SDH Next Generation Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit SDH NG maintenance, SDH Ethernet commissioning

, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet tester,testing, SDH NG tester, SDH NG testing, SDH NG installation,Ethernet maintenance, GigabitNG commissioning, SDH NG troubleshooting, SDH NG test, Virtual Concatenation testing, testing, Concatenation tester, VCAT testing, GFP protocols, GFPVCAT troubleshooting, VCAT test, Virtual Concatenationtesting, GFP testing, GFPprotocols, 1000BASE-T tester, 1000BASE-LX test, 1000BASE-SX test, 1000BASE-T testing, 1000BASE-LXtester, GFP-F testing, GFP-F mapping, Gigabit Ethernet tester, GFP Virtual GFP installation, GFP maintenance, VCAT installation, mapping, GFP-F testing, GFP-F testing, 1000BASE-SX test, gige Ethernet test gige Ethernet testing gige Ethernet installation gige Ethernet maintenance gige Ethernet commissioning, gige Ethernet troubleshooting, LCAS testing, LCAS tester, LCAS testing, LCAS installation, LCAS maintenance, LCAS protocols, GFP-T testing, GFP-T tester, GFP-T testing Gigabit Ethernet protocols, 1000BASE-T tester, 1000BASE-LX test, 1000BASE-SX test, 1000BASE-T testing 1000BASE-LX testing 1000BASE-SX testing

Trend’s Next Generation SDH
Pocket Guide
FRL

Mobile

3G

VoD

VPLS VPN

xDSL

ISDN

Telepho
Circuit

VoIP

Internet

TV SAN

VictoriaCombo NG 2.5G High-performance tool for testing Next Generation SDH/ SONET. All the features needed to speed up the installation and maintenance of new data-aware SDH networks in a compact, user-friendly battery operated tester.

IP
DVB

PDH ATM

MPLS

VLAN

10/100/1000 Ethernet HDLC/PPP/LAPS
GFP-F GFP-T

Fibre Channel ESCON FICON

This new test module enables you to test Ethernet over metropolitan SDH/SONET networks that use Higher and Lower-Order Virtual Concatenation, LCAS and GFP.

Contiguous Concatenation
SDH/Sonet NG

Virtual Concatenation LCAS

WDM - Dark Fiber - Coax - Wireless - OTN

Figure 1

Versatile, flexible and efficient Next Generation SDH

PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN

MSSP

SDH NG

MSSP

PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN

GFC

Mapping in Frames Virtual Container Transport Bandwidth management Paths, Sections SDH SDH Paths, Sections

GFC VCAT LCAS SDH

VCAT LCAS SDH

Clients

SDH NG

Existing SDH/Sonet

SDH NG

Clients

Figure 2

Next Generation SDH enables operators to provide more data transport services while increasing the efficiency of installed SDH/SONET base, by adding just the new MSSP edge nodes. Therefore, it will not be necessary to install an overlap network or migrating all the nodes or fiber optics. This reduces the cost per bit delivered, and will attract new customers while keeping legacy services.

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Layers

Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
Ethernet
Packets Port 1 Port 2
. . .

MSPP

SDH/Sonet

MSPP

Ethernet

Source
STM-n/OC-m

Sink
Port 1 Port 2
. . .

Port n Rx queues GFP mapper
H1H2H3

Port n STM frames
4
H1H2H3

GFP demapper
H1H2H3

Tx Queues

1

3

Encapsulation Mapping Multiplexing

Submultiplexing

Channel ID

Decapsulation Demapping Demultiplexing

T r a n s m i s s i o n

Figure 3

Data packet aggregation using GFP. Packets are in queues, waiting to be mapped onto a TDM channel. At the far end, packets are dropped again to a queue and delivered. GFP frame multiplexing and sub multiplexing. The figure shows the encapsulation mechanism and the transport of the GFP frames into VC containers embedded in the STM frames.

GFP frame
PLI cHEC (CRC-16)
4 b s yte

byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 66

PTI

Core Header
4b y tes

PFI EXI type UPI

scrambled bytes (optional)

Payload Header Extention Header (optional) Payload Check Sum (optional)

tHEC (CRC-16) EXI

0-60 bytes

eHEC (CRC-16)
n by te s

+1 +2

Payload

+n

pFCS (CRC-32)
+n+4

PLI: PDU Length Indicator cHEC: Core HEC protection PTI: Payload type Identifier 000: client data 100: client management PFI: Payload FCS Indicator 1: presence of FCS 0: absence EXI type: Extension Header Identifier 0000: Null 0001: Linear 0010: Ring UPI: User Payload Identifier (PTI=0) 01x: Ethernet (GFP-F) 02x: PPP (GFP-F) 03x: Fiber Channel (GFP-T) 04x: FICON (GFP-T) 05x: ESCON (GFP-T) 06x: Gigabit Ethernet (GFP-T) 08x: MAPOS (GFP-F) 09x: DVB (GFP-T) 0Ax: RPR (GFP-F) 0Bx: Fiber Channel (GFP-F) 0Cx: Async Fiber Channel (GFP-T) tHEC: Type HEC protection EXI: Extension Header Identifier
Null EXI

tHEC

tHEC CID Spare eHEC

Figure 4

tHEC: Type HEC protection CID: Channel ID for submultiplexing eHEC: Extension HEC protection Payload: Space for the framed PDU pFCS: Payload FCS GFP frame formats and protocols

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Linear EXI type

0 -4 te s by

Type

Type

Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
40 Gbps 10 Gbps 2.5 Gbps 622 Mbps 155 Mbps STM-256 OC-768 STM-64 OC-192 STM-16 OC-48 STM-4 OC-12 STM-1 OC-3/STS-3
x1 AUG-256

STS-768

x1 AU4-256c

STS-768c STS-192c STS-48c

VC4-256c STS-768c SPE VC4-64c STS-192c SPE VC4-16c STS-48c SPE VC4-4c STS-12c SPE VC-4 STS-3c SPE

C-4-256c C-4-64c C-4-16c C-4-4c C-4
x3

x1

AUG-64 STS-192
x4

x1 x4 x1 x4 x1

AUG-16 STS-48 AUG-4 STS-12 AUG-1 STS-3

x1 AU4-16c x1

AU4-4c STS-12c AU-4 STS-3c

x1

x3

TUG-3 AU-3 STS-1 VC-3 STS-1 SPE
x7

x1

TU-3

VC-3 C-3

52 Mbps

STM-0 OC-1/STS-1

x1

x7

TUG-2 VT-Group

x1 x3 x4

TU-2 VT-6 TU-12 VT-2 TU-11 VT-1.5

VC-2 VT-6 SPE VC-12 VT-2 SPE VC-11 VT-1.5 SPE

C-2

C-12

Frame transmission Aligning Multiplexing Mapping

Pointer processing SDH Container Group POH addition

C-11

Figure 5

SDH and Sonet multiplexing map

Nine bytes Path Overhead (POH)
SDH Sonet

G1:

REI

RDI

E-RDI

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 C2:

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 Z3 Z4

Path trace, message with CRC BIP-8 parity control Signal label (mapping) Path status Path user channel (voice or data) Position and sequence indicator Path user channel (voice or data) Automatic Protection Switching Tandem Connection Monitoring

REI (Remote Error Indication) BIP-8 violation count RDI (Remote Defect Indication) is sent back E-RDI (Enhanced RDI information) (RDI=0) 10: Payload defect (PLM) (RDI=1) 01: Server defect (AIS, LOP), (RDI=1) 10: Connectivity defect (TIM, UNEQ) multiframe

N1:

IEC

TC REI

OEI

TC-API, TC-RDI
ODI, reserved

IEC Incoming Error Count, BIP-8 errors in Tandem Conn. TC-REI: Remote Error Indication in a TC subnetwork OEI: Outgoing Error Indication Multiframe: TC-API (Access Point Identifier) TC-RDI (RDI in Tandem Connection) ODI (Outgoing Defect Indication)

K3:

APS

HODL

Spare

H4:

MFI2 (frames 0 and 1) SQ (frames 14 and 15)

Multiframe Indicator 1

APS: Automatic Protection Switching HODL: Higher-Order Data Link

VC-3/4-Xv sequence bit 5-8: MFI1 multiframe indicator (0 to 15) frame 0 bit 1-4 MFI2 MSB Multiframe Indicator 2 frame 1 bit 1-4 MFI2 LSB frame 14 bit 1-4 SQ MSB sequence indicator frame 15 bit 1-4 SQ LSB sequence indicator

Figure 6

Nine bytes Path Overhead is attached to VC3, VC4 and VC4-Xc.

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00: unequipped 01: reserved 02: TUG 03: locked TU 04: E3, T3 12: E4 13: ATM

14: DQDB 15: FDDI 16: HDLC/PPP 17: SDL 18: HDLS/LAPS 1A: 10GEthernet FE: Test Signal

H4:

x

x

1

1

x

x

LO Seq

LO Multiframe Sequence xx11xx00: pointer to V1 xx11xx01: pointer to V2 xx11xx10: pointer to V3 xx11xx11: pointer to V4

Client Data, such as PDH, Ethernet, SAN, DVB, IP, HDLC, etc.

x4

x1 AU4-64c

Spare

Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
SDH Sonet

V5

V5 J2 N2 K4

V5 J2 Z6 Z7

V5:
Path Overhead Path Trace Reserved or TCM Additional Path Overhead

BIP-2

REI

RFI

Signal Label

RDI

J2 500←s

N2

K4

BIP-2 bit 1: odd bit parity of the previous VC bit 2: even bit parity REI (Receive Error Indication) RFI (Remote Failure Indication) VC signal label (mapping) 000 - Unequipped 001 - Reserved 010 - Asynchronous floating 011 - Bit-synchronous 100 - Byte-synchronous 101 - Extended signal label 110 - Test Signal O.181 111 - VC- AIS RDI (Remote Defect Indication)

N2:

BIP-2

1

I-AIS TC OEI REI

multiframe TC-API, TC-RDI ODI, reserved

K4:

ESL

VC

APS

E-RDI

DL

BIP-2 for Tandem Connection, calculated over the VC I-AIS: Incoming AIS TC-REI: Remote Indication Error in a TC subnetwork OEI (Outgoing Error Indication) Multiframe: TC-API (Access Point Identifier) TC-RDI (RDI in Tandem Connection) ODI (Outgoing Defect Indication)

ESL (Extended Signal Label) 32-bit multiframe bits 1-11 Multiframe Alignment bits12-19: 09: ATM 0A: HDLC/PPP 0B: HDLC/LAPS 0C: Concatenated test signal bits 20-32: 0 (reserved for future) VC (Lower Order Virtual Concatenation) APS: Automatic Protection Switching channel E-RDI (Enhanced RDI information) (RDI=0) 010: Payload defect (PLM) (RDI=1) 101: Server defect (AIS, LOP), (RDI=1) 110: Connectivity defect (TIM, UNEQ) DL: Lower Order Data Link

Figure 7

Four bytes Path Overhead is attached to VC11, VC12 and VC2.

Contiguous concatenation VC4-4c
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

Bandwidth requirement

Virtual concatenation VC4-3v or STS-9v
J1 J1B3 J1B3 C2 B3 G1 C2 G1 C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F2 F3 H4 K3 H4F3 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1 N1

1 2

II

One VCG

3 VC members

One Path

622 Mbps

3

SDH

III

3x 155 Mbps

Several paths (3 in SDH, or 9 in SONET)

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

Bandwidth delivery (430 Mbps)

4

IV

J1 J1B3 J1B3 C2 B3 G1 C2 G1 C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F2 F3 H4 K3 H4F3 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1 N1

Figure 8

Contiguous concatenation requires support by all the nodes. Virtual concatenation allocates bandwidth more efficiently, and it can be supported by legacy installations.

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Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
SDH STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 SONET STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 STS-768 SONET OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48 OC-192 OC-768 Size (Bytes) 9 x 90 9 x 270 9 x 1080 9 x 4320 9 x 17280 9 x 69120 Rate (Mbps) Acronym 51.840 155.520 622.080 2488.320 9953.280 39814.120 52M 155M 622M 2.5G 10G 40G Capacity Samples 28DS-1, DS-3, E3, 21E1 84DS-1, 3DS-3, E4, 3E3, 2E3+21E2, E3+42E2, 63E2 4OC-3, 4 STM-1 16OC-3, 16 STM-1 64OC-3, 64 STM-1 256OC-3, 256 STM-1

Table 1
SDH VC-11 VC-12 VC-2 VC-3 VC-4 VC-4-4c VC-4-16c VC-4-64c VC-4-256c

Signals and information combinations SONET VT 1.5 SPE VT 2 SPE VT 6 SPE STS-1 SPE STS-3c SPE STS-12c SPE STS-48c SPE STS-192c SPE STS-768c SPE VC types and capacity SONET STS3c-SPE STS12c-SPE STS48c-SPE STS192c-SPE STS768c-SPE X 1 4 16 64 256 Capacity 149,760 kbps 599,040 kbps 2,396,160 kbps 9,584,640 kbps 38,338,560 kbps Justification Unit 3 bytes 12 bytes 48 bytes 192 bytes 768 bytes Transport STM-1/OC-3 STM-4/OC-12 STM-16/OC-48 STM-64/OC-192 STM-256/OC-768 Bandwidth 1,664 kbps 2,240 kbps 6,848 kbps 48,960 kbps 150,336 kbps 601,344 kbps 2,405,376 kbps 9,621,50 kbps 38,486,016 kbps Payload 1,600 kbps 2,176 kbps 6,784 kbps 48,384 kbps 149,760 kbps 599,040 kbps 2,396,160 kbps 9,584,640 kbps 38,338,560 kbps

Table 2
SDH VC-4 VC-4-4c VC-4-16c VC-4-64c VC-4-256c

Table 3
SDH VC-11 VC-12 VC-2 VC-3 VC-4

Contiguous concatenation of VC-4-Xc. X indicates the number of VC-n SONET VT.15 SPE VT2 SPE VT6 SPE STS-1 SPE STS-3c SPE Individual Capacity 1,600 kbps 2,176 kbps 6,784 kbps 48,384 kbps 149,760 kbps Number (X) 1 to 64 1 to 64 1 to 64 1 to 256 1 to 256 Virtual Capacity 1,600 to 102,400 kbps 2,176 to 139,264 kbps 6,784 to 434,176 kbps 48,384 to 12,386 kbps 149,760 to 38,338,560 kbps

Table 4
Service

Capacity of virtually concatenated SDH VC-n-Xv or SONET STS-3Xv SPE Bit Rate 10 Mbit/s 100 Mbit/s 1000 Mbit/s 1700 Mbit/s 25 Mbit/s 270 Mbit/s 160 Mbit/s Contiguous Concatenation VC-3 (20%) VC-4 (67%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-3 (50%) VC-4-4c (37%) VC-4-4c (26%) Virtual Concatenation VC-11-7v (89%) VC-3-2v (99%) VC-4-7v (95%) VC-4-12v (90%) VC-11-16c (98%) VC-3-6v (93%) VC-3-4v (83%)

Ethernet Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Channel ATM DVB ESCON

Table 5

Comparison between Contiguous and Virtual Concatenation efficiency

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Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
Contiguous payload 1 1 X·84 1 1 X·84

t

1

1

X·84

C-3-Xc
9 9

C-3-Xc

......
9

C-3-Xc

X -Segments 1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

X -Segments 84

X -Segments 84

EOS

SEQ=X MFI=0 .

..

..

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=0 B3 G1
C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1

..

..

..

N1

..

N1

X times VC3 1 1 n·270

X times VC3 2·n·270 3·n·270

X times VC3 4096·n·270

RSOH AU3 ptrs MSOH

RSOH

RSOH

RSOH

STM-n

AU3 ptrs MSOH
125 ←s

STM-n

AU3 ptrs MSOH

STM-n

...

AU3 ptrs MSOH

STM-n

9

MFI=0 SEQ=0...X

MFI=1 SEQ=0...X

MFI=2 SEQ=0...X

375 ←s

MFI=4095 SEQ=0...X

512 ms

Figure 9

Graphical example of virtual concatenation using VC-3-6v (X=6) with graphical representation of sequence (SQ) and multiframe indicator (MFI) coded on H4.

V5
Lower-Order Path Overhead

J2

125 ←s 250 ←s 375 ←s 500 ←s N2

K4

K4 bit2

(1bit per .5ms)

multiframe frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

K4
bit2
0

MFI

SQ

CTRL

0000

RS-Ack

CTRL

MST

CRC-3
16ms

frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 8 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

..

..

VC-3 VC-3

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=1 B3 G1
C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3

VC-3 VC-3

VCG (VC-3-Xv)

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=4095 B3 G1
C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3

..

..

..

..

VC-3

SEQ=X J1 MFI=1 B3 .

1

EOS

EOS

C2 G1 F2 H4

VC-3

......

SEQ=X MFI=4095 .

1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2

84

VC-3

VC-3 VC-3

STM-n
t MFI=0 SEQ=0...X

SQ CTRL CRC-3

0

MFI: Multiframe Count Indicator [0...31] SQ: Sequence Indicator int he VCG [0...63]

512ms

Figure 10

H4 and K4 codification of Multiframes, Sequence and LCAS usage. H4 is repeated every 125 ←s, but note that K4 is part of the LO-PO multiframe repeated every 500 ←s, then the multiframe created with 32 times the bit-2 needs 500 x 32=16 ms. The whole sequence of 32 multiframes takes 512 ms to repeat.

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00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 11010 11011 11100 11101 11110 11111

MFI

...

Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting, Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
multiframe J1 1 B3 frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 C2 MFI1 G1 5-8bits F2 H4 1-4bits F3 K3 time 0 ms N1 MFI1: Multiframe indicator, part 1 [0...255] multiframe
2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 256 4096

Higer-Order Path Overhead

0000 0001 CTRL 0010 0 0 0 GID 0011 0 0 0 0 0100 0 0 0 0 0101 0110 CRC8 0111 1000 MST 1001 0 0 0 RSA 1010 0 0 0 0 1011 0 0 0 0 1100 0 0 0 0 1101 1110 SQ 1111 0000 MFI2 0001 CTRL 0010 0 0 0 GID 0011 0 0 0 0 0011 4

MFI2

2 ms

512 ms

MFI2: Multiframe indicator, part 2 [0...255] SQ: Sequence Indicator in the VCG [0...255]

MFI: Combination of MFI2-MFI1 [0...4095]

Figure 11

H4 codification for VCAT Multiframes, Sequence, and LCAS usage

Source
LCAS

Sink

SDH

LCAS

MSPP MFI, SQ, CTRL, GID, CRC MST, RS-Ack, CRC Norm Norm EOS SQ=0 SQ=1 SQ=2 ADD RS-Ack Norm Norm Norm EOS SQ=0 SQ=1 SQ=2 SQ=3

MSPP

LCAS protocol

Figure 12

LCAS example: a new member is ADDed to one existing VCG channel to increase the bandwidth of the channel. The network management system orders the source to add this new link to the existing channel

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CNTRL: Control 0000 FIXED Non-LCAS mode 0001 ADD Member will be added to group 0010 NORM Normal LCAS transmission 0011 EOS End of Sequence, highest member in group 0101 IDLE Member will be removed or not in group 1111 DNU Do Not Use, receive side reported MST FAIL status GID: Group Id. constant value for all members of a VCG. CRC-3: Generated on the K4 over the previous frames. MST: Member Status multiframe, one bit per each VCG member 0 = OK 1 = FAIL RS-Ack: Re-Sequence Acknoledge

SQ

1110 1111

E1 test, E1 testing, E1 installation, E1 maintenance, E1 commissioning, E1 Set up, E1 tester, E1 pocket guide E1 protocols, DS0, Alarms, AIS test, BER test, CAS test, CRC test, E1 Solutions, PDH solutions, PDH pocket guide

Acronyms
AIS API APS ATM AU AUG BIP CV DQDB DVB EOS ESCON ESL FCS FDDI FICON FEC HDLC HEC HODL HP IP LAPS LCAS LO Path LOF LOH LOM LOP LOS LP MAPOS MFI MS MSOH MUX MSB MSSP NDF OA&M Administrative Unit OC-n Administrative Unit Group ODI Bit Interleaved Parity OEI Code Violation OTN Distributed Queue Dual Bus PLM Digital Video Broadcasting POH End of Sequence PPP Enterprise Systems Connection PTI Extended Signal Label RDI Frame Check Sum REI Fibre Digital Data Interface RFI Fibre Channel RS Forward Error Correction RSOH High-level Data Link Control SAN Header Error Check SDH Higher-Order Data Link SDL Higher-Order Path SOH Internet Protocol SONET Link Access Procedure – SDH SPE Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme STM-n Lower-Order Path STS-n Loss of Framing TC Lower-Order Overhead TIM Loss Of Muliframing TS Loss Of Pointer TU Loss Of Signal TUG Lower-Order Path VC Multiple-Access Protocol over SDH VCAT Multiframe Indicator VLAN Multiplexor Section VPLS Multiplexor Section Overhead VT
Alarm Indication Signal Access Path Identifier Automatic Protection Switching Asynchronous Transfer Mode Multiplexor Most Significant Bit Multi-Service Switching Platform New Data Flag Operation, Administration and Maintenance Optical Carrier level n Outgoing Defect Indication Outgoing Error Indication Optical Transport Network Payload Mismatch Path Overhead Point-to-Point Protocol Payload Type Identifier Remote Defect Indication Remote Error Indication Remote Failure Indication Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Overhead Storage Area Network Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Simplified Data Link Section Overhead Synchronous Optical Network Synchronous Payload Envelope Synchronous Transport Module level n Synchronous Transport Signal level n Tandem Connection Trace Identifier Mismatch Time Slot Tributary Unit Tributary Unit Group Virtual Container Virtual Concatenation Virtual Local Area Network Virtual Private LAN Services Virtual Tributary

Ref: 700703 02 05.05

Trend Communications Ltd.
Whitebrook Park, Lower Cookham Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire, SL6 8XY, UK

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More information in: Installation and Maintenance of SDH/SONET, ATM, XDSL, and Synchronization Networks. 2003 (c) Artech House, ISBN:1580535259

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