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Proceedings of the Institution of

Civil Engineers
Structures & Buildings 161
December 2008 Issue SB6
Pages 311323
doi: 10.1680/stbu.2008.161.6.311
Paper 800040
Received 13/05/2008
Accepted 19/08/2008
Keywords: slabs & re/plates
engineering
Ehab A. M. Ellobody
Associate Professor, Depart-
ment of Structural Engineering,
Tanta University, Egypt
Colin G. Bailey
Professor and Head of School
of Mechanical, Aerospace and
Civil Engineering, The University
of Manchester, UK
Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re
E. A. M. Ellobody PhD, CEng and C. G. Bailey PhD, CEng, FICE, MIStructE, MIFireE
This paper presents a nite element model highlighting
the behaviour of bonded post-tensioned one-way
spanning concrete slabs in re conditions. The model
was veried against ten re tests on bonded post-
tensioned concrete slabs at ambient and elevated
temperatures. The slabs were simply supported and
post-tensioned with 15
.
7 mm nominal diameter seven-
wire mono-strand tendons. The mechanical and thermal
material non-linearities of the entire slabs components,
consisting of the concrete, plastic and galvanised steel
ducts, prestressing tendon and the anchorages, have
been carefully inserted into the model. The interface
between the tendon and surrounding grout was also
considered, allowing the bond behaviour to be modelled
and the tendon to retain its prole shape during the
deformation of the slab. The temperature distributions
throughout the slab, together with the slabs
development of displacement and stress, as it was
heated, were predicted by the model and veried against
test data. A parametric study was conducted to
investigate the effects on the global structural behaviour
owing to the change in the aggregate type, duct type,
load ratio, boundary conditions and different re
scenarios. The study has shown that the bonded post-
tensioned concrete slabs investigated in this study are
capable of achieving the designed 90 min re resistance.
It is also shown that the re resistance given by BS
8110-2 and BS EN 1992-1-2 are acceptable for the design
of bonded post-tensioned one-way spanning concrete
slabs under re conditions.
NOTATION
CS cold surface
e concrete emissivity
f stress
f
c
compressive stress of concrete
f
co
proportional limit stress of concrete
f
cu
compressive cube strength of concrete
f
t
tensile stress of concrete
G
f
fracture energy
HS hot surface
h slab height
LC long cool re curve
LS limestone
LT left tendon
M metallic duct
MS middle surface
MT middle tendon
PL plastic duct
RT right tendon
SH short hot re curve
ST standard re curve
T tendon level
TG Thames Gravel

c
convective coefcient
strain

cu
ultimate strain of concrete in compression

tu
ultimate strain of concrete in tension
1. INTRODUCTION
Post-tensioned oor slabs can be bonded or unbonded. For
bonded post-tensioned oor slabs the transfer of the force from
the tendon to the concrete is by way of the end anchors, the
bond between the tendons and concrete which is maintained
by grouting and the curvature of the tendons. For unbonded
systems the transfer of force from the tendon to the concrete is
only by way of the end anchors and the tendons curvature. To
date, there has been no detailed information regarding the
structural behaviour of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs
under re conditions with only a few re tests, recently
conducted by Bailey and Ellobody
1,2
reported on this form of
construction. Current design rules specied in BS 8110-2
3
and
BS EN 1992-1-2
4
provide guidance on the re resistance of
post-tensioned oor slabs, but these have been derived based
on tests carried out on pre-tensioned and non-tensioned
concrete members. In terms of post-tensioned construction the
limited previous re tests were only conducted on unbonded
post-tensioned slabs as reported in references [57]. An
extensive review of these tests, together with evidence of res
in actual buildings constructed using post-tensioned oor
slabs, was provided by Lee and Bailey
8
who concluded that
further investigation into the behaviour of post-tensioned oor
slabs in re is required. This conclusion, of the need for further
investigation, is also shared by the latest Federation
Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIB) design guide on post-
tensioned slabs.
9
The existing limited test data on unbonded
slabs were augmented by Bailey and Ellobody,
10
where the
effect of different aggregate type and restraint conditions was
highlighted.
Recently, Bailey and Ellobody
1
have conducted ten tests on
bonded post-tensioned one-way concrete slabs at ambient and
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 311
elevated temperatures. Eight
slabs were subjected to a re
under a static load
representing a load ratio of
0
.
6, where the load ratio is
dened as the applied load
divided by the design
capacity. In addition to the
re tests two additional tests
were conducted in the cold
condition to dene the
capacity of the slabs. The
tests highlighted the different
structural response between
using limestone and Thames
Gravel aggregates, different
duct material types (plastic
and metallic), and different longitudinal restraint conditions.
The temperature distribution through the slabs, the strains in
the tendons, and the horizontal and vertical displacements
were measured in each test. The re resistance of the bonded
post-tensioned concrete slabs were compared with specied
values in BS 8110-2
3
and BS EN 1992-1-2,
4
which were shown
to be acceptable for design purposes. Although it is known
11
that the use of Thames Gravel aggregate and restraint to
thermal expansion can contribute to spalling, there was no
observation of any signicant spalling in the tests, as presented
in Refs 1 and 2, primarily owing to the moisture content being
below 2
.
5% by weight.
Finite element models of post-tensioned concrete slabs under
re conditions have previously been used to investigate the
behaviour of unbonded slabs as presented by Lee and Bailey
8, 12
and Ellobody and Bailey.
13, 14
Compared with the modelling of
unbonded slabs, the behaviour of bonded post-tensioned
concrete slabs is more complicated owing to the presence of
ducts, the bond between the tendons and grout, the bond
between the grout and ducts, and the bond between the ducts
and concrete, as well as the fact that the bond between any two
components may not be maintained at elevated temperatures.
The current paper highlights the behaviour of post-tensioned
bonded one-way spanning concrete slabs in re conditions
through non-linear numerical modelling. A detailed thermo-
mechanical three-dimensional (3D) nite element model was
developed using Abaqus
15
and veried against the tests
conducted by Bailey and Ellobody.
1,2
A parametric study has
been conducted to study the effects of the change in the
aggregate type, duct type, load ratio, re scenarios and
boundary conditions on the behaviour of bonded post-
tensioned one-way concrete slabs at elevated temperatures. The
results of the numerical investigation have been compared with
the design values specied in BS 8110-2,
3
and BS EN 1992-1-
2,
4
with detailed discussions and conclusions presented.
2. SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
As shown in Table 1, ten teststwo at ambient temperature
(TB1 and TB2) and eight at elevated temperature (TB3TB10)
were carried out on bonded post-tensioned one-way spanning
concrete slabs. The main variable parameters in the tests were
the boundary conditions (free and restrained longitudinal
expansion), the aggregate type (limestone and Thames Gravel)
and the duct type used within the bonded slabs (plastic and
steel). The slabs were designed according to BS 8110-1
16
and
the Concrete Society technical report 43.
17
The slabs were
4
.
3 m long, 1
.
6 m wide and 160 mm deep. Each slab had three
longitudinal parabolic tendons with a nominal diameter of
15
.
7 mm and an area of 150 mm
2
. The tendon was a mono-
strand with seven high-strength steel wires, with an average
measured tensile strength of 1846 MPa. Plastic ducts, 23 mm
internal diameter, were used with slabs TB3, TB4, TB5 and TB6.
Galvanised steel ducts with 40 mm internal diameter were used
with slabs TB7, TB8, TB9 and TB10. The ducts were positioned
in a second degree parabolic shape before casting the concrete.
Steel chairs were used to create the parabolic shape for the
ducts to ensure that the distance between the bottom surface of
the slab to the centre of the tendon was 42 mm. Each slab had
three longitudinal ducts, where one duct was positioned in the
middle of the slab with the other two positioned either side, at
a spacing of 530 mm, as shown in Fig. 1. The duct ends were
positioned exactly at the mid-height of the slab, where the
dead and live anchorages were located. One tendon was
threaded through each duct before casting the concrete.
Bursting reinforcement was designed according to BS 8110-1
16
to resist tensile bursting forces around individual anchorages.
No other non-tensioned reinforcement was included.
The concrete cube strength at 4, 14 and 28 days after casting, as
well as at the time of testing, is shown in Table 2 together with
the measured moisture content for the slabs which were tested
Test specimen Fire Longitudinal expansion Duct Coarse aggregate
Free Restrained Plastic Metallic Limestone Thames
Gravel
Slab TB1 X X X
Slab TB2 X X X
Slab TB3 X X X X
Slab TB4 X X X X
Slab TB5 X X X X
Slab TB6 X X X X
Slab TB7 X X X X
Slab TB8 X X X X
Slab TB9 X X X X
Slab TB10 X X X X
Table 1. Tests on bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs
Fig. 1. Mould used for casting the bonded test specimens
312 Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey
under re conditions. Grouting followed BS EN 447
18
using a
mixing ratio of ordinary Portland cement to water of 2
.
5:1.
Grouting was conducted immediately after the post-tensioning
of the tendons. The measured grout strength was 47 MPa at 28
days. The full applied design prestressing force to the slabs was
195 kN, with the average measured force in the three tendons
being 169 kN, equating to 13% losses. Further details of the
post-tensioning process, and measurements obtained during
this process, are presented in Ellobody and Bailey.
19
The slabs were tested over a span of 4
.
0 m. The test set-up,
loading positions and instrumentation are shown in Fig. 2. In
the ambient tests, the slabs were loaded to failure, while in the
re tests, the slabs were subjected to a static load equal to
78
.
3 kN representing a load ratio of 0
.
6. The slabs were loaded
at four locations using spreader plates 1600 3 350 3 40 mm,
as shown in Fig. 3. The applied load, the strains in the tendons,
and the vertical deections were measured in all tests. In the
re tests, temperatures through the slab were also measured
together with longitudinal displacements in the unrestrained
slabs, at the locations shown in Fig. 2, with the middle 3
.
2 m of
the slab heated. The strains in the tendons were measured near
the ends of the tendons (Fig. 2), ensuring that gauges remained
at ambient temperature. As the tendons were bonded these
gauges should give a good indication of the strains at their
location near the dead ends. The slabs were heated in the re
tests using two burners following the standard time
temperature curve specied in BS EN 1991-1-2.
20
Further
details of the tests and results obtained are given in Ref. 1.
In the restrained re tests, two restraining beams were designed
and positioned against both ends of the slab to prevent
horizontal displacement and end rotation of the slab. The
beams were bolted to the loading frame, which allowed an
initial expansion (approximately 4
.
5 mm) to occur until the
slab became in full contact with the restraining beams and
until the bolts xing the restrained beams became intact with
the edges of the holes. Further details for the test set-up of the
restrained re tests is given in Ref. 1.
3. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
The bonded post-tensioned concrete slab components were
modelled using a combination of 3D solid elements (C3D8 and
C3D6) available within the Abaqus
15
element library. The
elements have three degrees of freedom per node. Owing to
symmetry, only one quarter of the bonded slab was modelled
(Fig. 4), with 6894 elements, including interface elements, used.
The boundary conditions and load application were identical to
that used in the tests. The measured post-tensioning stress in
the tendons (169 kN) was initially applied in a separate step.
The dead load representing the weight of the slab was applied
as a static uniformly distributed load on the top surface of the
slab and the dead load representing the weight of the loading
tree (Fig. 3) was applied as a static distributed load over the
area of the spreader plates. For the ambient tests the jack load
was applied in increments as a static distributed load over the
area of the spreader plates. For the re tests the applied load
remained constant and the temperature within the slab
increased.
For the modelling of the re tests a thermal analysis was
conducted, using the heat transfer option available within
Abaqus,
15
to calculate the temperature distribution throughout
the slabs, based on the measured furnace temperature from the
test. A constant convective coefcient (
c
) of 25 W/m
2
K was
assumed for the exposed surface and 9 W/m
2
K was assumed
for the unexposed surface. The radiative heat ux was
calculated using a concrete emissivity (e) value of 0
.
7.
Concrete was modelled using the damaged plasticity model
implemented within Abaqus.
15
Under uniaxial compression the
response is linear until the value of the proportional limit
stress, ( f
co
) is reached, which is assumed to equal 0
.
33 times
the compressive strength ( f
c
), as shown in Fig. 5(a). Under
uniaxial tension the stressstrain response follows a linear
elastic relationship until the value of the failure stress. The
tensile failure stress is taken as 0
.
1 times the compressive
strength of concrete f
c
, which is assumed to be equal to 0
.
67
times the measured concrete cube strength ( f
cu
). The softening
stressstrain response, past the maximum tensile stress, was
represented by a linear line dened by the fracture energy and
crack band width. The fracture energy G
f
(energy required to
open a unit area of crack) was taken as 0
.
217 N/mm.
19
The
fracture energy divided by the crack band width was used to
dene the area under the softening branch of the tension part
of the stressstrain curve, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The crack
band width was assumed as the cubic root of the volume
between integration points for a solid element, as
recommended by Comite
Europeen du Beton (CEB).
21
The measured stressstrain
curve of the tendon at
ambient temperature, as
shown in Fig. 6, was used in
modelling the tendons. Based
on experimental
observations,
1
there was no
slip at the ductgrout
interface as well as at the
ductconcrete interface.
Hence only the contact
between the tendon and
grout was modelled, utilising
interface elements (using the
contact pair option) available
within the Abaqus
15
element
Slab Aggregate type Measured concrete strength at different days after
casting: MPa
Moisture
content: %
4 days 14 days 28 days At testing
TB1 Limestone 32
.
3 39
.
2 40
.
0 41
.
2
TB2 Limestone 22
.
1 30
.
3 31
.
7 30
.
3
TB3 Limestone 25
.
2 36
.
4 39
.
4 36
.
6 1
.
19
TB4 Limestone 32
.
9 41
.
5 43
.
9 40
.
9 1
.
93
TB5 Thames Gravel 24
.
0 35
.
0 35
.
3 35
.
5 1
.
07
TB6 Thames Gravel 30
.
8 37
.
2 39
.
3 38
.
6 2
.
50
TB7 Limestone 29
.
2 36
.
0 39
.
1 40
.
4 2
.
43
TB8 Limestone 29
.
0 37
.
4 40
.
0 42
.
3 1
.
84
TB9 Thames Gravel 26
.
5 35
.
3 38
.
9 36
.
9 2
.
27
TB10 Thames Gravel 32
.
0 35
.
1 38
.
6 39
.
3 2
.
18
Table 2. Measured concrete cube strength and moisture content
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 313
library. The interface elements consisted of two matching
contact faces from the tendon elements and surrounding grout
elements. As observed experimentally, and discussed later in
the paper, there was a signicant decrease in the strains of the
tendons in most of the re tests. The decrease initiated at a
tendon temperature of 1008C owing to water migration from
the grout, suggesting a possible loss of bond at this
temperature. Within the model a friction coefcient of 0
.
25
was therefore considered between the two faces until the
(a)
Tendon
Furnace

Position of thermal couples


Position of strain gauges
Position of displacement transducers
3200 400 400
150 150
160
500 1000 1000 500 500
150 150
500
Duct

(b)


Tendon
Furnace
Quarter (1)
Quarter (2)
Quarter (3)
Quarter (4)
Centre (5)
270
270
530
530
1000 1000
1150 1150
Duct
Fig. 2. Test set-up and positions of instrumentation and loading: (a) section elevation; (b) plan (dimensions in mm)
Fig. 3. Picture of test showing loading positions
Duct
Tendon
Grout
Symmetry surface (1)
Edge line
support
Symmetry surface (2)
Concrete
Fig. 4. Finite element mesh for quarter of the bonded slab
314 Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey
tendon temperature reached 1008C and was then taken as zero
after this temperature. The interface element allowed the
surfaces to displace relative to each other, based on the friction
coefcients, but ensured that the contact elements could not
penetrate each other when there was no friction.
The stressstraintemperature curves for concrete in
compression and tension are shown in Fig. 5. The curves were
based on the reduction factors given in BS EN 1992-1-2
4
for
calcareous aggregate, which were adopted for the limestone
aggregate used in this study, and siliceous aggregate, which
were adopted for Thames Gravel. The specic heat and thermal
conductivity were also calculated according to BS EN 1992-1-
2,
4
with the measured moisture content (see Table 2)
considered in the calculation of the specic heat of concrete.
The measured stressstrain curve for the tendon at ambient
temperature was used to calculate the stressstrain curves at
elevated temperatures following the reduction factors given in
BS EN 1992-1-2,
4
as shown in Fig. 6. Similar curves were used
for the anchorages, with material properties at ambient
temperature conforming to BS 4447.
22
The stressstrain curves
of the plastic and steel ducts were predicted based on data
provided by the manufacturers.
Recent nite element modelling presented in Ref. 14
recommended the use of measured values of thermal expansion
coefcients for concrete with limestone and Thames Gravel
aggregates available in the literature,
23, 24
instead of the values
given in the code.
4
A linear thermal expansion coefcient of
8
.
1310
6
per 8C was used for the concrete with limestone
aggregate based on measurements by Ndon and Bergeson
23
For
the concrete with Thames Gravel a linear thermal expansion
coefcient of 13
.
2310
6
per 8C was used based on measured
values given by the Building Research Board.
24
The same
values were used to model the thermal expansion of the
bonded concrete slabs with limestone and Thames Gravel
investigated in this study.
For the modelling of the restrained re tests, detailed in Ref. 1,
interface elements, similar to that used between the tendons
and grout, were used between the slab ends and the restraining
beams. The interface elements allowed the initial thermal
expansion and rotation of the slab observed in the tests to
occur until the slab was fully in contact with the restraining
beams. After this stage, the longitudinal expansion was
prevented. The faces of the interface elements were the slab
end (the slave surface) and a rigid plate representing the ange
of the restraining beam (the master surface). The initial
clearance between the two faces was taken as 4
.
5 mm based on
the average initial expansions observed in the tests.
1
Only
horizontal restraint to expansion of the slab was provided. The
slab was free to contract, corresponding to the test conditions.
4. VERIFICATION OF THE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
4.1. Verication of the ambient tests
The results obtained from the nite element model in terms of
the ultimate loads, load-central deection curves, failure modes
and stresses in the tendons were compared against the test
results. The loadcentral deection relationship obtained from
slab TB1, in comparison with that obtained from the model, is
shown in Fig. 7. Good agreement was achieved between
numerical and experimental results. The failure load observed
experimentally was 215
.
4 kN, at a central deection of
112 mm, compared with 212
.
5 kN and 105 mm obtained from
the model. The failure load predicted using the model was 1
.
3%
lower than that observed from the test. The deformed shape at
failure for slab TB1, obtained from the model, is shown in Fig.
8, which is in good agreement with that observed in the test
TB1.
1,2
Fig. 8 also shows the stress distribution in the concrete
20C
100C
200C
300C
400C
500C
(b)
20C
100C
200C
300C
400C
500C
600C
700C
800C
900C
(a)
f
f
f
c
f
t
f
co

cu

tu

Fig. 5. Stressstrain curves of concrete at elevated


temperatures: (a) compression; (b) tension
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0 40000 80000 120000 160000
Micro strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
:

M
P
a
20C
100C
200C
300C
400C
500C
600C
700C
800C
900C
Fig. 6. Stressstrain curves of the tendon at elevated
temperatures
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 315
elements at failure. It can be seen that the concrete element
stresses in the compression zone of the maximum bending
moment region under the middle spreader plates approached
the maximum compressive stresses. The mode of failure of
concrete crushing in the model therefore corresponded to the
mode of failure observed experimentally and reported in Refs 1
and 2. The loadstrain curves of the tendons obtained
experimentally and numerically are presented in Fig. 9. The
strains were recorded by the three strain gauges tted on the
left tendon (LT), middle tendon (MT) and right tendon (RT) of
the bonded slab TB1, as shown in Fig. 9. It should be noted
that the strains observed experimentally remained constant
from the start of loading until the end of the test, while that
predicted numerically had an increase of 560 microstrain from
a load 183
.
1 to 212
.
5 kN. The strains recorded from the nite
element model were averaged over the full cross-sectional area
of the bar whereas in the test the strains in the individual wires
were measured. The absolute average value used in the model
was close to the maximum stressed wire, as shown in Fig. 9. At
higher loads, the strains recorded in the tendon from the nite
element model slightly exceeded the elastic strains. Similar
conclusions could be drawn from the comparison of load-strain
curves of the tendons for the bonded slab TB2, as shown in
Fig. 10.
The loadcentral deection curves obtained experimentally
and numerically for slab TB2 are compared in Fig. 11. Once
again the experimental and numerical curves are in good
agreement. The failure load observed experimentally was
187
.
9 kN at a central deection of 107 mm compared with
203
.
9 kN and 108 mm obtained from the model. The failure
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 40 80 120 160
Central deflection: mm
L
o
a
d
:

k
N
Test TB1
FE TB1
Fig. 7. Comparison of loadcentral deection curves for
bonded slab TB1
Concrete
Duct
Tendon
Grout
Symmetry surface (1)
Symmetry surface (2)
Edge line
support
Stress units: N/m
2
1
2
3
1151 10
9
3000 10
6
2500 10
5
2500 10
6
5250 10
6
8000 10
6
1075 10
7
1350 10
7
1625 10
7
1900 10
7
2175 10
7
2450 10
7
2725 10
7
3000 10
7
3547 10
8
S, S22
(Avg: 75%)
Fig. 8. Deected shape and stress contours for bonded slab TB1
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Micro strain
L
o
a
d
:

k
N
FE
RT3
RT2
RT1
MT3
MT2
MT1
LT3
LT2
LT1
Fig. 9. Comparison of loadstrain curves of the tendons for
bonded slab TB1
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Micro strain
L
o
a
d
:

k
N
FE
RT3
RT2
RT1
MT2
MT1
LT3
LT2
LT1
Fig. 10. Comparison of loadstrain curves of the tendons for
bonded slab TB2
316 Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey
load predicted using the model was 8
.
5% higher than that
observed in the test. Slab TB2 had a metallic duct of 40 mm
internal diameter while slab TB1 had a plastic duct with 23 mm
internal diameter. The difference in the failure loads is
attributed to the unexpected lower concrete strength of slab
TB2 (30
.
3 MPa) compared to slab TB1 (41
.
2 MPa) as reported in
Refs 1 and 2. Interestingly, as the post-tensioning of the slabs
took place before grouting, the axis of the tendon might have
shifted upwards away from the centre of the duct, especially at
the centre span of the slab. The effect of the movement of the
tendon is particularly prominent in slab TB2 owing to the
greater diameter (40 mm) of the metallic duct used. This was
highlighted using the model by moving the tendon inside the
metallic duct by a nominal 2 mm upwards at the centre span of
slab TB2, which reduced the failure load to 176
.
6 kN at a
central deection of 94 mm, as shown in Fig. 11. As the
movement of the tendon inside the duct cannot be controlled,
and is dependent on the diameter of duct used, the designed
tendon axis distance (i.e. at the centre of the duct) will be used
in the nite element analysis for all the slabs investigated in
this study. The deected shape, stress contours and failure
modes predicted for slab TB2 were similar to that of slab TB1
shown in Fig. 8.
4.2. Verication of the re tests
To indicate the accuracy of the thermal modelling, the
temperature distribution throughout the bonded post-tensioned
concrete slabs was plotted and compared against the tests. As
an example, the predicted and recorded test temperatures at the
hot surface (HS), the tendon (T), the mid-surface (MS) and the
cold surface (CS) at the centre of slab TB3 is shown in Fig. 12.
Similar accuracy was obtained when the model was compared
against the other re tests.
The timecentral deection curves obtained from the
unrestrained tests and the nite element analysis were
compared and good agreement was achieved. As an example,
Fig. 13 shows the central deectiontime relationships plotted
for the unrestrained slabs TB3 (having plastic ducts and
limestone aggregate) and TB5 (having plastic ducts and Thames
Gravel aggregate). The central deections observed
experimentally for slabs TB3 and TB5 were 59 mm at 94
.
5 min
and 82 mm at 88 min, respectively, compared with 66 mm at
94
.
5 min and 95 mm at 86 min numerically. The axial
movements for slabs TB3 and TB5 were also compared
experimentally and numerically, as shown in Fig. 14. The
maximum axial movements were 4
.
2 and 7
.
2 mm at the
mid-height of the slab, recorded in the slabs TB3 and TB5
respectively, compared with 4
.
1 and 7
.
5 mm from the model.
Considering Figs 13 and 14, it can be seen that both the test
and nite element results show that the slab TB5, which had
Thames Gravel, had signicant higher vertical and horizontal
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Central deflection: mm
L
o
a
d
:

k
N
FE TB2
Test TB2
FE TB2 (shifted tendon)
Fig. 11. Comparison of loadcentral deection curves for
bonded slab TB2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
:

C
Test: HS
Test: T
Test: MS Test: CS
FE: HS
FE: T
FE: MS
FE: CS
Fig. 12. Measured and predicted temperatures throughout the
depth of the slab TB3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
FE TB5
Test TB5
FE TB3
Test TB3
Fig. 13. Comparison of timecentral deection curves for
bonded slabs TB3 and TB5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n
:

m
m
Test TB5
FE TB5
Test TB3
FE TB3
Fig. 14. Comparison of timelongitudinal expansion curves for
bonded slabs TB3 and TB5
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 317
displacements compared with slab TB3 having limestone
aggregate owing to the higher thermal expansion of the
Thames Gravel.
Figures 15 and 16 show the central deectiontime curves
plotted for the restrained re slabs TB8 (having metallic ducts
and limestone aggregate) and TB10 (having metallic ducts and
Thames Gravel aggregate), respectively. For slab TB8, the
maximum central deection observed experimentally was
35 mm at 55
.
5 min from the start of heating, compared with
37 mm at 48
.
4 min from the model. For slab TB10, the
maximum central deection observed experimentally was
39 mm, recorded at 39 min from the start of heating, compared
with 40 mm predicted at 43 min from the model. In both tests
it can be seen (Figs 15 and 16) that there is an excellent
agreement between test results and the model. The nite
element model was able to accurately follow the test from the
start of heating, where the slab is not fully restrained,
1
until it
became in full contact with the restraining beam.
The stresses in the tendons were predicted from the nite
element analysis for all the bonded slabs. The measured strains
recorded by the strain gauges tted on the middle tendon
(MT1, MT2 and MT3), left tendon (LT1, LT2 and LT3) and right
tendon (RT1 and RT2) were used to predict the stresses in the
tendons adopting the reduction factors given in BS EN 1992-1-
2.
4
As an example, the stresses predicted numerically were
compared with those obtained experimentally for slab TB3, as
shown in Fig. 17. Generally good agreement was achieved
between experimental and numerical results. It can be seen that
the prestress force in the tendon started to decrease
signicantly after 35 min as observed experimentally and
conrmed numerically. As explained previously, the strains
recorded from the nite element model were averaged over the
full cross-sectional area of the bar whereas in the test the
strains in the individual wires were measured. This caused the
prestress force predicted numerically to decrease gradually as
shown in Fig. 17. Similar behaviour was observed for the other
bonded re tests.
Taking the restrained slab TB4 as an example, the stresses at
the maximum temperature are shown in Fig. 18. As slab TB4
was restrained, the strains in the concrete elements at the
restraint position approached the maximum compressive
strains. Hence local concrete crushing was predicted using the
nite element model, which compares well with the behaviour
observed experimentally in the restrained tests.
1
Fig. 19 shows
the cracks and spalling of the restrained slabs TB4 and TB6
observed in the tests. Fig. 18 also shows that tensile stresses are
concentrated at the tendon position and extend towards the top
surface in the longitudinal direction of the slab.
Similar to the re tests conducted on unbonded post-tensioned
concrete slabs,
10
longitudinal cracks directly above and in line
with the tendons were observed in all the bonded slabs.
1,2
The
cracks appeared on the unexposed surface of the bonded slabs
between 15 and 19 min, corresponding to a tendon temperature
of approximately 1108C. The cracks are caused by tensile
stresses being induced perpendicular to the trajectory of the
tendons owing to lateral thermal expansion at elevated
temperatures. Detailed explanation of the cause of the cracks,
when investigating unbonded slabs, was previously provided
using nite element modelling conducted by the authors.
14
5. PARAMETRIC STUDIES AND DISCUSSIONS
The veried nite element model was used to investigate the
effects of the change in aggregate type, duct type, load ratio,
boundary conditions and different re scenarios, on the global
structural behaviour of bonded post-tensioned one-way
concrete slabs in re. The different parameters considered are
summarised in Table 3.
0
10
20
30
40
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
Test TB8 FE TB8
Fig. 15. Comparison of timecentral deection curves for
restrained slab TB8
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
Test TB10
FE TB10
Fig. 16. Comparison of timecentral deection curves for
restrained slab TB10
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
S
t
r
e
s
s
:

M
P
a
Test: MT1
Test: MT2 Test: MT3
FE analysis
Test: RT2
Test: RT1
Test: LT3
Test: LT1
Test: LT2
Fig. 17. Comparison of tendons stresstime curves for
unrestrained slab TB3
318 Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey
Group G1 included three slabs S1S3 that had plastic ducts
(PL), limestone aggregate (LS) and load ratios of 0
.
3, 0
.
5 and
0
.
7 respectively for slabs S1, S2 and S3. Group G2 (slabs
S4S6) was identical with G1 except the type of aggregate
used was changed to Thames Gravel (TG). Groups G3 (slabs S7
S9) and G4 (slabs S10S12) were identical with G1 and G2
respectively, except the slabs had metallic ducts (M). All the
four groups (G1G4) were allowed free longitudinal expansion.
Groups G5 (slabs S13S15), G6 (slabs S17S18), G7 (slabs S19
S21) and G8 (slabs S22S24) were identical with G1, G2, G3
and G4 respectively, except the slabs were restrained against
longitudinal thermal expansion. All the slabs in the eight
groups (G1G8) were subjected to the standard re curve,
20
as
shown in Fig. 20. Group G9 (slabs S25S27) had limestone
aggregate, plastic ducts, a load ratio of 0
.
7, were allowed free
longitudinal expansion, and were subjected to different re
curves. The re curves used represent the standard (ST), short
hot (SH) and long cool (LC) res shown in Fig. 20 for slabs
S25, S26 and S27 respectively. More details regarding the
short hot and long cool res can be found in Lamont et al.
25
The re resistance and maximum central deections for all the
slabs investigated in the parametric study are summarised in
Table 3. The timecentral deection relationships for all the
slabs are plotted in Figs 2126.
Similar to the tested slabs, the tendon had a cover of 30 mm at
the central span of the slab, which according to BS 8110-2
3
should achieve 90 min re resistance. BS EN 1992-1-2
4
species re resistance in terms of the distance from the
bottom of the slab to the centre of the tendon (denoted axis
distance), which in this case is 42 mm. For 90 min re
resistance BS EN 1992-1-2 species an axis distance of 45 mm
and for 60 min an axis distance of 35 mm. The slab should
therefore have at least 60 min re resistance (as shown in Table
3). It can be seen that all the bonded post-tensioned one-way
spanning concrete slabs investigated in the parametric study
had a re resistance of approximately 105 min with slabs S26
and S27 surviving the full duration of the natural re. This
indicates that the codied values in BS 8110-2
3
and BS EN
1992-1-2
4
are conservative, however the re resistance
specied in BS 8110 were more closely aligned with the nite
element analysis predictions.
The effect of the load ratio, dened as the applied load divided
by the design capacity, was investigated by modelling the three
slabs in each group, except group G9, for different load ratios of
0
.
3, 0
.
5 and 0
.
7 (Table 3 and Figs 2124). It can be seen that the
greater the load ratio the greater the vertical deection of the
slab for a given time. For the restrained slabs, however, the nal
Compressive stress
concentration near the
restraining beam
Tensile stress
progress at the
tendons
Concrete
Stress units: N/m
2
2
1
3
6350 10
8
2000 10
6
1667 10
5
1667 10
6
3500 10
6
5333 10
6
7167 10
6
9000 10
6
1083 10
7
1267 10
7
1450 10
7
1633 10
7
1817 10
7
2000 10
7
4189 10
8
S, S22
(Avg: 75%)
Fig. 18. Failure mode from the FE model for restrained bonded test TB4
(a)
(b)
Fig. 19. Position of cracks and spalling observed in the tests
(a) TB4 and (b) TB6
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 319
deections were limited by the restraining force created by the
restraining beams. Of interest is the fact that all the slabs failed
at the same time (105 min) irrespective of the load ratio.
Previous experience has shown that the increase in the load
ratio generally results in a decrease in the re resistance. For the
bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs investigated in this study,
however, failure in the model was initiated owing to a crack
occurring directly in line and parallel to the tendons. Similar
observations were previously reported in Ref. 14. When the
temperature of the tendons increases the tendon starts to expand
longitudinally causing partial relief of the compressive stresses,
which then allows the lateral expansion to cause splitting at the
weaker sections of the slab. The same failure mode has also been
observed in an independent study conducted by Herberghen and
Damme.
7
From the study presented here it can be concluded
that the splitting mode of failure is not affected by the applied
static load. As shown in Table 3, all the slabs failed at 105 min,
which is higher than the 90 min specied in BS 8110-2
3
and the
60 min specied in BS EN1992-1-2.
4
As shown in Table 3 and Figs 2124, the slabs with Thames
Gravel aggregate have a signicantly higher vertical deection
compared with the equivalent slab with limestone, owing to the
greater thermal expansion of Thames Gravel. For the restrained
slabs, the nal deections were limited by the restraining force
created by the restraining beams. Owing to the variation of
Group Slab Coarse
agg.
Duct Fire curve Long.
exp.
Load
ratio
Present study BS EC
Max. def.:
mm
Fire res.:
min
Fire res.:
min
Fire res.:
min
S1 LS PL ST Free 0
.
3 53 105
.
3 90 60
G1 S2 LS PL ST Free 0
.
5 71 105
.
4 90 60
S3 LS PL ST Free 0
.
7 106 105
.
3 90 60
S4 TG PL ST Free 0
.
3 79 105
.
4 90 60
G2 S5 TG PL ST Free 0
.
5 94 105
.
3 90 60
S6 TG PL ST Free 0
.
7 114 105
.
3 90 60
S7 LS M ST Free 0
.
3 55 107
.
3 90 60
G3 S8 LS M ST Free 0
.
5 74 107
.
2 90 60
S9 LS M ST Free 0
.
7 106 107
.
2 90 60
S10 TG M ST Free 0
.
3 80 107
.
1 90 60
G4 S11 TG M ST Free 0
.
5 96 107
.
2 90 60
S12 TG M ST Free 0
.
7 116 107
.
1 90 60
S13 LS PL ST Rest. 0
.
3 32 105
.
2 90 60
G5 S14 LS PL ST Rest. 0
.
5 38 105
.
4 90 60
S15 LS PL ST Rest. 0
.
7 47 105
.
4 90 60
S16 TG PL ST Rest. 0
.
3 35 105
.
4 90 60
G6 S17 TG PL ST Rest. 0
.
5 40 105
.
4 90 60
S18 TG PL ST Rest. 0
.
7 52 105
.
3 90 60
S19 LS M ST Rest. 0
.
3 26 107
.
4 90 60
G7 S20 LS M ST Rest. 0
.
5 30 107
.
3 90 60
S21 LS M ST Rest. 0
.
7 34 107
.
3 90 60
S22 TG M ST Rest. 0
.
3 27 107
.
3 90 60
G8 S23 TG M ST Rest. 0
.
5 30 107
.
2 90 60
S24 TG M ST Rest. 0
.
7 34 107
.
4 90 60
S25 LS PL ST Free 0
.
7 106 105
.
3 90 60
G9 S26 LS PL SH Free 0
.
7 52 328
.
0 90 60
S27 LS PL LC Free 0
.
7 118 540
.
0 90 60
Table 3. Summary of parametric study results
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time: min
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
:

C
Standard
Long cool
Short hot
Fig. 20. Standard, short hot and long cool re curves
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
PL, TG, Free, 07
PL, TG, Free, 05
PL, TG, Free, 03
PL, LS, Free, 03
PL, LS, Free, 05
PL, LS, Free, 07
Fig. 21. Effect of load ratio and different aggregate types
(LS limestone, TG Thames Gravel) on free bonded tests
with plastic ducts (groups G1 and G2)
320 Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey
temperature through the depth of the slab, thermal curvature
contributes to the vertical deection (with the bottom part of
the slab expanding greater than the top part), together will loss
of strength of the tendon and concrete, with the Thames Gravel
slabs having the greater displacement.
Looking at the restrained slabs in Table 3 (and the predicted
response shown in Figs 22 and 24), it can be seen that owing
to the longitudinal restraint to thermal expansion, as the slab
tries to expand, a restraining moment at the ends was created
which together with arching action reduces the central vertical
displacement. The failure mode was attributable to tensile
splitting cracks at the tendon locations as well as localised
failure in the proximity of the restraint at the bottom of the
slab. It can also be seen that the maximum deections were
observed generally between 40 and 60 min, after which the
deections started to decrease or remained approximately
constant until the failure was observed at approximately
105 min for all the slabs. Once again, the re resistances
predicted were higher than that specied in BS 8110-2
3
and
BS EN1992-1-2.
4
The temperatures throughout the bonded post-tensioned slabs
S25, S26 and S27 analysed for different re scenarios are
shown in Fig. 25. The thermal analysis was conducted for slabs
S26 and S27 which were heated using the short hot and long
cool res, respectively, during the heating and cooling stages
of the res (a total period of 540 min). Slab S25, which was
heated using the standard re curve, was also analysed for the
same period in the thermal analysis. Slab 25 failed in the
thermal-mechanical analysis at 106 min, however, owing to the
tensile splitting along the tendons, as shown in Fig. 26.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
PL, TG, Restrained, 07
PL, TG, Restrained, 05
PL, LS, Restrained, 07
PL, TG, Restrained, 03
PL, LS, Restrained, 03
PL, LS, Restrained, 05
Fig. 22. Effect of load ratio and different aggregate types
(LS limestone, TG Thames Gravel) on restrained bonded
tests with plastic ducts (groups G5 and G6)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
M, TG, Free, 07
M, TG, Free, 05
M, TG, Free, 03
M, LS, Free, 03
M, LS, Free, 05
M, LS, Free, 07
Fig. 23. Effect of load ratio and different aggregate types
(LS limestone, TG Thames Gravel) on free bonded tests
with metallic ducts (groups G3 and G4)
0
10
20
30
40
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
M, LS, Restrained, 07
M, TG, Restrained, 07
M, TG, Restrained, 05
M, TG, Restrained, 03
M, LS, Restrained, 03
M, LS, Restrained, 05
Fig. 24. Effect of load ratio and different aggregate types
(LS limestone, TG Thames Gravel) on restrained bonded
tests with metallic ducts (groups G7 and G8)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time: min
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
:

C
Long cool: HS
Short hot: HS
Standard: HS
Standard: T
Long cool: T
Short hot: T
Short hot: CS
Standard: CS
Long cool: CS
Fig. 25. Effect of different re scenarios on bonded
post-tensioned slabs (group G9)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time: min
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
:

m
m
Standard
Short hot
Long cool
Fig. 26. Effect of different re scenarios on bonded
post-tensioned slabs (group G9)
Structures & Buildings 161 Issue SB6 Modelling of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs in re Ellobody Bailey 321
Looking at Fig. 25, it can be seen that the tendon temperature
predicted using the short hot re was greater than that
predicted using the standard and long cool res in the rst
50 min, from the start of heating. After that the tendon
temperature was much higher in the slab using the standard
re curve compared with the other two curves. Fig. 26 shows
the timecentral deection curves plotted for slabs S25, S26
and S27. The maximum deections predicted from the nite
element model were 106 mm at 105 min, 52 mm at 55 min and
118 mm at 214 min, respectively as shown in Fig. 26.
The maximum central deections of the slabs with plastic and
metallic ducts (summarised in Table 3 and plotted in Figs 21
24), show that the type of duct has a nominal effect on the
timecentral deection behaviour owing to the fact that the
ducts are subjected to compressive stresses created by the post-
tensioning.
6. CONCLUSIONS
A detailed thermo-mechanical non-linear nite element model,
for the analysis of bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs at
elevated temperatures, has been developed and presented. The
interface between the tendon and surrounding grout was
modelled, allowing the tendon to retain its prole shape during
the deformation of the slab and representing the bond
behaviour between the tendon and grout. The temperature
distribution throughout the slab, the timedeection
behaviour, timelongitudinal expansion, timestress
behaviour of the tendon, and the failure modes have been
predicted by the model and veried against experimental
results. The comparison between the experimental and
numerical results has shown that the model can accurately
predict the behaviour of bonded post-tensioned one-way
concrete slabs under re conditions. It is also shown that the
model provides excellent representation for the varying
boundary conditions at elevated temperatures.
The developed model was used to investigate the effects on the
global structural behaviour owing to the change in the
aggregate type, duct type, load ratio, boundary conditions and
different re scenarios. It is also shown that the central
deection is higher with an increase of the load ratio, but the
re resistance time remains the same owing to the mode of
failure, comprising cracking (splitting) above the tendons, not
being inuenced by the magnitude of load. Similarly, using
different aggregates inuenced the displacementtime response
but did not signicantly affect the failure re resistance time.
The numerical results were compared with values calculated
using current design codes. The comparison has shown that the
bonded post-tensioned concrete slabs investigated in this study
are capable of achieving the designed 90 min re resistance. It
is also shown that the re resistance given by BS 8110 and BS
EN 1992-1-2 are conservative for bonded post-tensioned one-
way spanning concrete slabs under re conditions. It was
shown that BS 8110 predictions were more aligned with the
nite element analysis predictions.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work in this paper was conducted at the University of
Manchester and was funded by the Engineering and Physical
Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (grant no. EP/D034477/1).
The authors are grateful to Tarmac Limited for supplying the
concrete, Bridon Limited for supplying the tendons, CCL
Limited for supplying the dead and live anchorages, General
Technologies Inc. for supplying the plastic ducts, Wells Ltd. for
supplying the metallic ducts and Pennine Grouting Limited for
supplying the grouting equipment. The authors are also
grateful to Paul Nedwell, for his continuous support and useful
discussions and the support provided by the technical staff at
The University of Manchester, headed by Paul Townsend and
Jim Gee.
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