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MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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B.TECH. DEGREE COURSE
SCHEME AND SYLLABUS
(2002-03 ADMISSION ONWARDS)
MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY
KOTTAYAM,KERALA

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
M 502 3+1+0

Module 1
Patterns: - pattern allowances and materials-moulding-core and core prints-
types of cores- pattern construction-layout and colour coding-tools-processes-
moulding sand constituents, types and testing-moulding machines-moulding
procedure-sand conditioning-gating system-cupola operation-pouring and
cleaning of castings-defects in castings-inspection and quality control-casting
machines-design of dies-centrifugal, continuous, investment, squeeze casting
and shell- mould casting- -comparison of casting with other production
processes.( include necessary figures)

Module 2
Welding: - definition-metallurgy of welding-applications classification -
mechanism-processes-gas welding - details, equipment, fluxes and filler rods
-design effect of weld parameters on weld quality-flame cutting-ISI
specification for welding. Arc welding applications- equipment polarity-
governing factor in fusion welding-electrodes and types-ISI specification for
electrodes Welding design-butt joint-TIG-GMA-CO
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process. Submerged
arc, electroslag plasma arc and flux cored arc welding-resistance, thermit
solid state, electron beam and laser welding. Brazing: soldering-explosive
welding-inspection and defects in welding-welding of plastics.(include
necessary figures )
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Module 3
Rolling: - principles-types of rolls and rolling mills-semi finished and rolled
products- rolling of tubes, wheels, axles, I-beam-thread and gear rolling-
friction and lubrication in metal forming-hot and cold rolling-rolling
machines-heating and cooling in rolling-strip velocity and roll velocity-roll
and roll pass design -Theories of rolling and effect of parameters-load
calculation-High velocity forming - energysources - material behaviour -
pneumatic, mechanical, electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, and explosive
forming.

Module 4
Press working: - types of presses and pressworking operations involving
shearing, bending, drawing, squeezing-Extrusion: - methods, machines-
analysis of rod extrusion-Wire and wire drawing operations-analysis-die
angles-simple, progressive and compound dies-plastic and rubber processing-
Calendering-transfer, injection and compression moulding.

Module 5
Forging: -classification-process-equipments-drawing, deep drawing,
punching, blanking- tube piercing-spinning and coining-elastic and plastic
deformation-hot forging, die forging- machinery for forging-operation-
heating in forging-manufacture of drop forging dies, presses-design of
forgings and dies-upsetting-forging defects-forging analysis-quality
assurance for forging-non destructive testing.
References

1. Workshop Technology - Raghuvanshi
2. Manufacturing Engineering & Technology - S.Kalpakjian and S.A.Schmidt
3. Manufacturing Processes - Begeman
4. Manufacturing Science & Technology; Vol. I - Suresh Daleela
5. Processes and Materials of Manufacture - Roy A.Lindberg
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MODULE-1
CASTING PROCESS
Manufacturing came from Latin word manu factus (meaning made by hand),
manufacture -first appeared in 1567 and manufacturing in 1683.It involves making
products from raw materials by various processes, machinery & operations following
a well organized plan for each activity required. Manufacturing is a complex activity
which involves materials, capital, energy, and people. (People of various disciplines
and skills). A variety of machinery, equipment tooling with various levels of
automation (computers etc), and material handling are involved.
Classification of manufacturing Process
CASTING
JOINING
FORMING
MACHINING

1. CASTING
1. History
Casting technology, according to biblical records, reaches back almost 5,000
years BC. Gold, pure in nature, most likely caught Prehistoric man's fancy, as he
probably hammered gold ornaments out of the gold nuggets he found. Silver would
have been treated similarly. Mankind next found copper, because it appeared in the
ash of his camp fires from copper-bearing ore that he lined his fire pits with. Man
soon found that copper was harder than gold or silver. Copper did not bend up when
used. So copper, found a 'nitch' in man's early tools, and then marched it's way into
Weaponry. But, long before all this, man found clay. So he made pottery - something
to eat from. Then he thought, "now, what else can I do with this mud. Early man
thought about it, "they used this pottery stuff, (the first patterns), to shape metal into
bowls ".
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2. Introduction
Virtually nothing moves, turns, rolls, or flies without the benefit of cast metal
products. The metal casting industry plays a key role in all the major sectors of our
economy. There are castings in locomotives, cars trucks, aircraft, office buildings,
factories, schools, and homes some metal cast parts.
Metal Casting is one of the oldest materials shaping methods known. Casting
means pouring molten metal into a mold with a cavity of the shape to be made, and
allowing it to solidify. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the
mold either by breaking the mold or taking the mold apart. The solidified object is
called the casting. By this process, intricate parts can be given strength and rigidity
frequently not obtainable by any other manufacturing process. The mold, into which
the metal is poured, is made of some heat resisting material. Sand is most often used
as it resists the high temperature of the molten metal. Permanent molds of metal can
also be used to cast products.
ADVANTAGES
The metal casting process is extensively used in manufacturing because of its many
advantages.
1. Molten material can flow into very small sections so that intricate shapes can be
made by this process. As a result, many other operations, such as machining, forging,
and welding, can be minimized or eliminated.
2. It is possible to cast practically any material that is ferrous or non-ferrous.
3. As the metal can be placed exactly where it is required, large saving in weight can
be achieved.
4. The necessary tools required for casting molds are very simple and inexpensive.
As a result, for production of a small lot, it is the ideal process.
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5. There are certain parts made from metals and alloys that can only be processed
this way.
6. Size and weight of the product is not a limitation for the casting process.
LIMITATIONS
1. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish of the castings made by sand casting
processes are a limitation to this technique. Many new casting processes have been
developed which can take into consideration the aspects of dimensional accuracy and
surface finish. Some of these processes are die casting process, investment casting
process, vacuum-sealed molding process, and shell molding process.
2. The metal casting process is a labor intensive process.

PATTERN
The pattern is the principal tool during the casting process. It is the replica of
the object to be made by the casting process, with some modifications. The main
modifications are the addition of pattern allowances, and the provision of core prints.
If the casting is to be hollow, additional patterns called cores are used to create these
cavities in the finished product. The quality of the casting produced depends upon
the material of the pattern, its design, and construction. The costs of the pattern and
the related equipment are reflected in the cost of the casting. The use of an expensive
pattern is justified when the quantity of castings required is substantial.
Functions of the Pattern
1. A pattern prepares a mold cavity for the purpose of making a casting.
2. A pattern may contain projections known as core prints if the casting requires a
core and need to be made hollow.
3. Runner, gates, and risers used for feeding molten metal in the mold cavity may
form a part of the pattern.
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4. Patterns properly made and having finished and smooth surfaces reduce casting
defects.
5. A properly constructed pattern minimizes the overall cost of the castings.
Pattern Material
Patterns may be constructed from the following materials. Each material has its own
advantages, limitations, and field of application. Some materials used for making
patterns are: wood, metals and alloys, plastic, plaster of Paris, plastic and rubbers,
wax, and resins. To be suitable for use, the pattern material should be:
1. Easily worked, shaped and joined
2. Light in weight
3. Strong, hard and durable
4. Resistant to wear and abrasion
5. Resistant to corrosion, and to chemical reactions
6. Dimensionally stable and unaffected by variations in temperature and humidity
7. Available at low cost
The usual pattern materials are wood, metal, and plastics. The most commonly used
pattern material is wood, since it is readily available and of low weight. Also, it can
be easily shaped and is relatively cheap. The main disadvantage of wood is its
absorption of moisture, which can cause distortion and dimensional changes. Hence,
proper seasoning and upkeep of wood is almost a pre-requisite for large-scale use of
wood as a pattern material.
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Figure 1: A typical pattern attached with gating and risering system
PATTERN ALLOWANCES
Pattern allowance is a vital feature as it affects the dimensional characteristics of the
casting. Thus, when the pattern is produced, certain allowances must be given on the
sizes specified in the finished component drawing so that a casting with the particular
specification can be made. The selection of correct allowances greatly helps to
reduce machining costs and avoid rejections. The allowances usually considered on
patterns and core boxes are as follows:
1. Shrinkage or contraction allowance
2. Draft or taper allowance
3. Machining or finish allowance
4. Distortion or camber allowance
5. Rapping allowance

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Shrinkage or Contraction Allowance
All most all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically on cooling. The metal
shrinkage is of two types:
i. Liquid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume when the metal
changes from liquid state to solid state at the solidus temperature. To account for this
shrinkage; riser, which feed the liquid metal to the casting, are provided in the mold.
ii. Solid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume caused when metal
loses temperature in solid state. To account for this, shrinkage allowance is provided
on the patterns.

The rate of contraction with temperature is dependent on the material. For example
steel contracts to a higher degree compared to aluminum. To compensate the solid
shrinkage, a shrink rule must be used in laying out the measurements for the pattern.
A shrink rule for cast iron is 1/8 inch longer per foot than a standard rule. If a gear
blank of 4 inch in diameter was planned to produce out of cast iron, the shrink rule in
measuring it 4 inch would actually measure 4 -1/24 inch, thus compensating for the
shrinkage. The various rate of contraction of various materials are given in Table 1.
Table 1 : Rate of Contraction of Various Metals
Material Dimension Shrinkage allowance
(inch/ft)
Grey Cast Iron
Up to 2 feet
2 feet to 4 feet
over 4 feet
0.125
0.105
0.083
Cast Steel Up to 2 feet
2 feet to 6 feet
over 6 feet
0.251
0.191
0.155
Aluminum Up to 4 feet
4 feet to 6 feet
over 6 feet
0.155
0.143
0.125
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Magnesium Up to 4 feet
Over 4 feet
0.173
0.155

Draft or Taper Allowance
By draft is meant the taper provided by the pattern maker on all vertical surfaces of
the pattern so that it can be removed from the sand without tearing away the sides of
the sand mold and without excessive rapping by the molder.
Draft allowance varies with the complexity of the sand job. But in general inner
details of the pattern require higher draft than outer surfaces. The amount of draft
depends upon the length of the vertical side of the pattern to be extracted; the
intricacy of the pattern; the method of molding; and pattern material. Table 2
provides a general guide lines for the draft allowance.
Table 2 : Draft Allowances of Various Metals
Pattern material Height of the given
surface (inch)
Draft angle
(External surface)
Draft angle
(Internal surface)
Wood
1
1 to 2
2 to 4
4 to 8
8 to 32
3.00
1.50
1.00
0.75
0.50
3.00
2.50
1.50
1.00
1.00
Metal and plastic
1
1 to 2
2 to 4
4 to 8
8 to 32
1.50
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.50
3.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
0.75

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Machining or Finish Allowance
The finish and accuracy achieved in sand casting are generally poor and therefore
when the casting is functionally required to be of good surface finish or
dimensionally accurate, it is generally achieved by subsequent machining. Machining
or finish allowances are therefore added in the pattern dimension. The amount of
machining allowance to be provided for is affected by the method of molding and
casting used viz. hand molding or machine molding, sand casting or metal mold
casting. The amount of machining allowance is also affected by the size and shape of
the casting; the casting orientation; the metal; and the degree of accuracy and finish
required. The machining allowances recommended for different metal is given in
Table 3.
Table 3 : Machining Allowances of Various Metals
Metal Dimension (inch) Allowance (inch)
Cast iron
Up to 12
12 to 20
20 to 40
0.12
0.20
0.25
Cast steel
Up to 6
6 to 20
20 to 40
0.12
0.25
0.30
Non ferrous
Up to 8
8 to 12
12 to 40
0.09
0.12
0.16

Distortion or Camber Allowance
Sometimes castings get distorted, during solidification, due to their typical shape. For
example, if the casting has the form of the letter U, V, T, or L etc. it will tend to
contract at the closed end causing the vertical legs to look slightly inclined. This can
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be prevented by making the legs of the U, V, T, or L shaped pattern converge slightly
(inward) so that the casting after distortion will have its sides vertical ( (Figure 2).
The distortion in casting may occur due to internal stresses. These internal stresses
are caused on account of unequal cooling of different section of the casting and
hindered contraction. Measure taken to prevent the distortion in casting includes:
i. Modification of casting design
ii. Providing sufficient machining allowance to cover the distortion affect
iii. Providing suitable allowance on the pattern, called camber or distortion
allowance (inverse reflection)

Figure 2: Distortions in Casting



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Rapping Allowance
Before the withdrawal from the sand mold, the pattern is rapped all around the
vertical faces to enlarge the mold cavity slightly, which facilitate its removal. Since it
enlarges the final casting made, it is desirable that the original pattern dimension
should be reduced to account for this increase. There is no sure way of quantifying
this allowance, since it is highly dependent on the foundry personnel practice
involved. It is a negative allowance and is to be applied only to those dimensions that
are parallel to the parting plane.
Core and Core Prints
Castings are often required to have holes, recesses, etc. of various sizes and shapes.
These impressions can be obtained by using cores. So where coring is required,
provision should be made to support the core inside the mold cavity. Core prints are
used to serve this purpose. The core print is an added projection on the pattern and it
forms a seat in the mold on which the sand core rests during pouring of the mold.
The core print must be of adequate size and shape so that it can support the weight of
the core during the casting operation. Depending upon the requirement a core can be
placed horizontal, vertical and can be hanged inside the mold cavity. A typical job,its
pattern and the mold cavity with core and core print is shown in Figure 3
.
Figure 3: A Typical Job, its Pattern and the Mold Cavity
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TYPES OF PATTERN
Patterns are of various types,
each satisfying certain casting
requirements.1. Single
piece pattern
2. Split or two piece pattern
3. Match plate pattern

Fig 4: Types of patterns
Single Piece Pattern
The one piece or single pattern is the most inexpensive of all types of patterns. This
type of pattern is used only in cases where the job is very simple and does not create
any withdrawal problems. It is also used for application in very small-scale
production or in prototype development. This type of pattern is expected to be
entirely in the drag and one of the surface is is expected to be flat which is used as
the parting plane. A gating system is made in the mold by cutting sand with the help
of sand tools. If no such flat surface exists, the molding becomes complicated. A
typical one-piece pattern is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: A Typical One Piece Pattern

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Split or Two Piece Pattern
Split or two piece pattern is most widely used type of pattern for intricate castings. It
is split along the parting surface, the position of which is determined by the shape of
the casting. One half of the pattern is molded in drag and the other half in cope. The
two halves of the pattern must be aligned properly by making use of the dowel pins,
which are fitted, to the cope half of the pattern. These dowel pins match with the
precisely made holes in the drag half of the pattern. A typical split pattern of a cast
iron wheel Figure 6 (a) is shown in Figure 6 (b).

Figure 6 (a): The Details of a Cast Iron Wheel
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Figure 6 (b): The Split Piece or Two Piece Pattern of a Cast Iron Wheel

GATING SYSTEM
The assembly of channels which facilitates the molten metal to enter into the mold
cavity is called the gating system. Alternatively, the gating system refers to all
passage ways through which molten metal passes to enter into the mold cavity. The
nomenclature of gating system depends upon the function of different channels
which they perform.
Down gates or sprue
Cross gates or runners
Ingates or gates
The metal flows down from the pouring basin or pouring cup into the down gate or
sprue and passes through the cross gate or channels and ingates or gates before
entering into the mold cavity.
Goals of Gating System
The goals for the gating system are
To minimize turbulence to avoid trapping gasses into the mold
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To get enough metal into the mold cavity before the metal starts to solidify
To avoid shrinkage
Establish the best possible temperature gradient in the solidifying casting so
that the shrinkage if occurs must be in the gating system not in the required
cast part.
Incorporates a system for trapping the non-metallic inclusions
Hydraulic Principles used in the Gating System
Reynold's Number
Nature of flow in the gating system can be established by calculating Reynold's
number


R
N
= Reynold's number
V = Mean Velocity of flow
D = diameter of tubular flow
m = Kinematics Viscosity = Dynamic viscosity / Density
r = Fluid density
When the Reynold's number is less than 2000 stream line flow results and when the
number is more than 2000 turbulent flow prevails. As far as possible the turbulent
flow must be avoided in the sand mold as because of the turbulence sand particles
gets dislodged from the mold or the gating system and may enter into the mould
cavity leading to the production of defective casting. Excess turbulence causes
Inclusion of dross or slag
Air aspiration into the mold
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Erosion of the mold walls
Bernoulli's Equation


h = height of liquid
P = Static Pressure
v = metal velocity
g = Acceleration due to gravity
r = Fluid density
Turbulence can be avoided by incorporating small changes in the design of gating
system. The sharp changes in the flow should be avoided to smooth changes. The
gating system must be designed in such a way that the system always runs full with
the liquid metal. The most important things to remember in designing runners and
gates are to avoid sharp corners. Any changes in direction or cross sectional area
should make use of rounded corners.
To avoid the aspiration the tapered sprues are designed in the gating systems. A
sprue tapered to a smaller size at its bottom will create a choke which will help keep
the sprue full of molten metal.
TYPES OF GATING SYSTEMS
The gating systems are of two types:
Pressurized gating system
Un-pressurized gating system

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Pressurized Gating System
The total cross sectional area decreases towards the mold cavity
Back pressure is maintained by the restrictions in the metal flow
Flow of liquid (volume) is almost equal from all gates
Back pressure helps in reducing the aspiration as the sprue always runs full
Because of the restrictions the metal flows at high velocity leading to more
turbulence and chances of mold erosion
Un-Pressurized Gating System
The total cross sectional area increases towards the mold cavity
Restriction only at the bottom of sprue
Flow of liquid (volume) is different from all gates
aspiration in the gating system as the system never runs full
Less turbulence
Types of Gating Systems Riser
Riser is a source of extra metal which flows from riser to mold cavity to compensate
for shrinkage which takes place in the casting when it starts solidifying. Without a
riser heavier parts of the casting will have shrinkage defects, either on the surface or
internally.
Risers are known by different names as metal reservoir, feeders, or headers.
Shrinkage in a mold, from the time of pouring to final casting, occurs in three stages.
1. during the liquid state
2. during the transformation from liquid to solid
3. during the solid state
First type of shrinkage is being compensated by the feeders or the gating system. For
the second type of shrinkage risers are required. Risers are normally placed at that
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portion of the casting which is last to freeze. A riser must stay in liquid state at least
as long as the casting and must be able to feed the casting during this time.
Functions of Risers
Provide extra metal to compensate for the volumetric shrinkage
Allow mold gases to escape
Provide extra metal pressure on the solidifying mold to reproduce mold
details more exact
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF RISERS
1. Riser size: For a sound casting riser must be last to freeze. The ratio of
(volume / surface area)
2
of the riser must be greater than that of the casting.
However, when this condition does not meet the metal in the riser can be kept in
liquid state by heating it externally or using exothermic materials in the risers.
2. Riser placement: the spacing of risers in the casting must be considered
by effectively calculating the feeding distance of the risers.
3. Riser shape: cylindrical risers are recommended for most of the castings
as spherical risers, although considers as best, are difficult to cast. To
increase volume/surface area ratio the bottom of the riser can be shaped as
hemisphere.
CLASSIFICATION OF CASTING PROCESSES
Casting processes can be classified into following FOUR categories:
1. Conventional Molding Processes
1.1. Green Sand Molding
1.2. Dry Sand Molding
1.3. Flask less Molding
2. Chemical Sand Molding Processes
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2.1 Shell Molding
2.2 Sodium Silicate Molding
2.3 No-Bake Molding
3. Permanent Mold Processes
3.1 Gravity Die casting
3.2 Low and High Pressure Die Casting
4. Special Casting Processes
4.1 Lost Wax Ceramics
4.2 Shell Molding
4.3 Evaporative Pattern Casting
4.4 Vacuum Sealed Molding
4.5 Centrifugal Casting
Green Sand Molding
Green sand is the most diversified molding method used in metal casting operations.
The process utilizes a mold made of compressed or compacted moist sand. The term
"green" denotes the presence of moisture in the molding sand. The mold material
consists of silica sand mixed with a suitable bonding agent (usually clay) and
moisture.
Advantages
Most metals can be cast by this method.
Pattern costs and material costs are relatively low.
No Limitation with respect to size of casting and type of metal or alloy used
Disadvantages
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Surface Finish of the castings obtained by this process is not good and machining is
often required to achieve the finished product.
Sand Mold Making Procedure
The procedure for making mold of a cast iron wheel is shown in (Figure 7 (a), (b),).
The first step in making mold is to place the pattern on the molding board.
The drag is placed on the board ((Figure 7 (a)).
Dry facing sand is sprinkled over the board and pattern to provide a non
sticky layer.
Molding sand is then riddled in to cover the pattern with the fingers; then the
drag is completely filled.
The sand is then firmly packed in the drag by means of hand rammers. The
ramming must be proper i.e. it must neither be too hard or soft.
After the ramming is over, the excess sand is leveled off with a straight bar
known as a strike rod.
With the help of vent rod, vent holes are made in the drag to the full depth of
the flask as well as to the pattern to facilitate the removal of gases during
pouring and solidification.
The finished drag flask is now rolled over to the bottom board exposing the
pattern.
Cope half of the pattern is then placed over the drag pattern with the help of
locating pins. The cope flask on the drag is located aligning again with the
help of pins ( (Figure 7 (b)).
The dry parting sand is sprinkled all over the drag and on the pattern.
A sprue pin for making the sprue passage is located at a small distance from
the pattern. Also, riser pin, if required, is placed at an appropriate place.
The operation of filling, ramming and venting of the cope proceed in the
same manner as performed in the drag.
The sprue and riser pins are removed first and a pouring basin is scooped out
at the top to pour the liquid metal.
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Then pattern from the cope and drag is removed and facing sand in the form
of paste is applied all over the mold cavity and runners which would give the
finished casting a good surface finish.
The mold is now assembled. The mold now is ready for pouring

Figure 7 (a)

Figure 7 (b)

Dry Sand Molding
When it is desired that the gas forming materials are lowered in the molds, air-dried
molds are sometimes preferred to green sand molds. Two types of drying of molds
are often required.
1. Skin drying and
2. Complete mold drying.
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In skin drying a firm mold face is produced. Shakeout of the mold is almost as good
as that obtained with green sand molding. The most common method of drying the
refractory mold coating uses hot air, gas or oil flame. Skin drying of the mold can be
accomplished with the aid of torches, directed at the mold surface.
Shell Molding Process
It is a process in which, the sand mixed with a thermosetting resin is allowed to come
in contact with a heated pattern plate (200
o
C), this causes a skin (Shell) of about 3.5
mm of sand/plastic mixture to adhere to the pattern.. Then the shell is removed from
the pattern. The cope and drag shells are kept in a flask with necessary backup
material and the molten metal is poured into the mold.

This process can produce
complex parts with good
surface finish 1.25 m to 3.75
m, and dimensional tolerance
of 0.5 %. A good surface
finish and good size tolerance
reduce the need for
machining. The process
overall is quite cost effective
due to reduced machining and
cleanup costs. The materials
that can be used with this
process are cast irons, and
aluminum and copper alloys.


Fig : 8, Shell moulding



Molding Sand in Shell Molding Process
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The molding sand is a mixture of fine grained quartz sand and powdered bakelite.
There are two methods of coating the sand grains with bakelite. First method is Cold
coating method and another one is the hot method of coating.
In the method of cold coating, quartz sand is poured into the mixer and then the
solution of powdered bakelite in acetone and ethyl aldehyde are added. The typical
mixture is 92% quartz sand, 5% bakelite, 3% ethyl aldehyde. During mixing of the
ingredients, the resin envelops the sand grains and the solvent evaporates, leaving a
thin film that uniformly coats the surface of sand grains, thereby imparting fluidity to
the sand mixtures.
In the method of hot coating, the mixture is heated to 150-180 o C prior to loading
the sand. In the course of sand mixing, the soluble phenol formaldehyde resin is
added. The mixer is allowed to cool up to 80 - 90 o C. This method gives better
properties to the mixtures than cold method.
Sodium Silicate Molding Process
In this process, the refractory material is coated with a sodium silicate-based binder.
For molds, the sand mixture can be compacted manually, jolted or squeezed around
the pattern in the flask. After compaction, CO 2 gas is passed through the core or
mold. The CO 2 chemically reacts with the sodium silicate to cure, or harden, the
binder. This cured binder then holds the refractory in place around the pattern. After
curing, the pattern is withdrawn from the mold.
The sodium silicate process is one of the most environmentally acceptable of the
chemical processes available. The major disadvantage of the process is that the
binder is very hygroscopic and readily absorbs water, which causes a porosity in the
castings.. Also, because the binder creates such a hard, rigid mold wall, shakeout and
collapsibility characteristics can slow down production. Some of the advantages of
the process are:
A hard, rigid core and mold are typical of the process, which gives the casting good
dimensional tolerances;
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Good casting surface finishes are readily obtainable;
Permanent Mold Process
In all the above processes, a mold need to be prepared for each of the casting
produced. For large-scale production, making a mold, for every casting to be
produced, may be difficult and expensive. Therefore, a permanent mold, called the
die may be made from which a large number of castings can be produced. , the molds
are usually made of cast iron or steel, although graphite, copper and aluminum have
been used as mold materials. The process in which we use a die to make the castings
is called permanent mold casting or gravity die casting, since the metal enters the
mold under gravity. Some time in die-casting we inject the molten metal with a high
pressure. When we apply pressure in injecting the metal it is called pressure die
casting process.

Advantages
Permanent Molding produces a sound dense casting with superior mechanical
properties.
The castings produced are quite uniform in shape have a higher degree of
dimensional accuracy than castings produced in sand
The permanent mold process is also capable of producing a consistent quality of
finish on castings
Disadvantages
The cost of tooling is usually higher than for sand castings
The process is generally limited to the production of small castings of simple
exterior design, although complex castings such as aluminum engine blocks and
heads are now commonplace.
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Centrifugal Casting
In this process, the mold is rotated rapidly about its central axis as the metal is
poured into it. Because of the centrifugal force, a continuous pressure will be acting
on the metal as it solidifies. The slag, oxides and other inclusions being lighter, get
separated from the metal and segregate towards the center. This process is normally
used for the making of hollow pipes, tubes, hollow bushes, etc., which are
axisymmetric with a concentric hole. Since the metal is always pushed outward
because of the centrifugal force, no core needs to be used for making the concentric
hole. The mold can be rotated about a vertical, horizontal or an inclined axis or about
its horizontal and vertical axes simultaneously. The length and outside diameter are
fixed by the mold cavity dimensions while the inside diameter is determined by the
amount of molten metal poured into the mold.
Advantages
Formation of hollow interiors in cylinders without cores
Less material required for gate
Fine grained structure at the outer surface of the casting free of gas and shrinkage
cavities and porosity
Disadvantages
More segregation of alloy component during pouring under the forces of rotation
Contamination of internal surface of castings with non-metallic inclusions
Inaccurate internal diameter
Investment Casting Process
The root of the investment casting process, the cire perdue or "lost wax" method
dates back to at least the fourth millennium B.C. The artists and sculptors of ancient
Egypt and Mesopotamia used the rudiments of the investment casting process to
create intricately detailed jewelry, pectorals and idols. The investment casting
process alos called lost wax process begins with the production of wax replicas or
patterns of the desired shape of the castings. A pattern is needed for every casting to
28

be produced. The patterns are prepared by injecting wax or polystyrene in a metal
dies. A number of patterns are attached to a central wax sprue to form a assembly.
The mold is prepared by surrounding the pattern with refractory slurry that can set at
room temperature. The mold is then heated so that pattern melts and flows out,
leaving a clean cavity behind. The mould is further hardened by heating and the
molten metal is poured while it is still hot. When the casting is solidified, the mold is
broken and the casting taken out.
The basic steps of the investment casting process are
1. Production of heat-disposable wax, plastic, or polystyrene patterns
2. Assembly of these patterns onto a gating system
3. "Investing," or covering the pattern assembly with refractory slurry
4. Melting the pattern assembly to remove the pattern material
5. Firing the mold to remove the last traces of the pattern material
6. Pouring
7. Knockout, cutoff and finishing.
Advantages
Formation of hollow interiors in cylinders without cores
Less material required for gate
Fine grained structure at the outer surface of the casting free of gas and shrinkage
cavities and porosity
Disadvantages
More segregation of alloy component during pouring under the forces of rotation
Contamination of internal surface of castings with non-metallic inclusions
Inaccurate internal diameter
Ceramic Shell Investment Casting Process
29

The basic difference in investment casting is that in the investment casting the wax
pattern is immersed in a refractory aggregate before dewaxing whereas, in ceramic
shell investment casting a ceramic shell is built around a tree assembly by repeatedly
dipping a pattern into a slurry (refractory material such as zircon with binder). After
each dipping and stuccoing is completed, the assembly is allowed to thoroughly dry
before the next coating is applied. Thus, a shell is built up around the assembly. The
thickness of this shell is dependent on the size of the castings and temperature of the
metal to be poured.
After the ceramic shell is completed, the entire assembly is placed into an autoclave
or flash fire furnace at a high temperature. The shell is heated to about 982 o C to
burn out any residual wax and to develop a high-temperature bond in the shell. The
shell molds can then be stored for future use or molten metal can be poured into them
immediately. If the shell molds are stored, they have to be preheated before molten
metal is poured into them.
Advantages
Excellent surface finish
Tight dimensional tolerances
Machining can be reduced or completely eliminated
Full Mold Process / Lost Foam Process / Evaporative Pattern Casting Process
The use of foam patterns for metal casting was patented by H.F. Shroyer on April 15,
1958. In Shroyer's patent, a pattern was machined from a block of expanded
polystyrene (EPS) and supported by bonded sand during pouring. This process is
known as the full mold process. With the full mold process, the pattern is usually
machined from an EPS block and is used to make primarily large, one-of-a kind
castings. The full mold process was originally known as the lost foam process.
However, current patents have required that the generic term for the process be full
mold.
30

In 1964, M.C. Flemmings used unbounded sand with the process. This is known
today as lost foam casting (LFC). With LFC, the foam pattern is molded from
polystyrene beads. LFC is differentiated from full mold by the use of unbounded
sand (LFC) as opposed to bonded sand (full mold process).
Foam casting techniques have been referred to by a variety of generic and proprietary
names. Among these are lost foam, evaporative pattern casting, cavity less casting,
evaporative foam casting, and full mold casting.
In this method, the pattern, complete with gates and risers, is prepared from
expanded polystyrene. This pattern is embedded in a no bake type of sand. While the
pattern is inside the mold, molten metal is poured through the sprue. The heat of the
metal is sufficient to gasify the pattern and progressive displacement of pattern
material by the molten metal takes place.
The EPC process is an economical method for producing complex, close-tolerance
castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and unbonded sand. Expandable
polystyrene is a thermoplastic material that can be molded into a variety of complex,
rigid shapes. The EPC process involves attaching expandable polystyrene patterns to
an expandable polystyrene gating system and applying a refractory coating to the
entire assembly. After the coating has dried, the foam pattern assembly is positioned
on loose dry sand in a vented flask. Additional sand is then added while the flask is
vibrated until the pattern assembly is completely embedded in sand. Molten metal is
poured into the sprue, vaporizing the foam polystyrene, perfectly reproducing the
pattern.
In this process, a pattern refers to the expandable polystyrene or foamed polystyrene
part that is vaporized by the molten metal. A pattern is required for each casting.
Process Description
The EPC procedure starts with the pre-expansion of beads, usually polystyrene. After
the pre-expanded beads are stabilized, they are blown into a mold to form pattern
31

sections. When the beads are in the mold, a steam cycle causes them to fully expand
and fuse together.
1. The pattern sections are assembled with glue, forming a cluster. The gating
system is also attached in a similar manner.
2. The foam cluster is covered with a ceramic coating. The coating forms a
barrier so that the molten metal does not penetrate or cause sand erosion
during pouring.
3. After the coating dries, the cluster is placed into a flask and backed up with
bonded sand.
4. Mold compaction is then achieved by using a vibration table to ensure
uniform and proper compaction. Once this procedure is complete, the cluster
is packed in the flask and the mold is ready to be poured .
Advantages
The most important advantage of EPC process is that no cores are required. No
binders or other additives are required for the sand, which is reusable. Shakeout of
the castings in unbonded sand is simplified. There are no parting lines or core fins.
Vacuum Sealed Molding Process
It is a process of making molds utilizing dry sand, plastic film and a physical means
of binding using negative pressure or vacuum. V-process was developed in Japan in
1971. Since then it has gained considerable importance due to its capability to
produce dimensionally accurate and smooth castings. The basic difference between
the V-process and other sand molding processes is the manner in which sand is
bounded to form the mold cavity. In V-process vacuum, of the order of 250 - 450
mm Hg, is imposed to bind the dry free flowing sand encapsulated in between two
plastic films. The technique involves the formation of a mold cavity by vacuum
forming of a plastic film over the pattern, backed by unbounded sand, which is
compacted by vibration and held rigidly in place by applying vacuum. When the
metal is poured into the molds, the plastic film first melts and then gets sucked just
inside the sand voids due to imposed vacuum where it condenses and forms a shell-
32

like layer. The vacuum must be maintained until the metal solidifies, after which the
vacuum is released allowing the sand to drop away leaving a casting with a smooth
surface. No shakeout equipment is required and the same sand can be cooled and
reused without further treatment.
Sequence of Producing V-Process Molds
The Pattern is set on the Pattern Plate of Pattern Box. The Pattern as well as the
Pattern Plate has Numerous Small Holes. These Holes Help the Plastic Film to
Adhere Closely on Pattern When Vacuum is Applied.
A Heater is used to Soften the Plastic Film
The Softened Plastic Film Drapes over the Pattern. The Vacuum Suction Acts
through the Vents (Pattern and Pattern Plate) to draw it so that it adheres closely to
the Pattern.
The Molding Box is Set on the Film Coated Pattern
The Molding Box is filled with Dry Sand. Slight Vibration Compacts the Sand
Level the Mold. Cover the Top of Molding Box with Plastic Film. Vacuum
Suction Stiffens the Mold.
Release the Vacuum on the Pattern Box and Mold Strips Easily.
Cope and Drag are assembled and Metal is poured. During Pouring the Mold is
Kept under Vacuum
After Cooling, the Vacuum is released. Free Flowing Sand Drops Away, Leaving a
Clean Casting
Advantages
Exceptionally Good Dimensional Accuracy
Good Surface Finish
33

Longer Pattern Life
Consistent Reproducibility
Low Cleaning / Finishing Cost
MOLDING MATERIAL AND PROPERTIES
A large variety of molding materials is used in foundries for manufacturing molds
and cores. They include molding sand, system sand or backing sand, facing sand,
parting sand, and core sand. The choice of molding materials is based on their
processing properties. The properties that are generally required in molding materials
are:
Refractoriness
It is the ability of the molding material to resist the temperature of the liquid metal to
be poured so that it does not get fused with the metal. The refractoriness of the silica
sand is highest.
Permeability
During pouring and subsequent solidification of a casting, a large amount of gases
and steam is generated. These gases are those that have been absorbed by the metal
during melting, air absorbed from the atmosphere and the steam generated by the
molding and core sand. If these gases are not allowed to escape from the mold, they
would be entrapped inside the casting and cause casting defects. To overcome this
problem the molding material must be porous. Proper venting of the mold also helps
in escaping the gases that are generated inside the mold cavity.
Green Strength
The molding sand that contains moisture is termed as green sand. The green sand
particles must have the ability to cling to each other to impart sufficient strength to
the mold. The green sand must have enough strength so that the constructed mold
retains its shape.
34

Dry Strength
When the molten metal is poured in the mold, the sand around the mold cavity is
quickly converted into dry sand as the moisture in the sand evaporates due to the heat
of the molten metal. At this stage the molding sand must posses the sufficient
strength to retain the exact shape of the mold cavity and at the same time it must be
able to withstand the metallostatic pressure of the liquid material.
Hot Strength
As soon as the moisture is eliminated, the sand would reach at a high temperature
when the metal in the mold is still in liquid state. The strength of the sand that is
required to hold the shape of the cavity is called hot strength.
Collapsibility
The molding sand should also have collapsibility so that during the contraction of the
solidified casting it does not provide any resistance, which may result in cracks in the
castings. Besides these specific properties the molding material should be cheap,
reusable and should have good thermal conductivity.
Molding Sand Composition
The main ingredients of any molding sand are:
Base sand,
Binder, and
Moisture
Base Sand
Silica sand is most commonly used base sand. Other base sands that are also used for
making mold are zircon sand, Chromite sand, and olivine sand. Silica sand is
cheapest among all types of base sand and it is easily available.
Binder
35

Binders are of many types such as:
1. Clay binders,
2. Organic binders and
3. Inorganic binders
Clay binders are most commonly used binding agents mixed with the molding sands
to provide the strength. The most popular clay types are:
Kaolinite or fire clay (Al
2
O
3
2 SiO
2
2 H
2
O) and Bentonite (Al
2
O
3
4 SiO
2
nH
2
O)
Of the two the Bentonite can absorb more water which increases its bonding power.
Moisture
Clay acquires its bonding action only in the presence of the required amount of
moisture. When water is added to clay, it penetrates the mixture and forms a
microfilm, which coats the surface of each flake of the clay. The amount of water
used should be properly controlled. This is because a part of the water, which coats
the surface of the clay flakes, helps in bonding, while the remainder helps in
improving the plasticity. A typical composition of molding sand is given in (Table
4).
Table 4 : A Typical Composition of Molding Sand
Molding Sand Constituent Weight Percent
Silica sand 92
Clay (Sodium Bentonite) 8
Water 4

MELTING PRACTICES
36

Melting is an equally important parameter for obtaining a quality castings. A number
of furnaces can be used for melting the metal, to be used, to make a metal casting.
The choice of furnace depends on the type of metal to be melted. Some of the
furnaces used in metal casting are as following:.
Crucible furnaces
Cupola
Induction furnace
Reverberatory furnace
.Crucible Furnace.
Crucible furnaces are small capacity typically used for small melting applications.
Crucible furnace is suitable for the batch type foundries where the metal requirement
is intermittent. The metal is placed in a crucible which is made of clay and graphite.
The energy is applied indirectly to the metal by heating the crucible by coke, oil or
gas. The heating of crucible is done by coke, oil or gas. .
Coke-Fired Furnace.
Primarily used for non-ferrous metals
Furnace is of a cylindrical shape
Also known as pit furnace
Preparation involves: first to make a deep bed of coke in the furnace
Burn the coke till it attains the state of maximum combustion
Insert the crucible in the coke bed
Remove the crucible when the melt reaches to desired temperature
Oil-Fired Furnace.
Primarily used for non-ferrous metals
Furnace is of a cylindrical shape
Advantages include: no wastage of fuel
Less contamination of the metal
37

Absorption of water vapor is least as the metal melts inside the closed
metallic furnace
Cupola
Cupola furnaces are tall, cylindrical furnaces used to melt iron and ferrous alloys in
foundry operations. Alternating layers of metal and ferrous alloys, coke, and
limestone are fed into the furnace from the top. A schematic diagram of a cupola is
shown in Figure14. This diagram of a cupola illustrates the furnace's cylindrical shaft
lined with refractory and the alternating layers of coke and metal scrap. The molten
metal flows out of a spout at the bottom of the cupola. .
Description of Cupola
The cupola consists of a vertical cylindrical steel sheet and lined inside with
acid refractory bricks. The lining is generally thicker in the
lower portion of the cupola as the temperature are higher than in upper
portion
There is a charging door through which coke, pig iron, steel scrap and flux is
charged
The blast is blown through the tuyeres
These tuyeres are arranged in one or more row around the periphery of cupola
Hot gases which ascends from the bottom (combustion zone) preheats the
iron in the preheating zone
Cupolas are provided with a drop bottom door through which debris,
consisting of coke, slag etc. can be discharged at the end of the melt
A slag hole is provided to remove the slag from the melt
Through the tap hole molten metal is poured into the ladle
At the top conical cap called the spark arrest is provided to prevent the spark
emerging to outside


38

Operation of Cupola
The cupola is charged with wood at the bottom. On the top of the wood a bed of coke
is built. Alternating layers of metal and ferrous alloys, coke, and limestone are fed
into the furnace from the top. The purpose of adding flux is to eliminate the
impurities and to protect the metal from oxidation. Air blast is opened for the
complete combustion of coke. When sufficient metal has been melted that slag hole
is first opened to remove the slag. Tap hole is then opened to collect the metal in the
ladle.

.Figure 9: Schematic of a Cupola

39

Reverberatory furnace
A furnace or kiln in which the material under treatment is heated indirectly by means
of a flame deflected downward from the roof. Reverberatory furnaces are used in
copper, tin, and nickel production, in the production of certain concretes and
cements, and in aluminum. Reverberatory furnaces heat the metal to melting
temperatures with direct fired wall-mounted burners. The primary mode of heat
transfer is through radiation from the refractory brick walls to the metal, but
convective heat transfer also provides additional heating from the burner to the
metal. The advantages provided by reverberatory melters is the high volume
processing rate, and low operating and maintenance costs. The disadvantages of the
reverberatory melters are the high metal oxidation rates, low efficiencies, and large
floor space requirements. A schematic of Reverberatory furnace is shown in Figure
10

Figure 10: Schematic of a Reverberatory Furnace
Induction furnace
Induction heating is a heating method. The heating by the induction method occurs
when an electrically conductive material is placed in a varying magnetic field.
40

Induction heating is a rapid form of heating in which a current is induced directly
into the part being heated. Induction heating is a non-contact form of heating.
The heating system in an induction furnace includes:
1. Induction heating power supply,
2. Induction heating coil,
3. Water-cooling source, which cools the coil and several internal components
inside the power supply.
The induction heating power supply sends alternating current through the induction
coil, which generates a magnetic field. Induction furnaces work on the principle of a
transformer. An alternative electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the metal
which converts the electric energy to heat without any physical contact between the
induction coil and the work piece The furnace contains a crucible surrounded by a
water cooled copper coil. The coil is called primary coil to which a high frequency
current is supplied. By induction secondary currents, called eddy currents are
produced in the crucible. High temperature can be obtained by this method.
Induction furnaces are of two types: cored furnace and coreless furnace. Cored
furnaces are used almost exclusively as holding furnaces. In cored furnace the
electromagnetic field heats the metal between two coils. Coreless furnaces heat the
metal via an external primary coil.
Advantages of Induction Furnace
Induction heating is a clean form of heating
High rate of melting or high melting efficiency
Alloyed steels can be melted without any loss of alloying elements
Controllable and localized heating
Disadvantages of Induction Furnace
High capital cost of the equipment
41

High operating cost
CASTING DEFECTS
The following are the major defects, which are likely to occur in sand castings
Gas defects
Shrinkage cavities
Molding material defects
Pouring metal defects
Mold shift
Gas Defects
A condition existing in a casting caused by the trapping of gas in the molten metal or
by mold gases evolved during the pouring of the casting. The defects in this category
can be classified into blowholes and pinhole porosity. Blowholes are spherical or
elongated cavities present in the casting on the surface or inside the casting. Pinhole
porosity occurs due to the dissolution of hydrogen gas, which gets entrapped during
heating of molten metal.
Causes
The lower gas-passing tendency of the mold, which may be due to lower venting,
lower permeability of the mold or improper design of the casting. The lower
permeability is caused by finer grain size of the sand, high percentage of clay in
mold mixture, and excessive moisture present in the mold.
Metal contains gas
Mold is too hot
Poor mold burnout
Shrinkage Cavities
42

These are caused by liquid shrinkage occurring during the solidification of the
casting. To compensate for this, proper feeding of liquid metal is required. For this
reason risers are placed at the appropriate places in the mold. Sprues may be too thin,
too long or not attached in the proper location, causing shrinkage cavities. It is
recommended to use thick sprues to avoid shrinkage cavities.
Molding Material Defects
The defects in this category are cuts and washes, metal penetration, fusion, and swell.
Cut and washes
These appear as rough spots and areas of excess metal, and are caused by erosion of
molding sand by the flowing metal. This is caused by the molding sand not having
enough strength and the molten metal flowing at high velocity. The former can be
taken care of by the proper choice of molding sand and the latter can be overcome by
the proper design of the gating system.
Metal penetration
When molten metal enters into the gaps between sand grains, the result is a rough
casting surface. This occurs because the sand is coarse or no mold wash was applied
on the surface of the mold. The coarser the sand grains more the metal penetration.
Fusion
This is caused by the fusion of the sand grains with the molten metal, giving a brittle,
glassy appearance on the casting surface. The main reason for this is that the clay or
the sand particles are of lower refractoriness or that the pouring temperature is too
high.
Swell
Under the influence of metallostatic forces, the mold wall may move back causing a
swell in the dimension of the casting. A proper ramming of the mold will correct this
defect.
43

Inclusions
Particles of slag, refractory materials, sand or deoxidation products are trapped in the
casting during pouring solidification. The provision of choke in the gating system
and the pouring basin at the top of the mold can prevent this defect.
Pouring Metal Defects
The likely defects in this category are
Mis-runs and
Cold shuts.
A mis-run is caused when the metal is unable to fill the mold cavity completely and
thus leaves unfilled cavities. A mis-run results when the metal is too cold to flow to
the extremities of the mold cavity before freezing. Long, thin sections are subject to
this defect and should be avoided in casting design.
A cold shut is caused when two streams while meeting in the mold cavity, do not
fuse together properly thus forming a discontinuity in the casting. When the molten
metal is poured into the mold cavity through more-than-one gate, multiple liquid
fronts will have to flow together and become one solid. If the flowing metal fronts
are too cool, they may not flow together, but will leave a seam in the part. Such a
seam is called a cold shut, and can be prevented by assuring sufficient superheat in
the poured metal and thick enough walls in the casting design.
The mis-run and cold shut defects are caused either by a lower fluidity of the mold or
when the section thickness of the casting is very small. Fluidity can be improved by
changing the composition of the metal and by increasing the pouring temperature of
the metal.



44

Mold Shift
The mold shift defect occurs when cope and drag or molding boxes have not been
properly aligned.

Figure 11 : Casting Defects
METHODS OF TESTING CASTINGS
1. Destructive
2. Non destructive
Destructive testing involves mechanical testings like tension, compression and shear
testings using universal testing machines.
NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Nondestructive testing (NDT) has been defined as comprising those test
methods used to examine an object, material or system without impairing its future
usefulness. The term is generally applied to nonmedical investigations of material
integrity. Strictly speaking, this definition of nondestructive testing does include
noninvasive medical diagnostics. Ultrasound, X-rays and endoscopes are used for
both medical testing and industrial testing. In the 1940s, many members of the
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (then the Society for Industrial
Radiography) were medical X-ray professionals. Medical nondestructive testing,
45

however, has come to be treated by a body of learning so separate from industrial
nondestructive testing that today most physicians never use the word nondestructive.
Main types of NDT testing involves
1. Visual Inspection
2. Ultrasonic Testings
3. X-ray Inspection
4. Pressure and Leak Test
5. Magnetic particle testing
6. Eddy current testing
Nondestructive testing is used to investigate the material integrity of the test
object. A number of other technologies - for instance, radio astronomy, voltage and
amperage measurement and rheometry (flow measurement) - are nondestructive but
are not used to evaluate material properties specifically. Nondestructive testing is
concerned in a practical way with the performance of the test piece - how long may
the piece be used and when does it need to be checked again? Radar and sonar are
classified as nondestructive testing when used to inspect dams, for instance, but not
when they are used to chart a river bottom.
VISUAL TESTING
It is most widely used and an experienced inspector knows where likely cracks,
orientation of cracks are relative to various zones in the castings, surface porosity,
potential weakness such as sharp notches or misalignment
ULTRASONIC TESTINGS
Non Destructive Testing with Ultrasonics for flaw Detection in Castings,
Weldments, Rails, Forged Components etc.Flaw detection in metals and nonmetals
Flaw measurement in very thick materials Internal and surface flaws can be detected
Inspection costs are relatively low. It has rapid testing capabilities and portability.
Ultrasonic waves are simply vibrational waves having a frequency higher than the
hearing range of the normal human ear, which is typically considered to be 20,000
46

cycles per second (Hz) .The upper end of the range, is not well defined. Frequencies
higher than 10 GHz have been generated. However, most practical ultrasonic flaw
detection is accomplished with frequencies from 200 kHz to 20 MHz, with 50 MHz
used in material property investigations. Ultrasonic energy can be used in materials
and structures for flaw detection and material property determinations. Ultrasonic
waves are mechanical waves (in contrast to, for example, light or x-rays, which are
electromagnetic waves) that consist of oscillations or vibrations of the atomic or
molecular particles of a substance about the equilibrium positions of these particles.
Ultrasonic waves behave essentially the same as audible sound waves. They can
propagate in an elastic medium, which can be solid, liquid, or gaseous, but not in a
vacuum. In solids, the particles can
(a) Oscillate along the direction of sound propagation as longitudinal waves, or
(b) the oscillations can be perpendicular to the direction of sound waves as transverse
waves. At surfaces and interfaces, various types of elliptical or complex vibrations of
the particles occur.
Fundamentals of X-ray Inspection Imaging
A collimated beam of ionizing radiation emitted from a X-ray tube passes through
the casting being inspected. After the beam passes through the casting, it impinges on
to the imaging device, which would be either an image intensifier or a digital imager.
The imaging devices are discussed in the next section, headed "X-ray Inspection
Techniques". As the beam passes through the casting the X-ray energy level is
attenuated in proportion to the material thickness and the presence of any void,
inclusion or discontinuity within the casting. In effect, an image similar to a
shadowgraph is produced but with added information relating to the internal structure
of the casting. This is illustrated in figure 2. The presence of a void such as porosity
would reduce the amount of attenuation at the location of the void. This attenuation
reduction has a direct relationship to the X-ray energy attenuation of the sound
material immediately adjacent the void. Conversely, if a high-density inclusion is
present within the casting the level of attenuation would be increased. The imaging
device records the X-ray energy level impinging on the input face and from this
information a two-dimensional X-ray image is produced.
47


Fig 15: Fundamental setup for X-ray inspection

The main parameters taken into account when producing the X-ray technique are as
follows:
Focal spot size of the X-ray tube head.
Geometric distances between the tube head and the imaging device and the
casting and the imaging device.
X-ray energy level to be utilized, i.e. kV. and mA.
The physical size of the focal spot (the area within the X-ray tube head that emits the
X-ray beam) is a very important factor in determining resolution of the image. As
illustrated in Fig 3a, if the focal spot size is too large the penumbral effect will create
an un-sharp image and reduce the resolution capability. A more appropriate focal
spot size is illustrated in Fig 3b. In this case the area of un-sharpness is small and as a
consequence a sharp high-resolution image would be produced. However, it does not
follow that the smaller the focal spot the better the over-all image quality. This is
because the X-ray image quality is dependent on a combination of both resolution
and contrast characteristics. One factor that effects contrast of the X-ray image, is the
photon flux density of the X-ray beam, which is mainly dependent on the mA level.
The smaller the focal spot size the less photon flux can be produced. Therefore, the
optimum image quality is produced by a balanced approach between focal spot size
and the amount of mA utilized. This is particularly important when inspecting light
alloy castings. For light alloy castings the use of a tube head that has a variable focal
48

spot can be an advantage. The tube head would need the capability of varying the
focal spot from 70um to 300um.

Fig 13a: Geometric factors that influence image quality

As it can be seen from Figs 13a and 13b, geometric distance has an effect on
image resolution. There is no one rule to determine geometric parameters, as
practical aspects associated with the physical size of the casting have to be taken into
account. The "rule of thumb" would be to put the casting as close to the imaging
device as possible but take into account the field of view that would be obtained.

Fig 13b: Geometric factors that influence image
quality

Again, there is no one rule for the settings of kV and mA parameters. The "rule
of thumb" would be to set the kV at a level that is sufficient to penetrate the casting
and then maximize the available mA. It can be concluded from the above comments,
that determining the optimum technique requires a high level of skill, in-depth
49

knowledge of the equipment to be used and sound knowledge of the castings being
inspected.

ADVANTAGES
More reliable and consistent X-ray inspection results.
Reduction of the time taken to carry out X-ray inspection.
Reduction of labor cost to carry out X-ray inspection.
As the X-ray inspection results are produced and tabulated immediately after then
inspection has occurred, the results can be used as a process control tool.
PRESSURE AND LEAK TEST
It is a common form is hydrostatic test. Hydrostatic test often required for pressure
vessels, pipes, valves. Normally pressurized to 1.5 or 2 times the working pressure
and used for sensitive leak test. Radioactive material, halogen or helium gases are
used
Basic steps of dye Penetrant Testing
1. clean the surface
2. apply penetrant
3. remove excess penetrant
4. apply developer
5. inspect / interpretation
The penetrant seep into flaw as developer draws penetrant on to surface
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
It is for locating surface & subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials.
Here leakage current occurs at the discontinuities / surface flaws when magnetized.
Fine particles collect at the leakage sites
EDDY CURRENT TESTING
Eddy current induced when electrically conductive material close to alternating
50

magnetic field. Eddy current generates magnetic field which interact with original
magnetic filed. Eddy current testing detect both surface & near surface irregularities
Close contact not needed
Can be automated
No clean up
Low cost equipment
Response can be sensitive interpretation difficult
Depth of penetration limited
Need to maintain constant distance between coil and specimen for good
result

Casting Quality
Sand casting
Tolerance (0.7~2 mm) and defects are affected by shrinkage
Material property is inherently poor
Generally have a rough grainy surface
Investment casting
Tolerance (0.08~0.2 mm)
Mechanical property and microstructure depends on the
method
Good to excellent surface detail possible due to fine slurry
Die casting
Tolerance (0.02~0.6 mm)
Good mechanical property and microstructure due to high
pressure
Excellent surface detail
51

Module II
WELDING TECHNOLOGY

Welding is the process of joining similar metals by the application of Heat,
with or without the application of pressure and addition of Filler Material.
Note :
Base Metals: Metals being welded.
Filler Metals are additional metal added to the weld.

WELDABILITY
Weldability is the capacity of a material to be welded under fabrication
conditions and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service. Weldability
depends up on -
1. Melting Point of the metal.
2. Thermal Conductivity
3. Thermal Expansion
4. Surface Condition.
5. Change in Microstructure
A metallic material with adequate weldabilty should fulfill the following
requirements :
Have good strength after welding.
Good corrosion resistance after welding.
Have good weld quality.
Weldability Tests: are testing conducted to gather information about the behavior
of a material during welding.



52

CLASSIFICATION OF WELDING :
Welding of metals can be divided into two categories.
1. Plastic Welding and 2. Fusion Welding.
1. Plastic Welding: In this type of welding the metals to be joined are to be heated
to the plastic state and then forced together by external pressure without the
addition of filler material. Eg. Forge Welding, resistance welding.
2. Fusion Welding: In this type of welding no pressure is involved but a very high
temperature is produced in or near the joint. The metal at the joint is heated to the
molten state and allowed to solidify. The heat may be generated by electric arc,
combustion of gases or chemical action. A filler may be material is used during
the welding process. eg. Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Carbon Arc Welding etc

TYPES OF WELDING :
1. Gas Welding
a) Oxy-Acetylene Welding
b) Air-Acetylene Welding
c) Oxy-hydrogen Welding
d) Pressure Gas Welding
2. Arc Welding
a) Carbon Arc Welding
b) Plasma Arc Welding
c) Submerged Arc Welding
d) Metal Arc Welding
e) Electro-Slag Welding
f) Flux Cored Arc Welding
g) Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG)
h) Gas Tungsten Arc (TIG)
i) Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding

53

3. Resistance Welding
a) Butt Welding
b) Projection Welding
c) Spot Welding
d) Percussion Welding
e) Seam Welding
4. Thermo Chemical Welding Process
a) Thermit Welding
5. Solid State Welding
a) Friction Welding
b) Explosive Welding
c) Ultrasonic Welding
d) Diffusion Welding
6. Radiant Energy Welding
a) Electron Beam Welding
b) Laser Welding

ADVANTAGES OF WELDING:
It produces a permanent joint.
Overall cost of welding equipment is low.
Large number of metals can be welded.
Welding operation can be mechanized.
Welding operation is economical.
High corrosion resistance compared to bolting and riveting.
Portable welding equipments are available.



54

DISADVANTAGES OF WELDING :
Welding operation distorts (deforms) the work-pieces.
Skilled worker is a must to produce good weld.
Welded joints require heat treatment.
Edge preparation is necessary.
Produces chemical and physical changes.
Some welding operation gives off harmful radiations.
Welding as compared to Riveting and Casting :
Welding is economical and faster process compared to both riveting and casting.
Fabricated parts have more strength as compared to cast parts.
Welding can join dissimilar metals.
Design of a welded structure is simpler as compared to cast part.
Cost of pattern making and storing is eliminated.
Fewer persons are involved in welding process.
Welding is cheaper than riveting.
Welded structures are comparatively lighter than riveted structures.
Welded structure has better finish than riveted ones.
Making changes in an already cast or riveted structures is difficult. But welded
structures can be repaired easily.

Practical Applications of Welding :
Welding has been employed in industry as a tool for:
a) Fabrication works.
b) Repair and maintenance works.
55

Few important applications are given below.
Aircraft Constructions: - Engine Parts, Turbine engine frames for jet engine parts.
Automobile Construction: - Car wheels, body parts etc.
Bridges
Buildings: - Trusses.
Pressure Vessels and Tanks
Storage Tanks
Rail Road Equipment
Piping and Pipelines
Ships
Machine Tool Frames
Household and office furniture.
Earthmoving machinery and cranes.
PRESSURE WELDING PROCESSES
Pressure Welding Process consists of:-
1. Forge welding
2. Spot welding
3. Seam welding
4. Projection welding
5. Butt welding
6. Flash butt welding
7. Welding of tubes
8. Percussion welding.






56

FORGE WELDING

Principle
In Forge Welding the parts to be welded are heated, mating surfaces are then
upsetted, cleft shape is formed at the mating surface and joined by applying
excess pressure at the mating surfaces.
Forge welding can be carried-out for wrought iron and low carbon steels.
Forge welding is possible in metals having thickness above 30 mm.
The parts to be welded are heated to about1000C. Heating is done using coke or
charcoal.
Then the parts to be welded are upsetted at the ends.
A cleft shape is formed on the ends.
After applying suitable flux, the parts are placed end to end and are hammered
together.
This forms a strong weld.
Types of Forge Welding
1. Fire Welding : In this type of Forge Welding, the parts to be joined are heated in
fire by the Blacksmith and join them by hammering.
2. Water Gas Welding : In this type, parts are heated by water gas flame (consisting
of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen) and joined by hammering or by
means of pressure rollers.
Used to manufacture pipes, containers etc.

57

Advantages :
Have good strength if joined correctly.
Disadvantages :
Skilled labor is required.
Process restricted to mild steel and wrought iron.
Process is slow.
Applications :
Used for making pipes, containers etc.

RESISTANCE WELDING

Resistance Welding is a group of welding process in which joint is produced by
the heat obtained from the resistance of the work to the flow of current is a circuit
I which work is a part and by the application of pressure. No filler metal is
needed. The major two factors responsible for Resistance Welding are
1. Heat : Generation of heat takes place where two pieces are to be joined.
2. Pressure : Pressure is applied at the place where the joint is formed.
3. Welding Time
4. Human Element
5. Welding Machine characteristics.
Various Resistance Welding process are
1. Spot Welding
2. Seam Welding
3. Projection Welding
4. Resistance (Upset) Butt Welding
5. Flash Butt Welding
6. Percussion Welding
7. Resistance Welding of Tubes


58

Advantages of Resistance Welding :
1. Fast rate of production.
2. No filler rod is needed.
3. Semi-automatic equipments.
4. Less skilled workers can do the job.
5. Both similar and dissimilar metals can be joined.
6. Less wastage of metals.
7. Less deformation of metals.
Disadvantages of Resistance Welding :
1. Initial cost is high.
2. In some materials, surface preparation is needed.
3. Bigger job thickness cannot be welded.


SPOT WELDING


Stages in Spot Welding




Spot Welding Process




59

Principle
Spot Welding is a process of joining overlapping sheets by the heat generated by
resistance to the flow of electric current through the work-pieces held together
under force by two pointed electrodes.
Spot Welding is used for joining relatively light gauge (less thickness) parts (up
to about 3mm thick) superimposed on one another as a lap joint.
Steps involved in Spot Welding :
1. Parts to be welded are cleaned.
2. Electrode tips are cleaned.
3. Water is allowed to pass through the weld in order to avoid overheating and cool
the weld.
4. Sheets to be welded are placed one over the other and is placed between the
electrodes. Pressure is applied to the work-pieces by the electrodes.
5. Welding current is switched on for a definite period of time. The current may
vary from 3000 to 100,000 A for a fraction of seconds to few seconds depending
upon the nature of material and its thickness.
6. As the current passes through, a small area where the work-pieces are in contact
is heated due to the resistance offered by the materials in the contact area.
7. The temperature of the weld zone is around 815 C to 930 C.
8. Welding current is then cut off and extra electrode force is then applied to the
work-pieces. This electrode force or pressure holds together the work-pieces.
9. The electrode pressure is then released.
Different types of Spot Welds are :
1. Direct Weld
2. Series Weld or Indirect Weld
3. Push-pull Weld
Advantages of Spot Welding :
Low cost.
High speed.
Less skilled worker.
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Good uniformity.
No edge preparation needed.
Applications :
Spot welding can be replaced with riveting.
Containers can be spot welded.
Spot welding is used in automobile and aircraft industries.
Brackets, cases covers, clips can be produced using Spot Welding.
Many assemblies that do not require gas or air tight chambers can be joined by
Spot Welding

SEAM WELDING

Principle
Spot Welding is a process of joining overlapping sheets by the heat generated by
resistance to the flow of electric current through the work-pieces held together under
force by two rotating circular electrodes.
Seam Welding is similar to Spot Welding, but differ in the type of electrodes
used. In Seam Welding, rotating circular electrodes replaces pointed electrodes
in Spot Welding.
Spot Welds are produced using rotating electrodes with regularly interrupted
current.


61

Steps involved in Seam Welding :
1. Parts to be welded are cleaned.
2. Parts to be welded are overlapped suitably between the two electrodes.
3. Current is applied to through the rollers to the material. Heat generated thus
4. Rotating welding electrodes are cooled to prevent overheating.
5. Welding current is switched on for a definite period of time. As the current
passes through, a small area where the work-pieces are in contact is heated due to
the resistance offered by the materials in the contact area.
6. The heat generated makes the metal plastic and pressure from the electrodes
completes the bond.
7. Power driven circular electrodes are in rotation and work-pieces move steadily
through them.
8. The current applied through the electrodes is on for a definite length and off for a
definite period.
9. If the current is put off and on quickly a continuous joint is produced and the
process is known as Stitch Welding.
10. If the current is put off and on regular timed intervals individual spots are
produced and the process is known as Roll Welding.

Advantages of Seam Welding :
It can produce gas or air tight or liquid joints.
Overlap can be less than for Spot or Projection Welds.
Types of Seam Welding
There are two types of Seam Welding. They are
1. Stitch Welding and
2. Roll Spot Welding


62




In Stitch Welding process, the electrodes rotates at a steady speed and current
flows continuously or is interrupted so as to produce a continuous weld.
In Roll Spot Welding, the electrodes rotates for a certain period and then stop.
The current is then switched on and the weld is made.
Stitch Welding is used for work-pieces having thickness less than 4.5mm thick
and Roll Spot Welding is employed for work-pieces having thickness above
4.5mm.


PROJECTION WELDING



63

Principle
Projection Welding is a process of joining materials by which joint is produced
by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current through the work parts
held together under pressure by electrodes.
The Projection Welding is similar to Spot Welding except that pointed electrodes
are replaced by flat and relatively large electrodes and electrical and mechanical
power applied is more compared to Spot Welding.
The success of the Projection Welding depends up on the surface preparation of
the work-piece to be welded.

Steps in Projection Welding:
Small projections or small deformations are produced on the work-pieces to be
welded by embossing, casting or machining.
These projections helps to concentrate the welding heat at these areas and helps
to form the joint.
The work-pieces are kept in contact with each other under electrode pressure.
The current flows through the projections and heats the metal to the plastic state.
Heat softens the metal and the pressure applied by the electrode forms the joint.
Advantages of Projection Welding :
Number of welds can be produced simultaneously.
Projection Welds can be made in metals that are too thick to be joined by Spot
Welding.
Projection Welding electrodes possess more life than Spot Welding.
Projection welding is not limited to sheet to sheet joints.
Disadvantages of Projection Welding :
Metals which cannot withstand projections cannot be welded using Projection
Welding. Eg. Copper.
For proper welding al the projections must be of same height.
Projection welding can be used for metals having projections.

64

Applications:
Used in Automobile parts.
Small parts can be welded with large components using Projection Welding.

RESISTANCE (UPSET) BUTT WELDING OR BUTT WELDING
Principle
Resistance Butt Welding is a process in which joint is produced by the heat
obtained from resistance to electric current between the two surfaces and by the
application of pressure.
Pressure is applied before heating is started and is maintained throughout the
process.
This pressure is later on increased to form the weld.


Steps in Resistance (Upset) Butt Welding
One of the work-piece to be welded is firmly gripped to a movable clamp and
other to a stationary clamp. Clamps hold the work-pieces and also conduct
welding current through the work-pieces.
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Force is applied so that the faces of the two work-pieces touch together and
remain under pressure. Force is applied by moving the work-piece fixed to the
movable clamp towards the work-piece fixed to the stationary clamp.
Current is allowed to flow through this joint.
There will be heat generated at the point of contact due to the high resistance at
the point of contact.
Both pressure and current are applied throughout the process until face becomes
plastic. Then the work-pieces are pressured together to form a solid joint.
Upsetting takes place while the current is flowing and then the current is shut off.
Work-pieces are unclamped.
Applications
Used for joining non-ferrous materials for bars, rods, wire etc.

FLASH BUTT WELDING





66

Principle
Flash Welding is a process in which joint is produced by the heat obtained from
resistance to electric current between the two surfaces and by the application of
pressure.
Flash Welding derives its name from the Flash produced during the process.
1. Steps in Flash Butt Welding :
Flash Welding machine consists of a moving platen and one stationary platen.
One of the work-piece to be welded is firmly gripped to a movable clamp and
other to a stationary clamp. Clamps hold the work-pieces and also conduct
welding current through the work-pieces.
The ends of the work-pieces to be welded are brought very close to each other
and as the welding current (with high voltage) is turned on flashing is produced.
(Note : Flashing is produced by the expulsion of incandescent metal particles
from the moving work-piece towards the stationary work-piece)
As the flashing continues, the ends of the work-pieces reach higher temperature
and finally they attain welding temperature.
At this stage, pressure of the moving clamp is quickly increased causing
expulsion of slag and molten metal out of the joint, thereby by making a sold
weld.
Expelled metal around the joint is then removed by cutting or grinding.
The welding current is then cut off and then the work-pieces are unclamped.
Metals Welded by Flash Welding
Low carbon steels.
Tool steels.
Stainless steels.
Aluminum steels.
Copper steels.
Magnesium alloys.
Advantages of Flash Welding
Many dissimilar metals can be joined.
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Strong welds can be obtained.
Process is cheap.
Process is fast.
Disadvantages of Flash Welding
It is difficult to control and protect flashing.
Metal is lost during flashing operation.
Shape of the metals must be similar.
Straightness of the work-pieces may be lost.
Application of Flash Welding
Used for butt welding of rods, bars etc.
Used in automobiles industries, aircraft buildings and household appliances.

Difference between Flash Welding and Upset (Butt) Welding

SL.No Flash Welding Upset (Butt) Welding
1. Flashing takes place. No flashing takes place.
2.
Flash welding consumes less
welding current.
Consumes more current.
3.
Pressure is increased after
flashing is produced.
Constant pressure is applied during
the process.
4.
Pressure is applied after
sufficient heat is generated.
Pressure is applied during the
heating process.











68

ELECTRIC RESISTANCE WELDING (ERW)





Electric Resistance Welding takes place at normal frequency i.e. 50Hz.
The sheet is rolled in such a way that the edges either meet in Butt Joint or Lap
Joint.
Welding current is introduced through roller wheel electrode which makes
contact with either side of the joint.
The edges to be jointed are heated due to its own resistance to the flow of electric
current.
The two edges are squeezed between the rolls to complete the weld.
Melting of work-pieces does not occur during electric resistance welding.
Applications :
Used to make tubes in sizes up to 0.4 meter diameter.








69

HIGH FREQUENCY TUBE WELDING


In High Frequency Welding of Tubes, a high frequency of current (about 400
kHz) is used. Process is very much same as that of Electric Resistance Welding.
Also high voltage is also used.
Welding current is introduced through two water-cooled probes which make
contact with either side of the joint.
The edges to be jointed are heated due to its own resistance to the flow of electric
current.
The two edges are squeezed between the rolls to complete the weld.
Melting of work-pieces occurs during high frequency welding process.
Applications :
Used to tube weld non-ferrous metals.

PERCUSSION WELDING

70

Principle
Percussion Welding is a process in which joint is produced by the heat obtained
from an arc and by the application of pressure immediately following the
electrical discharge.
Steps in Percussion Welding
1. Work-pieces are cleaned.
2. Work-pieces are then fixed on to the machine.
3. End faces of the work-pieces are brought close to each other.
4. Work-pieces are brought into light contact to establish a flow of current.
5. Arc is struck between the faces by a suitable electric circuit.
6. Arc established heats the faces of the work-pieces to be joined.
7. At this stage welding-force is applied which extinguishes the arc and forms the
joint.
Metals Welded
Copper Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Aluminum Alloys
Low-Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Advantages
Fusion takes place only at the faces.
Disadvantages
Only butt joints can be obtained.
Applications
Contact assemblies of relays.
Valve stems
Used in telephone industry.
Dissimilar metals can be joined.
71

ARC WELDING

Arc welding is one of the most widely used Fusion process for joining metals
and alloys.
In this the surface to be joined are fused by the heat produced from an electric
arc.
Electric Arc is provided by A.C. or D.C power source.
A metal electrode is used for obtaining an arc between the metal parts to be
joined and electrode.
The electrode is allowed to touch the joint faces of the metal parts to be joined
and is quickly removed to create a gap (2mm to 4mm) such that current continues
to flow through a path of ionized particles called plasma. An electric arc is
produced due to this and which may generate a temperature up to 6000 to 7000C
at the center of the arc depending up on the electrode. Intense heat so produced
melts the faces of the prepared joint forming a pool of molten metal.
In most of the cases the electrode is also melted and is transferred across the arc
to the molten metal pool.
The arc is maintained by uniformly moving the electrode towards the work piece
and hence keeping a constant gap between the electrode and work piece. At the
same time the electrode is moved along the desired line of welding. On
solidification this forms a joint between the two parent metals.
The blast of Arc forces the molten metal out of the pool around forming a
depression in the parent metal, around which there is molten metal. This is
known as Arc Crater.
Generally electrodes are coated with a slagging or fluxing materials. This
provide a gas shield around the arc to prevent direct contact of oxygen and
nitrogen in the air with the deposited metal. In also covers the weld metal with a
protective slag coating which prevents the oxidation of weld metal during
cooling. The slag is brushed off after cooling.



72

Welding Machine :
Both A.C and D.C are used for Arc Welding. Each have advantages and
disadvantages.
Normal Welding voltage is ranges from 50-90 V and current ranges from 100A
to 3000A. So a step down transformer is used for this purpose for A.C supply.
Normal Welding voltage is ranges from 50-90 V and current ranges from 200A
to 600A. So a step down transformer is used for this purpose for D.C supply.


Parameter

A.C Welding Supply


D.C Welding Supply
Efficiency High, compared to D.C Low
Prime Cost Low High
Electrodes Only Coated Electrodes
Both bare and coated
electrodes.
Maintenance Less More
Stability of
Arc
Unstable Stable
Voltage
Supply
Different Voltages can be
obtained by Tapping
Fixed Voltage Supply
Rotating Parts No rotating parts
Has rotating parts to convert
A.C to D.C
Magnetization
of work-piece
No Yes
Polarity Cannot be changed Can be changed.
Striking of
Arc
Difficult Easy


73



Electrodes
1. Non-consumable Electrodes : May be made of carbon, tungsten or graphite
which do not consume during welding operation.
2. Consumable Electrodes :
Are consumed during welding operation. May be made of various metals
depending upon the purpose and chemical composition of the metals to be
welded.
Bare electrodes are used in coil form without coating in MIG Welding.
Metal Arc welding make use of coated electrode.
Commonly used core wire materials are: mild steel, low alloy steel, nickel
steel etc.
Consumable Electrodes may be classified into
1. Bare Electrodes : Molten metal is exposed to oxygen and nitrogen in
the atmosphere and so undesirable oxides and other substances decreasing
the strength of the weld formed.
2. Coated Electrodes: Coated electrodes (Flux Coated) are used to prevent
the formation of oxidizes and helps to form slag. Due to Flux coating the
molten metal is not exposed to oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere
resulting in strong bond. Commonly used fluxes are asbestos, mica, silica
etc. Coated Electrodes are again classified into
a) Lightly Coated Electrodes : Thin coating of Flux.
b) Heavily Coated Electrodes : Thick coating of Flux.


74

Selection of electrodes
Factors that affect the selection of electrodes are :
Availability of current
Composition of base metal.
Thickness of base metal.
Welding position-flat, horizontal vertical etc.
Amount of penetration required in welding.
Polarity In Welding :
With the use of a.c, the heat generated at each the pole is same. So changing over
the connections to the electrode does not have any effect on its performance as
polarity changes with each cycle.
But polarity on d.c. has a great effect on its performance.
About 66% of heat generated is at the positive terminal while rest of the total heat
is generated at the negative terminal.
If the work-piece is thick as more heat generation is required at the work-piece,
the work-piece is connected to positive terminal and electrode to negative
terminal.
If the work-piece is thin as less heat generation is required at the work-piece, the
work-piece is connected to negative terminal and electrode to positive terminal.
So with d.c for welding thin materials, work is made as negative and for welding
heavy material electrode is made as negative.
If a light coated electrode is connected to positive terminal, it quickly becomes
red hot and welding is impossible as the resistance is more due to less area of
cross-section of electrode.
If a light coated electrode is connected to negative terminal, more heat will be
generated near the work-piece than near the electrode.



75

Polarity is classified into two types :
1. Straight Polarity : In Straight Polarity, electrode is connected to negative
terminal and work-piece to positive terminal.
2. Reverse Polarity : In Reverse Polarity, electrode is connected to positive
terminal and work-piece to negative terminal.
If a light coated electrode is used with an a.c. welding machine, electrode will be
heated and will melt, when the electrode becomes positive during cycles. This is
why light coated electrodes are not usually used with a.c. welding machine.

Note :
Current flows from Positive to Negative and electrons flow from Negative to
Positive.
H = I
2
Rt (ie. With increase in Resistance, Heat generated will increase).
R = (L/A) (ie. With increase in area(thickness), resistance will decrease).

TYPES OF ARC WELDING :
1. Carbon-Arc Welding
2. Metal Arc Welding (MMAW-Manual Metal Arc Welding) or (SMAW-Shielded
Metal Arc Welding)
3. Metal-Inert-Gas Arc Welding (MIG)
4. Gas-Tungsten-Arc Welding (TIG)
5. Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding
6. Plasma Arc Welding
7. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
8. Flux-cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
9. Electro-slag Welding






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1. Carbon-Arc Welding:



Single Carbon Electrode Welding

Twin Carbon Electrode Welding

Principle:
Carbon-Arc Welding is an arc welding process in which weld is produced by
heating the work-piece with an arc setup between the carbon electrode and
the work-piece.
In this method a rod of carbon is used as negative electrode and work being
welded as positive.
The arc produced between the 2 electrodes heats the metal to the melting
temperature (about 3200 C).
The reason to use Carbon electrode is that less heat is generated at the
electrode tip than at the work piece and carbon electrode will fuse with the
job.
In Carbon Arc Welding D.C is used to prevent electrode disintegration and
the amount of carbon deposit at the weld metal.
There are two types of Carbon Arc Welding. They are
1) Single Carbon Electrode Welding
2) Twin Carbon Electrode Welding

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Difference Between Single Carbon Electrode Welding and Twin Carbon
Electrode Welding :
SL.No Single Carbon Electrode
Welding
Twin Carbon Electrode Welding
1.
Arc is formed between the
work-piece and electrode.
Arc is formed between the electrodes.
2. D.C supply is used.
A.C is used as positive electrode will
consume at a faster rate if D.C is used.
3.
Work-piece is part of the
circuit.
Arc is independent of the job and hence
arc can be moved any where with out
getting extinguished.
4. Working :
After switching on the power, two
electrodes are allowed to touch each other
and removed quickly to a distance about
3mm distance to form the arc. There is an
mechanism to adjust the position of
electrodes.
5. Heat input to the work-piece
cannot be varied.
Heat input to the work-piece can be
varied by changing the size or distance
between the arc and work-piece.

Advantages :
Heat input to the work-piece can be easily controlled.
Work-piece distortion is negligible.
Process can be mechanized.
Suitable for thinner pieces.
Disadvantages :
Separate filler metal is needed slowing the process.
Chances of carbon deposit.
Applications :
Welding of Sheet Steel, Copper Alloys, brass , bronze and aluminum.
On many applications, Carbon Arc Welding has been replaced by TIG
Welding.
78


2. Flux Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMAW or SMAW):



Principle :
Flux Shielded Metal Arc Welding is an arc welding process in which weld is
produced by heating the work-piece with an arc setup between the flux coated
electrode and the work-piece.
Steel when exposed to air forms oxides and nitrides. These impurities weaken
the weld.
To prevent this molten metal is shielded by enveloping it completely with an
inert gas or flux.
In this method a metal rod is used as negative electrode and work being
welded as positive.
Arc melts the electrode and the job.
The arc produced between these two electrodes heats the metal to the melting
temperature (about 2400-2600 C).
Both A.C and D.C can be used.
Shielding can be in the following 4 forms :
1. Coated or Covered Electrode Welding.
2. Gas Shielded Welding.
3. Tape -Shielded Welding.
4. Flux Shielded Welding.

79

Advantages :
Flux Shielded Metal Arc Welding is the simplest of all the arc welding
process.
Equipment is portable.
Big range of metals and alloys can be welded.
Disadvantages :
Mechanization is difficult due to the limited length of electrode.
Process is slow.
Metal transfer is not clear.
Applications :
Used for fabrication work and maintenance work.
All commonly employed metals and alloys can be welded.
3. Metal-Inert-Gas Arc Welding (MIG) or (GMA-Gas Metal ARC):





80

Principle
MIG make use of the high heat produced by the electric arc between the
consumable electrode and material to be welded.
Gas Metal Arc Welding is a shielded metal arc process.
The electrode is continuously fed through a gun.
The current ranges from 100 to 400 A depending upon the diameter of the
wire.
The speed of melting of the wire may be up to 5m/min.
Usually constant voltage D.C machine is used for MIG Welding.
Welding Gun is either water cooled or air cooled.
Welding wire is often bare.
CO
2
, argon or argon helium mixtures are often used as shielding gases.
Shielding is done to prevent contamination of weld.
Advantages :
Does not require much skill.
Continuous welding at high speeds can be carried out.
Deeper penetration is possible.
Process can be mechanized.
Thick and thin sections can be welded easily.
Large metal deposition rates can be obtained.
No flux is used.
Faster compared to TIG and Metal Arc Welding.
Disadvantages :
Welding Equipment is much complex.
Difficult to weld small corners.
Slightly complex than TIG.
Applications :
Used for welding of carbon, silicon and low alloy steels, stainless steels,
aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel and their alloys, titanium etc.
Used for manufacture of refrigerator parts.
Used in industries like aircraft, automobile, pressure vessel and ship building.
81


4. Gas-Tungsten-Arc Welding(GTAW) or Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
(TIG) :


Principle
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is a shielded metal arc process.
TIG Make use of the high heat produced by the electric arc between the non-
consumable tungsten electrode and material to be welded.
Tungsten Electrode is used only to generate an arc.
Filler metal may be or may not be used.
Shielding is obtained by an inert gas such as helium or argon or mixture of
two.
Shielding is done to prevent contamination of weld.
Usually A.C machine is used for TIG Welding (for nonferrous alloys) except
for ferrous alloys d.c is used.
End of the welding gun is water cooled.
Advantages :
More different types of metals can be welded such as carbon steel, nickel
steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, titanium.
Unlike metals can be welded to each other like mild steel, stainless steel,
brass to copper.
Heat affected zone is very low.
No flux is used.
82

Clear visibility of arc.
Smooth welds can be obtained.
Disadvantages :
Under similar applications MIG is faster than TIG.
Tungsten if transferred can contaminate the same.
Costly.
Applications :
Welding sheet metals and thinner sections.
Used in precision welding in atomic energy, aircraft and instrument
industries.

Difference between TIG Welding and MIG Welding
SL.No TIG Welding MIG Welding
1. TIG uses non-consumable tungsten
electrode.
Uses continuous coil electrode of
same chemical composition as the
material being welded.
2. TIG welding electrode serves the
purpose of producing the arc only.
MIG welding electrode serves the
purpose of producing the arc as well
as filler metal.
3. TIG is not fast as MIG. MIG is fast.
4. Skilled labour is required. Not required.
5. If filler metal is engaged, operators
both hands are engaged.
Electrode and gas come through
same gun.
6. TIG is water cooled. No cooling required.
7. TIG is not used for welding plates
thicker than 6mm.
It is best suited for plates having
thickness more than 6mm.
8. Penetration is not so deep. Deeper penetration can be obtained.



83

5. Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding:


Principle :
In this process arc is struck between the terminals of two tungsten electrode
and the work piece does not form any terminal.
Heat is generated by striking an arc between the electrodes and work piece
under the shield of hydrogen.
Electric arc splits molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen which is not
stable and has a strong tendency to combine. When it combines in molecular
form generating heat. This combination raises the heat up to 4200C.
Atomic hydrogen features of both arc and flame welding process.
Combined energy of arc and a chemical reaction is utilized for welding.
Steps :
1. Hydrogen gas supply and current are switched on.
2. Arc is struck by bringing the two tungsten electrodes in touch with each other
and separating them by a predetermined distance (say 1.5mm)
3. Atomic hydrogen welding arc is held over the job till a molten pool forms.
Advantages :
Process is fast.
No flux or separate shielding gas is used. Hydrogen its self acts as a shielding
gas and avoids weld metal oxidation.
Welding of thin materials is also possible.
Uniform welds can be obtained.
84

Disadvantages :
Speed is less compared to MAW or MIG.
Cost is more.
Applications :
Process can be used for welding of most of metals and alloys like plain
carbon steel, alloy steel, aluminum, copper, nickel and their alloys.

6. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)( Hidden Arc Welding) or (Subarc
Welding)



Principle
Submerged Arc Welding is an arc welding process in which coalescence
(joint) is produced by heating the work-piece with an arc setup between a
bare metal electrode and the work-piece.
a) In Submerged Arc Welding, the arc is submerged under a layer of Flux and
so the arc is invisible.
b) Flux is fed through a Flux Hopper.
c) The upper portion of flux is in contact with the atmosphere.
d) The Flux may be made of silica, metal oxides or other compounds.
e) Bare electrode (Steel stainless steel or copper etc) is fed through the gun.
f) Normally d.c is employed for Submerged Welding, but a.c is also used.
g) Instead of flux covered electrode, granular flux and a bare electrode is used.
h) SAW is an automatic process for the production of high quality butt welds.
85

Advantages :
Often automated, so faster.
Deep penetration and high quality weld is possible.
Less distortion.
Operator can work without safety equipment.
Wire electrodes are inexpensive.
No sparks.
Practically no edge preparation is necessary.
Smoot welds can be obtained.
Disadvantages :
Since the operator cannot see the welding being carried out, he cannot judge
accurately the progress of welding.
Cant be used for plates less thickness.
Slag has to be removed continuously.
Cant be used for welding cast iron due to high heat input.
Cast iron, Al alloys, Mg Alloys, Pb and Zn cannot be welded by this process.
Applications :
Fabrication of pipes, penstocks, pressure vessels, boilers, structural shapes
etc.
Used in automotive, aviation, ship-building and nuclear power industry.
For welding of metals like mild steel, medium and high tensile low alloy
steels.







86

7 Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

Principle :
Flux-Cored Arc Welding is an arc welding process in which coalescence
(joint) is produced by heating the work-piece with an arc setup between a
continuous tubular consumable electrode and the work-piece.
Equipment consists of a constant-voltage d.c source, a wire feeder and a light
weight welding gun.
Flux is contained with in the electrode.
The flux provides the necessary shielding for the pool.
The heat of the arc melts the surface of base metal and the end of the
electrode.
Welding gun is similar to MIG welding gun.
Sometimes additional shielding is provided with a gas.
FCAW is a modification of MIG/CO
2
in which a solid wire is replaced by a
flux-cored electrode.

Advantages :
Provides high quality weld at lower costs.
Welds variety of steel over a wide thickness range.
Visible arc-easy to weld.
Reduced distortion compared to SMAW.

87

Disadvantages :
Used only to weld ferrous metals, primarily steels.
FCAW produces a slag covering which has to be removed.
Equipment is costly. But increased productivity compensates for this.
Applications :
FCAW is widely used for medium thickness steel fabrication work.
Used for welding in bridges, ship building etc.

GAS WELDING

Gas Welding is a Fusion-Welding process.
It joins metals using the heat of combustion of an oxygen/air and fuel gas.
(Acetylene, Hydrogen, Propane or Butane). Temperature produced ranges from
2600 C to 3300C.
The intense heat produced melts and fuses together the edges of parts to be
welded, generally with the addition of Filler material.
Advantages Of Gas Welding :
Oxy-Fuel gas can be easily controlled.
Suitable for thin sheets.
Equipment is portable.
It can weld most common materials.
By changing the nozzle the torch can be use for heating, brazing and cutting
purposes.
Cost is low.
Welder has considerable control over the temperature of the metal in the weld
zone.
Disadvantages Of Gas Welding :
Heavy sections cannot be joined.
Flame temperature is less than that of arc.
88

Refractory metals (eg. Tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum etc) and reactive metals
(eg. Titanium and zirconium) cannot be gas welded.
Fluxes used produce fumes that are irritating to eyes, nose and lungs.
Slower than Arc Welding Process.
Distortion to the work piece is more compared to Arc Welding process.
Gases are expensive.
Careful handling and storing is required.
Equipment is expensive.
Applications :
Used for joining thin sections.
Used for joining metals which cannot be heated to high temperatures.
Uses in automobile and aircraft industry.
Used for joining various ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
Important Types of Gas Welding are
Oxy-Acetylene Welding
Air-Acetylene Welding
Oxy-Hydrogen Welding

Oxy-Acetylene Welding :



89

Principle :
When Acetylene gas is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the
welding torch and ignited, the flame resulting at the tip of the torch is
sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal.
The oxy-acetylene flame reaches a temperature about 3200 C which is
sufficient to melt all commercial metals.
A pool of metals to be joined which upon solidification forms a bond.
Filler Metals are additional metal added to the weld.
The composition of Filler Rod is same or nearly the same as that of the part
being welded.
Filler metal (Welding Rod) added increases the strength of the bond formed.
Flux is added to remove the impurities and oxides formed during welding
operation.

Important Parts of Oxy-Acetylene Welding Equipment:




90

1. Acetylene Cylinder :

Acetylene cylinder is painted maroon and the valves are screwed left handed.
Usual sizes are around 2800 and 5600 litres.
Mild steel cylinder is charged to a pressure of 15.5 bar.
The inside diameter is around 30cm.
Acetylene cylinder is always kept upright for safety reasons.
Acetylene cylinder is equipped with a number of fusible plugs which will
melt and release the pressure in case the cylinder is exposed to excessive
heat.
Acetylene cylinder is filled with a spongy material such as balsa wood which
is saturated with a chemical solvent called Acetone. Acetone has to ability to
absorb a large volume of acetylene and release it as the pressure falls.

If large quantities of Acetylene is required, its much cheaper to generate at
the place of use. Acetylene gas is produced by Carbide-to-water method.
Calcium carbide is mixed with water to generate Acetylene.
Disadvantages :
Greater safety precautions are required.
Labour is required.
91

Gas obtained is not pure.

In industry, where considerable gas welding is done it is advantageous to use
a manifold system. In Manifold system, instead of having cylinders at the
place of work, they are assembled at a common place and connected by a
manifold. The gas is then distributed by means of pipe lines to different work
places.
Advantages :
Cylinders are not scattered.
More space is available.
Cylinders are less transported.
Less accidents.

2. Oxygen Cylinder :

Oxygen cylinders are painted black and the valves are screwed right handed.
Usual sizes are around 3400, 5200 and 6800 litres.
Mild steel cylinder is charged to a pressure of 136.6 bar.
92

The inside diameter is around 21.6cm.
Oxygen cylinder is equipped with a safety nut.
3. Oxygen and Acetylene pressure Regulators :
The pressure of the gases obtained from the cylinders is considerably higher
than the gas pressure required to carry out the welding operation. The purpose
of regulators is to
1. Reduce the pressures of gases
2. To produce steady flow of gases.
Pressure regulators is fitted with two pressure gauges. One indicates the
pressure inside the cylinder and the other indicates the reduced pressure at
which gas is going out.
Gas Pressure Regulators are classified into two. They are
1. Single Stage Regulator :



In this type, the gas from the cylinder enters the valve chamber and
strikes the flexible diaphragm.
When the pressure inside the valve chamber is slightly higher than the
spring tension supporting the diaphragm, the valve closes the high
pressure inlet, and stops the flow of the gases into the valve chamber.
The gases thus trapped in the valve chamber

93

2. Two-Stage Regulator :

Comparison Between Single Stage Regulator and Two-Stage Regulator
SL.No Single Stage Regulator Two-Stage Regulator

1. Reduction takes place in single
stage.
Reduction takes place in two
stage.
2. Commonly used. Used with cylinders and manifolds.

4. Welding Torch or Blow Pipe :
Oxygen and the fuel gas are mixed in the welding torch. Welding Torch
controls the flow of gases to the welding nozzle. There are two types of
Welding Torches. They are :-

1. High Pressure (or Equal Pressure) Type


Are used with acetylene cylinders having pressure of 8 bar.
In this type Oxygen and Acetylene are fed to the mixing chamber at
equal pressures.
94

Advantages :
1. Simple.
2. Does not need an injector.
3. Less troublesome.

2. Low Pressure (or Injector) Type


Are used with acetylene cylinders having pressure of 0.02 bar.
In this type, oxygen enters the torch through a passage located at the
center of the torch.
The passage is surrounded by the one carrying the acetylene.
High pressure oxygen pulls the acetylene gas to the mixing chamber.
Advantage of using Low Pressure torch is that proportions of two
gases is constant while the torch is in operation.

5. Welding Rods : Used as Filler Metal
6. Flux : Used for removing impurities and oxides.
Types of Flames :
Most of the welding operation use the Neutral Flame. But the other flames are
sometimes used for special welds. eg. Non-ferrous alloys and high carbon steels
require reducing flame.
As only the valve for acetylene in the torch is opened initially, it gives only
acetylene flame. Oxygen required for the flame is obtained from the atmosphere.
95

From acetylene flame abundance of free carbon is released into the atmosphere.
Acetylene flame is used to apply carbon to the mold surfaces in the foundry.



1. Neutral Flame (Acetylene and Oxygen in equal proportion)

Neutral Flame is produced when equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene are
mixed in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip.
Oxygen to Acetylene ratio is 1.1 to 1.
The Temperature of the flame is of the order about 3260C.
The flame has distinct inner cone which is light blue in color.
It is surrounded by an outer flame envelop which is darker blue than the inner
cone.
Envelop is usually darker blue in color.
Neutral flame is used for the cutting of
i. Mild Steel
ii. Stainless Steel
iii. Cast iron
iv. Copper
v. Aluminum

96

2. Oxidizing Flame (Excess of Oxygen)

Oxidizing Flame is produced when excess of oxygen and acetylene are mixed
in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip.
Oxygen to Acetylene ratio is 1.5 to 1.
Oxidizing flame burns with a loud roar.
The Temperature of the flame is of the order about 3482 C. High
temperature is due to presence of excess of oxygen.
The flame has an inner cone pointed and darker blue in color than in neutral
flame.
Outer Cone is usually darker blue in color and is shorter.
Oxidizing flame is used for the cutting of
i. Mild Steel
ii. Brass
iii. Stainless Steel
iv. Cast iron
v. Copper
3. Reducing Flame or Carburizing Flame(Excess of Acetylene)

Reducing Flame is produced when oxygen supplied is reduced.
The Temperature of the flame is of the order about 3037 C.
Reducing Flame is recognized by Acetylene Feather having pale green color
existing between the inner cone and the outer cone.
The flame has an inner cone which is dark blue in color.
It is surrounded by an outer flame envelop. Outer flame is longer than that of
neutral flame and is much brighter in color.
Envelop is usually darker blue in color.
Reducing Flame is used for the cutting of
i. Mild Steel
ii. Stainless Steel
iii. Cast iron
Carburizing flame has more acetylene than Reducing Flame.
97

Carburizing flame is used for welding lead and for surface hardening
purposes.
Reducing Flame ensures the absence of oxidation. This flame is used for
welding of low alloy steels and high carbon steels.
Filler Metal :

Filler Metals are additional metal added to the weld.
The composition of Filler Rod is same or nearly the same as that of the part being
welded.
Filler metal (Welding Rod) added increases the strength of the bond formed as
additional metal is melted and allowed to solidify.
Filler metal is usually available in the rod form.

Fluxes :
During Welding, if the metal is heated/melted in air, oxygen from air combines
with the metal to form oxides which result in poor quality, low strength welds.
The flux metal is fusible and is non-metallic.
Fluxes are available as powders, pastes or liquids.
Flux chemically reacts with the oxides and a slag is formed. Slag floats over the
molten metal which is later removed.
Flux also act as a cover preventing oxygen and other gases to enter the molten
pool.
After welding slag is removed by chipping, filling or grinding.
Composition of Flux : Borates, potassium Chloride, Lithium Chloride, Borax etc.
Requirement of a good Flux :
Should have a lower melting point than the base metal.
Should protect the weld from surroundings.
98

Should not cause corrosive action to the weld.
Should help the formation of slag.
Welding of Metals

Metal Use of Flux
Steel No Flux is used.
Cast Iron Flux is essential.
Stainless Steel
Flux is needed to ensure better control of molten
metal.
Aluminum and its Alloys
Flux is necessary due to the formation of oxide film
on the metal. Compounds of lithium, sodium and
potassium are used as flux.
Copper and its Alloys
Flux is not necessary. However for copper alloys,
borax based flux is used.
Magnesium and its Alloys
Flux is a must. Flux may contain sodium chloride,
potassium fluoride , magnesium chloride etc
Nickel and its Alloys No Flux is used.

Chemistry of Oxy-acetylene Welding :
Maximum temperature of the oxy-acetylene flame is 3100 to 3300 C.
Maximum heat concentration is just in front of the extreme tip of the white cone.
Combustion of gas mixture takes place in two stages :
1. Stage 1 :

This chemical reaction takes place at the inner cone.
In this stage, oxygen combines with acetylene forming carbon monoxide
liberating hydrogen.
2C
2
H
2
+ 2 O
2
4 CO + 2 H
2
----(1)
2. Stage 2 :
This chemical reaction takes place at the outer cone.
Two chemical reactions takes place in this stage.
1. Carbon monoxide uses oxygen from air forming carbon dioxide.
99

2. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen forming water vapour.
4CO + 2 H
2
+ 3 O
2
4 CO
2
+ 2 H
2
O ----(2)
Combining equations (1) and (2) above,

2C
2
H
2
+ 5 O
2
4 CO
2
+ 2 H
2
O ----(3)
Steps in lighting the Torch:
1. Crack the cylinder valve on oxygen and acetylene cylinder by opening the valve
and closing it quickly in order to blow out impurities.
2. Attach pressure regulators to the respective oxygen and acetylene cylinders.
3. Attach hoses to the pressure regulators.
4. Attach other ends of two hoses to the welding torch.
5. Select proper nozzle and mixing head and then attach it to the welding torch.
6. Make sure that both the torch needle valves are turned off.
7. Open oxygen cylinder valve to turn. Open oxygen cylinder valve all the
way.
8. Open acetylene valve on the torch fully. Turn the pressure regulator at the
acetylene cylinder until acetylene comes from the nozzle.
9. Light the welding torch using a spark lighter.
10. Acetylene pressure regulator is adjusted so that gap about 6mm exists between
the torch tip(nozzle) and flame. This is the proper pressure for welding.
11. Oxygen cylinder valve is adjusted to obtain the required welding flame.

Flame Adjustment :
1. As only the valve for acetylene in the torch is opened initially, it gives only
acetylene flame only. Oxygen required for the flame is obtained from the
atmosphere. From acetylene flame abundance of free carbon is released into the
atmosphere. Acetylene flame is used to apply carbon to the mold surfaces in the
foundry.
2. As the oxygen valve in the torch is opened, flame becomes luminous(glowing).
3. As the oxygen valve is further opened, the luminous flame further contracts
towards the welding tip, forming a distinct bright zone within a blue outer
envelop. This is carburizing zone and has excess of oxygen.
100

4. As oxygen is further increased, the inner cone contracts and will consists of two
parts : a bright inner cone and a pale green feather. This is Reducing Flame.
5. With increase in oxygen a certain point will reach where a distinct cone having
light blue color will be formed near the torch tip surrounded by a darker blue
cone. This is the Neutral Flame.
6. With further increase of oxygen content into the mixture will give rise to an
Oxidizing flame.

To extinguish the flame and stop welding:
1. When the welding or cutting operation is finished, acetylene valve in the torch is
closed first and then oxygen valve.
2. Then the oxygen cylinder valve is closed.
3. Release the pressure hose and regulator by opening the oxygen control valve in
the torch.
4. Oxygen control valve on the torch is then closed.
5. Same procedure is followed for removal of acetylene.

Welding Techniques :
Depending upon which welding rod and the welding torch may be used, there are
two usual techniques in Gas Welding, namely :
1. Leftward Techniques or Forehand Welding method
2. Rightward Technique or Backhand Welding method


Leftward Technique
In this method, the welder torch is held in right hand and filler rod in the
left hand.
The welding torch is directed towards the un-welded part of the joint.
101

Filler rod is directed towards the welded part of the joint.
Welding begins from the right side of the joint and proceeds towards the
left side.
Since the flame is pointed in the direction of welding, it preheats the joint
to be welded.
Good control and neat appearance are the features of Leftward Method.
Leftward Technique is used to weld thin metals, usually metals having
thickness below 6mm.
When work-piece thickness is over 3mm, it is necessary to bevel the plate
edges to produce a V-Joint so as to obtain good joint.
Filler metal consumed is more in Leftward Technique.
Oxide formation is more in Leftward technique.

2. Rightward Technique :



In this method also, the welder torch is held in right hand and filler rod in
the left hand.
The welding torch is directed towards the completed weld and the filler
metal remains between the flame and the completed weld section.
During welding, the filler rod is moved in circles or semi circles.
Welding begins from the left side of the joint and proceeds towards the
right side.
Since the flame is pointed to the welding joint, thicker or heavier base
metals can be welded.
102

Rightward Technique is used to weld thick metals, usually metals having
thickness above 5mm.
No bevel is necessary for plate having thickness up to 8.2mm.
Filler metal consumed is less in Rightward Technique.
Oxide formation is less in Rightward technique.
Comparison between Leftward Method and Rightward Method :
SL.No Leftward Technique Rightward Technique
1. Used for welding thin sections
(having thickness below 6mm)
thicker or heavier base metals can be
welded (having thickness above
6mm).
2. Oxide formation is more in
Leftward technique.
Oxide formation is less in Rightward
technique.

3. Filler metal consumed is more in
Leftward Technique.

Filler metal consumed is less in
Rightward Technique.

4. For thickness over 3mm, it is
necessary to bevel (edge
preparation).
No bevel is necessary for plate having
thickness up to 8.2mm.


a) Air-Acetylene Welding :

In Air-Acetylene, acetylene gas is mixed with air in correct proportions in the
welding torch and ignited, the flame resulting at the tip of the torch is
sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal.
Air required for combustion is drawn directly from the atmosphere.
Common fuels used in air-fuel welding are acetylene, propane, natural gas
and butane.

103

b) Oxy-Hydrogen Welding :

Oxy-Hydrogen was once extensively used to weld low temperature metals
such as aluminum, lead and magnesium. But it is not as popular today as
more versatile and faster welding process such as TIG and MIG have
replaced Oxygen-Hydrogen Flame.
Factors affecting selection of fuel:
Factors are :
1. Type of material to be welded.
2. The required welding temperature
3. Availability of fuel.
4. Cost of fuel
Comparison between different fuels used.
The most versatile used fuel is Oxy-Acetylene fuel.
Approximate flame temperatures of oxygen and various fuel gas combinations
are
SL.No Name of fuel Approximate Temperature
1 Oxy-Acetylene 3200 C
2 Oxy-hydrogen 2500 C
3 Oxy-propane 2500 C

Oxy-Acetylene Gas Cutting

Commonly used for cutting of metals.

104

Based on the principle that oxygen has great affinity for iron and steel at elevated
temperatures. When a metallic piece is heated up to 1000C, it forms an iron
oxide which has low melting temperature. Thus if steel is heated to about 1000C
and then a jet of air is blown on the surface, iron oxide is formed and it falls
down under pressure.
Make use of a special torch for mixing acetylene and oxygen is used. Initially
steel is preheated to red color.
High-speed cutting is possible.
Pieces up to 25mm thickness can be cut.
All ferrous metals can be cut.
Not suitable for non-ferrous alloys.
Safety Recommendation in Gas Welding
Welding and cutting of metals involve application of intense heat to the objects
being welded. Therefore, to protect persons from injury and to protect the
equipment a set of safety recommendations have been published by ISI and many
other similar but international organizations.
By practicing these recommendations, the risks associated with welding can be
largely reduced.

1. Gas Cylinders :
Gas Cylinders must be prevented from sharp impact with one another.
Acetylene cylinders must be always kept upright.
A cap must be fitted on the cylinder when it is not in use.
Cylinders must not be exposed to flame, direct sun light, water etc.
Gas Cylinders should be well fastened so that that do not fall.
Cylinders should not be used as supports for other purposes.
Gas Cylinders should be stored in a well protected, well ventilated, dry
location well away from combustible materials.
One should not smoke at the place where cylinders have been stored.
Cylinders containing oxygen and acetylene should be stored separately.
Cylinders valve should be closed when the work is finished.
105

Cylinders should be conveyed as not to project beyond the sides of the
vehicle carrying the cylinders.
Do not use a hammer or wrench to open any valve of the cylinder.
Cylinders should be moved by tiling them and rolling them on their bottom
edges. Dragging or cylinders should avoided.
Cylinder valve should be closed when it is empty.
Never attempt to mix gases in a cylinder.
To test leak, a solution of soap and water may be brushed. Bubbles indicate
leakage.
An acetylene cylinders should not be opened more than 1.5 turns of the
spindle. Never use acetylene at pressure in excess of 1.05 kg/cm
2
.
Manifolds

1. In case of acetylene cylinder manifolding,

Gas pressure in all the cylinders should be approximately equal.
Place of manifolding should be adequately ventilated.
Cylinders should be manifolded in the vertical position.
Place of manifolding should be separated from the rest of the building by
a suitable flame proof partition.
2. In case of oxygen cylinder manifolding,
3. Oxygen manifolds should be located away from those of acetylene and from
any other inflammable substance.

2. Torches and Tips :

Gas Torches and tips should be stored in clean boxes to avoid gas holes
blocked with dirt.
Never use a gas torch as a lever or hammer.
As spanner and a plier should be employed for changing tips.
Gs holes must be clean.
Never hang a torch with its hose on regulators or cylinder valves.
106

During working, if tip becomes overheated, it may be cooled by dipping it in
water. Close the acetylene valve but leave a little oxygen flowing.
Slag accumulated in the tip of the torch may be frequently removed by either
a hard wooden stick or brass wire.
3. Pressure Regulators

Use the correct pressure regulator for a gas. For example, never use acetylene
pressure regulator with any other gas.
A pressure regulator shall be used only at the pressures it is intended.
Handle pressure regulators carefully.
Do not move the pressure regulator holding the pressure regulator.
Do cracking before connecting pressure regulator to the gas cylinder.
4. Hoses :
Use correct color hose for oxygen (green/black) and acetylene (red) and never
use oxygen hose for acetylene or vice versa.
Proper clamping should be done to the hose connections.
Protect the hose from hot work-piece, sparks etc.
Never allow the hose to come in contact with oil or grease and they can erode
the material.
5. Other general precautions :

Before starting gas welding or cutting, remove from the neighborhood any
combustible materials.
Fire extinguishes should be available at hand.
Welding should be carried out in a place with adequate ventilation.
Do not pick up hot jobs or objects.
Use goggles with non-flammable lenses and frames.
Never do any chipping and grinding with out goggles.
Do not use matches for lighting torches.
Gas flame should not be allowed to touch the cylinders.



107

SPECIAL OR UNIQUE WELDING PROCESSES
Plasma Arc Welding


Plasma Arc Welding

Current limiting Resistor for obtaining
Transferred Arc



Principle :
Plasma Arc Welding is an arc welding process in which coalescence (joint) is
produced by the heat obtained from a constricted arc setup between a
tungsten/tungsten alloys electrode and water cooled nozzle or between a tungsten
electrode and the work-piece.
Plasma Arc Welding is a shielded metal arc process.
Plasma is a high temperature ionized gas (hydrogen or helium) conducting
electricity.
When the Gas is passed across an electric arc and then through a constrained
opening, the gas get ionized and become plasma. This also raises the temperature
of the gas.
A non-consumable tungsten electrode, water cooled copper nozzle and gas shield
(argon or argon mixtures) is employed for the welding.
The process employs two inert gases, one forms the arc plasma and the second
shields the arc plasma.
108

Filler metal may or may not be used.
Shielding is done to prevent contamination of weld.
Temperature produced is about 10000 to 14000 C.
Note : Plasma is a temporary state of a gas. Gas gets ionized when it is passed across
an electric arc and become a conductor of electricity. In ionized state gas atoms break
into electrodes (-) and ions (+). Ionization increases the temperature of the gas to the
order 5000C to 10000C.
Comparison between Plasma Arc Welding and TIG Welding
SL.No Plasma Arc Welding TIG Welding
1. Is a constricted arc process. Is a non-constricted arc process
2. Uses two inert gases, one forms the
arc plasma and the second shields the
arc plasma.
Uses only one gas.
3. Electrode remains within the nozzle,
therefore tungsten inclusion and
electrode contamination are nil.
Chances of tungsten inclusion and
electrode contamination.
4. Filler metal requirement are less. More
5. Faster metal deposition. Slow metal deposition.
6. Total welding time is less. More.

Transferred Arc and Non-Transferred Arc



Transferred Arc Non-Transferred Arc

109

Difference between Transferred Arc and Non-Transferred Arc

SL.No Transferred Arc Non-Transferred Arc
1. Arc is formed between work-piece
(+) and electrode (-)
Arc is formed between water cooled
constricting nozzle (+) and electrode
(-)
2. Possess more energy compared to
Non-Transferred Arc.
Possess comparatively less energy.
3. Make use of a current limiting
resistor to generate this arc.
Initiated by a high frequency unit in
the circuit.
4. Used for cutting metals. Used for welding applications and
metal plating.
Advantages :
Used for welding and cutting operations.
Used for melting high melting point metals.
Used for welding of stainless steels, nickel alloys etc.
No edge preparation needed.
Process is faster.
Stable arc can be produced.
Uniform penetration can be produced.
Excellent weld quality.
Disadvantages :
Welding Equipment is much complex and expensive.
High noise.
Inert gas consumption is more.
Process is limited to metal thickness of 25mm and lower butt welds.
Radiations are produced.
Applications :
Used for welding of titanium plates up to 8mm thickness.
Welding of stainless steel tubes up to 6.3mm.
Used in tube mill applications.
Used in steel rocket motor cases.
110

Plasma can be effectively used for cutting also called as Plasma Arc Cutting.
Electro-slag Welding


Principle
Electro-slag Welding is a welding process in which joint is produced by molten
slag which melts the filler metal and surfaces of the work to be welded.
Electro-slag is a progressive process with solidification from bottom to upward.
Water cooled copper shoes are used to confine the molten metal until it solidifies.
After completing the welding of a section, copper shoes are moved to the un-
welded section.
In this process according to the requirement one, two or three electrode wires can
be fed into the joint.
Equipment consists of a power supply (A.C), a suitable mechanism for feeding
the electrode wire, a hopper to carry flux.
Electro slag is used for welding thick parts(25 mm or over).

Steps
Initially arc is struck between the electrode and work-piece and required amount
of flux is added.
The heat of arc melts the molten metal.
When a sufficient thicker layer of molten slag is formed, the arc is stopped and
the slag is maintained in the molten state by the resistance to the electric current
passing between the electrode and the work piece by the slag pool.
111

The temperature of the molten slag is approximately 1650C at the surface and
1930C inside, under the surface. This heat is sufficient to melt the edges of
work-piece and the electrode.
The liquid metal coming from the welding electrode and heated base metal
collects in a pool beneath the slag bath and slowly solidifies forming the weld.
Flux poured around the electrode is converted into slag which floats on molten
metal surrounded by copper shoes that slides on the sides.
Advantages :
Joint preparation is simpler.
Thickness up to 450mm in plain and alloy steels can be welded.
Distortion is low.
No arc exists.

Disadvantages :
SAW is economical than Electro-slag Welding for joints below 60mm.
Welding is carried in vertical position.
Produce larger grain size.
Applications :
Heavy plates can be welded.
Low carbon, high strength structural steels and high strength alloy steels such as
stainless steel and nickel alloys can be welded.

Solid State Welding
A solid state welding process produces joints at temperatures essentially below the
melting point of the base metals being joined, without the addition of filler metal.
Pressure is always applied. Various Solid State Welding are

1. Ultrasonic Welding
2. Friction Welding
3. Cold Welding
4. Diffusion Welding
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5. Explosive Welding
Ultrasonic Welding


Principle :
Ultrasonic welding is a solid state welding process in which joint is produced by
the local application of High frequency vibration energy to the work-pieces held
together under pressure.
Frequency ranges from 15 kHz to 170 kHz.
No flux, or filler metals, no electric current passes and no heat is applied.
Combined effect of pressure and vibration cause movement of the metal
molecules and bring about a sound union between the faces of materials in
contact.
Ultrasonic welding is completed in about 0.5 to 1.5 seconds.
Joint is produced with out the melting of work-pieces.
Various metallurgical theories have been put forward to explain the bonding
mechanism.
i) One theory is that bonding takes place due to interfacial chemical reaction.
j) Other theories suggest that it is because of interfacial atomic bonding.
Steps :
Pieces to be welded are clamped between the welding tip and the anvil. Welding
tip along with the coupling system is called as Sonotrode.
High frequency ultrasonic vibration energy is transmitted through the welding tip
attached to the transducer.
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Ultrasonic vibrations along with the clamping force induces dynamic shear
stresses and plastic deformation occurs at the interface. Oxide films and other
surface films are removed due to the intimate contact and the bonding takes
place.

Welding Equipment :
Ultrasonic Welding equipment consists of :-
1. A frequency converter : Used to provide high frequency electric
power.
2. A transducer : Converts electric power to vibratory power.
3. An anvil : Used for clamping the work-pieces.
4. A force application device : Used for applying static force normal to the
plane of weld.
5. A timer : Used for controlling the weld interval.
Advantages :
Surface preparation is not needed.
Defects are less.
Dissimilar metals with vastly different melting points can be welded.
Less deformation.
Very thin materials can be welded.
Equipment is simple and reliable.
In ultrasonic welds have from 65 to 100% of parent metal strength.
Disadvantages :
Initial cost is more.
Mostly used for joining thin sections.
Life of equipment is short.
Applications :
Glass and plastic can be welded using Ultrasonic Welding.
Used for joining electric and electronic components.
Used for fabrication of nuclear fuel elements.

114

Friction Welding


Friction Welding

Inertia Welding

Principle :
Friction Welding is a Solid State welding process in which joint is produced by
the heat obtained from mechanically induced sliding motion between rubbing
surfaces. The work parts are held together under pressure.
Temperatures developed are below the melting point of the metals welded but
high enough to create plastic flow and intermolecular bonding.
In this process, the metals to be joined are mounted in a device with one surface
stationary and other is revolved under pressure. Pressure and rotation is
continued until the components achieve desired temperature for plastic flow.
When mating parts achieve sufficient temperature, them motion between the
parts is stopped and pressure is increased to for the desired joint.
Steps :
1. Two components to be welded are held in axial alignment.
2. One component held in chuck is rotated and accelerated to the desired speed.
3. The other component that is held stationary and held in the moving clamp is
moved forward to come in contact with the rotating component.
4. Pressure and rotation are maintained until the resulting temperature makes the
metals plastic for welding.
5. When sufficient heating has taken place a brake is applied to stop rotation and the
axial force is further increased to forge the components together.
115

Advantages :
Dissimilar metals can be welded. Used for welding of non ferrous metals (pipe,
tubes etc).
No edge preparation is needed.
Operation is simple.
Low power is needed.
Welding process is fast.
Low cost.
No use of flux or filler metal.
Disadvantages :
Process is restricted to flat and angular welds, where one part is normal to the
other part.
So far process is applied to weld small pieces.

Applications :
Used for joining steels, super-alloys, non ferrous metals and combinations of
metals.
Friction welding replaces brazing, arc welding, electron beam welding, pressure,
flash or resistance butt welding.
Friction welding is used for production of steering shafts, worm gears, engine
valves, cutting tools etc.

Difference between Friction Welding and Inertia Welding

SL.No Friction Welding Inertia Welding
1.
Uses electric or hydraulic motor to
supply weld energy.
Uses flywheel to supply weld
energy.
2. Less control over the process Good control can be obtained.
3. Less power. More power.


116

Cold Welding




Metallic surface under high
magnification

Metal flow in cold welding

Principle :
Cold Welding is a Solid State process, wherein coalescence is produced by the
application of pressure alone at room temperatures.
A characteristic feature of Cold Welding is the absence of heat and flux.
An ordinary bright metallic surfaces consists of hills and valleys. On the metal
surface there is a layer of metal oxide and above this layer there may be a thin
layer of moisture. Up on applying pressure during the process, the oxide film get
fragmented and metal to metal contact occurs and the metal behind the oxide
layer suffers plastic deformation.
In Cold Welding procedure, two metal sheets are brought into overlapping
contact and a punch is pressed into them. High pressure applied causes the
fragmentation of oxide layer permitting metal to metal contact.
Any metal can be made to weld by shearing the two surfaces together at
sufficiently high pressure. For welding of aluminum (lap joint) the pressure
applied ranges from 10.5 x 10
3
to 35 x 10
3
kg/cm
2
.
Advantages :
Leak tight welds can be produced.

117

Disadvantages :
Cannot be used for mass production.

Applications :
Used for cladding.
Similar and dissimilar metals can be joined.
Used to assemble small transistors where welding heat might cause damage.
Useful in welding metals in explosive areas.
Metals welded by Cold Welding are :
Pure aluminum
Aluminum alloys
Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Ag. etc
Diffusion Welding


Principle :
Diffusion Welding is a Solid State process, wherein coalescence is produced by
the application of pressure and high temperatures to carefully cleaned and mated
metal surfaces so that they grow together by atomic diffusion.
The process does not involve macroscopic deformation or relative motion of the
parts.
Diffusion Welding takes place in two stages :

118

a. Stage 1 :
Surfaces of the metal pieces may have oxide layer and layer of oil, grease
or dirt.
Metal to metal contact is achieved by the application of pressure. This
removes above mentioned layers and contaminants.
Pressure applied ranges from 350 to 700 kg/cm
2
.
b. Stage 2 :
In this stage diffusion and grain growth takes place.
In order to increase the diffusion, the metal pieces are heated to moderate
temperatures (usually below 1100C).
With out applying heat the process takes several hours to complete the
process. With the application of heat the process will be completed in few
hour or minutes.
Different Diffusion Welding methods are :-

1. Gas Pressure Bonding : Parts to be welded are placed together in
intimate contact and then heated to about 815C. During heating, an inert gas
pressure is applied over all the surfaces of the parts to be welded.
2. Vacuum Fusion Bonding : Process is carried out in vacuum. Parts are
pressed mechanically or hydraulically. Parts are then heated. Temperature
and pressure required are approximately around 1150 C and 700kg/cm
2
.
3. Eutectic Fusion Bonding : It is a low pressure diffusion welding process.
A thin plate of some other material is placed in between the pieces to be
joined. As the pieces are heated to an elevated temperature, the filler metal
diffuses and forms an eutectic compound with the parent metals.
Advantages :
Leak tight welds can be produced.
Numerous welds can be made simultaneously.
Welds having same physical, chemical and mechanical properties as the base
metal can be produced.
Dissimilar metals can be joined.
Disadvantages :
Cannot be used for mass production.
119

Difficulty in removal of oxides.
Applications :
Used for joining gold silver etc
Fabrication of reactor components in atomic energy industries.
Fabrication of rocket engines, helicopter rotor hub etc.

Explosive Welding


Principle :
Explosive Welding is a Solid State process, wherein coalescence is produced by
the high velocity movement of the metal produced by controlled detonation.
Basically the explosive welding involves a high velocity impact between a
plate(called as flyer-which is to be welded to the parent metal) forced towards a
stationary plate (parent plate) by the explosive charge.
During the First World War it was observed that fragments of the steel shells of
bombs occasionally struck the metallic objects in the vicinity of the explosion.
This is an example of Explosive Welding.
The energy derived from the explosion forces the metals together.
There are two common arrangements of Explosive Welding. They are

120

1. Parallel Arrangement (Direct Stand Off Method or Contact Explosion
Welding) : Work-pieces are arranged parallel to each other.
2. Inclined Arrangement (Angular Stand Off Method or Impact Explosion
Welding) : Work-pieces are arranged such that there is an angle between the
work-pieces.





Parallel Arrangement

Inclined Arrangement

Steps :
1. A buffer plate which is made of flexible rubber or cardboard is placed above the
Flayer Plate (which is to be joined with the parent plate) to protect the top surface
of Flayer Plate from detonation of Explosive charge.
2. Above the buffer is a layer of explosive which is to be detonated from the lower
edge.
3. The parent plate is placed on an anvil.
4. As the explosive is ignited, the Flyer under high velocity and pressure strikes the
parent plate forming the joint.
Advantages :
Large surfaces can be welded.

121

Disadvantages :
Operation is noisy.
This process is dangerous and should be performed by experts.
Applications :
Used for cladding.
Dissimilar metals can be joined.
Pipes and tubes up to 1.5m length can be clad.
Used in production of chemical process vessels, electrical industry, ship building
industry etc.
This process has been successfully used to weld steel to steel, aluminum to
aluminum, copper to steel etc.

Radiant Energy Welding Process
Radiant Energy Beam focuses an energy beam on the work-piece. The heat is
generated only when the energy beam strikes the work-piece. Radiant Energy
beam includes
1. Laser Beam Welding
2. Electron Beam Welding
Laser Beam Welding



122

Principle :
Laser Beam Welding is defined as a welding process wherein coalescence is
produced by the heat obtained from the application of a concentrated coherent
(waves are identical and parallel) light beam impinging upon the surfaces to be
joined.
LASER :- Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
In Laser Beam welding radiation from an intense source of light is concentrated
and amplified using a laser crystal.
The laser beam is focused on the work-piece and heat generated is used to weld
the joint.
This process is used for cutting and welding of metals.
High melting point metals (stainless steel, tungsten, titanium etc) can be welded
by this process.
Vacuum is not necessary for laser beam welding.
Good welding speed can be obtained.

Welding Equipment :
Laser Welding System consists of
1. A cylindrical Ruby Crystal. Ruby is aluminum oxide with chromium
dispersed through it.
2. Flash tube containing inert gas xenon is placed around the crystal. Flash
Tube converts electrical energy into light energy.
3. Capacitor bank stores electrical energy. It is charged with high voltage power
supply. Flash tube is energized by electrical discharge from the capacitor.
4. Optical focusing lens for focusing the laser beam to produce small intense
spot on the job.

Working :
1. When the Flash tube is energized by electrical discharge from the capacitor,
xenon transforms electrical energy into white light flashes. Or simply flashing
occurs when Flash tube is energized by electrical discharge from the capacitor.
123

2. As Ruby is exposed to intense light flashes, laser beam is produced. The narrow
laser beam is focused by the Optical focusing lens to produce small intense spot
on the job.

Forms of Lasers :
1. Ruby Laser : The difficulty with Ruby Laser is that the energy
obtained is not continuous.
2. Gas Laser : Uses mixtures of helium and neon. Can produce
continuous beams but do not
have the energy out put of the Ruby Lasers.
3. Liquid Laser : Uses fluids such as nitrobenzene.
4. Semi Conductor Laser : Uses gallium arsenide.

Advantages
Wide variety of metals can be welded.
Contamination is less.
Areas not readily accessible can also be welded.
Very small sections can be welded.
No vacuum is needed as in Electron Beam Welding.
Good control over the process can be achieved.
Material to be welded need not be a conductor or electricity.
As no electrode is used, electrode contamination or high electric current effects
are eliminated.
Because it is light, it can be focused to microscopic dimensions and directed with
a great accuracy.
Because it is light, it is clean, no vaporized metal or electrodes dirty up the
delicate assemblies.
Disadvantages :
Operation slow.
Thicker parts cannot be welded.

124

Applications :
Aircraft industry.
Automobile industry.
For connecting leads on small electronic components.
To weld lead wires.
Can be used to weld and cut.
Electron Beam Welding


Principle :
Electron Beam make use of the kinetic energy of the fast moving electrons for
welding operation.
When fast moving electrons strike the parts to be welded, they give up kinetic
energy into heat.
Welding is carried out under High vacuum.
The heat generated is about 2500C.
Electron beam emitting from the tungsten electrode is accelerated is focused on
to the parts to be welded.
Steps :
1. Joint Preparation : Joint gas about 0.05 to .075mm maximum used for making
narrow welds.
2. Before welding work-piece is cleaned.
3. Residual magnetism if present can cause deflection of electron beam. It is
relieved by placing the work-piece in a fifty cycle inductive field.
4. The work-piece is then placed in the welding chamber.
125

5. The chamber is pumped down to the required vacuum.
6. The work-piece is preheated if necessary.
7. Welding is initiated.


Vacuum Atmosphere
Welding operation can be carried out in
1. High Vacuum : In this type both the electron gun and the work-piece are
enclosed in the same vacuum chamber. The pressure inside the chamber is of the
order of 10
-4
torr. Vacuum assures decontamination and degasification of the
molten metal being formed during the process. Also in vacuum assures little loss
of beam energy. How ever size of the vacuum chamber limits the size of the
work-piece to be welded.
2. Partial Vacuum : In this type both the electron gun and the work-piece are
enclosed in the separate vacuum chamber. The pressure inside the gun chamber is
of the order of 0.1 micron. The pressure inside the work-piece chamber is of the
order of 5 to 100 micron. An orifice permits the electron to pass from gun
chamber to work-piece chamber.
3. Atmosphere : In this case, work-piece is placed out side the vacuum
chamber.
Advantages :
126

Welds are clean.
No distortion.
High speed welding can be obtained.
High quality weld.
Suitable for large scale operations.
Suitable for welding dissimilar pieces.
High penetration.
Applications :
Aircraft industry.
Automobile industry.

Thermo-chemical Welding Process
Thermo-chemical welding process make uses of heat energy liberated by chemical
reactions (Exothermic Reactions) to carry out welding. Various Thermo-Chemical
reactions are
1. Thermit Welding
2. Atomic Hydrogen Welding

Thermit Welding



127

Thermit Welding is a Fusion process.
Thermit process is based on a chemical reaction which generates heat
(Exothermic reaction).
Thermit is a mixture of aluminum and iron oxide.
Weld is formed by pouring superheated thermit around the parts to be united.
Temperature produced by the Thermit reaction is around 3000C.
A few Thermit reactions are
1. 8Al + 3 Fe
3
O
4
= 4Al
2
O
3
+ 9Fe (3088C)
2. 2Al + Fe
3
O
4
= Al
2
O
3
+ 2Fe (2960C)
3. 3 CuO + 2Al = Al
2
O
3
+ 3Cu (4865C)
4. Cr2O3 +2Al = 2Cr + 2Cr (2977C)
Steps :
Joint is cleaned.
Parts to be welded are lined up with a space about 1.5mm to 6mm between the
ends.
A pattern of wax is shaped around the parts to be welded.
An iron box is placed around the pattern and space between the pattern and box is
filled and rammed with sand. Runners and gates are cut in the sand.
Before pouring thermit, the parts to be welded are preheated to prevent the
chilling of steel.
During preheating the wax pattern melts off.
Then the superheated metal from produced by the thermit reaction is poured in
the mold surrounding the parts to be welded.
Mechanical pressure is applied to complete the weld.

Advantages :
Equipment is portable.
Broken parts can be welded on the site itself.
No costly power supply is needed.
Disadvantages :
Thermit Welding can be used for only to ferrous metals of heavy sections.
Process is un-economical to weld cheap metals or light parts.
128

Applications :
Rails.
Pipes.
Connecting Rods.
Welding Of Various Metals

1. Welding of Wrought Iron : Welding Process used are
a. Forge Welding
b. Oxy-acetylene gas Welding
c. SMAW
d. SAW
e. Resistance Welding
f. Thermit Welding
2. Welding of Grey Cast Iron : Welding Process used are
a. MAW
b. Oxy-acetylene gas Welding
c. Braze Welding
d. Brazing
e. Thermit Welding
3. Welding of Carbon Steels : Welding Process used are
a. Oxy-acetylene gas Welding
b. Flux-Shielded Metal Arc Welding
c. SAW
d. MIG
e. TIG
f. Plasma Arc Welding
g. Thermit Welding
h. Resistance Welding
i. Brazing etc
4. Welding of Alloy Steels : Welding Process used are
a. Oxy-acetylene gas Welding
b. Flux-Shielded Metal Arc Welding
129

c. SAW
d. Thermit Welding
e. Resistance Spot Welding
5. Welding of Tool Steels : Welding Process used are
a. Oxy-acetylene gas Welding
b. SMAW
c. SAW
d. Atomic Hydrogen Welding
e. Silver Brazing
f. Inert gas shielded Metal Arc Welding
6. Welding of Stainless Steels : Welding Process used are
a. Gas Welding
b. Arc Welding : TIG, SAW, Plasma Arc Welding
c. Brazing
d. Soldering
7. Welding of Aluminum and its Alloys : Welding Process used are
a. TIG
b. MIG
c. Oxy-Gas Welding
d. Metallic Arc Welding
e. Solid State Welding
f. Carbon Arc Welding
g. Resistance Welding
h. Atomic Hydrogen Welding
i. Brazing
8. Welding of Magnesium and its Alloys : Welding Process used are
a. TIG
b. MIG
c. Gas Welding
d. Resistance Spot Welding
e. Brazing
9. Welding of Copper and its alloys : Welding Process used are
130

a. TIG
b. MIG
c. Gas Welding
d. Brazing
e. Soldering
10. Welding of dissimilar metals : Welding Process used are
a. Fusion Welding Process such as SMAW, Resistance Welding, Electron Beam
Welding etc
b. Solid State Welding such as Ultrasonic and Friction Welding.
11. Welding of Plastics : Welding Process used are
a. Heated Tool Welding
b. Hot Gas Welding
c. High Frequency Welding
d. Ultrasonic Welding
e. Friction Welding
f. Induction Welding
SOLDERING

Principle
In Soldering the metal pieces are joined by heating the closely placed parts and
then filler alloy called Solder applied in the molten state which upon
solidification produces the desired joint.
Soldering is a common process for joining steel, copper, aluminum and other
materials at a lower temperature.
There is no direct melting of the metals being joined.
During the process the filler alloy flows between the two closely adjacent
surfaces of the work-pieces by capillary action.
Soldered joints do not resist corrosion.
All alloys are not equally wetted by solders. The ease with which a metal can be
soldered depends upon the solubility of solder and the base metal
Surface to be soldered should be cleaned either chemically or mechanically to
insure wetting.
131


Steps in Soldering :
1. Select the metals to be joined.
2. Design the joint for bond formation.
3. Pre-clean the work-pieces to help wetting of base metal by the solder.
4. Selection of solder to obtain the desired joint.
5. Melting the solder. Solder is melted by using :-
a) Soldering Iron
b) Torch Soldering
c) Dip Soldering
d) Oven Soldering
e) Spray Gun Soldering.
f) Resistance Soldering etc.
6. Alignment of work-pieces. Usually lap joint is preferred than butt joint for
soldering.
7. Solder is distributed uniformly over the closely placed metal parts and is allowed
to solidify.
8. Soldered work-pieces are then cleaned to remove the flux residues.

Types of Soldering
Soldering can be classified into two
1. Soft Soldering : Used for joining of sheet metals. Parts to be
soldered are not exposed to high
temperatures and produces a less stronger joint compared to
Hard Soldered part.
2. Hard Soldering : Used when strong joint is required and hence exposed to
high temperatures.

Advantages of Soldering :
Dissimilar metals can be joined.
132

Disadvantages of Soldering
Soldered joints do not resist corrosion.
Soldered joints are not meant to work under vibrations or strength applications.

SOLDERS

Selection of Solders depends up on :
1. Melting range of solder (Melting point of solder should be less than that of
the materials to be joined)
2. Wettability
3. Flow Characteristics
4. Availability of solder
5. Electric resistance etc

Different Solders used are :
i. Tin Lead Solders : Tin-Lead solders are used to join most metals.
Bond produced has good
corrosion resistance.
ii. Tin-AntimonyLead solders : Addition of antimony increases the
strength of the bond.
iii. Lead-Silver Solders : Addition of silver results in an alloy
will readily wet steel and copper.
iv. Cadmium-Silver Solders : Used to join aluminum to itself or to
other metals.
v. Cadmium-Zinc Solders : Used to solder aluminum.
vi. Zinc-Aluminum Solders : Used to solder aluminum.

Soldering Fluxes
Any compound added to increase the wetting of the metal with solders is a
Soldering Flux.
Purpose of Soldering Flux is to
133

a. Remove oxides and other impurities such as dirt from the surface being
soldered.
b. Prevent re-oxidation of the surfaces during the soldering process.
Choice of Soldering Flux used depends up on the
1. Type of solder used
2. Base metal used
3. Soldering design and
4. Cost of flux.
Different type of Soldering Fluxes are :
1. Inorganic or Acid Corrosive Fluxes : Consists of Zinc and Aluminum
Chloride. These fluxes dissolve the oxides and floats on the surface.
2. Organic Acid or Mild Fluxes : Constituents of these fluxes are Lactic
Acid, Steraric Acid, Benzoic Acid etc.
Organic Acid are less corrosive than inorganic acids.
3. Rosin Non-corrosive Fluxes : Are the only non-corrosive flux and has high
electrical resistance.

Soldering of Various Metals :
1. Soldering of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels : All types of carbon steels may be
easily soldered by wettability decreases with increase in carbon content.
2. Soldering of Cast Iron : Cast Irons are difficult to solder due to the presence of
graphite carbon present which resist wetting action of solder.
3. Soldering of Stainless Steel : Stainless steels are even difficult to weld due to the
presence of chromium oxide present.
4. Soldering of Copper and its Alloys : Copper can be easily soldered.
5. Soldering of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys : Soldering of Aluminum and
Aluminum Alloys need certain considerations before soldering because of the
difficulty to remove oxides formed, high thermal conductivity and poor corrosion
resistance to the soldered joints.


134

Different Soldering methods are :
1. Soldering Iron Method
2. Torch method
3. Dip and wave method
4. Induction method
5. Resistance method
6. Furnace and hot plate method
7. Spray method
8. Ultrasonic method
9. Condensation method
1. Soldering Iron Method :
Soldering iron method is the traditional tool for soldering.
Soldering iron has a soldering iron has a copper tip which may be heated
electrically or coke or gas flame.
Soldering iron may vary in size depending up on the use.
Tip of the soldering iron conducts heat from the heat source to the components
being joined. It stores can conveys molten solder also.
Soldering iron are not limited to electrical soldering. Large cans and similar
assemblies can be soldered by Soldering Iron.
Tinning : Process of dipping the hot soldering iron tip in flux and then
applying solder enabling on solder to form a coating on the surface of tip of
soldering iron. Tip of Soldering iron is again dipped in flux and then applied
with solder to carry out the soldering operation.

2. Torch Method :
In Torch Soldering, a gas torch is used to supply heat which may have single or
multi-orifice tips.
Torch may operate on Air and Acetylene, oxygen and acetylene and hydrogen
and air and propane.
Torch Soldering is used when parts are too large for soldering iron.

135

3. Dip and Wave Method


Dip Soldering consists of dipping the assembled, flux coated joints into the pools
of molten solder.
Dip Soldering is used for mass production of joints.
Wave Soldering is employed to eliminate some drawbacks of Dip Soldering.
In Wave Soldering, the parts to be soldered are carried by a conveyer.
Parts to be soldered touches a wave of solder pumped from solder bath through a
narrow slot.

BRAZING
Principle
In Soldering the metal pieces are joined by heating the closely placed parts and
then filler alloy called Spelter applied in the molten state which upon
solidification produces the desired joint.
Melting point of filler metal is above 427C. There is no direct melting of the
metals being joined.
Most metals and alloys such as carbon steels, cast iron, stainless steels and alloys
steels, copper, bronze, aluminum can be brazed.
Brazing gives a much stronger joint compared to Soldering.
Steps in Brazing :
1. Parts to be welded are cleaned.
2. Flux is applied to prevent oxidation of parts to be joined during heating.
3. Parts to be brazed are heated.
136

4. Filler material is then fed to the joint area.
5. The flux employed melts at a lower temperature than the filler metal, wets the
surface to be brazed and removes the oxide film and cleans the surfaces.
6. As the capillary action between the base metal and the filler material is more than
that between base metal and flux, the filer material replaces the flux and flows
into the joint.
7. The joint filled with liquid filler material upon cooling to room temperature
solidifies and forms the desired joint.
Different Brazing Alloys (Filler metal) used are :
a) Al-Si Filler
b) Mg Filler
c) Cu and Cu-Zn filler
d) Gold Filler metals
e) Nickel filler metals
f) Nickel filler metals
g) Silver Brazing filler metals.

Advantages of Brazing
i. Dissimilar metals can be joined.
ii. Properly brazed joints are air tight.
iii. Brazing gives a much stronger joint compared to Soldering.
iv. Complex parts can be brazed.
v. Brazing produces non-corrosive joints.
vi. Brazing operation does not alter the metallurgy of metals.

Disadvantages of Brazing
Very large parts cannot be brazed because of the difficulty to bring the parts to
the brazing temperature.
A certain degree of skilled labour is required.
Brazing fluxes and filler rods may release toxic gases.
Process is expensive compared to welding.
137


Applications of Brazing
Brazing can join
1. cast metals to wrought metals
2. non-metals to metals
3. dissimilar metals
Brazing operation is used for joining wrought iron, steels, copper and copper
alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, Magnesium and Magnesium alloys and
to so many other materials.

Difference between brazing and welding


Surfaces to be brazed are not raised to the melting point.
Brazing alloy spreads along the joint by capillary action.
There will be penetration into the base metal in welding. But in brazing operation
there is not penetration into the base metal.


Comparison between Soldering and Brazing
In Soldering and Brazing there is no direct melting of base metal being joined.
Brazing alloy or soldering filler alloy flows between the two adjacent surfaces of
the work-pieces.
Both Soldering and brazing process are particularly used for joining dissimilar
metals.
138

Brazing alloy or the solder have a lower melting point than the metals to be
joined.
Difference between Soldering and Brazing

SL.No Soldering Brazing
1. Filler metal has a melting point
below 427 C
Brazing alloy has melting point
above 427 C.
2. Produces joints weaker than those
by brazing.
Produces stronger joint.
3. Soldering joints do not resist
corrosion.
Brazed joints resist corrosion.
4. Air tight joints cannot be obtained. Air tight joints can be obtained.

















139

MODULE III

METAL FORMING

Metal Forming is a process in which shape of the metals are changed to desired
shapes by subjecting them to stresses greater than yield stress of the metal.

Metal Forming can be classified into two.
1. Plastic Deformation Process Primary Process : Volume and mass of the
metals are unchanged. eg. Rolling, forging, extrusion etc.
2. Metal Removal or Machining Process Secondary Process : Material is
removed from the metal. eg. Turning, thread cutting etc.

Mechanical Working of metals is needed for the following purposes.
1. To reduce original block or ingot to the finished dimensions of the part, saving
material machining cost and time.
2. To improve the mechanical properties of the metals.
3. Refinement of grain structure.
4. Removing defects (blow holes etc) from the metal.

Recrystallization :
A process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced
by a new, stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific
minimum temperature for a specific time.
Recrystallization temperature depends up on various factors.
Although recrystallization temperature for steel is 600C, hot working of steel is
carried at 900C to 1100 C.
During recrystallization, old grain boundaries disappear and small new grains
begin to grow, aligning nearby atoms into their orderly lattice pattern.
140

The more severely the material has been worked, the lower is the temperature at
which recrystallization begins. Grain growth is more rapid at higher
temperatures.
ROLLING

The process of plastically deforming metal by passing it between rolls is
known as Rolling'. In this process the work is subjected to high compressive
stresses from the squeezing action of rolls and to surface shear stresses as a result of
the friction between the rolls and the metal. Also, the frictional forces help for
drawing the metal into the rolls.

PRINCIPLE OF ROLLING :

Rolling basically consists of passing the metal piece through two rolls rotating in
opposite directions. The space between the rolls is adjusted to the desired
thickness of the rolled section.
The rolls are in contact with passing metal piece over a sufficient distance
represented by the arc AB in the diagram.
The angle AOB is called Angle of Contact or the Maximum angle of Bite.
The friction between metal piece and rolls provide sufficient grip for the rolls to
move the metal piece through the rolls.
The reduction in thickness increases with coefficient of friction.
The pressure exerted by over the metal by the rolls varies as represented by the
pressure distribution curve in the diagram.
141

It will be minimum at both the extremities and will be maximum at a point
somewhere in the curve.
The line representing the maximum pressure is called Neutral or No Slip Line
and the point C is known as No Slip Point or the Point of Maximum Pressure. As
the Arc of Contact increases, this point tends to move towards the exit B. Also
when this arc of contact becomes so big that the maximum angle of bite AOB
becomes more than two times the angle of friction between the rolls and the work
and hence point C coincides with B and then rolls cannot draw the work through
them.
At the point C the surface of metal and the roll move at the same speed. Before
this point metal moves slower than the rolls. After crossing the rolls metal move
at a faster rate.

Hot Rolling :

Hot rolling is the process of rolling a metal above its recrystallization
temperature. The first hot working operation for most steel products is done in
the blooming mills. Blooming mills are usually high reversing mills, with forged
rolls each weighing up to 20 tones. They are driven by a reversing electric motor
of up to 20 MW capacity.
As a result of squeezing, the grains are elongated in the direction of rolling and
after crossing the stress zone, grains start refining.
Advantages
Hot rolling brings homogeneity in rolled components.
Grain refinement gives optimum mechanical properties to the alloy.
142

Time taken to produce the component is less compared to cold rolling.
Disadvantages
Surface oxidation takes place.
Chance of scale inclusion exists.
Process is more expensive.
More care is needed to handle the hot part.

Cold Rolling :



Cold Rolling is a process of rolling metals and alloys below their recrystallization
temperatures. Generally they are worked at room temperatures.
In Cold Rolling, the grains tend to retain the shape acquired during rolling.
Advantages
1. Cold rolling is used to produce sheets and strips of fine surface finish and
accuracy.
2. Strength of cold rolling will be high because of strain hardening.
3. Close dimensional tolerances can be achieved.
4. Reduced defects.
Disadvantages

1. Internal stresses are induced into the cold worked metal thus making the metal
hard and brittle.
2. Ductility is loosed to great extent.
143

SL.No Hot Working Cold Working
1.
Metal heated above its
recrystallization temperature.
Metal heated below its
recrystallization temperature.
2.
Being carried out at
recrystallization temperature, there
is no strain hardening.(ie.
Recrystallization takes pace with
deformation)
No recrystallization leading to strain
hardening(work hardening).
3.
Co-efficient of friction between
rolls and work is higher.
Lesser.
4.
Heavy reduction in area can be
obtained.
Heavy reduction in area cannot be
obtained.
5.
Mechanical properties are
improved. Less decrease in
ductility.
Hardness increases. Brittleness
increases. Ductility decreases.
6.
Blow-holes and other similar
defects are removed.
Excessive cold rolling generates
cracks.
7. Roll radius is generally larger. Smaller.
8.
Very thin sections are not
obtained. Hot rolling sheets less
than 1.25mm is not economical.
Thin sections can be obtained. (0.002
mm)
9.
Hot Rolling has scale(metal oxide)
on it.
Oxide free.
10. Surface finish is not good. Good surface finish.
11.
Used for ferrous and non-ferrous.
Steels, aluminum, copper, brass,
bronze, etc. used to change ingot
to billets, slabs, sheets etc.
Equally applicable.
12. Residual Stresses are less.
More due to deformation of crystals
and work hardening effect.

SHAPES USED IN ROLLING
1. Ingot: It is the initial product obtained by, the casting of molten metal. (600mm x
600mm)
2. Bloom: A bloom is the product of the first breakdown of ingot. It is usually of
square cross section. (150mm x 150mm)usually square/rectangle.
144

3. Billet: Hot rolling of bloom yields billet. (40 x 40 thickness, 150x 150 width)
4. Slab : Produced by Reducing ingot. (Width 500 -1800mm and thickness 50-
300mm).
5. Plate and Sheet : Plate(above 6mm) has more thickness than sheet (less than
6mm).
6. Sheet and Strip : Both sheet and strip has less thickness. But strip has less width
compared to sheet.

Types of Rolling Mills

Rolling mills can be conveniently classified with respect to the number and
arrangement of the rolls as follows:

1. Two High Mill


This is the simplest and most common type of rolling.
These are further classified as reversing and non reversing mills.
In non reversing mills, rolls of equal size are rotated only in one direction.
In two high reversing mill the work can be passed to and fro through the rolls
by reversing their direction of rotation.
The space between the rolls can be adjusted by raising or lowering the upper
roll.
Used for breaking down of ingots.



145

2. Three High Mill

This consists of three rolls of equal size one above the other. In the upper and
lower rolls are power driven, while the middle roll rotates by friction.
The direction of upper and lower rolls are the same.
Used for the production of steel shapes such as I-beams, angles, channels etc.
3. Four High Mill

This consists of two small diameter working rolls and two large diameter
backup rolls placed one above the other.
The larger diameter called as Backup rolls and its function is to prevent the
deflection of small rolls.
The smaller rolls are called as Working rolls.
Less power needed as less friction due to less contact area.
Generally used for sheet rolling.
For rolling special sections, rolls are designed so as to obtain the desired
section.
Used for slab production.
4. Cluster Mill

146

Each of the work rolls (which are Power driven) are supported by two
backing rolls.
Used for the production of thin sheet.

5. Tandem Mill

In this, a series of rolling mills are after the other, to facilitate high production
each stand.
Each set of rolls is called stand.
Since different reduction takes place at each stand, the strip will be moving at
different velocities.
6. Steckel Mill:
7.
This mill-is similar to tandem except for no working roll is power driven.
Only the uncoiler and the wind up reels are power driven. In this mill, amount
of reduction is limited. But hard steels can be reduced to thin sections with
close tolerances.

Defects in Rolled Products :
1. In hot rolling scaling may take place.
2. Surface cracks may occur if strain hardening is excessive.
3. Non-uniform thickness may be produced if the camber and roll pressure are not
matched.

Causes :
1. Defects due to Roll Gap : To produce a flat and even component, the roll gap
should be perfectly parallel.
2. Defects due to in homogeneities in deformation :
3. Defects due to Defective ingots.
147


Production of Pipes and Tubes :
1. Seamless Pipes (Tube Rolling or Roll Piercing)



Heated billet is pierced using a punch to create a hole of predetermined depth
(operation called Punch Piercing).
A mandrel is placed inside the workpiece and is placed between conical
shaped roller dies and is rolled.
Diameter of the mandrel controls the inner diameter of the tube to be
produced.

2. Fabricated Pipes :

Lap Welded Pipe

Lap Welded pipe is made from a heated flat strip. Edges of the strip is
beveled. This strip is called as Skelp. Skelp is rolled in to give a cylindrical
shape to it. After being reheated, the bent skelp is passed between two
148

grooved rolls. A mandrel used control the inner diameter of the tube. The
edges are lap-welded by pressure between rolls and the mandrel. As the
heated metal edges are pressed together, the ends upset slightly. This excess
metal is trimmed off. Lap welded pipe is made in sizes 2 to 16 inches in
diameter.

Skelp passing thourgh Welding Bell

Pipe passing between rolls to
correct the diameter

Butt Welded Pipe is also made from a heated flat strip. Edges are beveled.
Heated skelp is then pulled thorough a welding bell which forms it into a
round shape and simultaneously the edges are pressed together to complete
the cylindrical shape. The welded pipe is then passed through sizing rolls to
correct it to the correct diameter.
Unconventional Forming Methods

High Energy Rate Forming Process (HERF) :
Commonly used HERF methods are :

1. Explosive Forming :
Make use of the pressure wave generated by an explosion to force the
material formed against a die.
Pressure produced is around 70000kg/cm
2
.
Complicated and difficult shaped parts that can be shaped by other methods
can be obtained by this method.
Energy from the explosion is transferred to the work-piece by pressure,
cavitation, water hammer and diffraction.
149

Depending up on the type of the process, Explosive Forming is classified into
3. They are
a) Open Type ( Stand-Off Type) :

In this type energy is released from a distance from the work-piece and is
carried to the work-piece through a liquid medium.
Space in the die is often connected to a vacuum forming machine as the
presence of air puts more resistance tot the operation.
b) Closed Type (Contact Type) :

In this type, whole energy produced is transmitted to the workpiece
directly.
So the efficiency is more.
There is no problem of liquid splashing.
Greater design considerations are to be given to the container.
c) Multiple Type :
In this type energy is utilized for forming more than one workpiece at a
time.


150

Advantages of Explosive Forming :
Low capital investment.
Component is formed in one shot only.
One die (either female or male) is needed.
Large parts can be formed easily.
Ultimate strength and yield strength are improved.
Disadvantages of Explosive Forming :
Personnel must be trained.
Process is noisy.
Applications :
Aerospace components.
Used for blanking, coining, cutting, embossing drawing etc.

2. Electro-hydraulic Forming or Spark Forming:


Make use of the shock waves and pressure produced due to the conversion
of electrical energy to mechanical energy in a liquid medium for the
forming operation.
Principle : Discharge of an electric spark in the liquid medium produces
shock waves which can be used for metal forming.
Unit is immersed in water.
During operation high voltage is supplied across two electrodes.
151

Spark created produces high pressure waves form the metal placed in the
dies.
Energy produced is less than that of explosive forming.
Voltages of 10000 to 30000 Volts are generally used.
Process can be used for blanking, piercing, forging etc.
Running cost is less.
Initial cost is high.
Two methods are used for the conversion of electrical energy to mechanical
energy.
1. Capacitor Discharge through a gap.
2. Capacitor Discharge through a wire.

Advantages :
Low capital investment.
Large amount of energy can be directed.
Reproducibility is another advantage.
Disadvantages :
Initial cost is more.
Applications :
Aerospace components.

3. Electromagnetic Forming (Magnetic Pulse Forming or MPF) :





152


Consist of an capacitor, a switch, a coil and a power supply that provides the
energy to charge capacitor.
The current through the coil produces a magnetic field of high intensity
between the coil and the workpiece.
High magnetic field produced between the coil forms the metal piece.
Forming depends up on the design of the coil.
The efficiency of Magnetic pulse depends up on the resistivity of the metal
being formed.

Advantages :
No lubricants are required.
Process is fast.


High velocity Forming




Metal is deformed by using high velocities or ram/die.
Since Kinetic Energy is proportional to square of velocity, high energy can be
delivered to the metal with relatively small weights.
153

This reduces cost and size of machine.
Velocities range from 30 m/sec to 300 m/sec.
HVF make use of the energy stored in a compressed gas or energy released from
burning fuel (petrol)-oxidizer to accelerate a ram to high velocity.
In Gas operated machines, energy obtained by expanding a high pressure gas is
used to drive a piston down a cylinder.
Machines make use of a quick release mechanism for rapid action of ram.
Advantages :
Metals difficult to forge by other methods can be forged.
Complex parts can be forged in one blow.
Dimensional accuracy and surface finish can be obtained.
Deep, thin sections can be forged.
Disadvantages :
Process is limited to symmetrical parts.
Process is slow compared to mechanical press forging.
Applications of HERF :
Production of gears and wheels.
Parts with high height to width ratios can be produced.
Production of turbine blades and turbine wheels, valve bodies, rifle parts missile
components etc.
Roll Forming

Roll Forming is a process of obtaining circular shape to a steel strip by passing it
through a series of rolls where its shape is gradually changed into circular.
There are two main types of Roll Forming. They are
1. One uses Continuous Strip Material
154

2. Other uses sheet and plate stock.
In Roll Forming a series of rolls to gradually change the shape of the metal.
Intricacy of the shape, size of the section, thickness and type of material
determine the number of rolls required.
Bending Rolls are used for bending sheet and plate stock.
A Roll Bending machine consists of three rolls of same diameter.
Materials used for Roll Forming are Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Bronze, Brass,
Copper etc.
Roll Pass Design


An ingot or bloom need to be passed many times between different rolls before it
is shaped into flat, round or section.
Plates, sheets and strips are produced by rolling between smooth, cylindrical
rolls.
Bars, rods and sections are produced by passing the work between rolls having
grooves cut in them.
The shape formed when the grooves of mating rolls are matched together is
called the Pass.
Dotted lines in the figure shows the previous shape of the stock.
After being shaped in one pass, the stock is turned 90 about its axis before being
entered into next pass.


155

1. Roughening Pass :

Roughening Pass reduce the cross section of the stock.
a) Box Pass : Used in Blooming Mills.
b) Diamond- diamond Pass :
c) Diamond Square Pass
d) Oval Square Pass
2. Leader Pass :
Leader Pass serve to bring the cross-section of the stock to the final shape.

3. Finishing Pass :
Finishing Pass imparts final shape to the product.
Rolling of Rounds, Flats and Sections
Operational Steps:
Surface scales and other defects are removed.
Metal is heated.
Material is rolled.
Rolling of Square Sections :


Rolling of Rounds :




156

Rolling of Flats, Angle Section, I-Beams, Channels.



157

MODULE IV
FORMING TECHNOLOGY

PRESS WORKING

It is a method of cold working of metals usually in the form of sheet or strip. Close
dimensional accuracy can be obtained and no heating of the work piece is involved.

TYPES OF PRESSES

Presses are either mechanical or hydraulic. Both have different types of frames,
which embrace the moving parts of the press The Society of Manufacturing
Engineers states the two most common types of frames as the "C" frame and
"straight side press." The "C" type press is accessible on three sides. It's less costly
and takes up less floor space. The straight side press, on the other hand, has
vertical columns on each sidea setup that eliminates angular deflection.SME
considers the force capacity (or force that can be exerted at a specified point in a
stroke) as an important feature take into account. While mechanical presses are still
the most common type of press, hydraulic presses have the advantage of delivering
"full force" at any point during stroke. It can also be adjusted to facilitate part
clearance between cycle, making it possible for press operators to use several
different tool and die heights.
Mechanical press
The ram is actuated using a flywheel Stroke motion is not uniform.

Hydraulic press:
Have longer strokes than mechanical presses, and develop full force
throughout the stroke. Stroke motion is of uniform speed, especially adapted to deep
drawing operations.
Transfer press
Fully automatic, uses robotic arms to move work pieces from station to station
158

Similar to progressive die drawing except this process uses separate tooling for each
station.
Stamping Press
Its main function is to provide enough power to open and close the die set. The die
set shapes (or cuts) the metal part set. That metal part is then fed into the die block
and the ram descends, producing the desired shape. The press uses that energy to
construct the part. This is done (ideally) without producing a large amount or
possibly no waste (scrap materials) at all Presses range in sizefrom small bench
top presses that generate as little as five tons to larger presses that can form
geometric shapes rated in thousands of tons
Sketches of Presses:








PRESS WORKING OPERATION









159


PUNCHING







A shearing operation that separates a scrap slug from the work piece
when the punch enters the die. Most economical method of making holes
in sheet or strip metal for medium to high production.

Conventional Blanking
Similar process to Punching, except this operation separates the workpiece from
parent stock material








Shearing
A process for straight line cutting of flat stock.
Performed by forcing an upper and a lower blade past each other with a
desired offset.
160

Used for making blanks of suitable dimensions for further processing









In Shearing
Punch and die ratio of rough area:burnished area increases with higher ductility
Punch travel depends on the ductility or brittleness.
A brittle metal requires little travel.
Punch Force = shear strength * cross-sectional area.
Friction can affect this.
P = 0.7 (UTS) (t) (L)


161



In Shearing Operation
Punching slug is discarded
Blanking slug is retained
Fine blanking
Slitting



Shearing Dies
Clearance usually between 2% and 8% of the shear thickness.
Compound dies
Several operations on the same strip may be performed in one stroke.
Progressive dies
Multiple operation are carried out as the coil is moved after each stroke.

Clearance
Clearance c is the distance between the punch and die. The correct clearance
depends on sheet-metal type and thickness t:
c = at
where a is the allowance (a = 0.075 for steels and 0.060 for aluminum alloys).
162

If the clearance is not set correctly, either an excessive force or an oversized burr
can occur:



Progressive Die Drawing









A cold forming process that utilizes a series of stations to perform two or
more simultaneous operations. Each press stroke develops a final work piece
as the strip stock moves through the die using a combination of shearing and
forming processes. Various geometric shapes can be made including cutting
and forming operations. High production rates that are automatically
operated.
163


BENDING OF SHEET AND PLATE
Bending is done to form flanges, etc.
Also for giving stiffness to a sheet part



Minimum Bend Radius
We can see that as R/T decreases tensile strain at the outer surface increases.
Radius R at which cracks appear on the outer surface is called minimum
bending radius
Min. bending radius is expressed in terms of T (2T, 3T, etc.)

Bendability can be improved
Heating the area
Applying hydrostatic pressure
Reducing outer tensile strain by compressive force
As R/T decreases, narrow sheets (smaller length of bend) crack at the edge and
move towards center. Wide sheet crack at center.
Rough edges can also cause reduction of bendability (stress raisers).

TYPES OF BENDING OPERATIONS
Beading
Flanging
164

Hemming
Roll Forming
Tube Bending

1. Tube bending






165



Spinning


2. Conventional Spinning
As large as 6m (20 ft)
Shear Spinning
Missile nose cones, rocket parts.
Tube Spinning


166

3. Superplastic Forming

Same fine grained alloys can elongate as much as 2000%
E.g. Zn-Al, titanium can be formed into very complex shapes.
High ductility, low strength
Very strain rate sensitive
Extremely slow forming
10
-4
to 10
-2
s
Some times forming can take hours


4. Deep Drawing
It includes
Pure drawing
Stretching
Ironing

The cold forming process in which a flat blank is shaped by the action of a punch
forcing the metal into a die cavity. Very similar to a Stretch draw, except the depth of
the drawn part is greater than the diameter. Various geometric shapes can be made.
Low or high production rates, manually or automatically operated.

167



Important factors of deep drawing
Properties of the sheet
Ratio of blank dia and punch dia
Clearance
Punch and die corner radii
Speed of punch
Holding force etc
Deep Drawability


Limiting drawing ratio (LDR)
Max D
0
/D
p
ratio

R (normal anisotropy)

If R=1 sheet is isotropic.



168



5. Perforating
A punching process that cuts a desired pattern of holes into the workpiece
by means of multiple punches and dies.
6. Nibbling
A shearing process that utilizes a series of overlapping cuts to make complex
shapes. Produces complex shapes from sheet metal that is generally no
thicker than 0.25 inches










7. Plate Roll Bending








A cold forming process that utilizes a combination of 3 rolls,arrange in a pyramid
shape, to form plate or sheet metal into cylindrical shapes.
169

Is used for the production of curved workpieces made from heavy sheet or plate
material.
Materials are typically at least 1/16 inch thick and 15 inch wide, up to 6 inch thick
and 20 feet wide.
Production on any material capable of cold working.
Primarily used in forming large cylindrical sections requiring the seam to be
welded.

Stamping Processes





SHEET METAL OPERATION
Ratio Surface Area:Volume is very high for sheet metal process.
Plates thickness > 0.25 inches
Boilers, bridges, ships, etc. use relatively thick plates
Usually sheet forming is done on relatively thin material.
Shapes can be of various size
Beverage can, car body
Sheet metal forming includes many widely used processes.
Elongation
Uniform elongation region
Postuniform elongation region
True stress, true strain:
Necking begins at
Uniform strain strain hardening index n
Large n, uniform elongation is better.

170

EXTRUSION PROCESSES

In the basic extrusion process, a round billet is placed in a chamber and forced
through a die opening by a ram.
Methods:
Direct extrusion
Indirect extrusion
Hydrostatic extrusion
Impact extrusion





Metal flow in extrusion
Substantial reduction in the cross sectional area
Metal flow is important
Types of flow
Homogenous flow pattern
No friction between billet and die
Continuous
171

Good lubrication
Friction
leads to formation of dead metal zone
High wall/billet friction
Outer wall cools down while central part is still hot.
Leads to defects




Extrusion ratio (R) = A
o
/A
f
True strain:
Where L
f
=extruded product length
L
0
=billet length
Optimum Die Angle
The ideal work should be independent
Friction work increases with decreasing die angle
Redundant work caused by inhomogeneous deformation
increases with increasing die angle
Forces in hot extrusion
Velocity effects metal with strain rate sensitivity

For high extrusion ratios and
172



As V
0
increases, pressure increases
As temperature becomes hot, pressure reduces
As V
0
rate of work done on the billet also increases, thus temperature increases
This can cause melting and speed crack on the surface.
Cold Extrusion
Room temperature or a few hundred degrees
Advantages
Close control of tolerance
Improved surface finish
Strain hardening ca give some desirable properties
No oxide layer formation
High stresses on dies
Lubrication is very critical (phosphate, wax, etc.)

Impact Extrusion
Punch descends at high speed and strikes a blank
Used to make thin tubular sections
Diameter of the tube to thickness of the tube =0.005
173



Hydrostatic extrusion
Pressure applied by fluid medium
Reduces friction


Defects in extrusion

Surface Cracking
Speed cracking (high speed, high friction)
Intergranular cracks
Occurs with Al, Mg, Zn, molybdenum alloys
Can also be caused by metals sticking to die surfaces
174

Surface defects may extrude into the center of the extruded parts
Oxides, impurities usually caused due to inhomogeneous flow of metal

Internal Cracking
Center of the extrusion can have cracks. Known as center crack chevron crack
Depends on contact length, angle, die opening, ratio of extrusion.

Injection Molding
Injection Molding is a process, in which a polymer is heated to a highly plastic
state and forced to flow under pressure into a mold cavity, where it solidifies. The
part, called a molding, is then removed from the cavity:

















175

The production molding cycle time is in the range 10 to 30 sec:
Compression Molding
In compression molding, the workpiece (pre-shaped part, volume of powder,
mixture of liquid resin and fillers) is placed in the heated mold and is formed
under pressure:





Compression molding of thermosets: (1) charge is loaded,
(2)charge is compressed and cured, and 3) part is ejected and
removed

Transfer Molding
Transfer molding is a similar to compression molding process, but the charge is
placed not in the die cavity but into a chamber next to the die cavity. Pressure is
then applied to force the material to flow into the heated mold where curing occurs







Transfer molding of thermosets: (1) charge is loaded, (2) soften
polymer is compressed into mold cavity and cured, and (3) part is ejected
and removed


176

CALENDERING
Calendering is a process for producing sheet and film stocks out of rubber or
thermoplastics. Extrusion and calendering can be combined in the roller die
process








A typical roll configuration in calendering
















177

MODULE V

FORGING TECHNOLOGY

Process: Forging is a metal forming process used to produce large quantities
of identical parts, as in the manufacture of automobiles, and to improve the
mechanical properties of the metal being forged, as in aerospace parts or military
equipment. The design of forged parts is limited when undercuts or cored sections
are required. All cavities must be comparatively straight and largest at the mouth, so
that the forging die may be withdrawn. The products of forging may be tiny or
massive and can be made of steel (automobile axles), brass (water valves), tungsten
(rocket nozzles), aluminum (aircraft structural members), or any other metal. More
than two thirds of forging in the United States is concentrated in four general areas:
30 percent in the aerospace industry, 20 percent in automotive and truck
manufacture, 10 percent in off-highway vehicles, and 10 percent in military
equipment. This process is also used for coining, but with slow continuous pushes.
The forging metal forming process has been practiced since the Bronze Age.
Hammering metal by hand can be dated back over 4000 years ago. The purpose, as
it still is today, was to change the shape and/or properties of metal into useful tools.
Steel was hammered into shape and used mostly for carpentry and farming tools. An
ax made easy work of cutting down trees and metal knives were much more efficient
than stone cutting tools. Hunters used metal-pointed spears and arrows to catch prey.
Blacksmiths used a forge and anvil to create many useful instruments such as
horseshoes, nails, wagon tires, and chains.
Militaries used forged weapons to equip their armies, resulting in many
territories being won and lost with the use and strength of these weapons. Today,
forging is used to create various and sundry things. The operation requires no cutting
or shearing, and is merely a reshaping operation that does not change the volume of
the material.
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Forging:
Forging changes the size and shape, but not the volume, of a part. The
change is made by force applied to the material so that it stretches beyond the yield
point. The force must be strong enough to make the material deform. It must not be
so strong, however, that it destroys the material. The yield point is reached when the
material will reform into a new shape. The point at which the material would be
destroyed is called the fracture point.
In forging, a block of metal is deformed under impact or pressure to form the desired
shape. Cold forging, in which the metal is not heated, is generally limited to
relatively soft metals. Most metals are hot forged; for example, steel is forged at
temperatures between 2,100
o
F and 2,300
o
F (1,150
o
C to 1,260
o
C). These
temperatures cause deformation, in which the grains of the metal elongate and
assume a fibrous structure of increased strength along the direction of flow. (See
Figure)

Figure - Flow lines in a forged part
Normally this results in metallurgical soundness and improved mechanical
properties. Strength, toughness, and general durability depend upon the way the
grain is placed. Forgings are somewhat stronger and more ductile along the grain
structure than across it. The feature of greatest importance is that along the grain
structure there is a greater ability to resist shock, wear, and impact than across the
grain. Material properties also depend on the heat-treating process after forging.
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Slow cooling in air may normalize workpieces, or they can be quenched in oil and
then tempered or reheated to achieve the desired mechanical properties and to relieve
any internal stresses. Good forging practice makes it possible to control the flow
pattern resulting in maximum strength of the material and the least chances of fatigue
failure. These characteristics of forging, as well as fewer flaws and hidden defects,
make it more desirable than some other operations (i.e. casting) for products that will
undergo high stresses.
In forging, the dimensional tolerances that can be held vary based on the size of the
workpiece. The process is capable of producing shapes of 0.5 to >50.0 cm in
thickness and 10 to <100 cm in diameter. The tolerances vary from
1
/
32
in. for
small parts to in. for large forgings. Tolerances of 0.010 in. have been held in
some precision forgings, but the cost associated with such precision is only justified
in exceptional cases, such as some aircraft work.
Grain Flow Pattern
Grains flow is exposed: end grains
Can be avoided by intermediate steps in forging and proper orientation of
workpieces
Stress raiser
Corrosion, etc.
Forgeability
The forgeability of a metal can be defined as its capability to undergo
deformation by forging without cracking.
Metal which can be formed easily without cracking, with low force has good
forgeability.

Tests to determine forgeability
Upsetting test: cracks while upsetting cylindrical specimen
Various temperatures and strain rates
Just provides guidelines
Hot-twist test
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Metal rod is twisted at various temperatures.
Forgeability can be determined for different materials using this method.
Used for steel.





Types of forging:
Forging is divided into three main methods: hammer, press, and rolled types.
(1) Hammer Forging (Flat Die): Preferred method for individual forgings.
The shaping of a metal, or other material, by an instantaneous application of
pressure to a relatively small area. A hammer or ram, delivering intermittent
blows to the section to be forged, applies this pressure. The hammer is
dropped from its maximum height, usually raised by steam or air pressure.
Hammer forging can produce a wide variety of shapes and sizes and, if
sufficiently reduced, can create a high degree of grain refinement at the same
time. The disadvantage to this process is that finish machining is often
required, as close dimensional tolerances cannot be obtained.

181

(2) Press Forging: This process is similar to kneading, where a slow
continuous pressure is applied to the area to be forged. The pressure will
extend deep into the material and can be completed either cold or hot. A cold
press forging is used on a thin, annealed material, and a hot press forging is
done on large work such as armor plating, locomotives and heavy
machinery. Press Forging is more economical than hammer forging (except
when dealing with low production numbers), and closer tolerances can be
obtained. A greater proportion of the work done is transmitted to the
workpiece, differing from that of the hammer forging operation, where much
of the work is absorbed by the machine and foundation. This method can
also be used to produce larger forgings, as there is no limitation in the size of
the machine.
(3) Die Forging: Open and closed die operations can be used in forging. In
open-die forging the dies are either flat or rounded. Large forgings can be
formed by successive applications of force on different parts of the material.
Hydraulic presses and forging machines are both employed in closed die
forging. In closed-die forging the metal is trapped in recessed impressions,
which are machined into the top and bottom dies. As the dies press together,
the material is forced to fill the impressions. Flash, or excess metal, is
squeezed out between the dies. Closed-die forging can produce parts with
more complex shapes than open-die forging. Die forging is the best method,
as far as tolerances that can be met, and also results in a finished part that is
completely filled out and is produced with the least amount of flashing. The
final shape and the improvement in metallurgical properties are dependent on
the skill of the operator. Closer dimensional tolerances can be held with
closed die forgings than with open die forgings and the operator requires less
skill.
182


Impression Die Forging
Workpiece takes the shape of the die cavity
Flashes are created radially outward
High Friction in the Flash



Flash:

Very high length:height ratio.Flash cools faster than the bulk and hence resists
deformation - This helps the billet to fill the cavity Complex Shapes have different
strains and strain rates.Thus level of strength at different locations depends on values
of n strain hardening exponent, m strain rate sensitivity of the material

Closed Die Forging
Forging created without flash
Proper volume of die is required
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Precise control of parameters
Near net shape forging
Very precise machines
Special die designs
Aluminum, magnesium, etc.
Isothermal Forging
(Hot die forging)
Die heated to temperature of forging
Good dimensional accuracy
Die is made of nickel alloy
Forging Equipment:
The type of machinery to be used depends on the shape, size, material, and
number of pieces to be made. Forging hammers apply force by the impact of a large
ram. This may be a drop hammer, or weight falling under the force of gravity, or it
may be a power hammer, driven by steam or compressed air. Two types of power
hammers are: the smith forging hammer and the drop hammer. The largest hammers
can provide a total force as high as 80,000 pounds.

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Smith Forging Hammer and Board Drop Hammer
Smith Forging Hammer Heavy workpieces could be processed using a
smith-forging hammer, and smaller forgings are die formed in drop
hammers. Smith forging hammers are typically steam or air-operated,
consisting of a power actuated ram supported by a heavy cast iron frame.
The final product is a result of the ram being powered into the dies containing
the workpiece.
Board Drop Hammer A drop hammer differs in that the anvil is an
integrated part of the hammer base. It is necessary for the alignment between
the forging die elements used. This method is advantageous in that the
physical properties of the metal are improved by the severe mechanical
working, the operation is rapid, many complicated parts can be forged to
shape, a minimum amount of machining is necessary, and internal defects are
eliminated. The disadvantages are the cost of machinery and dies, which
demands a high quantity of parts to be manufactured in order for the process
to be cost effective.
Forging Press A forging press consists of a hydraulic press, which
exerts a force capable of pressing steel or a metal alloy into the shape of the
forging die. These machines can be positioned horizontally or vertically.
This method can be used to form car wheels, gears, bushings, and other such
parts.
Mechanical Forging Press Mechanical presses have a motor-driven
flywheel that stores energy to drive a ram--much lighter than a hammer--
through a crank or other mechanical device. The ram in a press moves more
slowly than a hammer and squeezes the workpiece. The largest mechanical
presses have a total force of 12,000 tons and cannot forge as large or
complicated parts as the larger hammers.
Hydraulic Forging Press Hydraulic presses, in which high-pressure
fluid produced by hydraulic pumps drives a ram, are about 100 times slower
185

than hammers. They are used for large or complex die forgings and for
extrusion. Presses with a total force of 50,000 tons have been developed in
the United States primarily for the forging of large airplane components.
Even larger hydraulic presses, up to 78,000 tons, have been introduced in
Europe.
Heat Treatment:
Materials can be improved before or after manufacturing by different heat
treatment processes. Forging is usually performed to hot metals, allowing for
smoother flow and easier deformation. Steel is heated to varying temperatures,
usually between 1700
o
F to 2000
o
F but can reach as high as 2400
o
F, depending on the
carbon content. Depending on the amount of work required to the piece, it may be
necessary to reheat the piece one or more times. The temperature of the metal when
completely forged is called the finishing temperature. After forging, the material
must be cooled uniformly and protected from moisture or cold air. This is done by
placing the material into dry ashes, lime or mica dust in order to retard the rate of
cooling.
(1) Preheating: Preheating of materials is done to help prevent cracking or
distortion of the material. This is done by placing the metal in a series of furnaces of
increasing temperatures instead of throwing it directly into the furnace used to heat
the metal for forging, annealing, normalizing or hardening. Another way to achieve
this is to start in a cold furnace and slowly bring it to temperature.
(2) Annealing: Annealing should follow forging as soon as possible
whenever machining is required. Annealing is the heating and then cooling of metal
to make the metal less brittle, or more malleable and ductile. This will soften the
steel that was previously hardened and reduce internal stresses. Annealing is done
by heating the metal to a temperature beyond the critical temperature and holding it
there for a period of time. The metal is then cooled with the furnace and not
removed until the furnace is cold. It can also be cooled to a temperature within the
furnace that is known to be below the lower critical temperature, at which the
186

annealing is complete. Slower cooling rates are required as carbon content increases
in the metal.
(3) Normalizing: Normalizing is done to improve the crystalline structure of
the steel, thus obtaining superior properties. Heating the forged part just beyond the
critical temperature and then allowing it to air-cool completes normalizing. This
allows the grain-size to be refined and, if not held at that temperature too long, will
result in a newly formed crystalline structure. The internal stresses, if any, will be
relieved, hardened steels will be softened, overheated steels will have a more
favorable, normal fine-grained structure, and structural distortion will be removed.
(4) Hardening: Hardening of steels can also be done after forging. The
workpiece is heated slowly, to obtain the finest grain-sizes, to its hardening
temperature - much higher than annealing temperatures. The metal is kept at this
temperature only until uniform heat distribution and completion of the thermal
transformation. Prolonged exposure at these elevated temperatures will result in
increased grain growth and surface decarbonization, if no protection from oxidation
is provided. Oxidation can be avoided by surrounding the metal with some material
that will use up the oxygen that is present in the furnace. Once the metal has been
uniformly heated to temperature, it is removed from the furnace and placed directly
into a quenching tank. This rapidly cools the metal and the metal retains its new
qualities.
Forge
The forge or smithy is the workplace of a smith or a blacksmith. Forging is
the term for shaping metal by plastic deformation. Cold forging is done at low
temperatures, while conventional forging is done at high temperatures, which makes
metal easier to shape and less likely to fracture. A basic smithy contains a forge,
sometimes called a hearth for heating the metals, commonly iron or steel to a
temperature where the metal becomes malleable, or to a temperature where work
hardening ceases to accumulate, an anvil to lay the metal pieces on while
hammering, and a slack tub to rapidly cool, and thus harden, forged metal pieces in.
Tools include tongs to hold the hot metal, and hammers to strike the hot metal. Once
187

the final shape has been forged, iron and steel in particular often get some type of
heat treatment. This can result in various degrees of hardening or softening
depending on the details of the treatment.
Forging
Forging is the working of metal by plastic deformation. It is distinguished
from machining, the shaping of metal by removing material, such as by drilling,
sawing, milling, turning or grinding, and from casting, wherein metal in its molten
state is poured into a mold, whose form it retains on solidifying. The processes of
raising, sinking, rolling, swaging, drawing and upsetting are essentially forging
operations although they are not commonly so called because of the special
techniques and tooling they require.Forging results in metal that is stronger than cast
or machined metal parts. This is because during forging the metal's grain flow
changes into the shape of the part, making it stronger. Some modern parts require a
specific grain flow to ensure the strength and reliability of the part.



Scan of sectioned, forged connecting rod that has been etched to show grain flow.
Many metals are forged cold, but iron and its alloys are almost always forged
hot. This is for two reasons: first, if work hardening were allowed to progress, hard
materials such as iron and steel would become extremely difficult to work with;
188

secondly, most steel alloys can be hardened by heat treatments, such as by the
formation of martensite, rather than cold forging. Alloys that are amenable to
precipitation hardening, such as most structural alloys of aluminium and titanium,
can also be forged hot, then made strong once they achieve their final shape. Other
materials must be strengthened by the forging process itself.
Forging was done historically by a smith using hammer and anvil, and though
the use of water power in the production and working of iron dates to the 12th
century CE, the hammer and anvil are not obsolete. The smithy has evolved over
centuries to the forge shop with engineered processes, production equipment, tooling,
raw materials and products to meet the demands of modern industry.
In modern times, industrial forging is done either with presses or with
hammers powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics or steam. These
hammers are large, having reciprocating weights in the thousands of pounds. Smaller
power hammers, 500 pounds or less reciprocating weight, and hydraulic presses are
common in art smithies as well. Steam hammers are becoming obsolete.
In industry a distinction is made between open- and closed-die forging. In
open-die work the metal is free to move except where contacted by the hammer,
anvil, or other (often hand-held) tooling. In closed-die work the material is placed in
a die resembling a mold, which it is forced to fill by the application of pressure.
Many common objects, like wrenches and crankshafts, are produced by closed-die
forging, which is well suited to mass production. Open-die forging lends itself to
short runs and is appropriate for art smithing and custom work.
Closed-die forging is more expensive for mass production than is casting, but
produces a much stronger part, and is used for tools, high strength machine parts and
the like. Forgings are commonly used in automotive applications, where high
strength is demanded, with a constraint on the mass of the part (high strength-to-
mass ratio). Forged parts are more suitable for mass production. The process of
forging a part becomes cheaper with higher volumes. For these reasons forgings are
used in the automotive industry, usually after some machining. One particular
189

variant, drop forging, is often used to mass produce flat wrenches and other
household tools.
Types of forges
Coal/coke/charcoal forge



Standard coal forge
A forge which typically uses bituminous coal, industrial coke or charcoal as
the fuel to heat metal. The designs of these forges have varied over time, but whether
the fuel is coal, coke or charcoal the basic design has remained the same.
A forge of this type is essentially a hearth or fireplace designed to allow a fire
to be controlled such that metal introduced to the fire may be brought to a malleable
state or to bring about other metallurgical effects (hardening, annealing, and drawing
temper as examples). The forge fire in this type of forge is controlled in three ways:
1) amount of air, 2) volume of fuel, and 3) shape of the fuel/fire.
Over thousands of years of forging, these devices have evolved in one form or
another as the essential features of this type of forge:
Tuyere -- a pipe through which air can be forced into the fire
Bellows or blower -- a means for forcing air into the tuyere
190

Firepot or hearth -- a place where the burning fuel can be contained over or
against the tuyere opening.
During operation, fuel is placed in or on the hearth and ignited. A source of moving
air, such as a fan or bellows, introduces additional air into the fire through the tuyere.
With additional air, the fire consumes more fuel and burns hotter.
A blacksmith balances the fuel and air in the fire to suit particular kinds of
work. Often this involves adjusting and maintaining the shape of the fire.
In a typical, but by no means universal, coal forge, a firepot will be centered
in a flat hearth. The tuyere will enter the firepot at the bottom. In operation, the hot
core of the fire will be a ball of burning coke in and above the firepot. The heart of
the fire will be surrounded by a layer of hot but not burning coke. Around the
unburnt coke will be a transitional layer of coal being transformed into coke by the
heat of the fire. Surrounding all is a ring or horseshoe-shaped layer of raw coal,
usually kept damp and tightly packed to maintain the shape of the fire's heart and to
keep the coal from burning directly so that it "cooks" into coke first.
If a larger fire is necessary, the smith increases the air flowing into the fire as
well as feed and deepen the coke heart. The smith can also adjust the length and
width of the fire in such a forge to accommodate different shapes of work.
The major variation from the forge and fire just described is a 'back draft'
where there is no fire pot, and the tuyere enters the hearth horizontally from the back
wall.
Coke and charcoal may be burned in the same forges that use coal, but since
there is no need to convert the raw fuel at the heart of the fire (as with coal), the fire
is handled differently.
Individual smiths and specialized applications have fostered development of a
variety of forges of this type, from the coal forge described above, to simpler
constructions amounting to a hole in the ground with a pipe leading into it.
191

Gas forge
A forge typically uses propane or natural gas as the fuel. One common,
efficient design uses a cylindrical forge chamber and a burner tube mounted at a right
angle to the body. The chamber is typically lined with refractory materials,
preferably a hard castable refractory ceramic. The burner mixes fuel and air which
are ignited at the tip, which protrudes a short way into the chamber lining. The air
pressure, and therefore heat, can be increased with a mechanical blower or by taking
advantage of the Venturi effect.
Gas forges vary in size and construction, from large forges using a big burner
with a blower or several atmospheric burners to forges built out of a coffee can
utilizing a cheap, simple propane torch. A small forge can even be carved out of a
single soft firebrick.
The primary advantage of a gas forge is ease of use, particularly for a novice.
A gas forge is simple to operate compared to coal forges, and the fire produced is
clean and consistent. They are less versatile, as the fire cannot be reshaped to
accommodate large or unusually shaped pieces;. It is also difficult to heat a small
section of a piece. A common misconception is that gas forges cannot produce
enough heat to enable forge-welding, but a well designed gas forge is hot enough for
any task.
Drop forge




192

Hydraulic forging hammer
The workpiece, say a wrench, is created by hammering a piece of hot metal
into an appropriately shaped die. The metal (in an easily produced shape like a rod or
brick) is heated and placed on the bottom part of a die. The top part of the die then
drops onto the piece, which gives the forge its name. The die may drop under gravity
or be powered, but in all cases drop forging involves impact. The force of the impact
causes the heated metal to flow into the shape of the die, with some metal squirting
out of the thin seams between the dies. This thin metal is called "flash" and is cut
away in the next stage of processing. The drop-forged pieces usually need further
processing, like machining and polishing of working surfaces, to provide tighter
tolerances than forging alone can provide, and to produce a good finish.
Hydraulic press forge
In hydraulic press forging the work piece is pressed between the two die
halves with gradually increasing force, over a period of a few seconds. The quality of
the pieces is better than drop forging as there is more control over metal flow, but
takes longer and requires more energy. It also makes the same shape continuously.
Hot forging
Forging is the hammering or forming of hot or cold metal into a certain
shape. When the hammering and forming is done by hand it is called hand forging
and when it is done by machine it is called drop forging. The forging process starts
after having brought the steel to the correct workable temperature between 900C
and 1100. It allows us, through a process of reduction (for crushing), to get the most
various shapes.
Finery forge
A finery forge was a water-powered mill, where pig iron was refined to
produce bar iron.

Forging Equipment

193

Anvil


The anvil serves as a work bench to the blacksmith, where the metal to be
beaten is placed. An anvil body is made of mild steel, with a top face of high carbon
steel approximately 20mm thick welded on it. The flat top has two holes; the wider is
called the hardy hole, where the square shank of the hardy fits. The smaller hole is
called the punch hole, used as clearance when punching holes in hot metal.
Chisel
Chisels are made of high carbon steel whose cross-section is an octagon.
They are hardened and tempered at the cutting edge while the head is left soft so it
will not crack when hammered. Chisels are of two types, the hot and cold chisels.
The cold chisel is used for cutting cold metals while the hot chisel is for hot metals.
Usually the hot chisels are thinner and therefore can not be substituted with the cold
chisel.
Tongs
Tongs are used by the blacksmith for holding hot metals securely. The
mouths are made in various shapes to suit the gripping of various shapes of metal.
Fuller
Fullers are forming tools of different shapes used in making grooves or
hollows. They are often used in pairs, the bottom fuller has a square shank which fits
into the hardy hole in the anvil while the top fuller has a handle. The work is place
don the bottom fuller and the top is placed on the work and struck with a hammer.
194

The top fuller is also used for finishing round corners and for stretching or spreading
metal.
Hardy
The hardy is a cutting tool similar to the chisel. It is used as a chisel or
hammer for cutting both hot and cold metals. It has a square shank that fits into the
hardy hole in the anvil, with the cutting edge facing upwards. The metal to be cut is
placed on the cutting edge and struck with a hammer.

TYPES OF FORGING

Coining operation
Force or pressure applied is 5 to 6 times the flow stress of the material




Heading
Upsetting operation at the end of the rod
Can be done in highly automatic machines called Headers.

Piercing
We can create holes or cavities on a part

195

Hubbing
A hardened puch with a particular tip geometry is pressed into the surface of a
blcok. Produce a die cavity
Cogging
Progressive pressing of a arge part








Die Allowances
Shrinkage allowances
Machining allowances
Work holding allowance

196


Material Used
Tool Steel, Die steel
High carbon alloy steel (Cr, Ni, vanadium)
Hardness: Rc=45-60
Material should have strength, toughness, at high temp.
Hardenability, mechanical and thermal shock resistance, wear resistance

Dies are the most critical part of the forging operation
Proper fillet radius should be provided
Draft angle for all vertical faces for ease of removal
Flash should be allowed to form
Flash = 3% of max. thickness
C=15% of this


Roll forging
Cross sectional area of a bar is reduced and altered in shape by passing
through a pair of rollers.
Tapers shaft
Pre stages of a crank shaft
Skew rolling
Used for making ball bearings

197



TYPE OF FORGING PROCESS
Hydraulic press:
Constant low speed
Ram speed can be varied
Large amount of energy can be applied (75,000 tons)

Mechanical Press
Usually uses crank or eccentric
Force depends on the stroke position
Proper setting of the position is important
12,000 tons

Screw Press
Energy from flywheel
Load transmitted through vertical screw
High precision path
Extremely accurate alignment top and bottom halves
32,000 tons
Hammers
Potential energy of the ram
Speed can be high
Sometimes steam or air is used to aid the die
Multiple blows may be needed
198



Selection of Press depends on
Precision
Strain rate sensitivity
Amount of deformation
Size of forging
Production rate

Metal flows in the direction of least resistance
Distribute material so that it can properly fill die cavity
Several Intermediate stage Dies are used for obtaining final forging
E.G. connecting rod, crankshaft

DEFECTS IN FORGING
Fatigue resistance is reduced
Corrosion, stress raisers
In complete metal for machining
Mismatch of halves of the pierce
199

Poor strength in the direction of principle stresses
Anisotropic Behavior
Not always considered as a defect
Metal flows in different directions
Thus we obtain different strength at different points of a forging
Effect of corner radii
Metal flows better as a larger radius than in a smaller radius
For smaller radius, the metal can fold over itself to cause cold shuts
Defects
Surface cracking
Improper temperature, strain rate, design of dies
Buckling
Lap formation can occur importance of forming distribution
Solution increase the thickness of the part
Internal Defects
Improper filling of the die
Larger than required billet can cause it


200