# Study on the Jamming to Synthetic Aperture Radar

Prs = PGt σ A t (4π r )
2 2

=

PGt Gr σλ t (4π ) r
3 4

2

(1)

σ = σ 0 A; A = ρ a ⋅ ρ gr , ρ gr is ground resolution. Taking into account system loss,

loss gene ( K S ) is introduced. Equation(1) can be changed:
Pr s = PG 2σ 0 λ 3 ⋅ PRF ⋅ ρ gr 1 λ t ⋅σ 0 ⋅ ( ) r ρ gr ⋅ Ta ⋅ PRF = 2 Ta vs (4π )3 r 4 K s 2(4π )3 r 3 vs K s PGt Gr σλ 2 t
Pj G j 4π R j 2 Pj G j B B λ2 λ2 ⋅ L jγ j Ga (θ ) r Prj = Ga (θ ) r 2 Bj Bj 4π 4π 4π R j

(2)

The power intercepted by the radar is represented by:
Prj = ⋅ L jγ j

(3)

The noise single ratio (SNR) is presented by:

4π p j G j r 4 Ga (θ ) L j γ j KJ = = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅K S Pr s Ga Kf Pt Gt σ R j 2 Prj

(4)

The jamming equation is presented by:
EIRP=G j Pj = Pr Gr K J σ R j 2 4π r
4

Kf L jγ j

Ga ⋅K S Ga (θ )

(5)

Pj G j is jamming power. Pr Gr is transmitter power. R j is the distance between

radar and jammer. r is the distance between radar and target; K f = B j / Br is receiver bandwidth and jamming signal bandwidth. B j is jamming barrage bandwidth. Br is SAR chirp signal bandwidth. L j is jammer loss. γ j is polarization loss. Ga / Ga (θ ) is the ratio of SAR major lobe gain and minor lobes gain. Basic condition of valid jamming to SAR is J / S ≥ K J , so jammer valid working range can be presented by:
Ga (θ )r 4 ≥ K J ⋅ PGt σ R j 2 Gt (θ ) L j γ j t ⋅ 4π p j G j Kf

(6)

When jammer and target stand on same position, Ga (θ ) = Gt (θ ) and least valid target distance Rt min can be got:
Rt min ≥ ( K J PGt σ R j 2 L j γ j 1 t ⋅ )4 4π p j G j K f

(7)

Least jamming power is presented by:
EIRP ≥ K J

PGt σ R j 2Gt (θ ) L j γ j t ⋅ Kf 4π Rt min 4

(8)

3. Jamming Energy Distributing Jamming power is a best way to scale jamming effect. It is better to attain same jamming effect, if the jamming power is less. Jamming equation is deduced from energy distribution at this chapter. The power that jammer needs to transmit is analyzed at different jamming modes [6, 7]. Suppose there is a ground distinguish cell ρ x × ρ g , one echo power E (m, n) is:
E ( m, n ) = K ⋅ Pt Gt ρ x ρ g σ At (4π R 2 ) 2 Δt

(9)

At is effective receiving area; K is gain of receiver power, Gt = 4π At / λ 2 , Δt is sampling holding time. Equation(9) can be changed:
E ( m, n ) = KPt Gt2 ρ x ρ g σλ 2 (4π )3 R 4 Δt

(10)

At one echo jamming power E j (m, n) is presented by
E j ( m, n ) = KPj G j At (θ j ) L j γ j ⋅ Δt Kf 4π R j 2

(11)

From equation(11) and equation(4), K J of one echo is presented by:
KJ = E j (m, n) E (m, n) = (4π R) 2 R 2 Pj G j At (θ j ) L j γ j ⋅ Pt Gt2 ρ x ρ g σλ 2 K f R2 j

(12)

valid caliber at jammer direction. After imaging to echo data, NSR of video signal is presented by:
KJ = E j (m, n) J r J a L j γ j J r J a (4π R) 2 R 2 Pj G j At (θ j ) = ⋅ E (m, n) MN Kf MN R 2 Pt Gt2 ρ x ρ g σλ 2 j

At (θ j ) is

(13)

Jr is gain of jamming signal in range. Ja is gain of jamming signal in cross-range. MN is energy gain; M = τ ⋅ B is range gain; and N = R ⋅ Δ ⋅θ PRF / v ,is azimuth gain. Now, the energy gain of SAR amounts to 60 70dB, so much as more. From equation(13) and equation(8), EIRP can be get:

EIRP ≥

KJ L j γ j J r J a (4π R) 2 PRF ⋅τ ⋅ At (θ j ) R 2 Kf RΔθ / ( v / PRF ) BPav Gt2 ρ x ρ g σλ 2 R 2 j KJ = 2 2 L jγ j J r J a R ( 4π R ) PRF ⋅ At (θ j ) = Kf L j γ j J r J a ( 4π )2 R ⋅ PRF ⋅ v ⋅ At (θ j ) ⋅ sinα R 2 Δθ ⋅ Pav Gt2 ⋅ ( c / 2 ) Δyσλ 2 R2 j KJ

Kf

MNPav Gt2 ρ x ρ g σλ 2

R2 j

(14)

ρ x = 1/ B ⋅ ( c / 2 ) / sinα ; Pav is average transmitter power. α is angle of incidence;

is beam width. is different, if jammer works in different modes. Active noise jamming belongs to barrage jamming. It put noise interference over the echoes of targets to diffuse target information. Noise jamming signal is not coherent to SAR echo, so JaJr = 1 . Coherent jamming signal is mainly coherent to echo in range, and JaJr = N . Deceptive jamming is coherent to echo in range and cross-range, and JaJr = MN . Part-coherent jamming is intervenient, and 1 < JaJr < MN . Fig1 shows the jamming effect of four modes. For the purpose is to express focusing and distributing of jamming energy, coordinate data has not actual meaning. In noise jamming mode, energy distributes averagely in video signal, and jammer power required can amount to 106 watt. So it is too difficulty to obtain valid jamming effect. Deceptive jamming is a good mode, and the main energy focuses one spot. Parameters of SAR need to be reconnoitred accurately. Coherent jamming or part Coherent jamming is easy to implement, and needs not too large power, and energy focuses some area. Jamming effect is similar to noise jamming in jammed region.
JaJr

Δθ

4. Conclusion The paper manly relates jamming power and jamming effect of four jamming modes. Jamming equation associating with the SAR and jammer parameters is got. Jammer’s working distance is got through analyzing the jamming equation. Characteristic of four jamming modes is analyzed through the gain of video signal. Deceptive jamming is a preferred mode, if SAR parameters can be acquired accurately. Coherent jamming or part-Coherent is an important mode. References

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[4]

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[7]

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Fig1: Numeric Simulation Result of Four Jamming Modes