, Lhe rlghL Lo asplre Lo lrlsh unlLy, and accepLance of Lhe economlc
argumenL for unlflcaLlon. 1he norLh-SouLh MlnlsLerlal Councll wlll make good

1he parLles were represenLed ln dlscusslons by: uuÞ: uanny kennedy MLA, uepuLy Leader & 8rlan
Crowe Senlor Þollcy Advlsor who [olned Lhe uuÞ ln 2000. Slnn leln: 8aymond McCarLney MLA, l8A
prlsoner who Look parL ln Lhe flrsL hunger sLrlke & MarLlna Anderson MLA former l8A prlsoner,
member of Lhe norLhern lreland Þollclng 8oard. SuLÞ: Mark uurkln MLA Leader, MlnlsLer for llnance
ln Lhe flrsL Assembly and Lhen uepuLy llrsL MlnlsLer & ur Sean larren former llnance MlnlsLer 1999-
2002 and MLA unLll 2007. uuÞ: Slmon PamllLon MLA & Cllr. ChrlsLopher SLalford [olned Lhe uuÞ ln
1998 and youngesL counclllor ln norLhern lreland when elecLed. Alllance: Cerry Lynch Ceneral
SecreLary and Speclal Advlsor Lo Lhe Leader. ÞuÞ: uawn Þurvls MLA, Leader
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 34
declslons for Lhe norLh and souLh of lreland wlLhouL 8rlLlsh represenLaLlon and
people wlll reallse Lhey can have more parLlclpaLlon and a beLLer llfe ln a unlLed
lreland when Lhey see uk programmes and pollcles focuslng on Lngland, ScoLland
and Wales and noL norLhern lreland. unlonlsL buslness people are beglnnlng Lo
undersLand LhaL lreland ls besL organlsed as slngle enLlLy ln Lhe Lu. 1he all-lreland
CharLer of Puman 8lghLs has yeL Lo be lmplemenLed.
SDLÞ: 1he SuLÞ was Lhe largesL and ls now Lhe second naLlonallsL parLy. lL was
lnfluenLlal ln shaplng Lhe form and subsLanLlal elemenLs of Lhe AgreemenL, many of
whlch had been SuLÞ pollcy LhroughouL Lhe confllcL. negoLlaLlons lnvolvlng more
pollLlcal parLles proved Lo be more producLlve and successful Lhan Lhose wlLh less
buL problems arose ln lmplemenLaLlon. no meLhods were deLalled ln Lhe AgreemenL
for deallng wlLh crlsls and Lhus Lhe lnsLlLuLlons suffered from conLlnual suspenslons.
ÞarLles who raLlfy agreemenLs have dlfferenL perspecLlves on whaL has been agreed
and lL ls wlse Lo be preclse on cerLaln maLLers, parLlcularly crlses, Lo prevenL small
Lhlngs balloonlng ouL of conLrol. 1he AgreemenL allows for revlew and an Assembly
revlew ls underway. Cnce an agreemenL ls endorsed efforLs should focus on
lmplemenLlng Lhe agreed deal. ÞarLles should noL be allowed Lo lobby separaLely
lnsLead of sharlng responslblllLy for Lhe agreemenL reached and all succeedlng
processes should be conLalned wlLhln Lhe agreed lnsLlLuLlons. lnsLead anoLher
negoLlaLlng process, ouLslde Lhe lnsLlLuLlons and lnvolvlng Lhe 8rlLlsh and lrlsh
governmenLs and very few pollLlcal parLles, undermlned Lhe lnsLlLuLlons and
processes for some Llme.
1he process has become more sLable now because all ma[or parLles accepL Lhe
prlnclples and ouLsLandlng lssues are belng resolved wlLhln Lhe lnsLlLuLlons. 1he
8rlLlsh and lrlsh governmenLs should have pursued lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
lnsLlLuLlons and decommlsslonlng ln 1998/99. uecommlsslonlng was a requlremenL,
noL a precondlLlon, for esLabllshmenL of lnsLlLuLlons, whlch Lhe governmenLs dld noL
make clear Lo Slnn leln and Lhe ulsLer unlonlsL ÞarLy. 1helr approach was amblguous
and Lhe lesson from Lhelr fallure aL LhaL Llme ls Lhe lmperaLlve of demonsLraLlng
auLhorlLy and deLermlnaLlon Lo apply Lhe rules. Moreover, Lhe AgreemenL ls noL
slmply an arrangemenL beLween governmenLs, lL was leglLlmaLed by Lhe people of
Lhe norLh and SouLh, ln a process of self-deLermlnaLlon for Lhe whole lsland of
lreland. Whlle parLs of Lhe AgreemenL were dlfflculL Lo accepL, Lhe broad package
offered pollLlcal sLablllLy and was overwhelmlng endorsed. Some opposed lL aL Lhe
Llme, buL Lhe AgreemenL ls wldely accepLed now, some clalmlng Lhey are able Lo
supporL lL because of changes made by Lhe SL Andrews AgreemenL buL Lhls ls a small
supplemenL Lo Lhe maln 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL.
DUÞ: 1he uuÞ has 36 MLAs, ls Lhe largesL parLy ln Lhe Assembly and holds more
mlnlsLrles Lhan oLher parLles. CommlLLed Lo unlon wlLh CreaL 8rlLaln lL supporLs
delegaLlon of powers Lo norLhern lreland from WesLmlnsLer. lL was dlfflculL for Lhe
uuÞ Lo reach a pollLlcal accommodaLlon ln boLh Lhe parLy and Lhe communlLy,
malnly because of kllllngs by LerrorlsLs llnked Lo Slnn leln. Whlle Lhe uuÞ and Slnn
leln are very dlfferenL from each oLher Lhey are worklng LogeLher for soclal and
economlc galns. 1he nexL generaLlon deserves beLLer Lhan Lhe pasL so Lhe parLles
musL work LogeLher for a beLLer counLry for all. 1he uuÞ was able Lo persuade lLs
voLers because: people saw pollLlcal accommodaLlon as lnevlLable, Lhey were
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 33
concerned LhaL Slnn leln was golng Lo be blggesL parLy, Lo counLer Lhls developmenL
unlonlsLs voLed for a sLrong parLy LhaL would sLand up Lo Slnn leln, Lhe uuÞ ls
pragmaLlc enough Lo work as a sLrong counLerforce.
A|||ance: 1he Alllance ÞarLy aLLracLs voLers from boLh communlLles, lLs Ceneral
SecreLary ls CaLhollc and Lhe Leader ls ÞroLesLanL. 1he ma[orlLy ln Alllance wanL Lo
remaln ln Lhe uk, Lhe mlnorlLy wanL a unlLed lreland. SupporLers are malnly well-
educaLed, skllled professlonals and lL has Lhe largesL share of Lhe eLhnlc mlnorlLy
voLe. lL has faced elecLoral dlfflculLles slnce 2000, buL began Lo recover ln 2007, wlLh
around 3° of Lhe voLe and seven MLAs, lncludlng Lhe only eLhnlc mlnorlLy MLA, lLs
LradlLlonal supporL base ls 8-10°. lL ls a llberal parLy LhaL wanLs norLhern lreland Lo
be a value-based democracy, around human rlghLs and responslblllLles, raLher Lhan
an ldenLlLy-based socleLy. ÞollLlcal ldenLlLy ls ofLen qulLe blurred wlLh a complex
lnLerplay beLween 8rlLlsh, lrlsh and norLhern lrlsh, so lL ls noL ldenLlLy buL shared
values LhaL are lmporLanL regardless of soverelgnLy.
Alllance ls Lhe only slgnlflcanL parLy ouLslde governmenL Lo play an lmporLanL role.
1he Assembly commlLLee sysLem was meanL Lo lnLroduce Lhe accounLablllLy usually
provlded by Lhe offlclal opposlLlon, however, parLles conLrol Lhelr members on Lhose
commlLLees Lo make sure do noL crlLlclse Lhe governmenL LhaL ls also comprlsed of
Lhelr members. noL bound by Lhe collecLlve responslblllLy of governmenL Alllance ls
able Lo hold governmenL Lo accounL. 1he parLy's opposlLlon role ls obllgaLory
currenLly. 1he number and order of LxecuLlve mlnlsLrles ls deLermlned by a formula
(u'PondL) and Alllance dld noL cross Lhe Lhreshold for parLlclpaLlon. lL expecLs Lo
cross Lhe Lhreshold ln 2011, however, lf lL ls enLlLled Lo [usL one mlnlsLry lL may
choose noL Lo go lnLo governmenL as lL may be able Lo do more ln opposlLlon Lhan as
small parLy lnslde consLralned by larger parLles. lL ls abouL flndlng Lhe rlghL level and
space for Lhe Alllance conLrlbuLlon. norLhern lreland cannoL funcLlon wlLhouL
consensus, buL Loo much consensus brlngs pollLlcal sLagnaLlon and ordlnary people
become dlsaffecLed. Alllance seeks Lo presenL an alLernaLlve vlslon and pollcles.
ÞUÞ: 1he ÞuÞ was sLarLed ln 1974 by former pollLlcal prlsoners who belleved ln
sharlng responslblllLy for Lhe fuLure. Llnked Lo Lhe loyallsL paramlllLary organlsaLlon
Lhe ulsLer volunLeer lorce (uvl), lL focuses on deprlved areas wlLh chlld poverLy,
educaLlonal under-achlevemenL, healLh lnequallLles and hlgher unemploymenL.
Many parLy members are communlLy acLlvlsLs, former prlsoners and former
combaLanLs who helped Lo bulld Lhe peace process on Lhe ground. 1he AgreemenL
was lncluslve of all groups and mlnorlLles, lncludlng Lhose consldered Lo be aL Lhe
1he ÞuÞ supporLs a norLhern lreland parllamenL wlLh norLh-SouLh cooperaLlon,
reform of pollclng and [usLlce sysLems, and human rlghLs and equallLy lncludlng a 8lll
of 8lghLs. lL advocaLed Lalklng Lo republlcan (naLlonallsL) 'enemles' bellevlng LhaL
havlng dehumanlsed each oLher Lo haLred and uLLer conLempL durlng Lhe confllcL Lhe
varlous groups need Lo re-humanlse and Lalk wlLhouL compromlslng prlnclples and
bellefs, Lhe uuÞ and uuÞ dld noL agree.
1he ÞuÞ belleves grassrooLs acLlvlsLs were ahead of pollLlclans on confllcL
LransformaLlon - Lhe peace process broughL enemles LogeLher whlle Lhe pollLlcal
process broughL leaders LogeLher. 1he enforced coallLlon model brlngs four parLles
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 36
LogeLher Lo share responslblllLy Lo overcome a hlsLory of dlvlslon, alLhough Lwo-
parLy coallLlon would have been posslble had Lhe uuÞ and Slnn leln goL more voLes.
WlLh four parLles ln governmenL Lhere ls no effecLlve opposlLlon, buL Lhls may
emerge ln fuLure lf parLles agree Lo pursue volunLary coallLlons followlng Lhe revlew
of Lhe AgreemenL.
S.4 Imp|ement|ng aspects of the Agreement
Þo||c|ng: 1he norLhern lreland Þollclng 8oard (nlÞ8), whlch has a sLaLuLory role Lo
hold Lhe Þollce Servlce of norLhern lreland (ÞSnl) Lo accounL, ls made up of pollLlcal
represenLaLlves and clvll socleLy lndependenLs. 1he uuÞ belleves LhaL Lhe pollce
servlce was domlnaLed by unlonlsLs ln Lhe pasL because Lhey gave alleglance Lo Lhe
sLaLe and Lhere was lnLlmldaLlon of caLhollc members. lL wanLs lncreased
parLlclpaLlon ln pollclng from boLh sldes of Lhe communlLy.
Slnn leln, who LradlLlonally opposed Lhe pollce, appolnLed Lhree members Lo Lhe
nlÞ8 when Lhey felL Lhe leglslaLlve Lools were ln place Lo hold Lhe ÞSnl Lo accounL,
and belleves LhaL Lhe 8oard ls challenged by Lhelr presence. 1he currenL level of
CaLhollc pollce offlcers ls 20°, lncludlng CaLhollcs from abroad (malnly from Þoland).
Slnn leln ls represenLed on Lhe 8oard's sub-commlLLee on human rlghLs and wlll noL
encourage people Lo [oln Lhe ÞSnl unLll Lhey are cerLaln Lhe pollce wlll comply wlLh
human rlghLs sLandards.
1here ls conslderable work Lo be done aL local level Lo ensure Lhe pollce servlce
dellvers falrly for everyone. SLeps Lowards devoluLlon of pollclng and [usLlce powers
were agreed beLween Lhe uuÞ and Slnn leln ln mld-2008: a slngle MlnlsLer, who wlll
come from nelLher Slnn leln nor Lhe uuÞ, wlll hold responslblllLy.
V|o|ence: 1he SuLÞ never engaged ln or endorsed vlolence from any source and
belleves LhaL vlolence only deepens dlvlslon and creaLes unnecessary sufferlng. 1he
ma[orlLy ln norLhern lreland was opposed Lo and could noL be coerced lnLo a unlLed
lreland and no lrlsh governmenL supporLed vlolence Lo achleve reunlflcaLlon. 1he
peace process challenged Lhose who engaged ln vlolence and demonsLraLed LhaL
democraLlc, peaceful alLernaLlves were posslble. lL persuaded many formerly vlolenL
groups and lndlvlduals Lo embrace consLlLuLlonal pollLlcs. 1he uuÞ belleves
parLlclpaLlon ln governmenL should be earned Lhrough voLes galned noL llnks Lo a
prlvaLe army. Þeople are noL prepared Lo accepL parLles wlLh paramlllLary llnks ln
governmenL, especlally slnce recenL global developmenLs on Lerrorlsm.
Þaram|||tar|es: A number of paramlllLary groups conLlnue Lo exlsL. Slnn leln ls Lrylng
Lo engage dlssldenL republlcans unhappy wlLh Lhe AgreemenL and persuade oLhers
who feel LhaL lL has noL been fully dellvered. 8annlng Lhelr organlsaLlons ls noL Lhe
soluLlon. 1he peace process needs Lo be lncluslve buL governmenL dld noL puL
rehablllLaLlon programmes ln place, preferrlng Lo crlmlnallse paramlllLary groups.
1he ÞuÞ, ln parLnershlp wlLh communlLy organlsaLlons, offers re-skllllng, educaLlon
and Lralnlng so LhaL former combaLanLs can conLrlbuLe Lo socleLy. MosL have noL
used pollLlcs as a façade for crlmlnallLy. Powever, Lhere are some wlLhln paramlllLary
sLrucLures who engage ln crlmlnal acLlvlLles and need Lo be supporLed Lo move away
from crlmlnallLy or face Lhe pollclng consequences.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 37
V|ct|ms: 1he SuLÞ sLresses LhaL promlses made Lo vlcLlms musL be kepL. norLhern
lreland can look forward, buL Lhose who suffered musL noL be lefL behlnd. 1he
8usslan proverb 'Lo dwell on Lhe pasL ls Lo lose one eye, buL Lo forgeL Lhe pasL ls Lo
lose boLh eyes' ls compelllng.
Women: 1he AgreemenL made promlses on pollLlcal parLlclpaLlon and advancemenL
of women ln publlc llfe. 1he ÞuÞ appreclaLes LhaL women were acLlve LhroughouL
Lhe confllcL, Lhey were and are Lhe backbone of communlLles. no pollLlcal parLy has
sufflclenL women pollLlclans, buL unlonlsL parLles are parLlcularly male-domlnaLed
wlLh men and women havlng sLereoLyplcal roles. CuoLas are noL used by pollLlcal
parLles ln norLhern lreland buL should be, as an lnLerlm measure Lo achleve full
equallLy for women.
Med|a: 1he SuLÞ Lhlnks LhaL [ournallsLs sLlll work Lhrough Lhe prlsm of Lhe confllcL or
posL-confllcL raLher Lhan focuslng on lssues of good governmenL and economlc and
soclal pollcles. 1he medla has noL esLabllshed a proper challenge role Lo governmenL
and Lhls does noL help Lo close Lhe gap beLween people and governmenL.
Str|k|ng the r|ght ba|ance: ÞarLles have Lo keep hardllners on board and be senslLlve
Lo causlng offence across communlLy llnes aL Lhe same Llme. SocleLles ln confllcL
rarely come Lo a shared undersLandlng of whaL Lhey have gone Lhrough qulckly, and
ouLrage ls ofLen provoked by debaLes and evenLs based on dlfferenL analyses.
ulsagreemenLs need Lo be managed ln a way LhaL avolds crlses.
S.S D|fferences and common ground between po||t|ca| part|es
lL has been sald LhaL, ln general, pollLlcal parLles ln norLhern lreland are more Lo Lhe
cenLre Lhan Lo lefL or rlghL and Lhere ls noL much dlfference beLween Lhem.
SuLÞ descrlbes lLself as soclal democraLlc and lefL of cenLre wlLh Lhe maln dlfference
beLween lL and Slnn leln belng LhaL Lhe SuLÞ has always belleved LhaL lLs alms could
noL be achleved by vlolence. 1he uuÞ sees pollLlcal culLures as belng Lhe mosL
slgnlflcanL dlfference ln unlonlsm. lL belleves lLs LradlLlon of compromlse separaLes lL
from Lhe uuÞ.
Whlle naLlonallsLs may noL agree, lL ls regarded as moderaLe wlLhln Lhe unlonlsL
communlLy. lL sees Lhe uuÞ as belng ldenLlfled wlLh Lhe personallLy, pollLlcal
approach and rellglous ldenLlLy of Lhe 8everend lan Þalsley whlle Lhe ÞuÞ emerged
from people and clrcumsLances assoclaLed wlLh paramlllLary acLlvlLy. lL belleves Lhe
dlfferences beLween Lhe uuÞ and ÞuÞ have reduced slnce 2006.
1he ÞuÞ does noL agree wlLh Lhe uuÞ's revlslon of relaLlonshlps beLween Lhe Lwo
maln unlonlsL parLles and paramlllLarles when Lhe llnes are much more blurred. 1he
ÞuÞ sees lLself as represenLlng dlsadvanLaged communlLles, maklng compromlses
and offerlng a new loyallsm whlle Lhe uuÞ ls mlddle-class and Lhe uuÞ, born durlng
Lhe confllcL as Lhe ÞuÞ was, has moved away from worklng-class Lo more
conservaLlve pollcles.
1he Alllance ÞarLy supporLs Lhe ÞuÞ vlew, suggesLlng LhaL lndlvldual members and
counclllors ln Lhe uuÞ have had llnks wlLh paramlllLarles and recalllng Lhe uuÞ

ur Sean larren SuLÞ
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 38
leadershlp aLLempLs Lo form 'ulsLer 8eslsLance' ln Lhe 1980s. unlonlsL llnks wlLh
paramlllLarles are noL generally admlLLed ln publlc.
1he uuÞ and Slnn leln share some common ground and vlslon of Lhe fuLure.
1radlLlonally Lhey were Lhe smaller pollLlcal parLles on elLher slde. lnlLlal supporL for
boLh was ln worklng class areas especlally urban areas, buL each grew Lhrough
drawlng supporL from mlddle class and rural/suburban voLers. A four-parLy
Þrogramme for CovernmenL, unlmaglnable a year ago, focuses on bulldlng Lhe
economy, educaLlon and publlc servlces demonsLraLes some shared values.
S.6 Þo||t|ca| comprom|ses
Many compromlses were made by pollLlcal parLles Lo achleve Lhe 8elfasL (Cood
lrlday) AgreemenL, supplemenLed by Lhe SL Andrews AgreemenL. 1he prlnclple LhaL
'noLhlng ls agreed unLll everyLhlng ls agreed' eplLomlsed Lhe AgreemenL and seL Lhe
backdrop for compromlse. 1he SuLÞ made lLs compromlses long before Lhe 1998
AgreemenL, havlng made clear Lhey would accepL norLhern lreland as parL of Lhe uk
unless and unLll Lhe ma[orlLy sald oLherwlse. 1hey conLrlbuLed heavlly Lo Lhe deslgn
of Lhe AgreemenL and Lherefore dld noL need Lo make furLher ma[or compromlses.
1he uuÞ made a number of compromlses LhaL led Lo lL dropplng from lLs poslLlon as
flrsL Lo Lhlrd pollLlcal parLy. 1he uuÞ accepLs LhaL Lhls prlce Lhey pald for peace. 1he
Lhree key compromlses Lhe uuÞ made are:
• 1he uuÞ accepLed lnsLlLuLlonal power-sharlng ln Lhe LxecuLlve as Lhe basls
for governlng norLhern lreland. 1hey had always agreed Lo power-sharlng ln
commlLLees, buL noL ln Lhe LxecuLlve prevlously.
• 1he uuÞ had agreed Lo relaLlons wlLh lreland ln Lhe 1970s. 1hey agreed Lo
lnsLlLuLlonallse Lhls ln a pollLlcal mechanlsm.
• 8elease of paramlllLary prlsoners. 1hls was Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL, dlfflculL and
emoLlonally palnful compromlse aL end of a palnful 30-year confllcL. 1hls
compromlse dld Lhe mosL damage Lo Lhe uuÞ afLerwards.

1he Alllance ÞarLy dld noL compromlse on consLlLuLlonal lssues because Alllance had
always agreed wlLh a reglonal power-sharlng admlnlsLraLlon, sLrong llnks Lo Lhe
SouLh of lreland and remalnlng parL of Lhe uk as long as Lhls ls Lhe ma[orlLy vlew.
ulfflculL compromlses have Lo be made ln negoLlaLlons and Lhese were an accepLable
• Þr|soner re|ease. 1hls lncluded concerns abouL paramlllLarles generally and
corroslon of Lhe prlnclple of Lhe rule of law. ÞarLles llnked Lo paramlllLarles
came lnLo governmenL and crlmes of Lhe pasL were forgoLLen. 1hls was and
ls sLlll dlfflculL buL necessary.
• Vot|ng system |n the Assemb|y. Members musL deflne Lhemselves as
naLlonallsL, unlonlsL or CLher. voLes carry less welghL lf noL deflned as
naLlonallsL or unlonlsL. A confllcL LhaL began ln parL because Lhe
governmenL would noL concede Lhe prlnclple of 'one person one voLe' was
resolved ln parL by lgnorlng Lhe same prlnclple. 1he sysLem fosslllses Lhe
parLy dlvlde. A beLLer meLhod could have been adopLed e.g. requlrlng a
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 39
super-ma[orlLy of 70° for ma[or lssues, Lhls would lnclude mlnorlLles
wlLhouL forclng people lnLo boxes.
• Compu|sory coa||t|on. ÞarLles ln governmenL do noL have enough ln
common Lo form a good governmenL.

1he uuÞ absenLed lLself from Lhe end of Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL
negoLlaLlons because of Lhe lncluslon of Slnn leln wlLhouL l8A decommlsslonlng.
1hey held lL Lo be unaccepLable Lo negoLlaLe wlLh people on an unequal basls where
unlonlsLs have voLes whlle republlcans have voLes and guns. Þrogress has been made
slnce Lhen wlLh guns no longer a LhreaL and Slnn leln forced Lo Lake a number of
sLeps lncludlng supporL for Lhe pollce.
1he uuÞ compromlsed aL Lhe SL Andrews negoLlaLlons ln 2006. 1hey accepLed
power-sharlng and compromlsed sllghLly on accepLlng norLh-SouLh bodles across
lreland. 1he uuÞ does noL accepL devoluLlon as a permanenL coallLlon of Lhe four
largesL parLles, Lhey wanL Lo see movemenL Lo pollLlcs based on governmenL and
opposlLlon. 1hey also wanL Lhe voLlng sysLem changed so LhaL Alllance ÞarLy
members cannoL deslgnaLe Lhemselves as unlonlsL ln order Lo help Lhe uuÞ. Slnn
leln was vlewed by Lhe SuLÞ and Lhe ÞuÞ as havlng made Lhe greaLesL compromlses.
uS SenaLor Ceorge MlLchell, chalr of Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL
negoLlaLlons spoke abouL 'shackles of vlolence' and 'shackles of lnLranslgence',
saylng LhaL vlolence Look away people's llves whllsL lnLranslgence Look away Lhelr
hopes. All parLles deem LhaL people are no longer afrald and llfe has lmproved
lnflnlLely. ÞarLles LhaL conslder Lhey losL elecLoral supporL due Lo Lhe compromlses
made ln reachlng agreemenL belleve Lhe sacrlflce was worLh maklng.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 40
6 Iac|||tat|ng and Adm|n|ster|ng the Þo||t|ca| Þrocess
6.1 1rack 2 d|p|omacy
norLhern lreland ls relaLlvely slmple compared Lo confllcLs elsewhere as Lhere are no
geopollLlcal connecLlons. Larly ln Lhe confllcL Lhe lrlsh CovernmenL demanded a
SecurlLy Councll debaLe, Lhe 8rlLlsh CovernmenL agreed buL polnLed ouL LhaL Lhe
confllcL ln norLhern lreland was purely lnLernal. 1here was some demand for un Lo
replace 8rlLlsh Lroops. 1he unlLed SLaLes played an effecLlve role ln norLhern lreland
and exLernal asslsLance was lnsLrumenLal ln helplng SouLh Afrlca resolve lLs
1rack 2 focuses on unofflclal dlplomacy, wlLh academlcs and oLhers acLlng as
faclllLaLors brlnglng parLles LogeLher. 1rack 2 opporLunlLles are lmporLanL ln bulldlng
personal knowledge beLween opponenLs and ablllLy Lo Lalk wlLh, noL aL, each oLher.
1he flrsL 1rack 2 exerclse ln norLhern lreland was ln 1990 on a Luropean Lheme. lLs
purpose was Lo engender cross-parLy collaboraLlon by Lackllng under-developmenL
due Lo Lhe confllcL, weak economy and dlsLance from Lhe cenLre of Lhe Luropean
1he unlLlng facLor was Laklng advanLage of Lhe Lu for Lhe beneflL of norLhern
lreland, Lhls dld noL LhreaLen Lhe ldenLlLles aL Lhe hearL of Lhe confllcL and lL was
someLhlng LhaL all parLles could wln LogeLher. lor Lhe second exerclse, pollLlclans
Lravelled Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes. Away from Lhe lmmedlaLe slLuaLlon Lhey were
enabled Lo work ouL of Lhe medla spoLllghL and acL as lndlvlduals raLher Lhan
represenLaLlves of pollLlcal parLles. 1he envlronmenL allowed Lhem Llme Lo geL Lo
know each oLher and expand ldeas.
LaLer ln 1990 Lhe parLles meL ln lrance, demonsLraLlng reglonal co-operaLlon and a
new axls of developmenL LhaL bypassed sLaLe caplLals ln Lhe new Lurope. 1he uS and
lrance meeLlngs were successful wlLh agreemenL on a common programme. 1he
early exerclses were wlLh consLlLuLlonal parLles, Lhe number of parLles expandlng
afLer 1994 Lo lnclude Lhose wlLh paramlllLary llnks. 1he process became more
lncluslve, and lncluded on occaslon lrlsh and 8rlLlsh parLles.
ln 1994 Lhe four consLlLuLlonal parLles wenL Lo SouLh Afrlca and examlned every
polnL ln Lhe pollLlcal specLrum LhaL enabled SouLh Afrlca Lo become a successful
example of confllcL resoluLlon. ÞollLlclans learned of Lhe value of Lechnlcal
commlLLees Lo remove conLroverslal lssues from Lhe pollLlcal arena e.g. pollclng.
1hey were lnLroduced Lo Lhe concepL of 'sufflclenL consensus' as a means of movlng
from ma[orlLarlanlsm Lowards lncluslon. 1he uuÞ learned LhaL lL was beLLer Lo
lnfluence Lhe debaLe from lnslde raLher Lhan remaln lmpoLenL ouLslde, even lf Lhey
dlsagreed wlLh Lhe lssue.
Agaln Lhe human dlmenslon was lmporLanL wlLh lelsure Llme as well as meeLlngs
leadlng Lo growLh ln personal lnLeracLlon and reallsaLlon of commonallLy. An
example was Lhe changlng dynamlc aL an evenL ln Salzburg where a unlonlsL agreed
Lo parLlclpaLe buL noL Lo Lalk Lo Slnn leln. uurlng a dlscusslon on forms of pollLlcal
vlolence Lhe Slnn leln member Lalked abouL Lhe Lurmoll and hurL of loslng hls son,
showlng LhaL vlolence knows no boundarles. 1he unlonlsL responded by Lalklng
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 41
abouL a member of hls famlly who had been kllled by Lhe l8A. 1he Lwo Lalked for
hours, demonsLraLlng Lhe need Lo move away from rheLorlc and posLurlng.
Many lncldenLal clrcumsLances changed Lhe dynamlc for peace. 1he change ln
lnLernaLlonal geopollLlcs afLer 1989 wlLh Lhe end of Lhe cold war and aparLheld
meanL LhaL Lhe l8A had Lo change Lhelr rheLorlc and engage wlLh new reallLles. 1here
was a degree of premedlLaLlon ln plannlng Lhe dlalogues, buL much was lncldenLal.
1he ldea was noL Lo geL Lop leaders buL younger, lnLelllgenL pollLlclans who were
amblLlous and would have a role Lo play ln fuLure negoLlaLlons.
A core cadre of good pollLlclans was lnvolved so lL was posslble Lo bulld some
conLlnulLy, buL Lhe same people could noL be guaranLeed every Llme. 1here was
consensus on a number of lssues: e.g. a 8lll of 8lghLs and economlc developmenL.
1he process focused on some lssues LhaL relaLed lndlrecLly Lo norLhern lreland, e.g.
looklng aL why lnLel lnvesLed ln CosLa 8lca or uslng cases ln SouLh Afrlca Lo examlne
1rack 2 ls noL a LhreaLenlng process, ldeas can be explored wlLhln communlLles
ahead of lnLer-parLy debaLe. 1rack 2 challenges pollLlclans ouLslde Lhelr normal
conLexL whlle enabllng Lhem Lo feel more comforLable and be more expanslve. lL
helps lndlvlduals Lo look afresh aL and assess Lhe poslLlons of opponenLs so LhaL
when lL comes Lo formal negoLlaLlons a greaL many Lhlngs can be Laken for granLed.
1he 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL would have been unllkely wlLhouL Lhls lnlLlal
lL ls besL Lo ensure LhaL 1rack 2 pro[ecLs do noL have resource consLralnLs LhaL can
resulL ln lnsLablllLy of oLherwlse worLhwhlle lnlLlaLlves. lraq, lnLernally and
lnLernaLlonally, ls more complex Lhan lreland. 1rack 2 dlscusslons ln lraq mlghL
dlscuss Lhe role of Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy and how lL lnLeracLs wlLh domesLlc
players. lnLernaLlonal dynamlcs change: a re-Lhlnk ln uS pollcy afLer Lhe 2008
ÞresldenLlal elecLlon ls probable, when declslon-makers fall, space opens up for
oLhers. no slLuaLlon ls sLaLlc and lL ls lmporLanL Lo be ready wlLh fresh Lhlnklng when
opporLunlLles presenL Lhemselves. 1here are soluLlons Lo even Lhe mosL lnLracLable
problems. 1hls relnforces Lhe lmporLance of on-golng aLLenLlon Lo Lhe human
dlmenslon LhaL 1rack 2 faclllLaLes ln preparaLlon for opporLunlLles.
6.2 Secur|ng a negot|at|ng process
Some lessons ldenLlfled by 1rack 2 faclllLaLors mlrror approaches adopLed by
governmenL. 1he peace process sLarLed ln 1972 when Cerry Adams and MarLln
McCulnness were flown Lo London for dlscusslons wlLh governmenL offlclals. lf
conLacL ls noL made wlLh key people Lhen governmenL has lnsufflclenL lnformaLlon Lo
help lL handle Lhe confllcL - a message for Lhose wlLh pollcles LhaL declare Lhere are
people who are 'Loo bad' Lo Lalk Lo. 1he uS and lLs Consuls ln norLhern lreland were
helpful durlng Lhe process.
Cfflclals musL ldenLlfy and focus on Lhe goals and Lalk Lo everyone, geLLlng as close
as posslble Lo Lhe dlrecL drlvers. Look aL ways of bulldlng LrusL wlLh slmple buL lconlc
confldence bulldlng measures. Þlck off groups among Lhe facLlons LhaL can be dealL
wlLh, dlsLlngulsh, lsolaLe and negoLlaLe. Þersonal lnpuL from lndlvlduals who become
known Lo each oLher, wlLh auLhorlLy and ablllLy Lo dellver, ls essenLlal. lL ls vlLal Lo
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 42
demonsLraLe and prove Lhls e.g. small changes Lo prlson rules, symbols of good falLh.
Cfflclals were supporLed by a SecreLary of SLaLe who was wllllng Lo 'Lake a chance'.
8lsk-Laklng and rlsk-managemenL are essenLlal. Lvery sLep musL be LesLed. 1he
process has Lo be one of dlalogue and dlagnosLlc. ln consLrucLlng and carrylng ouL
dlalogues a 'hard cop' 'sofL cop' approach ls useful. LnLry of exLernal faclllLaLors has
Lo be managed carefully. SomeLlmes prlnclples have Lo be conceded.
lor example, Lhe uepuLy Leader (now Leader) of Lhe uuÞ sald Lhe parLy would noL
Lalk Lo Slnn leln, buL he also made clear Lhe uuÞ are democraLs and lf elecLed Lo Lalk
wlll follow Lhelr mandaLe. lL ls essenLlal Lo look for Lhe causes raLher Lhan Lhe
sympLoms of Lhe confllcL. 1hus Lhe lnLerface beLween pollLlcs and securlLy was
addressed ln Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL. 8adlcal advances have been
made, Lhe norLhern lreland Þollce Servlce ls an lnLernaLlonal model (e.g. asslsLlng ln
lraq). Þubllc relaLlons and selllng any agreemenL ls cruclal. A peace process ls noL
compleLe wlLh a pollLlcal agreemenL. Þhases lnclude: cessaLlon of vlolence - pollLlcal
developmenL - economlc prosperlLy. 1he ulLlmaLe goal ls bulldlng Lhe fuLure.
6.3 Adm|n|strat|ve |eadersh|p post-Agreement

lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe senlor clvll servlce leads Lhe admlnlsLraLlon Lhrough Lhe
changes necessary Lo supporL new pollLlcal arrangemenLs. 1he clvll servlce role ls Lo
advlse on Lhe pollLlcal sLrucLure, dellver publlc servlces and acL wlLh compleLe
neuLrallLy. Clvll servanLs need Lo be pollLlcally aware and asLuLe wlLhouL pollLlcal
ldenLlflcaLlon and musL be consclous of operaLlng wlLhln lnsLrumenLs such as
freedom of lnformaLlon leglslaLlon and [udlclal revlew.
Worklng wlLh a mulLl-parLy governmenL comprlsed of anLagonlsLlc parLles wlLh
dlfferenL pollLlcal perspecLlves and prlorlLles ls challenglng. Mechanlsms are needed
Lo pull Lhe lnLeresLs of dlfferenL pollLlcal groups LogeLher: e.g. a Þrogramme for
CovernmenL, faclllLaLlng MlnlsLers' Speclal Advlsors Lo work LogeLher behlnd Lhe
scenes, proposlng creaLlve soluLlons LhaL back up corporaLe wllllngness Lo work.
ueveloplng pollcles ln mulLl-parLy governmenL requlres greaLer rellance on an
evldence-based approach and reflecLlon of all lnLeresLs ln Lhe declslon.
Care musL be Laken noL Lo become over-ldenLlfled wlLh Lhe larger parLles ln
governmenL and Lo safeguard mlnorlLy lnLeresLs. lor example, Lhls may mean noL
aLLendlng lnLer-parLy negoLlaLlons on a pollcy LhaL lnvolve only Lhe leadlng parLles,
and lnslsLlng LhaL all papers are clrculaLed Lo every member of Lhe LxecuLlve or
Assembly CommlLLee. 8ules are needed Lo govern Speclal Advlsors' relaLlonshlp wlLh
Lhe clvll servlce. MosL LradlLlonal clvll servanLs have noL been prepared for worklng
aL Lhe cuLLlng edge of pollLlcs where alerLness Lo poLenLlal pollLlcal dlfflculLy ls
requlred. 1he lmporLance of belng aware of whaL can Lrlgger a problem for a
MlnlsLer or Lhe LxecuLlve ls helghLened ln Lhe conLexL of LranslLlon from confllcL.

Sir Nigel Hamilton retired in July 2008. As head of Northern Ireland’s administration he worked
closely with the Northern Ireland Executive as they developed their model of working in ‘enforced’
coalition government. When indigenous Northern Ireland Ministers were appointed for the first time he
was Permanent Secretary in the department of which Sinn Fein’s Martin McGuinness was the Minister
for Education.

lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 43
1hese pollLlcal skllls musL be cascaded down from senlor Lo mlddle grades ln Lhe clvll
servlce so LhaL more sLaff become confldenL and compeLenL.
1he head of Lhe clvll servlce and Lhe LxecuLlve's admlnlsLraLlon has Lo: be pollLlcally
robusL, acL wlLh lmparLlallLy and lnLegrlLy, manage a dlsLrlbuLed neLwork, have pollcy
skllls LhaL lnclude pollcy developmenL and ablllLy Lo Lrade off lssues agalnsL each
oLher, underLake pasLoral care, have a good relaLlonshlp wlLh lndlvldual MlnlsLers
(all MlnlsLers lf posslble), broker beLween Lhem, broker beLween MlnlsLers and Lhelr
ÞermanenL SecreLarles. Cood relaLlonshlps wlLh ÞermanenL SecreLarles, pollLlcal
parLles and MlnlsLers are essenLlal.
6.4 Support|ng a departmenta| M|n|ster
A ÞermanenL SecreLary who leads a governmenL deparLmenL has Lo have pollLlcal
anLennae and undersLand symbollsm, for example, shaklng a MlnlsLer's hand Lo
slgnal Lo sLaff LhaL he ls Lhe leglLlmaLe MlnlsLer and glvlng publlc leadershlp ln
worklng wlLh a conLroverslal flgure.
CLher sLaff may wanL Lo be proLecLed from havlng Lo do Lhls. S/he musL have Lhe
confldence Lo lnducL new MlnlsLers lnLo mlnlsLerlal maLLers and ln havlng reallsLlc
expecLaLlons. lor example, a conLroverslal Slnn leln MlnlsLer wanLed Lo shake hands
wlLh all sLaff ln Lhe flrsL week. Pe was advlsed LhaL Lhls was a 'brldge Loo far' and an
alLernaLlve was found, an opL-ln ChrlsLmas parLy LhaL had an 80 per cenL Lake up
among sLaff.
1he ÞermanenL SecreLary musL be able Lo manage slgnlflcanL opposlLlon Lo hls/her
MlnlsLer. Managlng enLry lnLo Lhe educaLlon communlLy for Lhe MlnlsLer was
challenglng glven hosLlllLy from many unlonlsLs, lncludlng Lhrough publlc proLesL aL
hls publlc evenLs. lL requlred conslderable creaLlvlLy Lo engage people who were
relucLanL Lo do Lhls publlcly. Lxamples of how Lhls was done lnclude: e.g. dlnners
wlLh clusLers of school prlnclpals, lnvlLlng audlences Lo ÞarllamenL 8ulldlngs for
pollcy announcemenLs raLher Lhan vlslLlng lndlvldual schools, and LlghL choreography
for exLernal vlslLs.
6.S Lnab||ng the power-shar|ng Lxecut|ve
1he flrsL Assembly and LxecuLlve were fraughL wlLh dlfflculLy. uue Lo lLs large
counclllor base Lhe Assembly ls popullsL and focused lnlLlally on consLlLuencles and
pro[ecLs. Moreover, afLer Lhe ceaseflres of 1994 and 1996 Lhe clvll servlce
admlnlsLraLlon should have focused on publlc servlce lssues Lo prepare Lhe ground
raLher Lhan slmply on maklng pollLlcs work.
uurlng perlods of Assembly suspenslon ln Lhe early 2000s Lhe admlnlsLraLlon oughL
Lo have been preparlng an agenda of Lhlngs Lo be done. 1he model of llrsL and
uepuLy llrsL MlnlsLer lald down ln Lhe AgreemenL operaLes as a !olnL MlnlsLry.
Worklng Lo !olnL MlnlsLers ls challenglng. lL would have been helpful had Lhe
AgreemenL conLalned a sunseL clause Lo Lrlgger a revlew. ConslderaLlon could Lhen
have been glven ln Lhe fuLure Lo wheLher sufflclenL culLure, aLLlLude change and
LrusL exlsLed Lo replace Lhe !olnL MlnlsLry wlLh a slngle llrsL MlnlsLer. key people ln
Lhe flrsL LxecuLlve dld noL llke one anoLher and lL was noL posslble Lo remove
MlnlsLers who dld noL agree, buL lnLer-relaLlonshlps gradually lmproved. Whlle Lhere
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 44
ls a MlnlsLerlal Code LhaL lnslsLs on collecLlve acLlon Lhere ls no mechanlsm for
assesslng compllance, lncludlng an overslghL role would have been helpful.
1he flrsL LxecuLlve never reached Lhe sLage of maklng sLraLeglc declslons wlLh Lhe
consequence LhaL Lhe flrsL Þrogramme for CovernmenL was slmply a llsL of
deparLmenLal programmes, Lhe second Þrogramme for CovernmenL (2008-11) ls
more sLraLeglc. WlLh Lhe 8elfasL (Cood lrlday) AgreemenL slx governmenL
deparLmenLs became 11, so LhaL mlnlsLrles could be shared proporLlonally beLween
pollLlcal parLles. 1o counLer Lhe expanslon of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve base Lhe clvll servlce
was reformed Lo share core servlces beLween deparLmenLs.
An Assembly and LxecuLlve 8evlew CommlLLee ls revlewlng Lhe slze of Lhe Assembly
(currenLly 108 Members) and number of mlnlsLrles. lL ls easy Lo slnk under Lhe
convoluLed governlng sLrucLure, and sLeps are necessary Lo promoLe Lhe key
messages of pollLlcal agreemenL over Lhe day-Lo-day deLall of admlnlsLraLlon. Some
of Lhe ways Lhls was done lnclude: Lhe LxecuLlve hosLlng Lhe Luropean unlon
ÞresldenL, lobbylng uownlng SLreeL for a new corporaLlon Lax Lo underpln Lhe peace
process, hlghllghLlng meeLlngs beLween Lhe llrsL MlnlsLers of Lhe norLh and SouLh of
lreland, belng welcomed ln Lhe WhlLe Pouse, and hosLlng Lhe uS ÞresldenL ln
norLhern lreland.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 43
Append|x 1: A short h|story of the Northern Ire|and conf||ct

AL Lhe hearL of Lhe norLhern lreland confllcL 'was Lhe perslsLence of a paLLern of
pollLlcal, soclal, economlc and personal relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhelr orlglns ln Lhe colonlal
pollLlcs and economlcs of Lhe 1600s and 1700s. 1he expanslon of Lhe power of Lhe
8rlLlsh sLaLe durlng LhaL perlod was marked by pollLlcal anLagonlsm Lo CaLhollclsm,
land selzure and dlsLrlbuLlon and seLLlemenL of a garrlson communlLy ln Lhe norLh of
lreland. 1he seLLlemenL, whlle successful, was always profoundly lnsecure,
generaLlng a hlsLory of ongolng vlolenL rebelllon and represslon relnforclng
grlevances of Lhe naLlve dlspossessed whlle helghLenlng Lhe lnsecurlLles of seLLlers
and Lhelr descendanLs and a sLrong sense of communlLy solldarlLy. uemocracy and
lndusLrlallsaLlon dld noL erode dlfference, buL relnforced Lhe evoluLlon of Lwo
dlsLlncL 'communlLles' ln whlch pollLlcs, economlcs and rellglon were closely
lnLerLwlned.' 'ConfronLlng a declared revolL by naLlonallsL lreland ln pursulL of an
lndependenL republlc,' Lhe 8rlLlsh sLaLe broughL abouL a devoluLlon package whlch
dlvlded lreland lnLo a norLhern parL wlLh a ÞroLesLanL and unlonlsL ma[orlLy and a
souLhern parL wlLh a CaLhollc ma[orlLy, an evenLual LreaLy consolldaLed Lhls.
'WlLhln norLhern lreland parLlLlon was vlolenLly conLesLed from Lhe ouLseL' and
dlvlslon beLween CaLhollc and ÞroLesLanL, unlonlsL and naLlonallsL deflned pollLlcs.
no CaLhollc was a candldaLe for Lhe governmenL parLy, Lhe rullng unlonlsL parLy, for
flfLy years. 1he norLhern lreland governmenL passed and used emergency laws.
unemploymenL raLes among CaLhollcs were double LhaL of ÞroLesLanLs who
domlnaLed Lhe clvll servlce and pollce force. ManlpulaLlon ln local governmenL
malnLalned unlonlsL conLrol and preferred houslng Lo ÞroLesLanLs. AglLaLlon for clvll
rlghLs and counLer-proLesLs led by Þalsley emerged ln Lhe 1960s, buL 'few predlcLed
Lhe speed of descenL lnLo lnLer-communlLy vlolence.' 1hls was followed by Lhe arrlval
of 8rlLlsh Lroops, lnLernmenL, kllllng of unarmed clvlllans by Lhe army, Lhe abollLlon
of Lhe nl governmenL and Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of rule from London, and Lhe growLh of
paramlllLarles on boLh sldes.
WlLh Lhe mass fllghL of communlLles lnLo 'safe' areas an esLabllshed paLLern of
separaLed llvlng was relnforced. ALLempLs by Lhe 8rlLlsh governmenL Lo promoLe
shared governmenL among 'moderaLe' parLles across Lhe dlvlde falled and LreaLmenL
of l8A prlsoners led Lo Lhe emergence of Slnn leln as a mass pollLlcal parLy.
ln 1983 Lhe 8rlLlsh governmenL engaged dlrecLly wlLh Lhe lrlsh governmenL slgnlng
Lhe Anglo-lrlsh AgreemenL desplLe masslve unlonlsL ob[ecLlon and proLesL. 1hls
deflned Lhe norLhern lreland problem as one of Lhree lnLerlocklng relaLlonshlps -
unlonlsL-naLlonallsL ln norLhern lreland, norLh-SouLh wlLhln lreland and LasL-WesL
beLween 8rlLaln and lreland - and esLabllshed Lhe baslc lnLellecLual framework LhaL
gulded all subsequenL efforLs Lowards a pollLlcal seLLlemenL.
1he vlolence ln norLhern lreland dld noL resulL ln Lhe LoLal collapse of Lhe sysLem,
and afLer Lhe mld-1970s 93° of Lhe deaLhs and ln[urles were among Lhe urban poor,
dlsLlncL rural areas and Lhe securlLy forces.
lraq Learnlng Lessons from norLhern lreland !uly 2008
Cueen's unlverslLy 8elfasL & SLraLagem 46
Append|x 2: Usefu| acronyms

CkC: CommunlLy 8elaLlons Councll for norLhern lreland
DÞÞ: ulsLrlcL Þollclng ÞarLnershlp
LU: Luropean unlon
ICÞ: lndependenL Commlsslon on Þollclng
IC1U: lrlsh Congress of 1rade unlons
IkA: lrlsh 8epubllcan Army
NGC: non-governmenLal organlsaLlon
NnkI: naLlonal Puman 8lghLs lnsLlLuLlons
NICVA: norLhern lreland Councll for volunLary AcLlon
NIÞ8: norLhern lreland Þollclng 8oard
ÞSNI: Þollce Servlce of norLhern lreland
Uk: unlLed klngdom
UN: unlLed naLlons
USA: unlLed SLaLes of Amerlca
UVI: ulsLer volunLeer lorce

Þo||t|ca| Þart|es:
DUÞ: uemocraLlc unlonlsL ÞarLy
ÞUÞ: Þrogresslve unlonlsL ÞarLy
SDLÞ: Soclal uemocraLlc and Labour ÞarLy
SI: Slnn leln
UUÞ: ulsLer unlonlsL ÞarLy