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You are on page 1of 36

Science Department

IGCSE Physics- year 10 notes

How to use these notes

These notes are not in the final form that you will need for the exam. Throughout the

course you will be required to make additions in several forms. Some sections are

blank for you to complete during class some as home work and other areas are not

blank but you will need to make your own notes in your own words to help you

remember the class discussions and explanations. !eel free to add comments at any

point not only where there are blank spaces. "se the margins or spaces between

paragraphs if there is no clear space. "se blank paper and staple in extra sheets.

It is usually followed in normal type by an explanation of what you need to know

worked examples questions for you to finish etc.

Please point out any errors in these notes to Mr. Robinson.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 1 of

Year 10

75% of

Syllabus

New

Work

New

Work

New

Work

Year 11

25% of

Syllabus

New

Work

Revise

And

Mock

Exams

Study

eave

And

!"S#E

The text in these text boxes is taken directly from the syllabus. ypin! in bold

is "ro# the e$tended syllabus, normal type is from core syllabus.

Qatar International School

Science Department

Module 1- General Physics.

1.1 len!th and ti#e.

"nits of length#$$$$$$$

"nits of volume#$$$$$$..

ST%&D%'D unit of time used for most calculations# $$$$$

There are others such as# $$$$..

To measure the thickness of a sheet of paper using an ordinary ruler you must#

(easure many sheets and divide to get an average.

!or example if )** pages are ))mm then one sheet has a thickness of# $$$$$..

Show the calculation you used $$$$.

&ame a more accurate tool we can use to measure small distances$$$$$$$..

+e can make the measurement more accurate by$$$$$$$

,eriod means the time for one complete swing of a pendulum or the time for one

complete wave.

Set up the pendulum as shown in the diagram below and use a suitable measurement

and calculation to find the period. Describe the steps and calculation in the space

below$$$$..

Created by Mr Phillips Page 2 of

"se and describe the use of rules and measuring cylinders to determine a length or

a volume.

"se and describe the use of clocks and devices for measuring an interval of time.

%se and describe the use o" a #echanical #ethod "or the #easure#ent o" a

s#all distance

Measure and describe how to #easure a short inter&al o" ti#e 'includin!

period o" a pendulu#(.

Qatar International School

Science Department

% simple pendulum

Questions -answer below.

). % pendulum swings )** times in /0 seconds. 1alculate its period. +ould you

expect it to swing as far on the last swing as the first2 3xplain your answer in terms of

energy.

/. % sheet of paper is *.)4 mm thick. 5ow thick would a ream of /0* sheets be2

4. If there are )**** grains of sand in ) cm

4

estimate the volume of a single grain.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 3 of

% 6

!ixed point

7ne swing is from % to 6 and back to %

Qatar International School

Science Department

1.) Speed* &elocity and acceleration

Speed means$$$$

"nits of speed $$$.

8elocity means$$$.

"nits of velocity$$$.

%cceleration means$$

"nits of acceleration$..

+ &ery use"ul point about units and e,uations.

!or any equation that is true the units must balance example we can not add kg to m#

4 kg 9 / m : 0 kg is not a true equation.

6ut we can add kg to kg as the units balance# 4kg9 / kg : 0 kg. -;g on left equals kg

on right.

This applies to all equation such as# speed : distance < time

So units of speed are equal to units of distance -meters. < units of time -seconds.

i.e. m<s

%cceleration : change in speed < time

"nits of acceleration are units of speed -m<s. divided by time -s. i.e. m<s<s

3xamples#

). % car moves /** km in a time of 0 hours. +hat is its speed in km<h in m<s2

5int# speed in m<s : -distance in metres.< -time in seconds.

/. % motorbike does the same =ourney -/**km. in half the time. +hat is its speed2

Created by Mr Phillips Page 4 of

Define speed and calculate speed from -total distance. < -total time.

Qatar International School

Science Department

%lways put time on the x>axis.

? @earn to recogniAe and explain a few common shapes very complex graphs

are made up of sections which can be treated separately.

? The most common mistake is not to be clear about the difference on the y>

axis# check is it speed or time2

?

? at rest means not moving speed : *

? (oving with constant speed means speed does not change but distance

changes.

? (oving with changing speed if it is getting faster we say it is accelerating. If

slowing down we say decelerating -&7T de>accelerating.

%t rest

? at rest means not moving speed : *

? Speed : * means a line along the x>axis on a speed>time graph

? at rest means not moving the distance does not change

? The line is flat and may be on the x>axis or may not be on the x>axis for a

distance>time graph

Draw the line to represent an ob=ect at rest on the two graphs below

Created by Mr Phillips Page 5 of

,lot and interpret a speed<time graph or a distance<time graph.

'ecognise from the shape of a speed<time graph when a body isB

at rest moving with constant speed or moving with changing speed.

Speed Distance

Time Time

Qatar International School

Science Department

1onstant speed

? (oving with constant speed means speed does not change.

? Speed does not equal Aero so the line is not on the x>axis of a speed>time

graph.

? (oving with constant speed means speed does not change but distance

changes.

? % straight line on a distance>time graph means constant speed.

Draw lines to show constant speed on the two graphs below.

Draw a scale on the graphs to allow you to plat a line for a car moving with speed of

/0km<h and )*m<s respectively.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 6 of

Speed Distance

Time Time

Speed Speed

Time Time

Qatar International School

Science Department

1hanging speed# acceleration

Draw line ) and two on the first axes line 4 and C on the second axes.

? @ine )# a straight line going upwards means constant acceleration.

? @ine /# Steeper slope up means more acceleration.

? @ine 4# shallow slope upwards means less acceleration.

? @ine C# starting from a speed greater than Aero. Small acceleration.

1hanging speed# deceleration

Draw these lines on the axes below. Draw two lines on each graph

? @ine )# if the slope is down this shows deceleration.

? @ine /# less slope means less deceleration.

? @ine 4# steeper means more deceleration.

? @ine C# lower initial speed and small deceleration

Created by Mr Phillips Page 7 of

Speed Speed

Time Time

Qatar International School

Science Department

The area under the graph line for a speed<time graph will give the distance. 6ecause

the syllabus states Dwith a constant accelerationE this means the graph line will always

be a straight line. This means the area you have to calculate will be a rectangle or

triangle and we can use base x height or F base x height reading values from the

graph to find the base and height. This is demonstrated below.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 8 of

Speed Speed

Time Time

1alculate the area under a speed<time graph to determine the distance travelled for

motion with a constant acceleration.

Qatar International School

Science Department

+orked example

!rom the graph calculate the distance travelled between the points

a. * to % b. * to 6 c. 6 to 1 d. 6 to D

The method used to solve the question.

!irst break the graph into simple shapes -rectangles and triangles. as

shown in dotted lines in step ) below.

Then read off the axis to find the length of all the sides as shown with

double arrows in step / below.

Then work out the areas of the shapes as shown in boxes in step 4

below.

!inally add the shapes together to get the area required to find the

distance since area under the line between any two points : distance

travelled between the two points.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 9 of

0

)*

Speed

time

0

*

)* / ) 4 C G H I J

%

6

1

D

Qatar International School

Science Department

Created by Mr Phillips Page 10 of

0

)*

Speed

time

0

*

)* / ) 4 C G H I J

% 6

1

D

Step )# break the graph

into simple shapes

0

)*

Speed

time

0

*

)* / ) 4 C G H I J

/

0

C

/

/

)*

/

0

0

Step /# work out the

length of all the sides

Qatar International School

Science Department

So the answer is#

* to % : area of triangle : 0

* to 6 : triangle 9 rectangle : 0 9 /* : /0

6 to 1 : triangle 9 rectangle : 0 9 )* : )0

6 to D : triangle 9 triangle 9 rectangle : 0 9 )* 9 )* : /0

Created by Mr Phillips Page 11 of

0

)*

Speed

time

0

*

)* / ) 4 C G H I J

)</x/x0

: 0

/

0

C

/

/

)*

/

0

0

Cx0 : /*

)</x/x0

: 0

)</x/x)*

: )*

/x0 : )*

Step 4 work out areas of the triangles and rectangles

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xample questions.

3xample).

Describe the motion shown in the graphs below use the table to help you.

%nswer the questions below in the space below the graph.

Time Description of the motion

* to )

) to 4

4 to G

G to H

H to J

5ow far was the maximum distance between the ob=ect and its starting point2

5ow far away was it at the end of the J second period2

Created by Mr Phillips Page 12 of

0

)*

Distance

Time

0

Qatar International School

Science Department

a. 1omplete the table to describe the motion -motion : movement..

Time Description of the motion

* to )

) to 4

4 to G

G to H

H to J

b. 1alculate the distance travelled in the first G seconds.

c. 1alculate the total distance travelled in the whole J seconds of the motion.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 13 of

0

)*

Speed

Time

0

*

)*

3xample/

0

0 )*

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xample 4.

% man starts from rest and then accelerates for / seconds until his speed is 0m<s. 5e

keeps a constant speed for 0 seconds then decelerates for 4 seconds until he is at rest

again.

Draw a speed<time graph below. 1alculate from the graph the total distance he moved.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 14 of

%cceleration when

it first starts to fall

%cceleration =ust before

landing

% * m<s<s * m<s<s

6 * m<s<s g -: )* m<s<s.

1 g -: )* m<s<s. * m<s<s

D g -: )* m<s<s. g -: )* m<s<s. This means acceleration caused by gravity pulling any falling ob=ect is constant

as long as the ob=ect is close to the 3arth -not in space.. +e call this acceleration

DgEand its value is g: J.I m<s<s -approx )* m<s<s.

State that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the 3arth is constant.

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xample# %n apple falls from a tree which line in the table correctly describes the

acceleration of the apple2 3xplain your answer2 %nswer $.. 6ecause $..

Created by Mr Phillips Page 15 of

Qatar International School

Science Department

1.- Mass and .ei!ht

&ormally we speak about weight in the wrong way.

If I ask what do you weigh2 Kou may reply 00kg. 6ut since weight is a force it should

be measured in &ewton.

Kour mass is actually what we measure in kg your mass is 00 kg but your weight is

00* &.

The equation to connect mass and weight is

+eight : mass x gravity#

In symbols + : mg and on 3arth g : )* m<s<s so )kg -mass. has a weight of )* &

7n other planets Lravity is different. 3xample on the moon gravity is less than 3arth.

+e can work out the weight of any ob=ect if we know its weight and the gravity acting

on it using weight : mass x gravity.

3xample complete the following#

% man has a mass of )**kg. 7n 3arth gravity : )* m<s<s calculate his weight.

The same man travels to the moon where gravity is /m<s<s calculate his weight.

1alculate his weight in space where gravity is *m<s<s

'epeat the above for a boy with mass of 00 kg.

7n 3arth weight : 7n the moon weight :

In space weight :

Mass is a property which /resists/ chan!e in #otion.

% large ob=ect is hard to move because it has a large mass not due to itEs large weight

the ob=ect in space still is hard to move as it still has mass even though it is weightless

-no weight.. This shows that the resistance to being moved depends on the mass not

weight.

.ei!ht is a 01RCE caused by !ra&ity actin! on a #ass.

+eight always acts straight downwards -the direction of gravity.. %n ob=ect in space

has no weight because there is no gravity.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 16 of

Show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body.

State that weight is a force.

2e#onstrate an understandin! that #ass is a property which /resists/ chan!e

in #otion.

2escribe* and use the concept o"* wei!ht as the e""ect o" a !ra&itational "ield

on a #ass.

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xperiment on mass and weight

Kou have several ob=ects and a ) kg mass.

6y feeling the weight of a ) kg mass -the force is )* &. and comparing it to the

weight of the ob=ects estimate -guess. the mass and weight of each ob=ect. 'ecord the

estimates in the table below.

(easure the masses using a balance -in kg or g.. 'ecord the values in the table.

(easure the weights using a &ewton>meter. 'ecord the values in the table.

%lso measure and record the siAe of the ob=ects -length height width. this will let you

calculate the siAe -or volume. of the ob=ects using length x height x width.

Is the largest always the heaviest ob=ect2

7b=ect 3stimated (easured SiAe of the ob=ect volume

mass weight weight mass length width height

Created by Mr Phillips Page 17 of

Qatar International School

Science Department

1.3 2ensity.

? The previous experiment on mass and weight showed that a large ob=ect is not

always the heaviest ob=ect.

? The mass co#pared to the siAe -volume. is called the density of an ob=ect.

? % small but heavy ob=ect means it has a high density. % large but light ob=ect

has low mass. 7b=ects of different siAes can have the same density.

? The equation is density 4 #ass 5 &olu#e.

? 1an you figure out the units of density2 -hint use the equation.

? "nits are units of mass -kg. < units of volume -m4. thatEs kg<m4 or we can

use g<cm4

"se the data in the table from the last experiment on mass and weight to calculate the

density of each ob=ect and write the values in the last column of the table.

The experiment and calculation you have done is listed in the syllabus as#

1an you use the idea of density to explain why a metal coin with a mass of a few

grams will sink in water but a tree with mass of many kg will float in water2 $$$

1alculate the density of the following ob=ects and state the units in each case

a. volume : )** m

4

mass : )****kg

b. volume : /0 cm

4

mass : )**g

c. volume : /** cm

4

mass :)**g

Created by Mr Phillips Page 18 of

Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly

shaped solid and make the necessary calculation.

Qatar International School

Science Department

In the previous examples and the experiment the solid was a regular shape. If the solid

is irregular we measure the volume differently but the rest of the calculation is the

same.

+e use a displacement method to measure the volume. Drop an ob=ect into water and

the water level will rise by an amount equal to the volume of the ob=ect. This method

is shown below.

3xperiment. (easuring volume by displacement.

"se a displacement method to find the volume of some ob=ects. 'ecord your results in

the space below including the calculation and units.

&ame of the ob=ect 8olume of water 8olume of +ater

and ob=ect together

8olume of ob=ect

Created by Mr Phillips Page 19 of

2escribe the deter#ination o" the density o" an irre!ularly shaped solid by the

#ethod o" displace#ent and #a6e the necessary calculation.

8olume

)** cm

4

8olume

)0* cm

4

8olume of water : )**

8olume of water 9 star : )0*

8olume of star : )0* M)**

8olume of star : 0* cm

4

Qatar International School

Science Department

1.7 0orces

1 .0 -a. 3ffects of forces

? % force in the direction an ob=ect is moving will cause acceleration.

? 3.g. pressing the gas when driving at a steady speed makes you get faster.

? % force in the opposite direction to that an ob=ect is moving will cause

deceleration.

? 3.g. pressing the brake when driving at a steady speed makes you slow down.

? % force from the side will change the direction an ob=ect is moving.

? 3.g. turning the steering wheel causes a sideways force which turns the car in

the direction of the force.

? 3xample# pulling a spring causes it to get longer.

? ,utting a force on a spring is called loading the spring.

? The amount of increased length is called the extension.

? (ore load will give more extension.

? +e can plot a graph of load against extension.

? @oading a ruler at one end may cause it to bend.

? 5ang a spring on a stand and measure its length. This is the original unloaded

length. This can be called l

*

? %dd a load and measure the new length. 'ecord the results in the table in your

notes. This can be called l

)

l

/

l

4

etc

? 1onvert the mass into a force -in & not g.

? 1alculate extension by subtracting the new length minus the original length. In

symbols for the first load extension : l

)

M l

*

? 'epeat this with larger loads.

? ,lot a graph force -x>axis. against extension below.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 20 of

Describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body

State that a force may produce a change in siAe and shape of a body.

,lot extension<load graphs and describe the associated experimental procedure

3xtension

cm

!orce

&

Qatar International School

Science Department

This means you must be able to use a graph to read off values from one axis e.g.

given the force find the extension.

(ake sure you know which axis to begin with and then read the values =ust like any

other graph question from (athEs.

+orked 3xample question.

!rom the graph below

a. !ind the force to produce an extension of 0 cm.

b. !ind the extension produced by a force of 0&.

%nswer a.

The extension is 0 so from 0cm on the y>axis you draw across to the graph>line and

then down. 'ead off the x>axis to find the force. %nswer H.0&.

%nswer b.

The force is 0 so from 0& on the x>axis you draw up to the graph>line and then

across. 'ead off the y>axis to find the force. %nswer 4cm.

? 5ookeEs law states force is proportional to extension.

? This means as you increase the force the extension it causes will also increase.

? +e can write this as an equation using a constant -called a constant of

proportionality.. 7ften called the sprin! constant in a question.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 21 of

Interpret e$tension5load !raphs.

!orce

&

3xtension

cm.

)*

)*

State Hoo6e8s 9aw and recall and use the e$pression 0 4 6 $

Qatar International School

Science Department

? So !orce : constant x extension or !:kx

? 5ookeEs law applies to an elastic material like a spring. It can be used to

calculate extension or load as shown below.

? @imit of proportionality means the point where extension stops being

proportional to the load.

? It can also be called the elastic limit.

? 1onfusing names2 Simply look for the point where the line starts to curve.

@imit of proportionality is labeled on the graph below.

5ookeEs @aw calculations.

+orked example.

% spring has an original unloaded length of /0 mm. +hen a load of /& is applied the

length becomes /Jmm.

a. 1alculate the extension for /&.

b. 1alculate the extension for 0&.

c. 1alculate the new length when 0& is added to the spring.

a. 3xtension : new length M original length

3xtension : /J M /0 : Cmm.

b. ! : k e where !:/ e:C so /:kC so k:/<C : *.0

-&7T3# we worked out the constant so we can now use k:*.0 to find the new

extension for the force of 0&.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 22 of

Reco!nise the si!ni"icance o" the ter# /li#it o" proportionality/ "or an

e$tension5load !raph.

!<&

3xtension<cm.

)*

)*

@imit of

proportionality#

where the line

first begins to

curve.

Qatar International School

Science Department

!or 0& !:k e so 0: *.0 x e so e : 0<*.0 : )*mm.

c. &ew length : original length 9 extension

7riginal length: /0mm -from question. extension:)*mm -above.

&ew length for 0& load : /09)* : 40mm.

3xample.

% spring has a length of 4cm when unloaded.

The same spring has a length of 4.) cm when loaded with )&.

a. 1alculate the extension for )&. +rite the value in the table.

b. "se the 5ookeEs law equation to find the spring constant.

c. 1alculate the extension for /&. +rite the value in the table.

d. 1alculate the extension for 4&. +rite the value in the table.

e. 1alculate the extension for C&. +rite the value in the table.

f. 1alculate the length of the spring for a load of 4 &.

g. Liven the extension measured for 0& was Imm plot a graph of force against

extension below.

h. @abel the elastic limit on the graph.

!orce * ) / 4 C 0

3xtension * I

This means you need to learn and apply the equation !: (a

In words# force : mass x acceleration.

% force forwards makes an ob=ect increase in speed -accelerate. but a force backwards

will slow it down -decelerate..

3xample how much force is required to make an ob=ect with mass 0kg accelerate at

/*m<s<s2

Created by Mr Phillips Page 23 of

3xtension

cm

!orce

&

Recall and use the relation between "orce* #ass and acceleration 'includin!

the direction(.

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xample how much force is required to make an ob=ect with mass 0**g accelerate at

/*m<s<s2

Created by Mr Phillips Page 24 of

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Science Department

).0b. turning effect.

% force can stretch an ob=ect or change the speed an ob=ect or change its direction.

%nother possible effect is to turn an ob=ect e.g. the force to turn a tap or door handle.

+e call the turning effect the #o#ent o" a "orce.

The moment of a force is given by 67T5 the siAe of the force and the distance from

the pivot.

(oment : force x distance -to the pivot.

3xample# calculate the moment when a force of 0& is applied )m away from a point.

%nswer# moment : force x distance : 0 x ) : 0

% beam can balance when the masses are not equal e.g. a see>saw can balance when a

large person is closer to the pivot than a small person as shown below. This is when

the moments are equal siAe but opposite direction. 7ne moment is trying to turn it

clockwise the other trying to turn anti>clockwise which means they will cancel each

other if they are the same siAe.

The beam means the flat ob=ect -e.g. a ruler. which the forces are applied to.

The pivot is the point where the beam will turn -often the middle.. The pivot is often

drawn as a triangle on a diagram.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 25 of

Describe the moment of a force as a measure of its turning effect and give

everyday examples.

Describe qualitatively the balancing of a beam about a pivot.

@arge force

-at a.

small distance.

Small force

-at a.

large distance.

6%@@%&13

Qatar International School

Science Department

%ny system is balanced when the moments in opposite directions cancel out.

% balanced system is in equilibrium there is no net moment.

This is also called the principal of moments which states

N0or any syste# in e,uilibriu# there is no net #o#entO

+e use this in calculations as

NSu# o" cloc6wise #o#ents 4 su# o" anticloc6wise #o#entsO

+here Dsum ofE means Dadd them togetherE

+e can use this in an experiment if the moments are equal and opposite there is no

net moment. This means equal in siAe and opposite in direction.

6alance a beam without any load to find its center point -center of mass..

,ut a weight on each side and move one weight until the beam is balanced.

'ecord the siAe and position of the masses and calculate the moment on each

side of the pivot. They should be equal and opposite.

'epeat for several different masses and positions.

% table for results could look like this#

@eft hand side -@5S. 'ight hand side -'5S. &et

(oment

@5S>'5S

@oad distance (oment

-! x d.

@oad distance (oment

-! x d.

/ )* /* ) /* /* *

C )* C* / /* C* *

G )* G* 4 /* G* *

,erform the experiment and record the results below. !or each set of results calculate

the net moment it will often not be exactly Aero due to experimental errors.

@eft hand side -@5S. 'ight hand side -'5S. &et

(oment

@5S>'5S

@oad distance (oment

-! x d.

@oad distance (oment

-! x d.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 26 of

Per"or# and describe an e$peri#ent 'in&ol&in! &ertical "orces( to &eri"y

that there is no net #o#ent on a body in e,uilibriu#.

Qatar International School

Science Department

This means you must be able to solve questions similar to the examples below.

+orked examples of calculations using the principal of moments

). !ind the force ! to balance the system in the diagram. -note this is a simple

example since there is only one force at each side.

6y the principal of moments clockwise moments : anticlockwise moments

)** x C* : ! x 0*

! : )** x C* < 0*

! : I*&

/. !ind the force ! to balance the system in the diagram. -&ote there are two

forces turning anticlockwise. +e add their moments &7T the forces..

6y the principal of moments su# o" clockwise moments : anticlockwise moment

-(oment of )**& force )**xC*. 9 -moment of 0*& force 0*x4*. : moment of !

-)** x C*. 9 -0* x 4*. : ! x 0*

! : -C*** 9 )0**. < 0*

! : ))*&

Created by Mr Phillips Page 27 of

+pply the idea o" opposin! #o#ents to si#ple syste#s in e,uilibriu#.

C* cm 0* cm

)** & !

C* cm

0* cm

)**& ! 0*&

4* cm

Qatar International School

Science Department

3xample Questions on moments -simple systems in equilibrium.

). ,artly worked example

a. The diagram shows a crane lifting a load. 1alculate the weight of the counterweight

-+. to have Aero net moment on the crane.

b. +hat would be the maximum distance between the crane and load so that a load of

J***& could be lifted with Aero net moment using the same counter weight as above2

6y the principal of moments

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

(oment of + : moment of load

-$$$$$x$$$$$$.... : -$$$$$x $$$..$.

Distance :

Created by Mr Phillips Page 28 of

)m

)**** &

+

6y the principal of moments

$$$$$$$$$$$..

(oment of + : moment of load

-$$$$$.. : -$$$$$$.

+ :

Cm

Qatar International School

Science Department

).0 c. 1onditions for equilibrium.

Short summaryB If no resultant force and no net moment are applied nothing changes

and we call this equilibrium.

@ong explanationB +e now have studied various effects of forces. +hen a force is

applied to an ob=ect that force can change the shape an ob=ect -e.g. stretching a

spring. or change the speed an ob=ect -e.g. brakes on a car. or change its direction or

turn the ob=ect called the moment of a force.

If the ob=ect does not change its speed direction or shape nor does it turn this must

be because there is no force applied since these effects are due to a force.

(ore precisely there is no '3S"@T%&T force acting on the ob=ect there could be

equal and opposite forces acting which cancel each other out. +e call this situation

equilibrium. This is when an ob=ect has no resultant force and no net moment acting

so it does not change in any of the ways we have studied.

).0 d. 1entre of mass.

(eanings used in this phrase are#

1entre of mass of an ob=ect

The balance point.

The middle where it has as much mass on one side as the other.

% scientific definition is Da point at which the mass of an ob=ect can be

considered to act.E

,lane lamina

This simply means any thin flat shape e.g. a piece of card.

+e do not need to worry about 4D shapes.

1enter of mass experiment

5ang any shape where it is free to swing and it will settle with the center of mass

hanging straight down. If the center of mass is not at the lowest point then the ob=ect

swings downwards due to its weight.

"se a vertical line -e.g. a plumb line is a mass on a string to mark vertical line. to

mark the ob=ect. The center of mass is somewhere on the line.

'otate the ob=ect mark a second vertical line. Since the center of mass is somewhere

on the second line too the center of mass is where the lines cross.

This is shown below in the diagram.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 29 of

State that when there is no resultant force and no resultant turning effect a system

is in equilibrium.

,erform and describe an experiment to determine the position of the centre of mass

of a plane lamina.

Qatar International School

Science Department

Stability describes if an ob=ect will stand up or fall over. % stable ob=ect will stand an

unstable ob=ect will fall. % less stable ob=ect will fall over easier than a more stable

one.

There are two factors which are involved here the position of the centre of mass and

the width of the base.

In general the 91.ER the centre of mass and the .I2ER the base then the more

stable an ob=ect will be.

Kou will need to answer two types of question in IL1S3 as shown below.

E$a#ples

Type ) questions. which ob=ect is the most stable2 +hich is least stable2 -5int you

want the widest base %&D lowest centre of mass for most stable.

%nswer most stable D least stable 1

Created by Mr Phillips Page 30 of

5ang shape from

one end 17( is

on the line shown.

5ang shape from

another end 17(

is on both the lines

17(

where lines

cross

1entre of mass -17(. experiment

Describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the

stability of simple ob=ects

% 6 D 1

Qatar International School

Science Department

Type / questions. % student has designed a cup shown below but it falls over too

easily. 5ow would you advise him to change his design2

1an you draw some of these design ideas below and explain briefly why they are

more stable than the students design2

Created by Mr Phillips Page 31 of

Students

design

Kou could answer either

make the cup wider

make the cup shorter

put a wider base on the cup

7ther ways to lower the 17( are

make the base thicker

put the handle lower

use a shape which is wider at the

bottom of the cup

Qatar International School

Science Department

1.: Pressure

Think of high pressure as concentrating the force on a small area low pressure means

the force is spread out over a larger area.

3.g. 3xplain why a nail can easily be hammered into a wooden block point first but

cannot be hammered in head first.

%nswer# the force of the hammer on the nail is the same in both cases but the point

concentrates the force into a smaller area -high pressure. where as the head of the nail

applies the force over a larger area -low pressure.

,ressure : force<area

This allows us to calculate values of pressure.

The units of pressure are -units of area.< -units of area. i.e. &<m

/

+e can also use ,a -,ascal. note ),a : ) &<m

/

+orked example

% point of a drawing pin has an area *.)of mm

/

the head has an area )**mm

/

If a force of )*& is applied on the pin find the pressure at both ends.

%nswer

,oint# !orce : )* & area : *.)mm

/

,:!<%

,:)*<*.) :)**&< mm

/

-&ote units are units of force & divided by units of area mm

/

i.e. &< mm

/

.

5ead# !orce : )* & area : )** mm

/

,:!<%

,:)*<)** : *.)&< mm

/

-&ote as above units are units of force & divided by units of area mm

/

.

In both cases we could work out pressure in &<m

/

if we wish the easiest way is to

convert the area into m

/

before working out pressure. This is often a good idea if we

need to use the answers of pressure to calculate in later parts of a question. This is

shown below. &ote )m:)**cm:)***mm. )m

/

: -)***x)***. mm/ : )******mm

/

.

,oint# !orce : )* & area : *.)mm

/

: *.)<)******m

/

:*.******) m

/

,:!<%

,:)*<*.******) : )********&< m

/

-&ote units are units of force & divided by units of area m

/

i.e. &< m

/

.

5ead# !orce : )* & area : )** mm

/

: )**<)****** m

/

:*.***) m

/

,:!<%

,:)*<*.***) : )*****&< m

/

-&ote as above units are units of force & divided by units of area mm

/

.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 32 of

'elate without calculation pressure to force and area using appropriate

examples.

Recall and use the e,uation p 4 05+

Qatar International School

Science Department

%s you swim deeper underwater you feel more pressure on your ears. This shows

pressure increases with depth.

Swimming in salt water causes even more pressure as the water in more dense. This

shows that pressure also depends on the density of the liquid.

Kou need to know salt water is more dense than fresh water and oil is less dense than

water -it floats on water.. Kou should also know that pressure under a liquid acts

equally in all directions but increases as you get deeper.

+orked example questions

)a. %t which position is the pressure largest2

b. %t which position is pressure lowest2

%nswer

a. (ost pressure at 1 -largest depth at 1 and D but salt water is denser than water.

b. @owest pressure at 6 -least depth at % and 6 but oil is less dense than water.

/. +hich arrow shows the direction of the least pressure acting at the point

underwater2

%nswer#

%ll are the same pressure because pressure in a liquid is equal in all directions.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 33 of

'elate without calculation the pressure beneath a liquid surface to depth and to

density using appropriate examples.

water oil Salt

water

water

% 6

1 D

%

D

1

6

Qatar International School

Science Department

The equation is used to calculate pressure under a liquid where we know depth and

density.

In the equation

h : depth below the surface of the liquid

= density of the liquid

g : acceleration due to gravity : J.Im<s<s -approx. )* m<s<s.

&ote we can still use the equation ,:!<% under a liquid to find the force applied to an

area as shown in part b. of the worked example below.

+orked example pressure question

+ater has a density of )***kg<m

4

and a human body has an area of ) m

/

.

-g : )*m<s<s.

a. !ind the pressure at a depth of )*m.

b. !ind the force applied by this pressure on a human swimming at a depth of

)*m.

c. 5ow many kg of mass is this force equivalent to2

%nswer

a. , : hg

+here h : )*m = )***kg<m

4

and g : )*m<s<s

+e are using , : hg because we know depth density and gravity.

, : )* x )*** x )*

, : )***** &<m

/

b. , : !<%

+here , : )***** &<m

/

-"se the value of pressure from above calculation because

both are at the same depth and so have the same pressure. % : ) m

/

from the question.

+e are using ,:!<% because we know the area and need to find the force. !orce does

not appear in the equation , : hg

)***** : !<)

!:)*****&

c. weight : mass x gravity

)***** : ( x )*

( : )****kg

&ote that this shows there is a pressure causing )*****& which is the force due to

)****kg on you if you swim at a depth of )*m.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 34 of

Recall and use the e,uation p 4 h;! 'pressure 4 depth $ density $ !ra&ity(

Qatar International School

Science Department

% barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Kou need to know that the pressure is represented by the height of the mercury

column shown as h on the diagram this comes up a lot in paper one.

Kou need to know that there is a vacuum in the tube above the mercury so the

pressure above the mercury in the tube is Aero.

Strictly speaking you need to be able to draw this diagram but it has never come up in

IL1S3 questions in recent years.

The (ercury 6arometer diagram for questions

+hich letter shows the measurement taken to determine atmospheric pressure2

&ame liquid P and state the value of pressure ,

%nswers#

6 shows the pressure

P is mercury

, : * -vacuum.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 35 of

Describe the simple mercury barometer and its use in measuring atmospheric

pressure.

h

8acuum

mercury

1

,ressure ,

@iquid P

6 %

D

Qatar International School

Science Department

% manometer is also known as a ">tube. It is a ">shaped tube used to compare gas

pressures. +hen water -or mercury. is put in a ">tube if the pressure at each end is

equal the liquid stays at the bottom and the two sides are level as shown in !ig /.).

6ut if the pressure is not equal then the highest pressure will push water downwards.

The bigger the difference the more the liquid moves.

!ig /./ shows a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure being applied on the left

side.

!ig /.4 shows a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure -e.g. a vacuum. being

applied on the left side.

Created by Mr Phillips Page 36 of

"se and describe the use of a manometer.

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