You are on page 1of 239

T.C.

.,5,..$/(h19(567(6
626<$/%/0/(5(1677h6h
7h5.'/9(('(%<$7,$1$%/0'$/,

Osman KABADAYI

(6.7h5.d(*g.%/0 $6752120 7(50/(5


<h.6(./6$167(=

7(='$1,0$1,
'Ro'U%LOJHKDQ$WV]*g.'$

KIRIKKALE 2007

.6(/.$%8/$d,./$0$

<NVHN /LVDQV WH]L RODUDN KD]UODGP 

Terimleri

Eski Trke Gk Bilimi (Astronomi)

DGO oDOPDP LOPv DKOkN YH JHOHQHNOHUH D\NU GHFHN ELU \DUGPD

EDYXUPDNV]Q

\D]GP

YH

ID\GDODQGP

HVHUOHULQ

ELEOL\RJUDI\D

da

J|VWHUGLNOHULPGHQ LEDUHW ROGXXQX EXQODUD DWI \DSDUDN \DUDUODQP ROGXXPX EHOLUWLU


YHEXQXHUHIYHKD\VL\HWLPOHGRUXODUP

/ .../ 2007
Osman KABADAYI

ZET
%XDUDWUPDQQNRQXVXQXEDODQJoWDQ\\DN

adarki Trk toplumunun bilim

ND\QDNODUQGDQ ELUL RODUDN NDUP]D oNDQ DVWURQRPLQLQ GLO PHUNH]OL ELU LQFHOHPHVL

ROXWXUPD WDGU $UDWUPDGD |QFHOLNOH (VNL 7UNoH .|NWUNoH

-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO

Trkesi) gk bilimi (astronomi) terimleri tespit edilmeye alOPYHEXWHULPOHUVHV


ELOJLVL DQODP ELOJLVL WHULP WUHWPHGH NXOODQODQ \|QWHPOHU YH N|NHQ ELOLPL HWLPRORML 

EDNPODUQGDQLQFHOH PH\HoDOOPWU

$UDWUPDQQ DPDF (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPL PHWLQOHULQGHQ KDUHNHWOH (VNL 7UNoH

gk bilimi terimlerini RUWD\D NR\DUDN EX WHULPOHULQ QDVO ROXWXUXOGXXQX EHOLUOHPHN


WHULP

\DSPDGDNL

KDUHNHW

QRNWDODUQ

GHHUOHQGLUPHN

WHULPOHULQ

N|NHQ

ELOLPL

incelemelerini yapmak, Trkenin 7DULKVHO6|]OQHJ|NELOLPLWDULKLDUDWUPDODUQD


ve gk bilimi terimlerini TrkoHOHWLUPHoDOPDODUQDNDWNGDEXOXQPDNWU

%XDUDWUPDGDJ|NELOLPLWHULPOHULELUELOLPWDULKLX]PDQJ|]\OHGHLOELUGLO
X]PDQ EDN\OD HOH DOQPWU $UDWUPDGD 7UNoH WHULPOHULQ \DQQGD (VNL 7UNoH
PHWLQOHUGHJHoHQ\DEDQFELUGLOGHQDOQPJ|NELOLPLWHULPOHULGH\HUDOPWU

%XoDOPDQQEDWD7UN'LOLROPDN]HUH7UN*|NELOLPL $VWURQRPL 7DULKL

Trk Halk Bilimi

7UN

%LOLP

7DULKL

DODQODUQGD

GD

ID\GDO

RODELOHFHLQL

GQPHNWH\L]

Anahtar Szckler: Eski Trke (Kktrke-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO


Trk, Gk bilimi (Astronomi), Kltr Tarihi, Terminoloji.

7UNoHVL 

ABSTRACT
The subject of this study is the examination of astronomy with respect to
language which appears to be one of the scientific resources of the Turkish society from
the beginning up to 11th century. At the first step of the research, the astronomy
terminology of Old Turkish (Kokturkish, Uighurish, Karahan Turkish) was determined;
afterwards, these terms were tried to be examined with regard to Phonetics, Semantics,
the ways used to form the terms and etymology.
The aim of this study is to bring up the Old Turkish etymology terms by
examining the Old Turkish period texts and to determine how these terms were formed,
to evaluate the starting point of term formation, to examine the terms etymological
features, and to contribute to the Historic Dictionary of Turkish Language, the studies
on the history of astronomy, the struggles for replacing the foreign astronomy terms
with the Turkish ones.
In this study, the astronomy terms were studied not from the point of a science
history experts view but from the point of a linguists view. In the research, Turkish
terms and also astronomy terms quoted from a foreign language in the Old Turkish texts
were included.
We think that this study might be useful chiefly for Turkish language, Turkish
astronomy history, Turkish folk science and Turkish science history

Key Words: Old Turkish (Kokturkish, Uighurish, Karahan Turkish), Turk,


Astronomy, Cultural history, Terminology.

d1'(./(5
.............................................................................. 2
ZET .......................................................................................................................... 3
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ 4
d1'(./(5 ........................................................................................................... 5
N SZ..................................................................................................................... 13
.6(/.$%8/$d,./$0$

*5

.................................................................................................................... 15

............................................................. 15
................................................................................... 15
d$/,0$'$8<*8/$1$1<g17(0/(5 ................................................ 15
0.4. KONUNUN SINIRLANDIRILMASI............................................................... 17
.218/(/*/<$3,/$1d$/,0$/$5 ............................................... 17
7(=1.253868 .218.h//<$7, ....................................................... 20
0.6.1. Kktrke Eserler....................................................................................... 21
0.6.2. Uygurca Eserler.......................................................................................... 21
.DUDKDQO7UNoHVL(VHUOHUL ........................................................................ 23
.RUSXV .RQX.OOL\DW oLQGHQFHOHQHQ(VHUOHUYH.VDOWPDODU .............. 24
0.7. KISALTMALAR.............................................................................................. 39
$5(7/(5 .................................................................................................... 41

d$/,0$1,1.218689($/$1,
d$/,0$1,1$0$&,

1. BLM

7h5./(5'(*g.%/0 $6752120

........................... 42

1. TRK HAYAT ALANLARI .............................................................................. 42


1.1. Proto-7UN+D\DW$ODQh]HULQH .................................................................... 42
ON7UN<D\OPDODUYH<D\OPD$ODQODU ..................................................... 50
(VNL7UNdD7UN+D\DW$ODQ .................................................................. 52
Wu-sunlar ........................................................................................................... 55
Hazarlar ............................................................................................................... 56
Bulgar Devletleri.................................................................................................. 57
Tuna Bulgar Devleti ............................................................................................. 57
GLO%XOJDUODU ....................................................................................................... 57
$YDU.DDQO ..................................................................................................... 58
Kktrk Devleti ................................................................................................... 59
Uygurlar............................................................................................................... 60
.DUDKDQO'HYOHWL ................................................................................................. 61
.................................................... 61
2.1. Astronomi ..................................................................................................... 61
\]\OD.DGDU$VWURQRPL7DULKLQH%LU%DN ........................................... 63
2.3. Eski Trklerde Astronomi ve Kozmoloji ....................................................... 66
7UNOHULQ.XOODQGNODU7DNYLPOHUYH2QNL+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPL ............ 67
2UWDoD7UNOHULQGH$VWURQRPL ..................................................................... 68
*|]OHPHYOHULYH7UNOHU7DUDIQGDQ.XUXODQ*|]OHPHYOHUL........................... 70

7h5./(5'(*g.%/0 $6752120

2. BLM

(6.7h5d(*g.%/0 $6752120 7(50/(5

.... 72

1. Gk ........................................................................................................................ 72
1.1. Kinat............................................................................................................... 72
1.1.1. evren .......................................................................................................... 72
1.1.2. VXPU .......................................................................................................... 74
1.1.3. sav.............................................................................................................. 74
1.1.4. samanRjUV ............................................................................................... 74
1.2. Gkyz, Hava, Atmosfer ................................................................................ 76
1.2.1. kk ............................................................................................................. 76
1.2.1.1. kk~DO~ .................................................................................................. 79
1.2.1.2. kk ayaz .................................................................................................. 80
N|NoUV ................................................................................................ 81
1.2.2. teri............................................................................................................ 83
oDNU ........................................................................................................... 85
1.2.4. yel kkn .................................................................................................. 85
DND ............................................................................................................ 87
1.2.6.qDU ............................................................................................................. 87
1.2.7. bavagir ....................................................................................................... 88
1.2.8. felek ........................................................................................................... 88
VWUD\DVWUL ................................................................................................... 89
1.2.10. tujit........................................................................................................... 89
2. Gezegenler............................................................................................................. 90
2.1. Gezegen............................................................................................................ 90
2.1.1. grax ............................................................................................................ 90
SDJDUO ........................................................................................................ 90
UDzX ............................................................................................................ 91
2.1.4. kitu ............................................................................................................. 91
2.1.5. lkr ........................................................................................................... 91
*H]HJHQ$GODU ................................................................................................. 91
2.2.1. Merkr........................................................................................................... 91
2.2.1.1. arzu tilek.................................................................................................. 91
2.2.1.2. bud .......................................................................................................... 92
irpis~XrUXjX ........................................................................................... 92
2.2.1.4. suv........................................................................................................... 93
2.2.2. Vens ............................................................................................................ 93
2.2.2.1. altun ........................................................................................................ 93
2.2.2.2. rklig ....................................................................................................... 94
2.2.2.3. najG........................................................................................................ 95
2.2.2.4. sevit......................................................................................................... 95
2.2.2.5. yaru~\XOGX] ........................................................................................... 96
NU........................................................................................................ 98
2.2.3. Dnya ............................................................................................................ 98
2.2.3.1. ajun ......................................................................................................... 98
2.2.3.1.1. ajunluj .................................................................................................. 99
2.2.3.2. cihan........................................................................................................ 99

2.2.3.3. ambudivip .............................................................................................. 99


2.2.3.4. dnya....................................................................................................... 99
2.2.3.5. orun ......................................................................................................... 99
2.2.3.5.1. orunluj ............................................................................................... 100
2.2.3.6. sansar .................................................................................................... 101
VDQVDUOj.............................................................................................. 101
2.2.3.7. yr ......................................................................................................... 101
\pUVDJUV ........................................................................................... 102
\pUNUW ............................................................................................ 103
2.2.3.7.3. udu yr................................................................................................ 103
2.2.3.7.4. yrtn.............................................................................................. 103
2.2.3.7.5. yrtinlg.......................................................................................... 104
2.2.3.7.6. yr suv ................................................................................................ 104
2.2.4. Mars ............................................................................................................ 105
2.2.4.1. angara~ .................................................................................................. 105
2.2.4.2.ED~UVR~XP ........................................................................................... 105
2.2.4.3. krd ..................................................................................................... 107
2.2.4.4. oot ......................................................................................................... 108
2.2.5. Jpiter.......................................................................................................... 108
2.2.5.1. barzasuvadi............................................................................................ 108
2.2.5.2. erentz................................................................................................... 108
~ara~Xyulduz...................................................................................... 110
2.2.5.4. oay....................................................................................................... 111
2.2.5.5. tai-sui .................................................................................................... 112
2.2.5.6. urP]W .................................................................................................... 112
\ja...................................................................................................... 112
2.2.6. Satrn .......................................................................................................... 113
2.2.6.1. kivan...................................................................................................... 113
2.2.6.2. sekentir .................................................................................................. 113
DQLoDU ................................................................................................... 114
2.2.6.4. topraq .................................................................................................... 115
................................................................................................................... 116
............................................................................................................. 116
3.1.1. aditya........................................................................................................ 116
3.1.2.~X\D ........................................................................................................ 116
NQH ........................................................................................................ 116
3.1.4. kn ........................................................................................................... 118
3.1.4.1. knli tnli .............................................................................................. 119
3.1.4.2. knlik .................................................................................................... 119
3.1.4.3. kntz.................................................................................................... 119
3.1.4.4. kn kning ........................................................................................... 120
3.1.4.5. kndm.................................................................................................. 121
3.1.4.6. kndri .................................................................................................. 121
3.1.4.7. knt...................................................................................................... 121
3.1.4.8. kntmk............................................................................................... 122
3.1.5. yaru~ ........................................................................................................ 122

*QH

*QH

........................................................................................................ 123
............................................................................................. 123
3.2.1. iir............................................................................................................ 123
3.2.2. irte............................................................................................................ 124
3.2.3. kn tojXV~ ............................................................................................... 124
3.2.3.1. kn tojPYDNW ..................................................................................... 124
3.2.4. ta ............................................................................................................ 125
3.2.4.1. ta atmak ............................................................................................... 126
3.2.4.2. talamak ................................................................................................ 126
3.2.4.3. talarmak............................................................................................... 126
3.2.4.4. ta ntrmek.......................................................................................... 127
3.2.5. yarun ........................................................................................................ 127
3.2.6\DUQ ......................................................................................................... 127
3.2.7. sata ........................................................................................................... 128
*QHLQ<NVHOPHVL*Q2UWDV .................................................................... 129
NX\D|GL .................................................................................................. 129
NQRUWXV ................................................................................................. 129
3.3.3. yle .......................................................................................................... 129
3*QHLQ%DW ................................................................................................ 130
3.4.1. DzDP ....................................................................................................... 130
3.4.2. batar ......................................................................................................... 131
3.4.3. ki........................................................................................................... 131
3.4.3.1. keelik ................................................................................................... 132
3.4.3.2. kelig d .............................................................................................. 132
3.4.4. kirmk ...................................................................................................... 132
3.4.5. kn batmak............................................................................................... 133
3.4.5.1. kn batjalmak ....................................................................................... 133
3.4.5.2NQEDWV~ .............................................................................................. 133
NQEDWX ............................................................................................... 134
3.4.6. ornamak.................................................................................................... 134
3.4.7HE ............................................................................................................ 134
3.4.8. tn ............................................................................................................ 135
3.4.9. lz........................................................................................................... 135
3.5. Yer ................................................................................................................. 135
3.5.1. r .............................................................................................................. 135
3.5.2. yer ....................................................................................................... 136
3.5.3. kuz ........................................................................................................... 136
\DX~

*QHLQ'RXX

4. Ay ........................................................................................................................ 137
DUGU ............................................................................................................. 137
4.2. ay ................................................................................................................ 137
4.2.1. tolun ay .................................................................................................... 140
4.2.2. ay ayaz ..................................................................................................... 141
\DOo~ .......................................................................................................... 142
4.4. purnavasu .................................................................................................... 143
4.5. sinau .......................................................................................................... 143
4.6. soma............................................................................................................ 143

......................................................................................................... 143
PD ............................................................................................................. 143

DWDEL

............................................................................................................... 145
............................................................................................................. 145
5.1.1. yultuz ....................................................................................................... 145
5.1.2. uya~ma~ ................................................................................................... 148
<OG]VLPOHUL................................................................................................. 148
5.2.1. arjU ......................................................................................................... 148
5.2.2. saj]jan.................................................................................................... 150
5.2.3. temr~azu~ .............................................................................................. 151
5.2.4. lkr ......................................................................................................... 154
5.2.5. yaj]Vjun ............................................................................................... 156
\OGU~ ....................................................................................................... 157
5.2.7. yitikn ...................................................................................................... 159
5.2.8. abii.......................................................................................................... 161
DGU ........................................................................................................... 162
5.2.10. anurat ..................................................................................................... 162
5DOLV ........................................................................................................ 162
DYLQL ...................................................................................................... 162
5.2.13. barani ..................................................................................................... 162
5.2.14. aitir ....................................................................................................... 163
oLW .......................................................................................................... 163
GDQL ....................................................................................................... 163
5.2.17. rivadi .................................................................................................... 163
5.2.18. zast......................................................................................................... 163
5.2.19.~anya...................................................................................................... 163
5.2.20.~umunsi.................................................................................................. 164
5.2.21. limin ..................................................................................................... 164
5.2.22. liusun...................................................................................................... 164
5.2.23.lu~usus ................................................................................................... 164
5.2.24. maidun.................................................................................................... 164
5.2.25.PD~ara.................................................................................................... 164
5.2.26. mina ....................................................................................................... 165
5.2.27.SD~XQVL ................................................................................................... 165
5.2.28. purva pulgani.......................................................................................... 165
SX .......................................................................................................... 165
5.2.30. rivadi ...................................................................................................... 165
5.2.31. simak...................................................................................................... 166
5.2.32. urugini .................................................................................................... 166
5.2.33. utarabativarat.......................................................................................... 166
5.2.34. utrapalguni.............................................................................................. 166
5.2.XWUDDGL ................................................................................................... 166
5.2.36. viay....................................................................................................... 166
YLD~ ....................................................................................................... 167
5.2.38. vUzDU ....................................................................................................... 167

<OG]ODU

<OG]

......................................................................................................... 167
5.2.40. vu~uu ..................................................................................................... 167
5.2.41. yunkiu .................................................................................................... 167
DUGU ........................................................................................................ 168
5.2.43. krirLN ...................................................................................................... 168
5.2.44. mag ........................................................................................................ 168
5.2.45. mul ......................................................................................................... 168
5.2.46. punarvasu ............................................................................................... 168
5.2.47. purvabadirapat ........................................................................................ 169
5.2.48. SXUYDDGL ................................................................................................ 169
VDWDEL..................................................................................................... 169
5.2.50. suvadi ..................................................................................................... 169
LUavan .................................................................................................... 170
5.2.52. urugini .................................................................................................... 170
5.2.53. tamlang................................................................................................... 170

YUL

6. Burlar ................................................................................................................ 171


6.1. Astroloji, Astrolog .......................................................................................... 171
6.1.1. krmi .................................................................................................... 171
6.1.2. mneccim................................................................................................. 171
6.1.3. ncum....................................................................................................... 171
\XOWX]o..................................................................................................... 172
6.2. Bur................................................................................................................ 172
6.2.1. burun ........................................................................................................ 172
6.2.2.~arz .......................................................................................................... 173
VxDU.......................................................................................................... 173
6.2.4. kk.......................................................................................................... 173
%XUoODU.XD =RG\DN ................................................................................ 174
6.3.1. arslan........................................................................................................ 174
EDON ......................................................................................................... 176
6.3.3. bujGD\ED .............................................................................................. 177
6.3.4. arDQ ........................................................................................................ 178
6.3.5. erentz...................................................................................................... 179
6.3.6.~R] .......................................................................................................... 179
6.3.7. knek........................................................................................................ 180
6.3.8.~Xo~ ........................................................................................................ 180
PL ........................................................................................................... 181
6.3.10. ojlak....................................................................................................... 181
6.3.11. ordu ........................................................................................................ 182
6.3.12. purnavasu ............................................................................................... 182
6.3.13. sertan...................................................................................................... 183
6.3.14. ur ........................................................................................................... 183
6.3.15. lg ........................................................................................................ 183
6.3.16.~ara~X .................................................................................................. 185
6.3.17. ya ........................................................................................................... 186
6.3.18. kanya...................................................................................................... 186
6.3.19. karkar..................................................................................................... 186
10

6.3.20. kumba..................................................................................................... 186


6.3.21. maidun.................................................................................................... 186
6.3.22. ma~ara.................................................................................................... 187
6.3.23. mina ....................................................................................................... 187
6.3.24. tanu ........................................................................................................ 187
6.3.25. tulya ....................................................................................................... 187
6.3.26. vrik ....................................................................................................... 187
YUL ......................................................................................................... 187
7. Zaman ................................................................................................................. 188
2QNL+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPL ........................................................................ 188
EDUV\O...................................................................................................... 189
ELoLQ\O .................................................................................................... 189
W\O .......................................................................................................... 190
7.1.4. ko\O ...................................................................................................... 191
NVJ\O ................................................................................................... 192
ODJ]Q\O................................................................................................... 193
OXX\O ....................................................................................................... 194
WDNJX\O .................................................................................................. 194
WDENDQ\O ............................................................................................... 195
7.1.10.Xr\O ...................................................................................................... 196
\ODQ\O .................................................................................................. 197
\RQW\O ................................................................................................... 197
$\<OYH=DPDQ ........................................................................................... 199
7.2.1. aram ay..................................................................................................... 199
DUNQL]L .................................................................................................... 199
7.2.3. ay ............................................................................................................. 199
EDUPD\O .................................................................................................. 200
EOGU ......................................................................................................... 200
7.2.6. bou ........................................................................................................... 200
7.2.7. aj............................................................................................................ 201
7.2.8. a~DSXW.................................................................................................... 201
oDKDSXGOJ ............................................................................................ 202
oDKDSXGPDQJJDO................................................................................... 202
7.2.9. er ............................................................................................................ 202
7.2.9.1. erlik ..................................................................................................... 202
7.2.10. hinki ....................................................................................................... 202
7.2.11. ikindi ...................................................................................................... 203
7.2.12. kalp, klp.................................................................................................. 203
7.2.13.~olu ........................................................................................................ 203
7.2.13.1.~oluluj ................................................................................................ 204
7.2.13.2.~olusuz ................................................................................................ 204
7.2.14.~XOX~ri............................................................................................... 204
7.2.15. likzir ....................................................................................................... 205
7.2.16. lintih ....................................................................................................... 205
OQJXT .................................................................................................. 205
7.2.18. muhurta .................................................................................................. 206
11

7.2.19. ojur ........................................................................................................ 206


\DWJDNRjXU ...................................................................................... 206
7.2.20. d ........................................................................................................... 206
7.2.20.1. dleg.................................................................................................... 207
7.2.20.2. d~olu................................................................................................. 207
7.2.20.3. dn .................................................................................................... 207
7.2.20.4. |G ..................................................................................................... 208
7.2.21. purvantak(a)lp ........................................................................................ 208
7.2.22. ruzgar ..................................................................................................... 208
7.2.23. seher....................................................................................................... 208
7.2.24. sin........................................................................................................... 208
LS~DQ ..................................................................................................... 209
7.2.26. tsirki, sirki .............................................................................................. 209
7.2.27. rke ........................................................................................................ 209
7.2.28. va~t ........................................................................................................ 209
7.2.29. yam ........................................................................................................ 209
7.2.30. \Dx ........................................................................................................ 210
\O ........................................................................................................... 210
\OODPDN ............................................................................................... 210
\OON .................................................................................................... 210
QHN\O .................................................................................................. 211
WLL\O .................................................................................................. 211
7.2.31.5. irkN\O ............................................................................................... 211
]DPQ ..................................................................................................... 212
........................................................................................... 213
8.1. Tri............................................................................................................... 213
8.1.1. ay tri ..................................................................................................... 213
8.1.2. kk tri ................................................................................................... 213
8.1.3. kn tri ................................................................................................... 215
8.1.3.1. kn ay tri............................................................................................ 215
8.1.4. ta tri .................................................................................................... 216
8.2. Gk dDOJFODU ............................................................................................... 216
8.2.1. aita.......................................................................................................... 216
8.2.2. itrasini..................................................................................................... 216
8.2.3. gantarvi .................................................................................................... 216
SDQoDLNL .................................................................................................. 217
8.2.5. tamburi ..................................................................................................... 217
8.2.6. nata........................................................................................................... 217

*|NOHOJLOLQDQODU

SONU.................................................................................................................... 218
................................................................................................ 220
g=*(d0 ........................................................................................................... 239
%%/<2*5$)<$

12

N SZ
(OGHNLEXoDOPDQQNRQXVXQXWDULKv7UN\D]GLOLQLROXWXUDQ.|NWUN8\JXU
YH .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVLQH DLW PHWLQOHUGHNL (VNL 7UNoH J|N ELOLPL DVWURQRPL 

ktDGU 7HVSLW

WHULPOHULQLQ WHVSLWL YH EX WHULPOHULQ GLO PHUNH]OL ELU LQFHOHPHVL ROXWXUPD

HGLOHQ WHULPOHU VHV ELOJLVL DQODP ELOJLVL YH N|NHQ ELOLPL HWLPRORML  EDNPODUQGDQ GD
LQFHOHQPH\HoDOOPWU

(VNL 7UNoH J|N ELOLPL DVWURQRPL  WHULPOHULQLQ RUWD\D NRQXOPDV DPDF\OD


.|NWUN 8\JXU YH .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL G|QHPOHULQH DLW HVHUOHU VHoLOPL YH NRQX
NOOL\DWP] LoLQGH GHHUOHQGLULOPLWLU %X

HVHUOHU VHoLOLUNHQ

7UN

'LO

.XUXPX

Ktphanesi, Trk Tarih Kurumu Ktphanesi ve Milli Ktphane esas olarak


DOQPWU

(VNL7UNoHG|QHPLQHDLWHVHUOHU]HULQGHoRNVD\GDoDOPD\DSOPWU$QFDN
EX HVHUOHU ]HULQH \HWHUOL G]H\GH oDOPD \DSOGQ V|\OHPHN GH JoWU %X
oDOPDQQ NRQXVXQX ROXWXUDQ  DVWURQRPL WHULPOHUL ]HULQGH \D]OP ELUNDo PDNDOH
GQGD NRQX JHQL RODUDN HOH DOQS GHHUOHQGLULOPL GHLOGLU %L] EXUDGD (VN

i Trke

G|QHPLQH DLW PHWLQOHUGH NXOODQODQ DVWURQRPL WHULPOHULQL ELOLPVHO \|QGHQ HOH DOS
LQFHOH\HUHNEXDODQGDNLELUEROXXGROGXUPD\DoDOWN

$UDWUPDQQ *LUL NVPQGD oDOPDQQ NRQXVX YH DODQ DPDF oDOPDGD

uygulanan yntemler, konuyla ilJLOL \DSOP oDOPDODUYHNRQXNOOL\DWQGDLQFHOHQHQ


HVHUOHUOHLOJLOLELOJLOHUEXOXQPDNWDGU

Birinci blmde ise Proto-7UN KD\DW DODQODU YH (VNL 7UN \D\OPD DODQODU
LQFHOHQGLNWHQVRQUD(VNL7UNOHUGHDVWURQRPL\OHLOJLOLELOJLOHUH\HUYHULOPLWLU

$UDWUPDQQ LNLQFL E|OPQ LVH WHULPOHULQ LQFHOHPH NVP ROXWXUPDNWDGU

Bu blmde Eski Trke gk bilimi (astronomi) terimleri *|N*H]HJHQOHU*QH$\


<OG]ODU %XUoODU =DPDQ YH *|NOH OJLOL QDQODU NRQX EDONODU DOWQGD D\U D\U

maddeOHU KkOLQGH HOH DOQPWU 0DGGH ED RODUDN DOQDQ WHULPOHU VHV ELOJLVL DQODP
ELOJLVL YH N|NHQ ELOJLVL HWLPRORML  EDNPODUQGDQ LQFHOHQPH\H oDOOPWU 7HULPLQ

13

KDQJL HVHUGH JHoWLL YH KDQJL DQODPGD NXOODQOG GD EHOLUWLOPLWLU %LU WHULP ELUGHQ

fazla eserde geiyorsa, bunODUGDQ VDGHFH ELU HVHU WDQN RODUDN DOQPWU +HU WHULPLQ
e

JHoWLL |UQHN ELU FPOH GH YHULOP \H oDOOPWU dDOPDP] (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQL
LoLQH DOG LoLQ WHULPOHULQ PRGHUQ 7UN OHKoHOHULQGHNL ELoLPLQH LVH ]DPDQ ]DPDQ
GHLQLOPLWLU

6RQXoEDOQWD\DQE|OPGH|]HOOLNOHWHULPOHULQLQFHOHQPHVLQHGDLUJHQHO
ELU GHHUOHQGLUPH \DSOP YH .D\QDNoD E|OP\OH GH oDOPD VRQODQGUOPWU

Bu

. Bu

NRQXQXQ WDPDPHQ ELWLULOGLL JLEL ELU LGGLD WDPDGP] |]HOOLNOH YXUJXOD\DOP

G|QHPGHNL DVWURQRPL WHULPOHUL ]HULQGH \DSODELOHFHN GDKD oRN H\OHU RODELOLU NRQX\D
GDKDIDUNODoODUGDQEDNODELOLU

<DSP ROGXXPX] EX DUDWUPD VUDVQGD ELUoRN HNVLN YH \DQOP]Q


RODELOHFHLQLQ

IDUNQGD\]

g]HOOLNOH

NHOLPHOHULQ

N|NHQOHUL\OH

LOJLOL

NLLVHO

NDQDDWOHULPL]LQ \HU DOG E|OPOHUH LWLUD] HGLOHELOLU %XQD UDPHQ ELUoRN NHOLPHQLQ
N|NHQL\OHLOJLOLILNLUOHU|QHVUPHNWHQoHNLQPHGLNdQNEXWUoDOPDODUQGRDVQGD
IDUNO GQPHQLQ \DWWQ GRUXODUQ GD IDUNO J|UOHUGHQ oNWQ ELOL\RUX]
%XQXQOD ELUOLNWH NHOLPHOHULQ N|NHQOHUL\OH LOJLOL RODUDN WXWDUO YH NDEXO HGLOHELOLU
DoNODPDODU \DSPD\D GD JD\UHW HWWLN %X oDOPD 7UN GLOLQH NoN ELU NDWN
VDOD\DELOLUVHEXQGDQPXWOXOXNGX\DFDP]EHOLUWPHNLVWL\RUX]

Bu tezin orWD\D oNQGD NHQGLOHULQH WHHNNU ERUoOX ROGXXP LQVDQODU GDROGX


7H]H HNLO YHUHQ ILNLUOHUL\OH \DUGPODUQ HVLUJHPH\HQ GHHUOL KRFDP 3URI 'U )DWPD

Sema BARUTCU-g=g1'(5H GQFHOHULQGHQ YH NWSKDQHVLQGHQ  ID\GDODQGP


Dr. Blent GLe, bu konuyu VHoPHPLVDOD\DQYHoDOPDVUDVQGDEDQD\ROJ|VWHULS
WHYLN

YH

GHVWHNOHULQL

HVLUJHPH\HQ

N\PHWOL

KRFDP

'Ro

'U

%LOJHKDQ

$WV]

*g.'$DVRQVX]WHHNNUOHULPLVXQX\RUXP

Osman KABADAYI
29.08.2.UNNDOH

14

*5
d$/,0$1,1.218689($/$1,
dDOPDP]Q NRQXVXQX EDODQJoWDQ  \\D NDGDUNL 7UN WRSOXPXQXQ ELOLP
ND\QDNODUQGDQ ELUL RODUDN NDUP]D oNDQ DVWURQRPLQLQ GLO PHUNH]OL ELU LQFHOHPHVL

ROXWXUPD WDGU dDOPDGD |QFHOLNOH

Eski Trke (Kktrke-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO

Trkesi) gk bilimi (astURQRPL  WHULPOHUL WHVSLW HGLOPH\H oDOOP YH EX WHULPOHU VHV
ELOJLVLDQODPELOJLVLWHULPWUHWPHGHNXOODQODQ\|QWHPOHUYHN|NHQELOLPLEDNPQGDQ

incelenPH\HoDOOPWU
Eski TrN WRSOXP KD\DWQQ VRV\DO \DSVQQ EHOLUOHQPHVL NDGDU HQ HVNL 7UN
WRSOXP KD\DW KDNNQGD GD WDKPLQOHUGH EXOXQDELOPHN LoLQ HQ VRPXW PDO]HPH\L YHUHQ
GLOGHQ KDUHNHWOH 7UN J|N ELOLPL WHUPLQRORMLVLQLQ LOHQPHVL oDOPD NRQXPX]XQ
VQUODUQoL]PLWLU

0.2d$/,0$1,1$0$&,
dDOPDP]Q DPDF (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPL PHWLQOHULQGHQ KDUHNHWOH (VNL 7UN
J|N ELOLPL WHULPOHULQL RUWD\D NR\DUDN EX WHULPOHULQ QDVO ROXWXUXOGXXQX EHOLUOHPHN
WHULP

\DSPDGDNL

KDUHNHW

QRNWDODUQ

GHHUOHQGLUPHN

WHULPOHULQ

N|NHQ

ELOLPL

incelemelerini yapmak, Trkenin 7DULKVHO6|]OQHJ|NELOLPLWDULKLDUDWUPDODUQD


ve gk bilimi terimlerini TrkoHOHWLUPHoDOPDODUQDNDWNGDEXOXQPDNWU

$UDWUPD |]HOOLNOH 7UNoH N|NHQOL WHULPOHUL EHOLUOHPHQLQ \DQ VUD HVNL G|QHP

Trk hayatQGDNL J|N ELOLPL IDDOL\HWOHULQGH JHoLULOHQ HYUHOHUL YH J|N ELOLPLQ 7UN
sosyo-kltrel ha\DWQGDNLGXUXPXQXJ|VWHUPH\LGHKHGHIOHPHNWHGLU

d$/,0$'$8<*8/$1$1<g17(0/(5
dDOPDGD (VNL 7UNoH J|N ELOLPL WHULPOHULQLQ RUWD\D oNDUOPDVQD \|QHOLN X

mHWRWODUNXOODQOPWU

15

%X oDOPDGD J|N ELOLPL WHULPOHUL ELU ELOLP WDULKL X]PDQ J|]\OH GHLO ELU GLO
X]PDQ EDN\OD HOH DOQPWU 7HULPOHULQ NRQX NOOL\DWQGD \HU DODQ PHWLQOHUGHNL
NXOODQ HNLOOHUL

ses bilgisi, anlam bilgisi EDNPQGDQ EHOLUOHQPH\H oDOOP ]DPDQ

zaman kken bilgisi (etimoloji)GHQHPHOHULQHGHJLULLOPLWLU7HULPOHUOHLOJLOLGDKD|QFH


\DSOP RODQ HWLPRORML GHQHPHOHULQLQ GH HNOHQPHVL JHUHNHQ ELOJLOHULQ GH YHULOPHVLQLQ
ID\GDO RODFDGQOPWU7HULPOHULQJHoLUPL ROGXXVHVYH \DSGHLLNOLNOHULGH
J|VWHULOPH\HoDOOPWU

dDOPDP]GD ]HULQGH GXUGXXPX] WHULPOHU RULMLQDO ND\QDNODUD GD\DO RODUDN


WDUDQP *|N *H]HJHQOHU *QH $\ <OG]ODU %XUoODU =DPDQ YH *|NOH OJLOL
QDQODU NRQX EDONODU DOWQGD D\U D\U PDGGHOHU KkOLQGH HOH DOQPWU 0DGGH ED
RODUDN DOQDQ WHULPOHU N|NHQ ELOJLVL EDNPQGDQ LQFHOHQPH\H oDOOPWU 7HULPLQ
KDQJL HVHU YH\D HVHUOHUGH JHoWLL YH KDQJL DQODPGD NXOODQOG GD EHOLUWLOPLWLU %LU

terim birden fazla eserde geiyorsa, bunODUGDQ VDGHFH ELU HVHU WDQN RODUDN DOQPWU
e

+HU WHULPLQ JHoWLL |UQHN ELU FPOH GH YHULOP \H oDOOPWU

zellikle Eski Uygur

\D]V\OD \D]OP HVHUOHUGH JHoHQ WHULPOHULQ LPOkVQGD IDUNOONODU RODELOPHNWHGLU


dDOPDGDWDUDQDQND\QDNHVHUOHUGHNLLPOkKXVXVL\HWOHULQHD\QHQX\XOPXWXU

dDOPDP] (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQL LoLQH DOG LoLQ WHULPOHULQ \DD\DQ 7UN
OHKoHOHULQGHNLELoLPLQHLVH]DPDQ]DPDQGHLQLOPLWLU

7HULPOHU GLO \|QQGHQ LQFHOHQPHQLQ \DQ VUD VRV\R NOWUHO EDODPGD GD
GHHUOHQGLULOPLWLU $UDWUPD DPDoODU DUDVQGD J|N ELOLPLWHULPOHULQGHQ \RODoNODUDN

Trk kltr tariKLQLQEXER\XWXGDJ|]OHU|QQHVHULOPHNLVWHQPLWLU7HULPOHULQWDP


n

ROGXX NOWUHO D ODP YH JHoLUPL ROGXX HYUHOHUOH 7UN NOWU KD\DWQGD J|UOHQ
GHLLPOHUGHJ|VWHULOPH\HoDOOPWU

%XoDOPDGD(VNL7UN9HUJL7HULPOHUL g]\HWJLQ (VNL7UN7DUP


7HULPOHUL *O   YH(VNL $QDGROX 7UNoHVLQGH 7S 7HULPOHUL 7UNPHQ  

DGO o OPDODU |UQHN DOGP] YH EX DUDWUPDODUGDQ ID]ODFD \DUDUODQGP]


EHOLUWPHNJHUHNLU%XoDUDWUPD\J|]|QQGHEXOXQGXUPDNODEHUDEHUNHQGLPL]HJ|UH
ELU\|QWHPGHJHOLWLULOPLWLU

16

0.4. KONUNUN SINIRLANDIRILMASI


dDOPDP] (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQLQ GLO |]HOOLNOHULQL \DQVWDQ HVHUOHUGHNL J|N ELOLPL
DVWURQRPL WHULPOHULLOHVQUOGU%XHVHUOHUVDGHFHJ|NELOLPLWHULPOHULEDNPQGDQHOH
DOQDFDN GLHU WHULPOHU

]HULQGH GXUXOPD\DFDNWU 7HULPOHULQ VDGHFH ELU GL]LQL

YHULOPH\HFHN D\Q ]DPDQGD EX WHULPOHU \DS DQODP YH N|NHQ EDNPQGDQ GD
GHHUOHQGLULOPH\H oDOODFDNWU dDOPDP]GD HVDV DOGP] WHULPOHUL WDUDGP]

HVHUOHU VDGHFH NRQX NOOL\DWQGD J|VW ULOHQ HVHUOHU LOH VQUODQGUOPWU %X G|QHP

HVHUOHULQLQ WDPDP ]HULQGH GXUPDN EX oDOP QQ KDFPLQL oRN DDFDQGDQ VHoLOHQ

eserler zerinGH GXUXOPXWXU .RQX NOOL\DWQD GDKLO HGLlPHPL (VNL 7UNoH -bilhassa
Uygurca- LOH \D]OP HVHUOHU EXOXQDELOLU %L] oDOPDP]GD (VNL 7UNoHG|QHPLQLQ GLO
PDO]HPHVLQL YHUHQ \D\PODQP YH VDGHFH EL]LP XODDELOGLLPL] HVHUOHU ]HULQGH

durduk. zerinde herKDQJL ELU oDOPD \DSOPDP KHQ] RNXQPDP PHWLQOHrdeki


WHULPOHUL WDUDPDGN .OOL\DWWD WDUDGP] HVHUOHU VHoLOLUNHQ

7UN 'LO .XUXPX

Ktphanesi, Trk Tarih Kurumu Ktphanesi ve Milli Ktphane esas olarak


DOQPWU

$UDWUPDP](VNL7UNoHG|QH

mi (Kktrke-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO7UNoHVL LOH

\D]OP PHWLQOHUGH NXOODQODQ J|N ELOLPL WHULPOHUL LOH VQUODQGUOPWU %X VHEHSOH
GLHU

WDULKv

YH\D

\DD\DQ

7UN

OHKoHOHULQGHNL

J|N

ELOLPL

WHULPOHUL

]HULQGH

GXUXOPDPWU (VNL 7UNoH GQGDNL J|N ELOLPL WHULPOHULQLQ D\U oDOPDODUD NRQX
RODELOHFHLQL ]HULQGH GXUXODFDN GDKD SHN oRN J|N ELOLPL WHULPLQLQ ROGXXQX

belirtmemiz gerekir.

%X oDOPDGD HVDV RODUDN 7UNoH N|NHQOL WHULPOHU LQFHOHQPLWLU <DEDQF GLOGHQ
DOQDQ ELU N|NWHQ 7UNoH \DSP HNOHULQL DODUDN WUHWLOPL WHULPOHU GH oDOPD\D GDKLO
HGLOPLWLU

.218/(/*/<$3,/$1d$/,0$/$5
7UNRORML DUDWUPDODU LoHULVLQGH 7UN DVWURQRPLVL\OH LOJLOL \DSODQ |QHPOL
oDOPDODUYDUGU%XDQODPGDDVWURQRPLWHULPOHUL\OHLOJLOL|QHPOLELUoDOPD\&ODXVRQ
\DSPWU

6LU

*HUDUG

&ODXVRQ

(DUO\

17

7XUNLVK

$VWURQRPLFDO

7HUPV

EDONO

PDNDOHVLQGH

EHOOL

EDO

HVNL

7UNoH

DVWURQRPL

WHULPOHULQL

RUWD\D

NR\PXWXU

$UDWUPDVQD|QHPOLELU*LULOHEDOD\DQ&ODXVRQGDKDVRQUDHVNL7UNoHDVWURQRPL

terimlHULQL

DOIDEHWLN ELU OLVWH\OH YHUPLWLU QJLOL] 7UNRORX &ODXVRQXQ V|]Q

HWWLLPL] EX DUDWUPDVQGD  DGHW WHULP \HU DOPDNWDGU %X WHULPOHU XQODUGU

Ur,

ArU $TDrU 2ODT NLgN]hOJhONHU 2xD\$UXTWDT(UHQW]$UVODQ$U]X


Ay, BaqU VRTXP dDrDQ dROSDQ 7HPU TD]xXT 7LUJHN 4DUD TX 4X]X *|N *Q
Krd, Sevit, Sata, Sekentir, Yetigen, Ya]VQ<DOoT<DOGUDT<XOGX]<DT.

(VNL 7UN DVWURQRPL WHULPOHUL\OH LOJLOL oDOPD \DSDQ ELU GLHU DUDWUPDF GD

Imre Gyarmatidir. $UDWUPDF$Q(QLJPDWLF7XUNLF3ODQHW1DPHEDONO\D]VQGD


Kutadgu Biligde sewit

RODUDN JHoHQ 9HQV JH]HJHQLQ dDDWD\ 7UNoHVLQGH

HNOLQGH J|UOGQ EXQXQ GD ELU \D]P KDWDV ROGXX V|\OHPHNWHGLU

sa~W

Kutadgu

Biligde v sesi Arap harfleriyle kafQ ]HULQH o QRNWD LOH J|VWHULOL\RUGX %X VHV
dDDWD\FDGD

~RODUDNDOJODQPE|\OHFH Kutadgu Biligdeki sewitV|]FEXOHKoHGH

sa~WROPXWXUGHPHNWHGLU

$V\D WRSOXPODUQQ DVWURQRPL IDDOL\HWOHULQL NRQX HGLQHQ ELU DUDWUPD GD

Berthelota aittir: R. Berthelot, La pense de lAsie, et lastrobiologie, Paris, 1938.


$UDWUPDFEXoDOPDVQGDGLHU$V\DWRSOXPODU\ODELUOLNWH7UNOHULQGHJ|HE\N
ELU WXWNX\OD EDO ROGXNODUQD GHLQPL 7UNOHULQ WDNYLP ELOJLOHUL\OH LOJLOL J|UOHULQL

ortaya koyPXWXU
Louis Bazin, ber die Sternkunde in Alttrkischen Zeit (AW und der
Literatur  :LHVEDGHQ   EDONO oDOPDVQGD JH]HJHQOHULQ 7UNoH LVLPOHULQLQ
-

ROGXXQX\DOQ]FD9HQV-SLWHUYH0DUVWDQ\DQ7X NLXODUQELUL*QHHoRN\DNQ
ROGXXGLHUL\VHoSODNJ|]OH]RU J|UOHELOGLLLoLQ0HUNUYH6DWUQELOPHGLNOHULQL
GQPHNWHGLU

$VWURQRPL WHULPOHULQL EWQ KkOLQGH GHLO GH V|]FN ER\XWXQGD HOH DODQ
oDOPDODU GD YDUGU %XQODUGDQ ELUL GH )XQGD 7RSUDND DLWWLU

Funda Toprak (2005),

7UNOHUGH .R]PRORML %LOJLVL YH VODP 6RQUDV 0HWLQOHUGH *HoHQ <OG]

18

-Gezegen

VLPOHULQLQ (WLPRORMLVL  0D\V

-4 Haziran 2005, I.Trkoloji Sempozyumu .UP

Ukrayna.

<LQH ELU EDND oDOPD GD XGXU )DWPD g]NDQ   <OGUP <OG] $OHY

Alaz/YDOD] ,Q YH ,N .HOLPHOHUL 1HUHGHQ *HOL\RU" bilig,

7UN 'Q\DV 6RV\DO

Bilimler Dergisi/Journal of Social Sciences of the Turkish World$QNDUD6D\*]


2003, s.157-179.

$VWURQRPL WHULPOHUL PXKWHOLI WDULKOHUGH oHLWOL DoODUGDQ GD DUDWUPDFO

ar

WDUDIQGDQ HOH DOQP YH LQFHOHQPLWLU $KPHW &DIHUROX 7UN 2QRPDVWLLQGH $\ YH
*QH 8QVXUODU

Trk 'LOL YH (GHEL\DW 'HUJLVL, XIII. C.

VWDQEXO V    EDONO

PDNDOHVLQGH DGELOLP SHUVSHNWLILQGHQ LNL J|N FLVPL $\ YH *QHL HOH DOPWU $\

ile

LOJLOL ELU GLHU DUDWUPD 1DLO 7DQD DLWWLU 1DLO 7DQ   7UN )RONORUXQGD $\
7XWXOPDV

Trk Kltr, S. 146 Ankara, s. 81-85. Fikret Trkmen de Trk Halk

+LNk\HOHULQGH *|N\] LOH OJLOL $OHJRULOHU , 8OXVODU DUDV 7UN )RONORU 6HPLQHUL

Bildirileri, Ankara, 1973: 159-  EDONO ELOGLULVLQGH NRQX\D KDON KLNk\HOHULQGHNL


J|N\]\OHLOJLOLDOHJRULOHUDoVQGDQ\DNODPWU

7UNOHULQ NR]PRUDI\D ELOJLVL\OH LOJLOL |QHPOL ELU oDOPD\ GD VDQDW WDULKoLVL
(PHO

(VLQ

\DSPWU

(VLQLQ

Trk

.R]PRORMLVLQH

*LUL

DGO

HVHUL

HVNL

7UN

NR]PRUDI\DVKDNNQGDGR\XUXFXELOJLOHULoHUPHNWHGLU

Bahaeddin gelin Trk Mitolojisi II

DGO HVHUL GH HVNL 7UN DVWURQRPLVL

DoVQGDQ EDNOGQGD |QHPOL PLWRORMLN ELOJLOHUL LoHUPHNWHGLU (VHULQ |]HOOLNOH 

-24.

DUDVQGDNLE|OPOHULDVWURQRPL\OHLOJLOLGLU

7XQFHU %D\NDUDQQ 7UNOHUGH *|N\] QFHOHPH0HUDN YH 8OX %H\ 8OX

%H\ YH dHYUHVL 8OXVODUDUDV 6HPSR]\XPX $QNDUD  0D\V  +D]LUDQ   EDONO
ELOGLULVLGH\LQHEXDODQGD\DSOP|QHPOLELUoDOPDGU

19

$VWURORML\OH LOJLOL ELU oDOPD\ GD 6RIL 7UDP 6HPHQ \DSPWU 6RIL 7UDP

Semen (2004), Trk Astrolojisi >(GLW|U 0 )DWLK 7RSDOROX@  .LWDS (OLSV <D\
VWDQEXO

0RGHUQ DQODPGD  DVWURQRPL WHULPOHULQLQ \HU DOG WHULP V|]ONOHUL GH

mevcutWXU

%XQODUGDQ

ELUL

$EGXOODK

.]OUPDN

WDUDIQGDQ

KD]UODQDQ

Gkbilim

7HULPOHUL6|]OGU%XQGDQEDNDXV|]ONOHUGHYDUGU$VWURQRPL7HULPOHULONYH
2UWD gUHWLP oLQ 0DDULI 9HNkOHWL <D\ VWDQEXO  ON YH 2UWD gUHWLP

Astronomi Terimleri7'.<D\$QNDUD6|]QHWWLLPL]EXWHULPV|]ONOHULQLQ
GQGD <DYX] 8QDW WDUDIQGDQ KD]UODQDQ X V|]O GH ]LNUHWPHN \HULQGH RODFDNWU
<DYX] 8QDW   (VNL $VWURQRPL 0HWLQOHULQGH .DUODODQ $VWURQRPL 7HULPOHULQH
OLNLQ%LU6|]ON'HQH

mesi, OTAM, 11, Ankara, 2000: 633-8QDWQEXoDOPDV

GDKD oRN VOkPL\HW VRQUDV PHWLQOHUGH JHoHQ DVWURQRPL WHULPOHUL\OH LOJLOLGLU %L] EX
WHULP V|]ONOHULQGHQ (VNL 7UNoH DVWURQRPL WHULPOHULQLQ VQUODUQ oL]HUNHQ ROGXNoD

istifade ettik.
Trk asWURQRPLVL\OH LOJLOL \DSODQ DUDWUPDODU HOEHWWH \XNDUGDV|]Q HWWLLPL]
DUDWUPDODUOD VQUO GHLOGLU %L] VDGHFH (VNL 7UNoH .|NWUNoH

Trkesi) gk bilimi (astURQRPL 

-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO

WHULPOHUL\OH LOJLOL \DSOP oDOPDODUD GHLQPHN

istedik. AstrRQRPL\OH LOJLOL \DSOP oDOPDODU KDNNQGD GDKD JHQL ELOJL LoLQ EN]
Yavuz Unat (2004), Trk Astronomi Tarihi Literatr (1923-2004), Trkiye
, C.2, S.4, 2004: 103-133.

$UDWUPDODU/LWHUDWU'HUJLVL

7(=1.253868 .218.h//<$7,

Eski Trke (Kktrke-Uygurca-.DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL  G|QHPLQH DLW J|N ELOLPL


y

WHULPOHULYHIDDOL\HWOHULLoLQ\D]OPHWLQND QDNODUNRQXNOOL\DWLoLQHDOQPWU

+XQODUGDQ YH GLHU HVNL 7UN ER\ODUQGDQ EXJQH HOLPL]H \D]O ND\QDNODU
JHoPHPLWLU.|NWUNOHUYH 8\JXUODULoLQLVH EXG|QHPOHUGH \D]OP RODQoHLWOL\D]O
ND\QDNODU WDUDQP YH EX ND\QDNODUGDNL J|N ELOLP WHULPOHUL LQFHOHQPLWLU VODPv oHYUH
G|QHPL RODUDN GD .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL PHWLQOHUL (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQH GDKLO HGLOPL YH

incelenPLWLU

20

0.6.1. Kktrke Eserler


Trkenin elimizdeki kaynaklara gre en eski metinleri olan Trk runik harfli
PHWLQOHU NRQX NOOL\DWP]GD \HU DOPDNWDGU dDOPDP]GD 7UN UXQLN KDUIOHUL\OH
EHQJWDODUDYHNkGD\D]OPPHWLQOHULQFHOHQHFHNWLU

0.6.2. Uygurca Eserler


EsNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVL LOH \D]OP %XGGKLVW YH 0DQLKHLVW oHYUH\H DLW HVHUOHU
NRUSXV LoLQGH HQ JHQL \HUL WXWDQ E|OPGU %XGGKLVW YH 0DQLKHLVW oHYUH\H DLW 7UNoH
HVHUOHUNRUSXVLoLQHDOQUNHQKHUKDQJLELUD\UP\DSOPDPROXSXODODELOHQKHUWUO

eser kRUSXV

LoLQGH GHHUOHQGLULOPH\H oDOOPWU g]HOOLNOH %XGGKLVW oHYUH\H DLW

7UNoH HVHUOHULQ oRN ID]OD ROPDV QHGHQL\OH XODODPD\DQ ND\QDNODUOD LOJLOL RODUDN

zellikle Klaus Rhrbornun Uigurisches Wrterbuch DGO V|]O LOH (VNL 7UNoHQLQ
V|] YDUOQ WRSOD\DQ HVHUOHUH GH PUDFDDW HGLOPLWLU $UDWUPDP]GD NXOODQODQ
%XGGKLVW

YH

0DQLKHLVW

oHYUH\H

DLW

HVHUOHULQ

NVDOWPDODU

GD

\LQH

Uigurisches

WrterbuchGD NXOODQODQ NVDOWPDODUGU %X HVHUGH NVDOWPDV ROPD\DQ HVHUOHU LoLQ LVH
WDUDIP]GDQNVDOWPD\DSOPWU

13.-

\\

DUDVQGD

WDULKOHQGLULOHQ

VLYLO

8\JXU

EHOJHOHUL

GH

WH]LPL]LQ

NRUSXVXQGD \HU DOPWU %X EHOJHOHU oHLWOL DUDWUPDFODU WDUDIQGDQ PDNDOH YH NLWDS
G]H\LQGH

\D\PODQPWU

$DGD

NLWDS

G]H\LQGH

\D\PODQDQ

VLYLO

8\JXU

belgelerinin knyesini veriyoruz:


RADLOFF, Wilhelm (1928) Uigurische Sprachdenkmler. Materialien, nach
dem Tode des Verfassers mit Erganzungen von S. Malov herausgegeben, Leningrad,
(USp.).
$5$75HLW5DKPHWL  >@(VNL7UN+XNXN9HVLNDODU

Makaleler,

cilt I, Yay. Haz. O. F. Sertkaya, TKAE Yay., Ankara: 506-572.


CLARK, V. Larry (1975) Introduction to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East
Turkestan (13th-14th cc.), Dissertation of Indiana University, Ph. D., Bloomington
(Clark).

21

YAMADA, Nobuo (1993) Sammlung uigurischer Kontrakte, I-II-III,


Herausgegeben von Juten Oda, Peter Zieme, Hiroshi Umemura, Takao Moriyasu, Osaka
University Press (Yam.).
-1*:( /L  

Tu Lu Fan Hui Gu Wen She Hui Jin Ji Wen Shu Yan

Jiu;LQMLDQJ5HQ0LQFKX%DQ6KH:XOXPXThUPoL JW-Li)
RASCHMANN,

Simone-Christiane

(1995)

Baumwolle

im

trkischen

Zentralasien. Philologische und wirtschaftshistorische Untersuchungen anhand der


vorislamischen uigurischen Texte, Wiesbaden: VIII+219.
6$<7 0XKHPPHWUHKLP VUDSLO <XVXS  

Kadimki Uygur Yezikidiki

VesikilerLFDQ+DON1HUL\DW8UXPoL
g=<(7*10HOHN  

Eski Uygur

Eski Trk Vergi Terimleri, Kksav, Ankara.

VLYLO EHOJHOHUL ]HULQH \DSODQ LON |QHPOL ELOLPVHO DUDWUPD :

Radloffun Uigurische Sprachdenkmler

  DGO oDOPDVGU  8\JXU \D]O

EHOJHQLQ EXOXQGXX EX HVHU : 5DGORIIXQ |OPQGHQ VRQUD |UHQFLVL 6 ( 0DORY
WDUDIQGDQ \D\PODQPWU (VHU

de her belgenin dkme Uygur harfleriyle metinleri de

YHULOPLWLU : 5DGORII EDWDQ  EHOJHQLQ .LULO HVDVO WUDQVNULSVL\RQ VLVWHPLQH J|UH

PHWLQOHULQL YHUPL YH PHWLQOHUL $OPDQFD\D oHYLUPLWLU   DUDVQGDNL PHWLQOHULQ

VDGHFH 8\JXU KDUIOL WSNEDVPODU YH $OPDQFD WHUFPHOHUL YDUGU   DUDVQGDNL

belgelerin ise sadece Almanca tercmeleri yer almakWDGU dDOPDQQ VRQXQD 0DORY
WDUDIQGDQ 5XVoD NDUONO ELU V|]ON GH HNOHQPLWLU %XJ

nk Trkoloji bilgilerinin

 DOWQGD : 5DGORII QHULQGH |]HOOLNOH NXOODQOO ROPD\DQ ELU WUDQVNULSVL\RQ


VLVWHPLQLQEXOXQGXXQXV|\OHPHNPPNQGU%XQXQODELUOLNWHHVHUEHOJHOHU]HULQGH
\DSODQ LON oDOPD ROPDV YH oRN VD\GD |QHPOL EHOJH\L LoHUPHVL EDNPQGDQ EX
VDKDGDNLDUDWUFODUQND\QDNNLWDSODUQGD

n biridir.

8\JXU VLYLO EHOJHOHUL ]HULQH \DSODQ ELU GHHU |QHPOL oDOPD -DSRQ HNROQGHQ
JHOHQ 1REXD <DPDGDQQ

Sammlung uigurischer Kontrakte, I-II-,,,

  DGO

oDOPDVGU (VHULQ LON FLOGLQGH <DPDGDQQ 8\JXU VLYLO EHOJHOHUL ]HULQH KD]UODG

mDNDOHOHUL WRSODQPWU NLQFL FLOWWH  EHOJHQLQ WUDQVNULSVL\RQOX PHWQL LOH ELUOLNWH
-DSRQFD YH $OPDQFD WHUFPHOHUL YHULOPLWLU %X FLOGLQ VRQXQGD EHOJHOHULQ -DSRQFD YH

22

$OPDQFD GL]LQOHUL GH \HU DOPDNWDGU (VHULQ oQF FLOGL LVH LNLQFL FLOWWH LQFHOHQHQ
EHOJHOHUGHQWDQHVLQLQWSNEDVPQLoHUPHNWHGLU

8\JXU VLYLO EHOJHOHUL ]HULQH \DSODQ WRSOX QHLUOHUGHQ ELUL GH dLQOL 7UNRORJ /L

Jingweinin Tu Lu Fan Hui Gu Wen She Hui Jin Ji Wen Shu Yan Jiu, Xinjiang Ren Min
FKX %DQ 6KH :XOXPXT   DGO dLQFH oDOPDVGU $UDWUPDF HVHULQGH 
8\JXU VLYLO EHOJHQLQ WUDQVNULSVL\RQOX PHWQLQL YHUHUHN EHOJHOHUL dLQFH\H WHUFPH HWPL
YH JHUHNOL V|]FNOHU LoLQ DoNODPDODU \DSPWU -LQJZHL EX oDOPDVQGD 5DGORII YH
<DPDGD WDUDIQGDQ \DSODQ QHLUOHUGHNL ED] RNXPD \DQOODUQ G]HOWHUHN \HQL
HNOHPHOHU\DSWQV|\OHPHNWHGLU

8\JXUVLYLOEHOJHOHUL]HULQHEDNDELUoDOPDGDdLQGH0XKHPPHWUHKLP6D\LW
YH VUDSLO <XVXS WDUDIQGDQ \DSODQ
oDOPDGU

Kadimki Uygur Yezikidiki Vesikiler

  DGO

Uygur siviO EHOJHOHULQH DLW  EHOJHQLQ LQFHOHQGLL EX HVHUGH \HU DODQ

EHOJHOHULQKDULoGLHUOHUL<DPDGDQQQHULQGH\HUDODQEHOJHOHULOHD\QGU

8\JXU VLYLO EHOJHOHUL ]HULQH |QHPOL ELU LQFHOHPH GH /9 &ODUNQ

Introduction

to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East Turkestan (13th-14th cc.)  EDONOGRNWRUD
WH]LGLU &ODUNQ EX NDSVDPO oDOPDV  DQD E|OPGHQ ROXPDNWDGU 8\JXU VLYLO
EHOJHOHULQL UHVPv LGDUv YH WLFDUv EHOJHOHU ROPDN ]HUH o DQD JUXED D\UDQ &ODUN
oDOPDVQGD  8\JXU VLYLO EHOJH\L WDQPQ

belgeler

]HULQH \DSODQ oDOPDODU YH

EHOJHOHULQLoHULLQLNVDELU|]HWOHYHUHUHNQXPDUDODQGUPWU g]\HWJLQ

-43).

.DUDKDQO7UNoHVL(VHUOHUL
.DUDKDQO 7UNoHVLQLQ HQ |QHPOL V|]O SKHVL] .DJDUO 0DKPXGXQ

Divanu Lugatit-TrkGU 'LYDQ KHP  \\ 7UN GQ\DV NOWU KD\DW KDNNQGD
bilgi veren terimler hem de Budist ve Maniheist evre Trke eserlerde geen gk
a

ELOLPLWHULPOHULQLQ\D GGHLLPOHULL]OHPHNDoVQGDQ|QHPWDPDNWDGU

.DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL\OH NDOHPH DOQP RODQ HGHEv HVHUOHUGHQ

Atebetl-+DND\NGD

Kutadgu Bilig ile

GD G|QHPLQ |]HOOLNOHULQL \DQVWDQ WHULPOHUH UDVWODQOPDNWDGU

23

<LQH EX G|QHPGH \DSOP

Kuran Tercmesi

GH NRQX NOOL\DWP] LoLQH DOQP ROXS

WDUDQPWU

0.6.4. Korpus (KonX.OOL\DW oLQGHQFHOHQHQ(VHUOHUYH.VDOWPDODU

$EKL.

Kudara, Kgi: A Fragment of an Uigur version of the


Abhidharmakosakrik, Journal Asiatique, 269, 1981: 325-346.

AbhiKeng

Geng Shimin: A Study of one newly discovered folio of the Uighur


Abhidharmakosa-sastra, CAJ, 33, 1989: 36-45.

AbitIst

Sertkaya,

O.

Fikri und Klaus

Rhrborn: Bruchstcke

der

alttrkischen Amitbha-Literatur aus Istanbul, UAJb, NF. 4, 1984:


97-117.

6KJDLWR 0DVDKLUR 7KUHH )UDJPHQWV RI 8LJKXU

JDPD

JDPD

%DK

gdisi'RXP<O'ROD\V\OD.ODXV5|KUERUQ$UPDDQ +D]
Jens Peter Laut-0HKPHWgOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO-378.
AH

Arat, R. R.: Edib Ahmed b. Mahmud Ykneki Atebetl-+DND\N,


TTK Yay., Ankara, 1992.

$PLW EKD

Rhrborn,

Klaus:

Maitreya

und

APLWEKD

LP

XLJXULVFKHQ

Buddhismus, UAJb, NF. 19, 2005: 122-130.


AntPol

Tezcan, Semih und Peter Zieme: Antiislamische Polemik in einem


alttrkischen buddhistischen Gedicht aus Turfan, Altorientalische
Forschungen, 17, 1990: 146-151, (2 Tafeln).

$SRNU6

Kara, Georg und Peter Zieme: Die uigurische bersetzung des


DSRNU\SKHQ 6WUDV )R GLQJ [LQ GD WXR OXR Q

Altorientalische

Forschungen, 13, 1986: 318-376.


tS

Maue, Dieter: Sanskrit-uigurische Fragmente des tntikastra und


des tntihrdaya, UAJb, NF 5, 1985: 98-122.

24

AtaKuran

Ata, Aysu:

7UNoH

ON

.DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL *LUL

.XUDQ 7HUFPHVL

5\ODQGV 1VKDV 

-Metin-Notlar-Dizin), TDK Yay., Ankara,

2004.
A.Le Coq

Le Coq, A. Von: 7UNoH0DQL(O<D]ODU 0DQLFKDLND &,, (ev.:


Fuat Ksearif), TDK <D\VWDQEXO

AY

Kaya, Ceval: 8\JXUFD$OWXQ<DUXN*LUL0HWLQYH'L]LQ, TDK


Yay., Ankara, 1994.

AY II
%DKgJ

lmez, Mehmet: Altun Yaruk III. Kitap (=5. Blm), Ankara, 1991.
lmez, Mehmet / Laut, Jens Peter:

%DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O

'ROD\V\OD.ODXV5|KUERUQ$UPDDQ6LPXUJ<D\VWDQEXO

Barat

Barat, Kahar: The Uighur Xuanzang Biography Volume III,


-RXUQDO RI 7XUNLVK 6WXGLHV 7UNON %LOJLVL $UDWUPDODU

, Vol.

16, 1992: 5-65.


Barutcu

Barutcu znder, S.: Yenisey Kitabeleri ve Yer-Sular., Journal of


Turkish Studies, Vol. 22, 1998: 171-184.

Bay-Bulun

7HNLQ 7DODW NLQFL %D\ %XOXQ


$UDWUPDODU

Bodhic

 (   <D]W

Trk Dilleri

10, 2000: 81-90.

Raschmann, Simone und Peter Zieme: Ein BodhicaryvatrKommentar in alttrkischer berlieferung, Altorientalische
Forschungen, 12, 1985: 309-318.

BT I

Hazai, Georg und Peter Zieme: Fragmente der uigurischen Version


des Jingangjing mit den Gths des Meister Fu. Nebst einem
Anhang von T. Inokuchi, Berlin, 1970 (Berliner Turfan-Texte I).

BT II

Rhrborn, Klaus: Eine uigurische Totenmesse. Text, bersetzung,


Kommentar, Berlin, 1971 (Berliner Turfan-Texte II).

BT III

Tezcan, Semih: Das uigurische Insadi-Sutra, Berlin, 1974 (Berliner


Turfan-Texte III).

BT V

Zieme, Peter: Manichisch-trkische Texte, Berlin, 1975. (Berliner


Turfan-Texte V).

25

BT VII

Kara, Georg und Peter Zieme: Fragmente tantrischer Werke in


uigurischer bersetzung, Akademie Verlag Berlin, 1976 (Berliner
Turfan-Texte VII).

BT XIII

Zieme, Peter: Buddhistische Stabreimdichtungen der Uiguren,


Berlin, 1985 (Berliner Turfan-Texte XIII).

BuddhBio

Laut,

Jens

Peter:

Ein

Bruchstck

einer

alttrkischen

Buddhabiographie, UAJb, NF 3, 1983: 88-101.


BuddhKat

Maue, Dieter und Klaus Rhrborn: Ein buddhistischer Katechismus


in alttrkischer Sprache und tibetischer Schrift Teil I, ZDMG, 134,
1984: 286-313; Teil II, ZDMG, 135, 1985: 68-91.

BuddhStab

Zieme, Peter: Zur buddhistischen Stabreimdichtung der alten


Uiguren, AOH, 29, 1975: 187-211.

Bh mis

Raschmann, Simone-Christiane: Bruchstck eines Kommentars zur


Beschreibung der zehn bhmis,

7UN 'LOOHUL $UDWUPDODU

10,

2000: 17-24.
BuyanKl

Raschmann, Simone: Das Gelbnis des Buyan Klmis,


Altorientalische Forschungen, 14, 1987: 160-174.

Caityastotra

Maue, Dieter, Klaus Rhrborn: Ein Caityastotra aus dem


alttrkischen Goldglanz-6WUDZDMG, 129, 1979: 282-320.

Candra tra

Zieme, Peter: Verse des Candratra nach chinesisch-uigurischen


Bilinguen, 7UN'LOOHUL$UDWUPDODU 10, 2000: 65-80.

Clark

Clark, L. V.: Introduction to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East


Turkestan (13th-14th cc.), Indiana University, Bloomington, 1975.

ClarkII

Clark, Larry V.: The Manichean Turkic Pothi-Book, AOH, IX,


1982: 145-218.

Comment

Oda, Juten: A Fragment of the Commentary on the Skiz ykmk


yaruq

6WUD %DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV

5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ +D] -HQV 3HWHU /DXW


VWDQEXO

-234.
26

-Mehmet lmez), Simurg,

dDWDQL

Mller, F.W.K. / Gabain, A. Von:

, (ev.: S.

dDWDQL %H\ +LND\HVL

Himran), TDK Yay., Ankara, 1945.

'K 6

Rhrborn, Klaus: Fragmente der uigurischen Version des DhranStras der grossen Barmherzigkeit, ZDMG, 126, 1976: 87-100.

DLT

.DJDUO 0DKPXG

Divan Lgat-it-Trk, I-II-III (Haz.: Besim

Atalay), Ankara: TDK Yay., 1999.


DLT-'=1

Atalay, Besim (Haz.): Divan Lgat-it-Trk Dizini Endeks IV,


TDK Yay., Ankara, 1999.

DreiPrinz

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Die Geschichte der Drei


Prinzen. Weitere neue manichisch-trkische Fragmente aus Turfan,
ZDMG, 139, 1989: 328-345.

DruTur

Gabain, Annemarie von: Die Drucke der Turfan-Sammlung, Berlin,


1967.

Da akarI

Shimin, Geng, Jens Peter Laut, Jens Wilkens: Fragmente der


uigurischen DaDNDUPDSDWKYDGQDPO aus Hami, UAJb, NF 19,
2005: 72-121.

Da akarII

Shimin, Geng und Jens Peter Laut: Aus der Einleitung der
, Trk Dilleri

XLJXULVFKHQ 'DDNDUPDSDWKYDGQDPO DXV +DPL


$UDWUPDODU

DTSl.

10, 2000: 5-15.

1DGHO\DHY 9 0 ' 0 1DVLORY ( 5 7HQLHY $ 0 oHUEDN

Drevnetyurkskiy Slovari, Leningrad, 1969.


ED

Clauson, Sir Gerard: An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-thirteenthCentury Turkish, Oxford, 1972.

Erforsc

Raschmann, Simone: Zum Stand der Erforschung der Uigurischen


Dokumente, TDAY-B 1987, 1992: 257-263.

Ernte

Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurischer Erntesegen,

Altorientalische

Forschungen, III, Berlin, 1975: 109-143 (Tafeln 19-120).

27

Ernte II

Zieme, Peter und Adam Molnar: Ein weiterer uigurischer Erntsegen,


Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 140-152.

ETG

Gabain, A.Von: Eski Trkenin Grameri dHY 0HKPHW $NDOQ 


TDK Yay., Ankara, 2000.

(7

Arat, R. Rahmeti: (VNL7UNLLUL, TTK Yay., Ankara, 1986.

ETY

Orkun, H. N.: (VNL7UN<D]WODU, TDK Yay., Ankara, 1987.

EUTS

&DIHUROX $KPHW (VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVL 6|]O

, Enderun Kitabevi,

Ankara, 1993.
Geng

*HQJ

6KLPLQ

4DGPJ

X\JXUFD

LSWLGD\L

GUDPD

SL\HVDV

0DLWULVLPLW +DPL 1XVKDV QQJ   3lUGlVL KlTTGNL 7lWTTDW

, Vol. 4,

-RXUQDORI7XUNLVK6WXGLHV7UNON %LOJLVL $UDWUPDODU

1980: 101-156.
Genzan

Kudara Kgi: Uigurische Fragmente eines Kommentars zum


Saddharmapundarika-Stra, Jens Peter Laut und Klaus Rhrborn
(ed.): Der trkische Buddhismus in der japanischen Forschung,
Wiesbaden, 1988: 34-55; 102-106.

Hamilton

Hamilton, James Russell:

\L YH .|W 3UHQV g\NV

, (ev.: Vedat

Kken), TDK Yay., Ankara, 1998.


Hazai

Hazai, Georg: Ein buddhistisches Gedicht aus der Berliner TurfanSammlung, AOH, 23, 1970: 1-21.

HazaiII

Hazai, G.: Fragmente eines uigurischen Blockdruck-Faltbuches,


Altorientalische Forschungen, III, 1975: 91-108.

Heilk I

$UDW5HLG5DKPHWL

Zur Heilkunde der Uiguren I, Berlin, 1930.

Heilk II

$UDW5HLG5DKPHWL

Zur Heilkunde der Uiguren II, Berlin, 1932.

Ht I

Gabain, Annemarie Von: Die uigurische bersetzung der Biographie


Hen-tsangs. I. Bruchstcke des 5. Kapitels, Berlin, 1935.

Ht II

Gabain, Annemarie Von: Briefe der uigurischen Hen-tsangBiographie, Berlin, 1938.

28

Huastuanift

Le Coq, A. Von: Huastuanift, (ev.: S. Himran), TDK Yay., Ankara,


1941.

Hsan

Tezcan, Semih: Eski Uygurca Hsan Tsang Biyografisi X. Blm,


Ankara, 1975.

IrkBit

Tekin, Talat:

,UN %LWLJ (VNL 8\JXUFD )DO .LWDE

, [Editr: Nurettin

Demir-(PLQH<OPD]@gQF.LWDS$QNDUD
JINGWEI

JINGWEI, Li: Tu Lu Fan Hui Gu Wen She Hui Jin Ji Wen Shu
Yan Jiu;LQMLDQJ5HQ0LQFKX%DQ6KH:XOXPXThUPoL

KayaYaz

znder, Barutu

) 6HPD (VNL 7UN dD .D\D <D]WODU , gUN

<D]W ,, +DQJLGD\ <D]W ,,, $UKDQDQ <D]W .|N $UDWUPDODU

C II, S I, Ankara, Bahar 2000: 121-133.


KB

$UDW5HLG5DKPHWL

Kutadgu Bilig I: MetinVWDQEXO

KB-'=1

$UDW5HLG5DKPHWL

KuWDGJX%LOLJ,,,QGH[, (Haz.: Kemal Eraslan,

Osman Fikri Sertkaya, Nuri Yce), TKAE Yay., Ankara, 1979.


Knigreich

Gabain, A. Von: Das Uigurische Knigreich von Chotscho 8501250, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1961.

KP

Hamilton, James:

0DQXVFULWV RXJRXUV GH

Touen-Houang. Le Conte

ERXGGKLTXHGXERQHWGXPDXYDLVSULQFHHQYHUVLRQRXJRXUH

, Paris,

1971.
Kuan

Radloff, Wilhelm: Kuan-si-im Pusar. Eine trkische bersetzung des


XXV. Kaqpitels der chinesischen Ausgabe des Sadharma-pundarka,
St.Petersbourg, 1911.

LautBemerk

Laut, Jens Peter: Bemerkungen zur sptuigurischen Handschrift


Mainz 713 T II Y 58, ZDMG, 133, 1983: 263-272.

LautHllen

Laut, Jens Peter: Zwei Fragmente eines Hllenkapitels der

XLJXULVFKHQ 'D DNDUPDSDWK YDG QDP O 

UAJb, NF 4, 1984: 118-

133.
LautVersenk

Laut, Jens Peter: Die unerschtterliche Versenkung, ein Fragment


der alttrkischen buddhistischen Erzhlliteratur, Ewald Wagner und

29

Klaus Rhrborn:

.DNO

)HVWVFKULIW

]XP



-DKUHVWDJ

GHU

Wiederbegrndung des Instituts fr Orientalistik an der JustusLiebig-Universitt Giessen, Wiesbaden, 1989: 38-51.
LeCoqChuast

Le Coq, Albert Von: Chuastuanift, ein Sndenbekenntnis der


manichischen Auditores. Gefunden in Turfan (ChinesischTurkistan), Berlin, 1911.

Lieder.

Bang, Willi, und G. R. Rahmati: Lieder aus Alt-Turfan, Asia


major, 9, 1933: 129-140.

Lobpreis

Laut, Jens Peter und Peter Zieme: Ein zweisprachiger Lobpreis auf
den Bg von Koco und seine Gemahlin, Jens Peter Laut und Klaus
Rhrborn: Buddhistische Erzhlliteratur und Hagiographie in
trkischer berlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1990: 15-36.

MI

Le Coq, Albert Von: Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho I, Berlin,


1912.

M II

Le Coq, Albert Von: Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho II, Berlin,


1919.

M III

Le Coq, Albert Von: Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho III,


Berlin, 1922.

Maitr I

Gabain, Annemarie von: Maitrisimit. Faksimile der alttrkischen


Version eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhsika-Schule. (I). In
Faksimile hrsg. Annemarie v. Gabain. Mit einer Einleitung von
Helmuth Scheel, Wiesbaden, 1957.

Maitr II

Gabain, Annemarie von: Maitrisimit. Faksimile der alttrkischen


Version eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhsika-Schule. (II).
In Faksimile hrsg. Annemarie v. Gabain mit einem Geleitwort von
Richard Hartmann, Wiesbaden, 1961.

MaitrH V

Geng Shimin und Hans-Joachim Klimkeit: Das Zusammentreffen mit


Maitreya. Die ersten fnf Kapitel der Hami-Version der Maitrisimit.
In Zusammenarbeit mit Helmut Eimer und Jens Peter Laut

30

herausgegeben, bersetzt und kommentiert, Bd.1-2, Wiesbaden,


1988.
MaitrH X

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Der Herabstieg des


Bodhisattve Maitreya vom Tusita-Gtterland zur Erde. Das 10.
Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit, Altorientalische
Forschungen, 14, 1987: 350-376.

MaitrH XI

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Das Erscheinen des


Bodhisattva. Das 11. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,
Altorientalische Forschungen, 15, 1988: 315-366.

MaitrH XIII

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Die Weltflucht des


Bodhisattva. Das 13. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,
Altorientalische Forschungen, 18, 1991: 264-296.

MaitrH XIV

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Der Gang zum BodhiBaum. Das 14. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,
Materialia Turcica, 16, 1992: 25-47.

MaitrH XV

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Das Erlangen der


unvergleichlichen Buddhawrde. Das 15. Kapitel der HamiHandschrift der Maitrisimit, Altorientalische Forschungen, 20,
1993: 182-234 (13 Tafeln).

MaitrH XVI

Geng Shimin und Hans-Joachim Klimkeit: Das 16. Kapitel der


Hami-Version der Maitrisimit, Journal of Turkish studies.
7UNON%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

, 9, 1985: 71-132.

ManErz.

Bang, Willi: Manichische Erzhler, Le Muson, 44, 1931: 1-36.

Mngi

Zieme, Peter: Mngi bulzun! Ein weiteres Neujahrssegen, Trk


.OWU$UDWUPDODU

, 24, 1986: 131-139.

ManTrkFrag Zieme, Peter: Ein manichisch-trkisches Fragment in manichischer


Schrift, AOH, 23, 1970: 157-165.
ManTrkGed

Zieme, Peter: Ein manichisch-trkisches Gedicht, TDAY-B, 1968:


39-51.

31

ManUigFrag.

Le Coq, Albert Von: Ein manichisch-uigurisches Fragment aus


Idiqut-schahri, SKPAW, 1908, 19, s. 398-414.

Maue

Maue, Dieter, Klaus Rhrborn: Zur alttrkischen version des


Saddharmapundarika-VWUa, CAJ, 24, 1980: 251-273.

MaueKat

Maue, Dieter: Alttrkische Handschriften Teil 1: Dokumente in


Brahmi und tibetischer Schrift, Stuttgart, 1996.

Oda

2GD -XWHQ (VNL 8\JXUFD ELU YHVLNDQQ %XGL]POH LOJLOL NoN ELU
SDUoDV

OdaNewFrag

TM, c. 19, 1977-1979: 183-205.

Oda, Juten: New fragments of the Buddhist Uighur text Skiz


ykmk yaruq, Altorientalische Forschungen, 10, 1983: 125-142.

2X].

Bang, W., G.R. Rahmeti: 2X].DDQ'HVWDQVWDQEXO

OTG

Tekin, Talt: Orhon Trkesi GrameriVWDQbul, 2003.

OTWF

Erdal, Marcel: Old Turkic word formation. A functional approach to


the lexicon, Bd. 1-2, Wiesbaden, 1991 (Turcologica 7).

zyetgin

zyetgin, Melek: Eski Trk Vergi Terimleri, Kksav, Ankara, 2004.

PaF)UDJ,

Geissler, F. und Peter Zieme: Uigurische Pacatantra-Fragmente,


Turcica, 2, 1970: 32-70.

PaF)UDJ,,

lmez, Mehmet: Ein weiteres alttrkisches Paxcatantra-Fragment,


UAJb, NF. 12, 1993: 179-191.

Para

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri / Rysbek Alimov: Eski Trklerde Para


(Gktrklerde, UygurlardDYH7UJLOHUGH gWNHQVWDQEXO

Paul

Pelliot, Paul:

8\JXU <D]V\OD <D]OP 8X] +DQ 'HVWDQ h]HULQH

TDK Yay., Ankara, 1995.


Pfahl

Mller, F. W. Karl: Zwei Pfahlinschriften aus den Turfanfunden. 1.


Die uigurische Inschrift auf dem Pfahle I B 4672. 2. Die chinesische
Pfahlinschrift, Berlin, 1915.

RachmBaumwolle

Raschmann, Simone-Christiane: Baumwolle im trkischen

Zentralasien. Philologische und wirtschaftshistorische

32

Untersuchungen anhand der vorislamischen uigurischen Texte,


Wiesbaden, 1995.
Makaleler, TKAE Yay., Ankara, 1987.

5H0DN

$UDW5HLG5DKPHWL

ULSXW

=LHPH 3HWHU 'HU :HWWNDPSI

einer alttrkischen Version,

ULSXWUDV PLW GHQ +lUHWLNHUQ QDFK


%DK

gJGLVL



'RXP

'ROD\V\OD.ODXV5|KUERUQ$UPDDQ +D]-HQV3HWHU/DXW
gOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO

Scharlipp

<O

-Mehmet

-447.

Scharlipp, Wolfgang: Fragmente eines uigurischen Kommentars zur


Trimsikavijaptimtratsiddhi des Vasubandhu, UAJb, NF 6, 1986:
122-136, (8 Tafeln).

Sertkmanz

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri: Uygur HarfleUL\OH <D]OP %D] 0DQ]XP


Paralar II VWDQEXO hQLYHUVLWHVL (GHEL\DW )DNOWHVL <D\ VWDQEXO
1975.

SertkLobpr

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri: Ein Fragment eines alttrkischen Lobpreises


auf Tmr Qagan, Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 189192, (1 Tafel)

Sertkrnek

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri: Eski Uygur Trklerinden hukuk belgeleri


rnekleri, 7DULKER\XQFD7UNOHUGHLQVDQLGHHUOHUYHLQVDQ
KDNODUEDODQJFQGDQ2VPDQOG|QHPLQHNDGDUVWDQEXO

131-148.

6K $Y

6K JDLWR

0DVDKLUR

$YDG QDV

Der

'UHL

trkische

]XP

$YDO

okitesvara-VWUD

Buddhismus

in der

SDVVHQGH

japanischen

Forschung, (ed. J. P. Laut-Klaus Rhrborn), Wiesbaden, 1988: 56-99.


SPZieme

Zieme, Peter: Zwei neue alttrkische SaddharmapundarikaFragmente, Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 370-379, (3
Tafeln).

StabUig

Zieme, Peter: Die Stabreimtexte der Uiguren von Turfan und


Dunhuang. Studien zur alttrkischen Dichtung. Dissertation zur
Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Wissenschaften,

33

eingereicht bei der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin,


1983 (unpubliziert).
SuvStockh

Kudara, Kgi und Klaus Rhrborn: Zwei verirrte Bltter des


uigurischen Goldglanz-Stras im Etnografiska Museum, Stockholm,
ZDMG, 132, 1982: 336-347.

SuvTekin

7HNLQLQDVL$OWXQ<DUXNXQ%|OPOLJOHUTDQODUQQJN|QL

trsin aymaq (=Rjasstra), Journal of Turkish Studies. Trklk


%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

TekinKuan

, 11, 1987: 133-199.

7HNLQLQDVL8\JXUFD0HWLQOHU,.XDQLLP3XVDU VHVLLWHQLOkK 
9DSKXDNL DWO QRP oHoHNL VXGXU 6DGGKDUPDSXQGDUvND

-stra),

Erzurum, 1960.
TekinMaitr

7HNLQ LQDVL 8\JXUFD 0HWLQOHU ,, 0D\WUVLPLW %XUNDQFODUQ

, Ankara,

0HKGvVL 0DLWUH\D LOH %XOXPD 8\JXUFD SWLGDv %LU 'UDP

1976.
TekinSingku

7HNLQ LQDVL 8\JXU E

ilgini Singku Seli Tutungun bilinmeyen yeni

bir evirisi zerine, TDAY-B, 1965 (1966): 29-233.


T.Tekin 1988

Tekin, Talt: 2UKRQ<D]WODU, TDK Yay., Ankara, 1988.

T.Tekin 1998

Tekin, Talt: 2UKRQ<D]WODU6LPXUJ<D\VWDQEXO

Tibet

lmez, Mehmet: Tibet Budizmine Ait Eski Uygurca

%DK gJGLVL

%DKgJGLVL'RXP<O'ROD\V\OD.ODXV5|KUERUQ$UPDDQ

(Haz. Jens Peter Laut-0HKPHW gOPH]  6LPXUJ VWDQEXO  293.


Topos

Ehlers, Gerhard: Zum Topos der Vollzhligkeit,

%DK g

gdisi, 60.

'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV 5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ +D] -HQV 3HWHU

Laut-0HKPHWgOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO-82.
Tpfer

Ehlers, Gerhard: Ein alttrkisches Fragment zur Erzhlung wom


Tpfer, UAJb, NF 2, 1982: 175-185.

TT I

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Trkische Turfan-Texte I,


Berlin, 1929.

34

TT II

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Trkische Turfan-Texte II,


Berlin, 1929.

TT III

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Trkische Turfan-Texte


III, Berlin, 1930.

TT IV

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Trkische Turfan-Texte IV,


Berlin, 1930.

TT V

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Trkische Turfan-Texte V,


Berlin, 1931.

TT V-Dizin

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Analytischer Index zu den


fnf ersten stcken der Trkischen Turfan Texte, Berlin, 1931.

TT VI

Bang, Willi, Annemarie von Gabain und G. R. Rahmati: Trkische


Turfan-Texte VI. Das buddhistische Stra Skiz Ykmk, Berlin,
1934.

TT VII

5DKPHWL $UDW 5HLG

Trkische Turfan-Texte VII. Von Dr. G. R.

Rachmati. Mit sinologischen Anmerkungen von Dr. W. Eberhard,


Berlin, 1937.
TT VIII

Gabain, Annemarie von: Trkische Turfan-Texte VIII. Texte in


Brahmischrift, Berlin, 1954.

TT IX

Gabain, Annemarie Von und Werner Winter: Trkische Turfan-Texte


IX. Ein Hymnus an den Vater Mani auf Tocharisch B mit
alttrkischer bersetzung, Berlin, 1958.

TT X

Gabain, Annemarie Von: Trkische Turfan-Texte X. Das Avadana


GHV 'lPRQV

DYDND %HDUEHLWHW YRQ 7DGHXV] .RZDOVNL $XV GHP

1DFKOD KHUDXVJHJHEHQ

UI

, Berlin, 1959.

Mller, F. W. Karl: Uigurica 1. Die Anbetung der Magier, ein


christliches Bruchstck. 2. Die Reste des buddistischen GoldglanzSutra. Ein vorlufiger Bericht, Berlin, 1908.

U II

Mller, F. W. Karl: Uigurica II., Berlin, 1911.

35

U III

Mller, F. W. Karl: Uigurica III. Uigurische Avadna-Bruchstcke


(I-VIII), Berlin, 1922.

U IV

Mller, F. W. Karl: Uigurica IV, Hrsg. A. Von Gabain, Berlin, 1931.

UigBrief

Tezcan, Semih und Peter Zieme: Uigurische Brieffragmente, L.


Ligeti (ed.): Studia Turcica, Budapest, 1971: 451-460.

UigLand

Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurischer Landverkaufsvertrag aus Murtuq,


Altorientalische Forschungen I, Berlin, 1974: 295-308.

UigLeih

Zieme,

Peter:

Ein

uigurischer

Leihkontrakt

ber

Weizen,

Altorientalische Forschungen, 7, 1980: 273-275.


UigOn II

Zieme, Peter: Materialien zum uigurischen Onomasticom II,


TDAY-B 1978-79: 81-94.

UigOn III

Zieme, Peter: Materialian zum uigurischen Onomasticon III,


TDAY-B 1984, 1987: 267-283.

UigPacht

Zieme,

Peter:

Uigurische

Pachtdokumente,

Altorientalische

Forschungen, 7, 1980: 197-245.


UigSteu

Zieme,

Peter:

Uigurische

Steuerbefreiungsurkunden

fr

buddhistische Klster, Altorientalische Forschungen, 8, 1981: 237263.


UigStud

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: Uigurische Studien,


Ungarische Jahrbcher, 10, 1930: 193-210.

UigSukh

=LHPH

3HWHU

8LJXULVFKH

-Fragmente,

6XNK YDW Y\ KD

Altorientalische Forschungen, 12, 1985: 129-149.


UigSn

Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurisches Sndenbekenntnis, AOH, 22, 1969:


107-121.

USp

Radloff, Wilhelm: Uigurische Sprachdenkmler. Materialien, nach


dem Tode des Verfassers mit Erganzungen von S. Malov
herausgegeben, Leningrad, 1928.

36

UWb.

Rhrborn, Klaus: Uigurische Wrterbuch, 1-4, Wiesbaden, 1: 1977,


Y   
Y

UygSat

-148; 3: 1981, 149-224; 4:1988, v+225-298; 5:

-372; 6: 1998, v+373-446.

<DPDGD 1REXR 8\JXU 6DW 0XNDYHOHVL %HOJHOHULQLQ HNLOOHUL

(ev. Emine Grsoy-Naskali),

7UN 'LOL YH (GHEL\DW 'H

rgisi C.

XXVI, 1993: 195-230.


8\)DP$UFK

&ODXVRQ6LU*HUDUG$/DWH8\XU)DPLO\$UFKLYH&(%RVZRUW

Iran and Islam. In memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburg,


1971:167-196.
Hik

Mller, F.W.K. / Gabain, A. Von: Uygurca Hikye Uigurica IVB, C, D, (ev.: S. Himran), TDK Yay., Ankara, 1946.

znder, Barutu F. Sema: hoWLJVL]OHU, TDK Yay., Ankara, 1998.

VEWT

Rsnen, M.: Versuch eines etymologischen Wrterbuchs der


Trksprachen, Helsinki, 1969.

Vorarbe

Raschmann, Simone-Christiane: Aus den Vorarbeiten F.W.K.


Mllers zum Altun Yaruk Sudur,

%DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O

'ROD\V\OD.ODXV5|KUERUQ$UPDDQ +D]-HQV3HWHU/DXW
gOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO

-Mehmet

-304.

WarnkeFragm Warnke, Ingrid: Fragmente des 25. Und 26. KaSLWHOV GHV .DQWL
TOJXOXTQRPELWLJ

Wettkampf

Altorientalische Forschung, 10, 1983: 243-268.

Geng Shimin, H. J. Klimkeit und J. P. Laut: Manis Wettkampf mit


dem Prinzen. Ein neues manichisch-trkisches Fragment aus
Turfan, ZDMG, 137, 1987: 44-58.

Windgott

Bang, Willi, und Annemarie von Gabain: "Ein uigurisches Fragment


ber den manichischen Windgott, Ungarische Jahrbcher, 8,
1928: 248-256.

Xuan III

Rhrborn, Klaus, Mehmet lmez: Die alttrkische XuanzangBiographie III, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2001.

37

Xuan VIII

Rhrborn, Klaus: Die alttrkische Xuanzang-Biographie VIII,


Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1996.

Yam.

Yamada, Nobuo: Sammlung uigurischer Kontrakte I-II-III,


Herausgegeben von Juten Oda, Peter Zieme, Hiroshi Umemura, Takao
Moriyasu, Osaka University Pres, 1993.

<RVSDV

=LHPH3HWHU'LHWUNLVFKHQ<RVSDV

-Fragmente, Mitteilungen des

Instituts fr Orientforschung, 14, 1968:45-67.


Yan.

Buddhistische Uigurica der Yan Zeit, Wiesbaden,

7HNLQLQDVL

1980.
ZiemeI

Zieme, Peter: Das nestorianische Glaubensbekenntnis in einem


DOWWUNLVFKHQ)UDJPHQWDXV%XOD\T

UAJb, Band 15, 1997/1998, s.

173-180.
ZiemeII

=LHPH3HWHU(LQDOWWUNLVFKHV$YDORNLWH YDUDVWDYD

Altorientalische Forschungen, 14, 1987: 221-223.


ZiemeAltKomm Zieme, Peter: Aus einem alttrkischen Kommentar zum
Goldglanzstra, Arpad Berta, Bernd Brendemoen und Claus
Schnig: Symbolae Turcologicae. Studies in honour of Lars
Johanson on hin sixtieth birthday, 8 March 1996, Uppsala, 1996:
231-238.
ZiemeBeitrge Zieme,

Peter:

Beitrge

zur

Erforschung

des

Xvstvnft,

Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Orientforschung, 12/2, 1966-1967:


351-378.
=LHPH%KDL

=LHPH3HWHU=XUDOWWUNLVFKHQ%KDLDM\DJXUXVWUD

-bersetzung,

Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 198-200.


ZiemeEloge

Zieme, Peter: Eine Eloge auf einen uigurischen Bg, Trk Dilleri
$UDWUPDODU

ZiemeFam

, 3, 1993: 271-284.

Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurisches Familienregister aus Turfan,


Altorientalische Forschungen, 9, 1982: 263-267.

38

ZiemeKP

Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurisches Turfanfragment der Erzhlung vom


guten und vom bsen Prinzen, AOH, 28, 1974: 263-268.

=LHPH.LW

Zieme, Peter: Ein DOWWUNLVFKHV)UDJPHQWGHV.LWLJDUEKD-Stras aus


Bzklik, Altorientalische Forschungen, 17, 1990: 379-384, (2
Tafeln).

ZiemeLegenden Zieme, Peter: Zu den Legenden im uigurischen Goldglanzstra,


-RXUQDO RI 7XUNLVK 6WXGLHV 7UNON %LOJLVL $UDWUPDODU

, 1,

1977: 149-156.
ZiemeProbleme Zieme, Peter: Probleme alttrkischer Vajracchedika-bersetzungen,
Alfredo Cadonna (ed.): Turfan and Tun-huang, the text. Encounter
of civilisations on the Silk Route, Firenze, 1992: 21-42.
ZiemeVorr

Zieme, Peter: Die Vorrede zum alttrkischen Goldglanz-Stra von


1022,

-RXUQDORI7XUNLVKVWXGLHV7UNON%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

13, 1989: 237-243.


ZiemeWirtschaft Zieme, Peter: Ein uigurischer Text ber die Wirtschaft
manichischer Klster im uigurischen Reich, Louis, Ligeti (ed.):
Researches in Altaic languages. Papers read at the 14th meeting of
the Permanent International Altaisctic Conference held in Szeged,
August 22-28, 1971, Budapest, 1975: 331-338.
ZiemeXuan

Zieme, Peter: Xuanzangs Biographie und das Xiyuji in alttrkischer


berlieferung, Jens Peter-Laut und Klaus Rhrborn (edd.):
Buddhistische Erzhlliteratur und Hagiographie in trkischer
berlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1990: 75-107.

ZweiFrag

Maue, Dieter Klaus Rhrborn: Ein zweisprachiges Fragment aus


Turfan, CAJ, 20, 1976: 208-221.

0.7. KISALTMALAR

D

$]

Ac.

Acemce

39

Akt.

Aktaran

Alt.

Altay Trkesi

AoF

Altorientalische Forschungen

AOH

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)

Ar.

Arapa

At.

Ana Trke

AzT.

Azerbaycan Trkesi

%DN

%DNXUW7UNoHVL

Bkz.

EDNQ]

C.

Cilt

CAJ

Central Asiatic Journal

ev.

eviren

in.

ince

uv.

dXYDoD

Et.

Eski Trke

Far.

Farsa

Haz.

+D]UOD\DQ

JA

Journal Asiatique

KBalk.

Karaay-Balkar Trkesi

.So

.SoDN7UNoHVL

.UJ

.UJ]7UNoHVL

KKlp.

Karakalpak Trkesi

KkT.

Kktrke

NU

.DUODWUQ]

Kzk.

Kazak Trkesi

Mo.

0RROFD

Nog.

Nogayca

zb.

zbek Trkesi

PT

Proto-Trke

S.

6D\

s.

sayfa

Skr.

Sanskrite

40

Sogd.

Sogdca

ST

Studia Turcica

Tat.

Tatar Trkesi

TDAY-B

7UN'LOL$UDWUPDODU<OO

TDK

Trk Dil Kurumu

Tib.

Tibete

TM

7UNL\DW0HFPXDV

Toh.

Toharca

Trkm.

Trkmen Trkesi

TTK

Trk Tarih Kurumu

TT.

Trkiye Trkesi

Tuv.

Tuva Trkesi

T.

Trke

UAJb

Ural-Altaische Jahrbcher

Uyg.

(Eski) Uygur Trkesi

Yak.

Yakuta

YUyg.

Yeni Uygur Trkesi

ZDMG

Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Mongenlndischen Gesellschaft

-Belleten

$5(7/(5

7HVSLWHGLOHPH\HQWDQNODQGUODPDPHNLOWDKPLQHGLOHQHNLO

>

%XHNOHJLGHU

<

%XHNLOGHQJHOLU

GHLNHQHNLO

N|NHQLWHVSLWHGLOHPH\HQHNLO

41

7h5./(5'(*g.%/0 $6752120

1. BLM

1. TRK HAYAT ALANLARI*


1.1. Proto-7UN+D\DW$ODQh]HULQH
7UNOHULQ WDULK VDKQHVLQH LON oNWNODU \HU \DQL 7UNOHULQ DQD \XUGX ]HULQH
oHLWOL J|UOHU YDUGU *HQHO NDEXOH J|UH 7UNOHULQ HQ HVNL DQD\XUGX 2UWD $V\DGU
'RXGD .LQJDQ GDODU %DWGD +D]DU GHQL]L *QH\GH +LQGLNX YH .DUDQON GDODU
.X]H\GH LVH $OWD\ GDODU YH %D\NDO J|O\OH oHYULOL DODQGU dRN WDUWPDO RODQ
7UNOHULQ DQD \XUGX LOH LOJLOL J|UOHU |]HOOLNOH %DWO ELOLP DGDPODUQFD  \]\O
VRQODUQGD EDOD\DQ DUDWUPDODUOD RUWD\D DWOPD\D EDODQPWU %X DUDWUPDODU NHQGL
WDULKLQL DUDWUDQ %DWQQ NHQGL N|NOHULQL DUDUNHQ 7UNOHUOH NDUODPDV VRQXFX RUWD\D
NRQXOPXWXU YH DUDWUPDFODU GRDO RODUDN 7UN WDULKLQL YH FRUDI\DVQ PDGGv NOWU
XQVXUODU GLO |]HOOLNOHUL \D GD WDULKv UHDOLWH DoVQGDQ GHHUOHQGLUPH\H oDOPODUGU
.LPLDUDWUPDFODU7UNDQD\XUGXRODUDN$OWD\ODUYHoHYUHVLQLNLPLOHULGH$OWD\ODUQ
GRXVX YH .DGUJDQ 'DODUQD NDGDU RODQ E|OJHOHUL LOH $OWD\ODUGDQ 8UDOODUD NDGDU
X]DQDQ VDKD\ NDEXO HWPLOHUGLU .XUDW 7UN DQD \XUGX LOH LOJLOL GDKD |QFHNL J|UOHUL
|\OH ELU DUD\D JHWLULU YH GHHUOHQGLULU 7UN WDULKL ]HULQGH LQFHOHPHOHU \DSP
$YUXSDO
oHYUHVLQGH

ELOJLQOHUGHQ

.ODSURWK

J|VWHUPLOHUGL

E\N

YH

9DPEpU\

7UNRORJ

7UN

5DGORII

DQD

LVH

\XUGXQX

EX

VDKDQQ

$OWD\ODUQ
$OWD\ODUQ

GRXVXQGD \DQL EXJQN 0RROLVWDQGD ROGXXQX NDEXO HWPLWL WDQQP 0RQJROLVW


5DPVWHGW LVH 7UN YH 0RRO GLOOHUL DUDVQGDNL \DNQO J|] |QQGH WXWDUDN 7UNOHULQ
0RROLVWDQGDQ WUHPL ROGXNODUQ LOHUL VUPW 2UWD $V\D 7UN WDULKLQLQ E\N
PWHKDVVV %DUWKROG GD 7UN DQD \XUGXQX 0RROLVWDQD NR\PDN WDUDIWDU LGL %X
J|UOHULPGLHVNLPLYHEXVDKDQQJHQLOHWLOPHVLJHUHNWLLDQODOPWUGLOWHWNLNOHUL
YH DUNHRORMLN DUDWUPDODU 7UN DQD \XUGXQXQ $OWD\ODUQ EDWVQD GRUX

epey

X]DGQJ|VWHUPHNWHGLU

, s.54-EDONO oDOPDVQGDQ

%X E|OPQ KD]UODQPDVQGD %OHQW*OQ (VNL 7UN 7DUP7HULPOHUL

E\N|OoGH\DUDUODQOPWU

42

*|UOG]HUH7UNDQD\XUGX$OWD\oHYUHVLRODUDNJHQHONDEXOJ|UU$QFDN
EX J|UOHUL GHHUOHQGLUHUHN DQD \XUGXQ FRUDIv VQUODUQ WHVSLW HWPHN PPNQ

olmakla birlikte, Trk tarihi

YH

NOWU

LQFHOHQGLLQGH

EX

J|UOHULQ

NHVLQOLN

WD\DPD\DFDGQOPHOLGLU7HNELUE|OJHGH\DDPYH\DRE|OJH\H\HUOHLSNDOP

milletler iin arkeolojik bulgular yeterli sonular verebilir. Fakat Trklerin tarihini ve
NOWUQ RUWD\D NR\PD DoVQ

dan sadece bir blgede bulunan arkeolojik bulgular

\HWHUOL J|UQPHPHNWHGLU dQN 7UNOHULQ WDULK ER\XQFD oRN JHQL ELU DODQ ]HULQGH
SHN oRN EXOJX EUDNWNODU ELOLQPHNWHGLU 'ROD\V\OD 7UNOHU LoLQ oRN JHQL DODQ
]HULQGHNL KD\DWODUQ YH WDULKv PDFHUDODUQ ELU \DQD EUDNS DUNHRORMLN EXOJXODUQ \HU
DOGEHOLUOLYHGDUELUE|OJH\LDQD\XUWRODUDNWHVSLWHWPHNYHNDEXOOHQPHNELOLPVHOELU
\DNODP NDEXO HGLOHPH] dQN KDUHNHWOL ELU KD\DW WDU]QD VDKLS PLOOHW RODQ 7UNOHU

bunun neticesi olarak en eski

GHYLUOHUGHQ LWLEDUHQ JHQL ELU DODQD \D\OPODU YH

NOWUOHULQLoHLWOLDODQODUD\D\PODUGU$WYDVWDV\ODNRQDU J|oHUELUKD\DWWDU]VUHQ
7UNOHU ]DPDQOD ELOLQHQ YH\D ELOLQPH\HQ VHEHSOHUGHQ GROD\ DODQODUGDQ DODQODUD
\D\OPODU YH JLWWLNOHUL \HUOH

rde kendi devletlerini kurarak ve kltrlerini de kimi

]DPDQ \HUOHLN NOWUHHWNL HGHUHN NLPL ]DPDQ GD HWNLOHQLS JHOLWLUHUHN \DDWPODUGU
%DODQJo RODUDN EXJQN ELOJL YH WDKPLQOHULPL]H J|UH LON FRUDI\D JHQL 2UWD $V\D
ER]NU FRUDI\DVGU YH NRQD

r-J|oHU \DDQWODUQ ER]NU FRUDI\DVQQ HWNLVL\OH GHYDP

HWWLUPLOHUGLU%XVHEHSOHUGHQGROD\7UNOHULQDQD \XUGXRODUDN2UWD $V\DER]NUODUQ


GQPHN \DQO ROPD\DFDNWU 2UWD $V\DQQVQUODU GRXGD %D\NDO J|OQGHQ %DWGD
+D]DUYH8UDOGDODUQDNX]H\GH6LELU\DER]NUODUQGDQJQH\GH7DQUGDODUYH*REL
o|OQHX]DQPDNWDGU.DIHVROXQDJ|UH7UNDQD\XUGX$OWD\'DODU7DQU'DODU

.X]H\ %DW $V\D 6DKDV UWL 8UDOODU $UDV $OWD\ .UJ] %R]NUODU $UDV %D\NDO
*|OQQ*QH\%DWV$OWD\ODUQ'RXVXYH\D%R\ODPQ'RXVXRODELOLU

.XUDWQ 7UN DQD \XUGX LOH LOJLOL J|U XGXU 'LO DUNHRORJ\D YH WDULK
WHGNLNOHUL  DOWQGD HVNL 7UN \XUGXQXQ X VDKDGD ROPDV JHUHNLU %DWGD $UDO J|O
oHYUHVLQGHQEDOD\DUDNGRXGD2UKRQYH7XODQHKLUOHULQHNDGDUX]DQUNX]H\GH/HQD

QHKULQLQ ED NVPODU ,UW ER\ODU RUWD <HQLVH\ VDKDV JQH\GH GH 7DODV 6U 'HU\D
ER\ODUQD NDGDU JLWPLWLU HVDV QYH\L GH $OWD\ oHYUHVL LOH RUWD <HQLVH\ VDKDVQQ WHNLO

etmesi mmkndr; Kktrk alfabesinLQLONNXOODQOVDKDVQQ<HQLVH\ER\XROPDVGD


EXJ|UNXYYHWOHQGLUPHNWHGLU6RQUDODUEXVDKDJHQLOH\HUHN2UKRQER\XYHELOKDVVD

43

gWNHQ GDODU oHYUHVLQGH PH\GDQD JHOGLL GH NXYYHWOH PXKWHPHOGLU GROD\V\OD


gWNHQ GD 7UNOHU QD]DUQGD NXGVL\HW ND]DQP YH EXUDV 7UN GHYOHWLQLQ GD\DQDN
QRNWDVRODUDNNDEXOHGLOPLWLU$OWD\ODUoHYUHVLQGH0g,%LQ\OGDJ|oHEHOLN\DD\
WDU]JHOLWLLQHYHEXQXQODLOJLOLRODUDNKD\YDQVUOHULQLRWODWPDNLoLQJHQLYHERORWOX
PHUDODUD LKWL\Do ROGXXQD J|UH 7UN NDYLPOHULQLQ $OWD\ oHYUHVLQGHQ EDW\D $UDO
*|O LVWLNkPHWLQGHNL \D\OODU GD HQ JHo 0g , ELQLQ RUWDODUQGD YXNX EXOVD

gerektir.

=HNL 9HOLGv 7RJDQ GD HVHULQGH 7UN DQD \XUGX LOH LOJLOL J|UOHUL EHOLUWLS EX
J|UOHUOH

LOJLOL

NHQGL

\RUXPODUQ

\DSWNWDQ

VRQUD

NHQGL

J|UQ

GH

|\OH

DoNODPWU %HQFH 7UNQ DQDYDWDQ 7L\DQDQQ JDUS YH LPDO \DPDoODU LOH $UDO
J|OPQWNDVGU

.OWU oHYUHOHUL LQFHOHQGLLQGH PLOOHWOHULQ N|NOHUL \DQL SURWRWLSOHUL KDNNQGD


ELOJLOHUH XODPDN PPNQ RODELOPHNWHGLU .DIHVROXQD J|UH 2UWD $V\DGD 6 9
.LVHOHY YH 6 6 dHUQLNRY WDUDIQGDQ \DSODQ DUNHRORMLN DUDWUPDODU 0g GHQ
GDKD |QFHNL ]DPDQODUD XODDQ 7UN NOWUQQ WHFHOOL ]HPLQOHULQGHQ RODQ 0LQXVLQVN

blgesindeki Afanasyevo kltr (M.. 2500- 

LOH |]HOOLNOH D\Q E|OJHGHNL

Adronovo kltrnn (M.. 1700-  WHPVLOFLOHUL RODQ EUDNLVHIDO VDYDo EH\D]


UNQ 7UN VR\XQXQ SURWLSL RODELOLU 2UWD $V\D ER]NUODUQGD oHLWOL 7UN NOWU
PHUNH]OHUL YDUGU NL EX PHUNH]OHU ELUELUOHUL\OH EDODQWO ROPDNOD ELUOLNWH oRN GHLLN
IDUNOONODU GD J|VWHUHELOPHNWHGLU $UNHRORMLN ND]ODU YH DUDWUPDODU 2UWD $V\D
PHGHQL\HWLQLQ 0g  ELQH NDGDU X]DQGQ J|VWHUPHNWHGLU %DW 7UNLVWDQ
GD
EXJQN $NDEDW 7UNPHQLVWDQ  oHYUHVLQGH \DSODQ ND]ODUGD 0g  ELQH XODDQ
\HUOHPH PHUNH]OHUL EXOXQPXWXU $QDY NOWU RODUDN ELOLQHQ EX PHGHQL\HWLQ NLPOHUH
DLW ROGXX NHVLQOLN ND]DQPDP LVH GH 7UNOHULQ EX E|OJHGHNL YDUONODUQQ LON L]OHULQL
\DQVWDELOHFHL GQOHQ LSXoODUQ YHUPHVL DoVQGDQ $Q

av nemli bir merkezdir.

$QDYGD ND] \DSDQ 3URI )UHGULN 7DOPDJH +LHEHUWLQ ND] VRQXFXQGDNL EXOJXODU YH
GQFHOHUL 7UN WDULKL YH NOWU DoVQGDQ oRN LOJLQoWLU +LHEHUW $QDY E|OJHVLQGH
%DNWULDYH0DUJLDQDND]DODQODUQGDQ0gOHUHDLWROGXX

tahmin edilen paralar

EXOGX %X X\JDUOQ PLUDVoODU RODUDN 7UNOHUL GQHQ +LHEHUW ND]ODU VUDVQGD

]HULQGHNUP]VHPEROOHULQEXOXQGXX|QHPOLVL\DKELUPKUWDGDEXOXU %XWDWDNL

44

VHPEROOHUOH LOJLOL RODUDN 7RN XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU .D]ODU VUDVQGD WD PKUQ
EXOXQGXX WDEDNDGD RGXQ N|PUQH UDVWODQP EX GD PKUQ \DQQ EXOXQPDVQGD
NROD\ON VDO\RU <DSODQ NDUERQ WHVWLQH J|UH PKU 0g O \OODUD DLW \DQL
JQP]GHQ\O|QFHVLQH7UNPHQLVWDQQ$IJDQVQUQD\DNQ$QDY

blgesinde

VUGUOHQ oDOPDODU EXUDQQ HQ HVNL WDUP WRSOXPODUQGDQ ELULQH HYVDKLSOLL \DSWQ
GDJ|VWHUL\RU<DNODN\O|QFHGQ\DGDWDUPQEDODGELOLQL\RU%XE|OJHGH
GH

0H]RSRWDP\DGDNL

JLEL

WDUP

YH

KD\YDQFON

\DSO\RUGX

%XOXQWXOD

r bize

JQP]GHQ\DNODN\O|QFH\DD\DQ6PHUOHULQ2UWD$V\DGDNLEXX\JDUONWDQ

YHRQODUQ\DSWH\DODUGDQKDEHUGDURODELOHFHLJ|UQGHVWHNOHUQLWHOLNWH

Proto-Trkler iin ilk kltr merkezi olarak Altay-6D\DQ

GDODUQQ NX]H\

EDWVQGD \HU DODQ YH 0g  EDODUQD DLW RODQ $IDQDV\HYR NOWU LOHUL
VUOPHNWHGLU %X NOWUQ HQ E\N |]HOOLL 7UN VRV\DO KD\DWQQ LON |UQHLQL
\DQVWPDVGU %X NOWUGH DWQ HKOLOHWLULOGLL YH NR\XQ EHVOHQGLL J|UOPHNWHGLU
$\UFD WRSUDN NDSODU EDNU YH WXQoWDQ \DSOP oHLWOL VLOkK YH VV H\DODU GD
EXOXQPXWXU %X NOWUQ GHYDP RODQ $QGURQRYR NOWU LVH $OWD\ODUGDQ 8UDO

GDODU $UDO J|O oHYUHVLQH NDGDU \D\OPWU 0g   &RUDI\D NOWUOHULQ
ROXPDVQGDYHJHOLPHVLQGHHWNLHGHQ|QHPOLIDNW|UOHUGHQGLU.DIHVROXQDJ|UH7UN
%R]NU NOWUQQ JHOLWLULOGLL E|OJH \DQL $QGURQRYR NOWU VDKDV $OWD\ 'DODU

6D\DQ GDODUQQ JQH\EDWV G]ONOHUL  UkNP   P DUDVQGD GHLHQ ERO
RWODNODULOHEHVLFLOLHoRNHOYHULOL
\D\OD GXUXPXQGDGU

hatt kuru ziraate imkn verecek lde rutubetli bir

%X NOWUGH WXQoWDQ YH DOWQGDQ H\D \DSPQQ JHOLWLL

bilinmektedir.
-

$QGURQRYR NOWU |]HOOLNOHULQL \DQVWDQ GLHU ELU NOWU LVH <HQLVH\ UWL

evresinde yer alan Karasuk kltrdr (M. .1300- .DUDVXN.OWUQROXWXUDQ


Trk boyunun da Ting-lingER\XROGXXLOHULVUOPHNWHGLU7DDO7LQJ-ling boyu ile
-

LOJLOLXQODUND\GHGHU7LQJ OLQJOHULQ%D\NDO*|OQQEDWVQGDQ<HQLVH\QHKULQLQ
ND\QDNODU *QH\ 6LELU\D YH %DW .D]DNLVWDQ ER]NUODUQD NDGDU X]DQDQ ELU VDKD\D
\D\OPROPDODUV|]NRQXVXGXU'LHUWDUDIWDQDUNHRORMLNDUDWUPDODUQVRQXFXQDJ|UH

M.. XII-9,, DVUODU DUDVQGD YDUOQ VUGUHQ .DUDVXN .OWUQQ 7LQJ-linglerin


DWDODUQDDLWROGXXLOH

ri srlmektedir.

45

.DUDVXN NOWUQQ HQ E\N

|]HOOLL GHPLULQ

LOHQLS VLOkK

\DSPQGD

NXOODQOG LON NOWU ROPDVGU <HQL \DSODQ DUNHRORMLN DUDWUPDODU .DUDVXN NOWU
LOH LOJLOL LOJLQo VRQXoODU YHUPHNWHGLU .DUDVXN NOWUQQ \DDQG \HUGH WDKO
DPEDUODUQQ EXOXQPX ROPDV EX NOWU \DD\DQODUQ \HUOHLN ELU KD\DW WDU]QD GD
VDKLS ROGXNODUQ J|VWHUPHNWHGLU .DUDVXN NOWU PHWDO LOHPHFLOHULQLQ UQOHUL

yksek dzeyde teknik yetkinlik gsteriyordu. Metal ara-JHUHFLQ JHQL ELU DODQGD
kulODQOP

ROPDV PHWDOXUMLN UHWLPLQ oDSQQ R G|QHPH GHN J|UOPHGLN |OoGH

ROGXXQX J|VWHUPHNWHGLU VNLW G|QHPL |QFHVL 7XQo dD PDGHQFLOHULQLQ \DNODN ELU
PLO\RQ WRQ FLYDUQGD PDGHQ oNDUG VDQOPDNWDGU .DUDVXN PDGHQ IUQFODU GD
EDNUDDUVHQLNYHNDOD\NDUWUSDODPQQLWHOLNOHULQLYHRQGDQ\DSODQPHWDOQHVQHQLQ
|]HOOLNOHULQL E\N |OoGH JHOLWLUHQ WHNQLNOHULQ XVWDV ROPXODUG *QH\ 6LELU\DGDNL
.DUDVXN NDELOHOHULQLQ HNRQRPLVLQLQ VU \HWLWLULFLOLLQH GD\DQG GQO\RU %X

blgede buOXQDQ NHPLNWHQ \DSOP YH JHP \DSPDNWD NXOODQOG GQOHQ ELU SDUoD
DUNHRORJODUDEXUDGDDWDELQLOGLLQLGQGUWPW1HYDUNLE|OJHGH.DUDVXNKDONQQ
\HUOHLN \DDP VUGQ J|VWHUHQ HYOHULQ YH WDKO GHSRODUQQ EXOXQPDV RQODUQ

gebe sr ekRQRPLVLQHGD\DO GHLO\HUOHLN WDUPFELUKD\DWVUGQQJ|VWHUJHVL


RODUDNGHHUOHQGLULOL\RU

Minusinsk ve Abakan blgesinden Altaylara uzanan blgede Tagar kltr


RODUDN ELOLQHQ YH 0g
H WDULKOHQHQ EXOXQWXODUGD GHPLU LoLOLLQLQ |UQHNOHUL \HU
DOPDNWD\G $\UFD 0g  \] \OD DLW 2UKXQ YH 6HOHQJD ER\ODUQD GHLQ X]DQDQ
3D]UN

NOWU

ELQOHUFH

\OON

7UN

NOWUQQ

+XQ

oDQD

QDVO

XODWQ

J|VWHUPHNWHGLU %WQ EX EXOXQWXODU 7UN FRUDI\DVQQ WDELv VQUODUQ WHVSLW HWPHN
DoVQGDQ

da byk bir neme sahiptir.

2UWD $V\DGDNL 7UN NOWU oHYUHOHULQGH NXUJDQODUGD EXOXQDQ ED] H\DODU

Trklerin ok eski zamanlardan beri konar-J|oHU KD\DWD KDV ELU NOWU JHOLWLUGLNOHULQL
J|VWHULU$YYHVDYDDOHWOHULGHPLUYHGHULGHQoHLWOLH\DODUDWYHNXUWDUONOKD\YDQ
ILJUO NDSODU EX \DD\Q WHPHO |]HOOLNOHULQL EL]OHUH J|VWHULU 1LWHNLP 7UN N|NHQ
PLWRORMLVLQHGDLUV|]OYH\D]OND\QDNODUGDEXWHVSLWOHULGHVWHNOHU

46

Proto-Trklerin ana yurdu ve Proto-Trk kltr bugn de dhil olmak zere


WDP RODUDN ELU ]HPLQH RWXUWXODPDPWU %XQXQ ELU oRN VHEHEL YDUGU 7UNOHULQ ELU
DODQGD VDELW NDOPDPDODU GHYDPO RODUDN \HQL DODQODUD IHWLKOHU YH\D J|o \ROX\OD
JLWPHOHUL KHP NHQGL ER\ODU KHP GH \DDGNODU DODQODUGD \DD\DQ GLHU NDYLPOHUL G

NHQGLELUOLNOHULLoLQHNDWDUDNGHYOHWOHUNXUPDODUNLPL]DPDQGDELUOHWLNOHULNDYLPOHUOH
ND\QDPDODU VRQXFXQGD
NLPLQ

7UN

NLPLQ

-|]HOOLNOH

0RRO

0RROODUOD ND\QDP ROPDODU NL NLPL ]DPDQ

ROGXX

VRUXVXQD

FHYDS

YHUPHN

]RUGXU 

ND\WODUGD

NDUNONODUQ ROPDV YH HOGHNL ND\W YH EHOJHOHULQ HNVLN ELOJLOHU YHUPHVL JLEL
VHEHSOHUGHQ GROD\ 3URWR

-Trk ana yurdu ve Proto-Trk kltr konusunu zmek

SUREOHPOLROPXWXU

in Tarihi

DGO HVHULQGH dLQH J|UH .X]H\ EDW NOWU LoLQGH 3URWR

-Trk

kltrn incele\HQ : (EHUKDUG XQODU ND\GHWPLWLU Kuzey-EDW NOWU GH PHQHL
EDNPQGDQ ELU DYF NOWUGU YH VRQUD oREDQ NOWU ROPXWXU %XQXQ \DQQGD SHN
HKHPPL\HWVL] ROPD\DQ ELU ]LUDDW NOWU GH YDUGU (Q PKLP KD\YDQODU VU GHLO
DWW dLQ ND\QDNODUQGDQ |UHQLOGLLQH J|UH EX NOWUQ PHUNH]L EXJQN 6KHQVL YH
.DQVX H\DOHWOHULGLU YH EX

NOWU

\DDWDQODU ELOKDVVD

\NVHN

G]ON \HUOHUGH

RWXUXUODUG %X NOWU JHWLUHQOHULQ VRQUDNL 7UNOHULQ DWDODU ROGXNODUQD SKH \RNWXU

Onlar ilk grndkleri zamaQODU\DQL0gQFELQ\OQRUWDODUQGDELOHVRQUDODUGD


WDGNODU YDVIODU KDL] EXOXQX\RUODUG 7DELL EXQXQOD 7UNOHULQ LON YDWDQODUQQ dLQ
H\DOHWOHUL RODQ 6KHQVL YH .DQVX ROGXX LGGLD HGLOPHPHNWHGLU %XUDODUQ DVO 7UNOHUH
DLW E|OJHQLQ \DOQ] ELU NHQDU SDUoDV ROGXX WHVLULQL YHUPHNWHGLU IDNDW EXGHYUH DLWdLQ

ND\QDNODU7UNE|OJHVLQLQPHUNH]LQLWHVSLWHWPH\H\HWPHPHNWHGLU

Eberhard, Proto-7UN NOWU LoLQ GH DVO NOWUHO \DDP HNOLQLQ oREDQ NOWU
ELoLPLQGHROGXXQXV|\OHUNHQNLPLDUDWUPDFODUDJ|UH0gNLPLOHULQHJ|UHGH
0g  \OODUQD DLW RODELOHFHL LOHULVUOHQ $QDY NOWU LOH GH NDUODWUPDNWD YH

indeki Yang-VKDR

NOWU LOH $QDY NOWU DUDVQGDNL |]HOOLNOH ER\DO oDQDN

mlekler gibi, benzerliklerden de yolD oNDUDN oRN JHOLPL $QDY NOWU LOH 7UN
-

NOWU DUDVQGD LOLNL NXUPDNWDGU <DQJ VKDR NOWU \DOQ] RUWD

-kuzey inde,

.X]H\ dLQGH YH %DW dLQGH \DQL GDON E|OJHOHUGH J|UO\RU (VNL dLQLQ LVNkQ
\HUOHUL KDNNQGD ELOLQHQOHUH QD]DUDQ EX NOWUQ EXOXQGXX EWQ EX E|OJHOHUGH 7LEHW

47

NDELOHOHUL JDOLED 7UNOHUOH NDUP RODUDN \DDPDNWD LGLOHU <DQJ

-shao kltr,

LoHULVLQGH HQ NXYYHWOLVL 7LEHW XQVXUX VRQUD 7UN YH EXQODUD LOkYHWHQ GDKD ]D\I ELU

unsur olarak Tai kavimlerinin unsuru bulunan ok

NDUN ELU NOWU RODFDNWU (HU EX

NDEXO HGLOHFHN ROXUVD dLQGHNL ER\DO oDQDN o|POHLQ PXD\\HQ L]OHULQLQ 'RX
7UNLVWDQGD EXOXQPDVQQ VHEHEL GH DQODODELOHFHNWLU 2 KDOGH 7UN NDYLPOHUL
WDUDIQGDQ \DSOP RODFDNODUGU )DNDW GLHU WDUDIWDQ GD ED]

Tibet kabilelerinde

rneklerin Yang-VKDRNOWUQGHNLOHUH EHQ]H\HQER\DOWDKWDNDSODUQKkOk EXJQELOH


.

NXOODQOPDVQQVHEHELGHDQODODFDNWU

0g\OODUQGDdLQL\|QHWHQ

Chou sllesi Trk kkenliydi. Chou sllesi

]DPDQQGDNLROD\ODULQFHOH\HQ(EHUKDUGoRN|QHPOLWHVSLWOHUGHEXOXQPXWXU%XVOkOH
ONH\L oHLWOL JDUQL]RQODU NXUDUDN \|QHWL\RUGX g]HOOLNOH 7UNOHU YH 0RROODU GHYDPO
RODUDN EX JDUQL]RQODUD VDOGU\RUGX dQN EX JDUQL]RQODUQ NXUXOPDV LOH EX E|OJHOHUH
oLIWoLOHU \HUOHPH\H EDOD\QFD 7UN YH 0RROODUD DLW RWODNODU NoOPH\H EDODG
%XQGDQGROD\\DPDKDUHNHWOHULEDODG+DWWD7UNOHU(EHUKDUGDJ|UH\DPD\ROX\OD
WDUPVDOUQOHULGHHOGHHWWLNOHULLoLQ]LUDDWLELUNHQDUDEUDNPD\DEDODGODU

Destanlarda da Trk ana

\XUGX LOH LOJLOL ELOJLOHUH UDVWODQPDNWDGU %X NRQXGD

HVHULQGH ELU E|OP KD]UOD\DQ 7RJDQ NHQGL DQD \XUW J|UQ GH GHVWDQODUGD YHULOHQ

ELOJLOHUGHQ \ROD oNDUDN |UQHNOHQGLUL\RU 7UN DQD\XUGXQXQ 7L\DQDQ $UDO PQWNDV


ROGXXYH7UNOHULQPXKWHOLINDYLPOHUOHWHPDVODUYHIWXKDWODUHVNL7UNdLQUDQYH
<DKXGL ULYD\HWOHULQGHQ GH |UHQLOHELOL\RU (Q HVNL 7UN ULYD\HWOHUL ELUL QF DVUGD
EHONL GDKD |QFH PXD\\HQ HNOLQL DOGNWDQ VRQUD dLQOLOHUH PDOP RODQ YH :HL VOkOHVL

(M.. 366-558) tarihine geen Kktrk-dLQ YHUVL\RQX GLHUL GH LQFL DVUQ LON
\DUVQGD \D]ODQ LNL HVHUGHQ DOQDUDN 6HOoXNOXODU QDPQD  GD \D]ODQ DQRQLP

Mcmel ut-tavarih va-l-qisas NLWDEQD GHUFROXQDQ UDQ-+D]DU YHUVL\RQX HNLOOHULQGH


-

EL]HYDVOROPXWXU+HULNLYHUVL\RQ7L\DQDQ $UDOVDKDVQGDPXD\\HQHNOLQLDOGNWDQ
VRQUD 8]DNGRX\D YH gQDV\D\D NDGDU \D\OPWU %XQODUQ KHU LNLVLQGH GH 7UNQ

DVO YDWDQ ,VN *|O YH dX PQWDNDVGU .|NWUN

-in versiyonunda Trkn u

KDY]DVQGD ,VN *|O ,]N $UW $]JDUW LPGLNL ,JDUW Q VRXN \D\ODODUQD JHOPHGHQ
|QFH 6LKDL \DQL JDUS GHQL]L GL\H DQODQ ELU GHQL] \DQL $UDO \DKXW +D]DU GHQL]OHUL

48

-art ve

\DQQGD \DDP ROGXNODUQ DQODWU UDQ +D]DU YHUVL\RQXQGD LVH ,VN *|O ,]N

&H\KXQ $PXGHU\D YD]KRODUDN]LNUHGLOPLOHUGLU

7UN'HVWDQODUQGDQ2X].DDQ'HVWDQEL]OHUH7UNN|NHQPLWRORMLVLQLQ\DQ
VUD 7UN DQD\XUGX YH 7UN NOWU KDNNQGD oRN |QHPOL ELOJLOHU YHUPHNWHGLU
5HLGHGGLQLQND\GHWWLLVOkPvG|QHP2X]'HVWDQKHUQHNDGDULoLQHVOkPvXQVXUODU
NDWOP ROVD ELOH EL]H (VNL 7UN \DD\ KDNNQGD GD ELOJLOHU YHULU 2X] 'HVWDQQD
J|UH 7UNOHULQ LON \DDGNODU \HUOHU YH EXQXQ VHEHEL XGXU 7UN WDULKoLOHUL YH GLOL
oDEXN UkYLOHU |\OH DQODWUODU 1XK 3H\JDPEHU $6 \HU\]Q RXOODU DUDVQGD

bOWUG ]DPDQ E\N ROX <DIHVH 'RX LOOHUL LOH 7UNLVWDQ YH R WDUDIODU YHUGL
<DIHV 7UNOHULQ GH\LLQH J|UH 2OFD\ +DQ GL\H OkNDS DOU 2 J|oHEH RODUDN \D\RUGX
<D\ODN YH .ODN 7UNLVWDQGD ROXS \D] D\ODUQ ,SDQo HKUL \DNQODUQGDNL 2UWDT YH
.UWDTGD NODU GD D\Q \|UHOHUGHNL >.DUDNXUXP GL\H PHKXU RODQ@ 4DUDTXPGDNL
%DUVXT DGO \HUGH JHoLUL\RUGX %XUD LNL HKLU YDUG %LULVL 7DODV ELULVL 4DU 6D\UDP NL
EXVRQHKULQoRNE\NNUNNDSVYDUGU

Destanda Talas ve Sayram evresi OX] +DQQ \XUGX RODUDN ELOGLULOPHNWHGLU


2X] +DQ LON |QFH \XUGXQXQ oHYUHVLQGH \DD\DQ GPDQODUQ GL]H JHWLULS VRQUD GD
IHWLKOHULQH EDODPWU 7DODV 6D\UDP YH R WDUDIODUQ DVNHUOHUL 2X]XQ ONHVLQGH
GLNEDOON J|VWHUGLOHU 2X] RQODUQ ]HULQH \

ryp yendi. Talas ve Sayramdan


.

EDOD\S0DYHUDQQHKLU%XKDUDYH+RUH]PHNDGDU]DSWHGLSLGkUHVLQHDOG

2X]+DQQGQ\D\IHWKHWPHNDPDF\ODoNWVHIHUOHUYHHOHJHoLUGLLONHOHU
KDNNQGD GHVWDQGDoRN ID]OD ELOJL YHULOPHNWHGLU 'HVWDQGD YHULOHQ ELOJLOHUGHQ ED]ODUQ
DODUDNGHVWDQvG|QHPGHNLONHOHUKDNNQGD GDELOJLYHUPHN LVWL\RUX]2X]+LQGLVWDQ
]HULQH VHIHUH oNW YH EX ONH\L GRX WDUDIQGDQ LJDO HWPH\H EDODG gQFH 8OXGDT
YLOk\HWLQH YDUS ELU PGGHW RUDGD RWXUGX 2UDGDQ ,TDUL\\H\H

gitti. ... Bylece btn

dLQL0DoLQGL\DUQYH1HQNL\DVHOHJHoLUGL2UDODUGDQ SHNoRNPDOYHJDQLPHWDOS
NHQGLYDWDQRODQ7UNLVWDQDG|QHUHN2UWDTYH$ODWDTDLQGL

2X] +DQQ NHQGLQH EDODG ONHOHU YH H\DOHWOHUGHQ ED]ODU XQODUGU

Hazar

'HUEHQGL $UUDQ 0XJDQ LUYDQ $]HUED\FDQ *FLVWDQ 0VU 'L\DUEHNLU (UELO

49

0XVXO $QWDN\D %DGDW DP 5DNND ,VIDKDQ %DVUD LUD] ,UDN  $FHP +HPHGDQ
1LDEXU0HUY+RUDVDQ+HUDWYE%WQEX\HUDGODUQQoRNJHQLELUFRUDI\D\LoLQH

aOGYHEXQXQELU2X]+DQLPSDUDWRUOXXVQUODUoL]GLLDQODO\RU

2X] +DQ EX NDGDU ONH YH HKLUOHUL NHQGLQH EDODUNHQ NHQGL DQD\XUGXQX GD
XQXWPDPW $QD\XUGX LOH LOJLOL GHVWDQGD YHULOHQ X DoNODPD oRN |QHPOLGLU %L]
FLKDQ IHWKHWPHN Jk\HVL\OH GQ\DQQ KHU WDUDIQDJLGHFHL] +XFDYXU \DQL DVO YDWDQ YH
\XUGXPX] RODQ 7DODV YH 6D\UDP JHULGH NDOG (HU GPDQODU EL]LP \RNOXXPX]GD
EXUDODUDOUODUVDEL]LPLoLQWDOLKVL]OLN EHGQkPON GPDQODULoLQGHELU|KUHWYHVLOHVL
RODFDNWU )DL]OL NkU PLGL\OH VHUPk\H\L KDUFDPDN ROPD] GHGL (VDV \XUWODUQQ
PXKDID]DV LoLQ 2JXU NDYLPOHULQL J|UHYOHQGLUGL 2JXU NDYLPOHUL 7DODV YH $OPDOT
YLOk\HWLQHJHULG|QGYHEX\XUWODUQPXKDID]DVLoLQRUDGD\HUOHWL

ON7UN<D\OPDODUYH<D\OPD$ODQODU

TUNOHULQELUOHHUHNJoROXWXUPDODUKkNLPJoROPDODUYHGHYOHWNXUPDODULOH
ELUOLNWH QIXV DUWQQ ROPDV GHYOHW VQUODUQQ JHQLOHPHVL YH oHLWOL VHEHSOHUGHQ
GROD\ SHN oRN J|o KDUHNHWL PH\GDQD JHOPLWLU %X J|oOHUL =HNL 9HOLGv 7RJDQD J|UH

fetLK \DQL GHYOHW VQUODUQQ JHQLOHWLOPHVL YH LNWLVDGv-FRUDIv VHEHSOHUH EDO RODUDN
LNL\H D\UDELOLUL] )HWLK VHEHSOL J|oOHULQ GQGDNL J|oOHU 2UWD $V\DGD NXUDNOQ ED
J|VWHUPHVL LNOLP DUWODUQQ GHLPHVL RWODN DODQODUQQ D]DOPDV WDUP UQOH

rinin

\HWHUVL]ROPDVQIXVDUWVR\GDYH\D \DEDQFNDYLPOHUOH\DSODQVDYDODUVRQXFXQGD
\HQLOHQ 7UNOHULQ \XUGX WHUN HWPHVL YH\D WHUN HWPHN ]RUXQGD NDOPDV JLEL VHEHSOHUGHQ
PH\GDQDJHOPLWLU

M.. 4. yzyOGDQ

LWLEDUHQ +D]DU YH 5XV\DQQ JQH\LQGH

de, Trklerin

yaadklar bilinmektedir. TUN ER\ODUQQ ROXturduu, konar-ger kltre sahip bir


kavimler topluluu olan skitler (Sakalar) buna rnektir. skitler, M.. 8. yzylda, Orta
Asya'nn Tanr dalar ile Hazar denizi arasndaki bozkrlarnda yaarlarken, daha sonra
g ederek, Karadenizin kuzeyinde,

til ve Tuna nehirleri arasndaki alanlara

yaylmlardr. skitler, Karadeniz'in kuzeyinde varlklarn M.. 2. yzyla kadar devam


ettirmilerdir.

50

Milttan sonra Trklerin yayldklar sahalDU LQFHOHPHGHQ |QFH 7rk glerinin


bu dnemde bat ynnde geliPH\H GHYDP HWWLLQL EHOLUWPHN JHUHNLU +XQODUQ 2UWD
Asyadan

HindistanQ

NX]H\LQH

YH

5XV\DQQ

ELOLQPHNWHGLU %LOLQGLL ]HUH EX +XQODUQ ELU N


$\UFD 6DEDU $YDU %XOJDU 3H

JQH\LQH

NDGDU

ledikleri

JHQL

sm Orta AvruSD\D NDGDU LOHUOHPLWLU

enek, Uz ve Kuman boylar da Hazar ve Karadenizin

kuzeyi ile Orta Avrupa ve Balkanlara kadar uzandlar.


Kalabalk OX] YH .SoDN ER\ODU da 8.-11. yzyOODU DUDVQGD 0DYHUnnehir
zerinden ran,

,UDN $]HUED\FDQ 0VU YH $QDGROX\D GRUX J|o HWPLOHU YH EX

E|OJHOHUGH GHYOHWOHULQL NXUDUDN NHQGL NOWU YH PHGHQL\HWOHULQL JHOLWLUPLOHUGLU %X


E|OJHOHUGH NXUXODQ GHYOHWOHU DUDVQGD 2X] YH .SoDNODUQ NXUGXX 0VU  0HPOXN
'HYOHWLLOHDUONOD2X]ER\ODUQQNXUGXX%\N6HOoXNOX'HYOHWL$QDGROX6HOoXNOX
'HYOHWLYH2VPDQO'HYOHWL\HUDOU

Trk GOHULQH

EDNOGQGD 7UNOHULQ KHS %DW\D GRUX J|o HWWLNOHUL YH

J|oOHULQGHLNL\ROXNXOODQGNODUJ|UOU%XJ|o\ROODU

1. G yolu diyebileceLPL] +D]DUQ NX]H\LQGHQ 2UWD $YUXSD\D GRUX EDW\D


g edenler ki; bunlar Hun, Bulgar, Kuman-.SoDN

2X] 7UNOHULGLU %X ER\ODU

JLWWLNOHUL 2UWD $YUXSD YH %DONDQ ONHOHULQH \HUOHPLOHU GHYOHWOHU NXUPXODUGU ED]ODU

da, bu topraklarda yerli halklD NDUDUDN ]DPDQOD NHQGL EHQOLNOHULQL ND\EHGLS HUL\LS
JLWPLOHUGLU

 *|o \ROX GL\HELOHFHLPL] +D]DUQ JQH\LQGHQ UDQ ]HULQGHQ EDW\D GRUX
J|o \ROXQX WDNLS HGHQOHU UDQ 0H]RSRWDP\D 0VU YH $QDGROX\D \HUOHPLOHUGLU %X

yolu takip edenlerin byN oRXQOXXQX LVH 2X] ER\ODU ROXWXUPDNWD\G YH 2X]ODU
NHQGLGHYOHWOHULQLYHPHGHQL\HWOHULQLNXUPXODUGUVOkPWRSOXOXNODULOHNRPXROPDODU
YHRQODUODLOLNLNXUPDODUVRQXFXGD2X]ODU0VOPDQROPXODUGU'LO\|QQGHQGH
$UDSoDYH)DUVoDQQHWNLVLHGHEv\D]GLOOHULQGHNHQGLQLJ|VWHUPH\HEDODPWU

0RUDYFVLNLQ YHUGLL ELOJL\H J|UH +XQODUQ YH GLHU NDYLPOHULQ NXOODQGNODU 


WDQHJ|o\ROXYDUGU%XNDYLPOHULQ%DW\DJHOLOHULXHNLOGHGLU

51

 'RXGDQ +D]DU GHQL]LQL DDUDN EXJQN UDQ YH $QDGROX\X DDUDN JHOGLOHU
'DKDVRQUD6HOoXNOXODUYH2VPDQOODUGDEX\ROXNXOODQPODUGU

 8UDO GDODUQGDQ +D]DUQ NX]H\LQL DDUDN .DINDVODUGDQ GRX $YUXSD\D


DNQODUHWWLOHU

8UDOGDODUQQNX]H\N\ODUQWDNLSHGHUHNEWQ.DUDGHQL]LDDUDN7XQD\D

YH.DUSDWODUDGRUX\]\OODUFDVUHFHNELUNDYLP\ROXROXWXUGXODU

%L]DQV ND\QDNODUQGD 7UNOHUOH LOJLOL oRN ELOJL EXOXQPDNWDGU $YUXSD +XQODU


]DPDQQGD .DUDGHQL]LQ NX]H\LQGHQ 2JXU DG LOH WDQQDQ 6DUDJXU 2JXU YH 2QRJXUODU

QFHGHQ \DDGNODU 8UDOQ GRXVXQGDQ JHOGLOHU.

+D]DUODUQ GD %L]DQV ND\QDNODUQGD

7UN YH |]HOOLNOH GRX 7UNOHUL RODUDN WDQQGQ YH  \OQGD .D\]HU +HUDNOHRV LOH

+D]DU.DDQQQ7LIOLV\DNQODUQGDNDUODWNODUQDQODWDQELOJLOHUEXOXQPDNWDGU

%X

J|o

PHGHQL\HWOHULQGH

\ROODU
GH

]HULQGHQ

GHLLNOLNOHU

JHoLS

JLGHQ

\DDQPWU

7UN

*|o

NDYLPOHULQLQ

HWWLNOHUL

NOWU

E|OJHOHUGH

YH

EHUDEHU

\DDGNODU PLOOHWOHUOH NOWUHO HWNLOHLPOHUH JLUPLOHUGLU <HWHUOL QIXV \RXQOXX

olmayan veya hkim gOHULQL ND\EHGHQ ED] 7UN ER\ODU PHVHOk 2UWD $YUXSDGD
JoOHULQL ND\EHGHQ +XQODU .XPDQODU 3HoHQHNOHU 8]ODU 2X]ODU  $JDoHULOHU YH
%DONDQODUGDNL %XOJDUODU EHQOLNOHULQL ND\EHWPLOHU YH ]DPDQOD GLHU WRSOXOXNODUQ LoLQGH
HUL\LSJLWPLOHUGLU

1.3. Eski7UNdD7UN+D\DW$ODQ
(VNL 7UN oD KD\DW DODQODU LQFHOHQLUNHQ HVNL 7UNOHULQ \DDGNODU \HUOHUH YH
NRPXODUQDGLNNDWHGLOHFHNWLU(VNL7UNOHULLQFHOHPH\H7UNDQD\XUGXQGDLONGHYOHWL
NXUDQ YH KDNODUQGD JHQL ELOJL EXOXQDQ +XQODUGDQ EDODQDFDNWU +XQODU ELOLQGLL
]HUH 2UWD $V\DGD E\N ELU LPSDUDWRUOXN NXUPXWX %LU NDYLPOHU ELUOLL HNOLQGH
ROGXX GQOHQ +XQ 'HYOHWLQLQ QDVO NXUXOGXXQD EDNPDGDQ |QFH RQODUQ HQ oRN

urumuna bakmak

VDYDWNODU YH oRN VN LOLNL LoLQGH EXOXQGXNODU dLQ GHYOHWLQLQ G

JHUHNOLGLU dLQ VQUODUQD EDNOGQGD dLQLQ NX]H\GRXVXQGD 0DQoXU\D YH *QH\

52

6LELU\D NDYLPOHUL NDUN ELU HNLOGH EXOXQX\RUGX dLQ NX]H\ VQUODUQGD LVH 3URWR
0RROODU 7XQJKXODU YDUG .X]H\EDWGD LVH +XQ 7UNOHUL YH EDWGD GD 7LEH

tliler

bulunuyordu.

7DEL EX KDONODUDUDVQGD GD NDUPDODU ROPX dLQ ND\QDNODUQGD ED] NDYLPOHU
LoLQ IDUNO DGODQGUPDODU YH\D JHQHO DGODQGUPDODU \DSOPWU $QFDN GHLPH\HQ
dLQLQ NX]H\LQGH KHS 7UN YH 0RROODUQ ROGXXGXU +XQODUQ GHYDPO RODUD

NX]H\GHQ dLQH JLUPHOHUL ND\QDNODUGD \HU DOPWU +XQODUQ YH 0RROODUQ ELUOLNWH
KDUHNHW HWWLNOHUL G|QHPOHU ROPXWXU YH EXQODU ELUELUOHULQGHQ D\UPDN ]RUGXU (VNL
oDODUGD dLQLQ NX]H\L EDWDQ EDD 7UN YH 0RRO NDYLPOHUL WDUDIQGDQ NXDWOPW

BunODUGDQ NLPOHULQ 7UN YH NLPOHULQ GH 0RRO ROGXNODUQ NHVLQ RODUDN V|\OHPHN oRN
JoWU $QFDN ELU JHUoHN YDUVD GRX\D GRUX HVNL 0RRO GQ\DVQQ EDODG YH
EDW\DGRUXGD7UNOHULQoRDOGLGL

'DKD |QFH GH EHOLUWLOGLL ]HUH +XQODU 6DNDODUGDQ

sonra, tarih srete ana

yurtta bilinen ilk byk Trk devletidir. Hunlar, tken merkez olmak zere Orhun
blgesi ve Altay dalar civarQGD \D\OP ELU HNLOGH \D\RUODUG 0g -M.S.
216).
M. . III. yzyln ikinci yarsna doUX dLQ ND\QDNODUnda Hiung-QX DG\OD
geen Hun boylarnn in zerindeki basklar iyice artrmtr. Kuzeyden gelen bu Hun
VDOGUODUQD HQJHO RODELOPHN LoLQ

inliler, nl LQ 6HGGLQL \DSPODUGU +XQODUn

bilinen ilk hkmdar, any nvann tayan, Tuman (Teoman)dU7XPDQ]DPDQQGD


JoO ELU ELUOLN ROXWXUDQ +XQODUQ HQ QO KDNDQ 7XPDQQ ROX 0HWHGLU 0HWH
NNUWPDODU VRQXFXQGD EDEDV\OD JLUGLL PFDGHOH\L ND]DQP YH WDKWD RWXUPXWXU
0HWH GHYOHWLQL \HQLGHQ WHNLODWODQGUP YH GRXGDNL 7XQJKXODUOD 0RRO

-Tunguzlar)

VDYDDUDN RQODU GD KkNLPL\HWL DOWQD DOP YH VRQUD GD SHN <ROXQD VDKLS ROPDN LoLQ
<HoLOHUOH VDYDS RQODU EDW\D VUPWU 'DKD VRQUD GD 0HWH +DQQ dLQOH \DSW
VDYDODU

YDUGU

NL

EX

VDYDODUQ

VRQXFXQGD

EDODPODUGU

53

dLQOLOHU

+XQODUD

YHUJL

YHUPH\

n rlar, kuzeyde Sibiryann ilerinden gneyde in

0HWH ]DPDQQGD GHYOHWLQ V

Seddine ve Tibete ve douda Manuryadan batda Aral Glne kadar uzanm


ROX\RUGX 0HWH +DQ ]DPDQQGD oRN JoO ELU GHYOHW RODQ +XQ GHYOHWL RQGDQ VRQUD

geULOHPL

YH 0g  \OQGD +XQ SUHQVOHULQLQ WDKW NDYJDODU VRQXFXQGD GHYOHW

SDUoDODQP2UWD$V\DGDNL+XQKkNLPL\HWLGDOPYH+XQODUQJ|oOHULEDODPWU

+XQ PSDUDWRUOXXQXQ GDOPDV LOH ELUOLNWH +XQODUQ E\N ELU NVP 9ROJD
,UPD]HULQGHQEDW\DJ|oHGHUNHQELUNVP+XQODUGDJQH\EDW\D\DQLUDQDGRUX
J|o HWPLOHU YH E|\OHOLNOH $V\DGDNL YDUONODU GHYDP HWPLWLU %X +XQODU UDQ YH
+LQGLVWDQQ NX]H\LQH LQHUHN $NKXQ (IWDOLW  'HYOHWLQL NXUPXODUGU $NKXQODU 

 \]\OGDQID]ODELUVUH+RUDVDQ3HQFDS$IJDQLVWDQ+LQGLVWDQ+DU]HPUDQYH

'RX7UNLVWDQE|OJHOHULQGHHJHPHQROPXODUYHLPSDUDWRUOXNODUQVUGUPOHUGLU

$NKXQODUQHJHPHQROGXXE|OJH\HEDNOGQGD$NKXQODUQUDQOODU+LQGOLOHU
YH 7RKDUODU LOH LOLNL\H JLUGLNOHUL YH EX LOLNL VRQXFXQGD GD |]HOOLNOH 7RKDUODUGDQ
HWNLOHQGLNOHUL V|\OHQPHNWHGLU +DWWD EX KXVXVGD dHoHQ 7RKDULVWDQD \HUOHWLNWHQ
VRQUDRUWD\DoNDQ7RKDUFDGLOLDVOQGD$NKXQGLOLQGHQEDNDELUH\GHLOGLUJ|UQ
VDYXQPDNWDGU

Akhunlar,



\]

\OQ

RUWDODUQGD

oRN

JoO

ELU

KkOH

JHOPLOHUVH

GH

.|NWUNOHULQYH6DVDQLOHULQEDVNODULOHGHQVRQUDYDUONODUQ\LWLUPLOHUGLUVWHPL
.DDQQ 6DVDQLOHUOH ELUOLNWH KDUHNHW HWPHVL YH $NKXQODUD NDU RUWDN VDYDPDODU

sonucunda Akhun lkHVL EX LNL ONH WDUDIQGDQ SD\ODOPW 6DVDQLOHU 7RKDULVWDQ YH
%HOKL HOH JHoLUGL .|NWUNOHU GH $V\D HNRQRPLVLQL HOOHULQGH WXWPDN LoLQ SHN \ROX
]HULQGHNL E|OJHOHUL KkNLPL\HWOHUL DOWQD DOGODU $NKXQODU DUWN .|NWUN HJHPHQOLLQH
JLUPLOHUGL 7UNoH\H 7RKDUFDGDQ JLUPL NHOLPHOHULQ +XQ $NKXQ YH :X

-sunlar

G|QHPLQGH |GQoOHQPL RODELOHFHL GQOHELOLU dQN 7RKDULVWDQ HJHPHQOLNOHUL


DOWQDDODQGHYOHWOHUEXQODUGU

+XQODUQ 0g  \OQGD GDOPDODU VRQXFXQGD UDQD JQH\EDW\D JLGHQOHU

$NKXQ 'HYOHWLQL NXUPXODUG %DW\D GRUX JLGHQOHU GH OL KDY]DVQD J|o HWPLOHUGL
06 \]\OGDdLQOLOHULQ YH 6L\HQSLOHULQEDVNODUVRQXFXGDKDEDW\DJ|oHGHQ +XQ

54

birlikleri, Gney Rusyaya doUX \|QHOPLOHU YH \zyln ortalarna doru siyas bir
birlik kurarak, Alanlara ait topraklar ele geirmi YH  \OQGD DUWN til (Volga)
kylarna ulamlard %X WDULKOHUGH GLO ER\ODUQGD *HUPHQOHU *RWODU YH ED] 6ODY
NDYLPOHUL\D\RUGX+XQODU$ODQ7UNOHULQLKkNLPL\HWOHULDOWQDDOGNWDQ

sonra Gotlara

VDOGUGODU *RWODU NDU oNDPDGODU 2VWURJRWODUQ ELU NVP :HVWJRWODUD VQG

:HVWJRWODULVH5RPDOODUDVQG $YUXSDKDONODU+XQODUGDQNDoDUDNNDYLPOHUJ|oQ
EDODWW +XQODU 5RPD\D GD VDOGUGODU GH KNPGDU RODQ $WWLOD ]DPDQQGD
+XQODU9ROJDQHKULQGHQ5HLQHYH0DNHGRQ\DGDQ%DOWN'HQL]LQHNDGDURODQDODQGD

gl bir devlet kurdular.

$WWLOD .DWDODXQ VDYDQGD 5RPDO NRPXWDQ $HWLXV NRPXWDVQGDNL RUGX\OD


VDYDW\VDGDEDDUORODPDGNLWDUDIEXVDYDWDNHVLQEL

r netice elde edemedi. Attila,

.DWDODXQ VDYDQQ LNLQFL \OQGD 5RPD VHIHULQH oNW 5RPD $WWLODQQ NDUVQD RUGX
oNDUDPDG+HGL\HOHU J|QGHUHUHN3DSDQQ ULFDV\OD EDU\DSOG$WWLODQQ|OPLOH
RXOODU DUDVQGDNL oHNLPHOHU \]QGHQ GHYOHW ]D\IODG YH GDKD VRQUD KkNLPL\HWOHUL
DOWQGDNL NDYLPOHU LV\kQ HWWLOHU +XQODU 0DFDULVWDQGDQ oHNLOGLOHU 'LQ\HVWHU YH 7XQD

DUDVQDVQGODU%XUDGD%XOJDU2JXUYH$YDU7UNOHULLOHNDUWODU

%DW

+XQODU

\DQL

$YUXSD

+XQODU

6DVDQv

YH

*HUPHQ

erinden

NDYLPO

HWNLOHQGLOHU2QODUGDQVVOHPHVDQDWNRQXVXQGDHWNLOHQGLOHU$OWQYHJPLoLOLLQGH
+XQODUoRNLOHUOHGLOHU$\Q]DPDQGDWRSUDNYHVHUDPLNLoLOLLQLVUGUGOHU

$V\DGDQ $YUXSDQQ LoOHULQH NDGDU JHOHUHN E\N ELU GHYOHW NXUDQ +XQODUQ

goHEHOLNWHQ YD]JHoPH\HQ NVPODU ELUNDo \]\O VRQUD JHUL JLWWLOHU YH\D |WHNL 7UN
NDYLPOHUL LOH NDUWODU YH $YUXSDGD EHOLUJLQ ELU \HUOHLN NOWU NXUDPDGODU +XQ
NOWUQQ ED] \DQVPDODU NVPHQ EXJQN 0DFDULVWDQGD \DDPDNWDGU %DW +XQ

kltrnde, Byk Hun Devletinin kltr etkilidir.


Wu-sunlar
$V\D+XQPSDUDWRUOXX]DPDQQGDGHYOHWNXUPXELU7UNER\XGD

Wu-sunlar

LGL +XQODUD EDO ELU HNLOGH \DD\DQ :X VXQODUQ GRXVXQGD +XQODU NX]H\

55

EDWODUQGD .DQJ FK NUDOO EDWODUQGD )HUJ

ana (Ta-\DQ 

YDUGU *QH\GH LVH

VXUODUODoHYULOLHKLUGHYOHWOHULLOHNRPXGXUODU

Wu-sunlar, Ye-FKLKODUOD VDYDPODU YH RQODUQ EDW\D GRUX J|o HWPHOHULQH


.

VHEHSROPXODUGU%|\OHOLNOHGH7RKDULVWDQLGDUHOHULDOWQDDOGODU

in kaynaklaUQD J|UH :X-VXQODU KD\YDQFON YH DYFON LOH XUD\RUODUG


-

$QFDN7DDODJ|UH:X VXQODU]LUDvIDDOL\HWOHUGH\DSPODUGU

Hazarlar
%DODQJoWD .DUDGHQL] LOH +D]DU 'HQL]L DUDVQGD oHLWOL 7UN JUXSODU ER\ODU
\DDPODUGU $YUXSDOODU EX E|OJHGH \DD\DQODUGDQ 0LOkGv  \\GD |]HOOLNOH GH
+XQODUVHEHEL\OHKDEHUGDUROPXODUGU'DKDVRQUDODUEXKDONODUQNX]H\WDUDIODUQGDQ
%XOJDU 2JXU YH $YDU JUXSODU JHOHUHN EXQODUD NDWOPODUGU %L]DQV ND\QDNODUQGD
EXQODUD'RX7UNOHULDGYHULOPLW

ir.

$UDSODU oHNLN J|]O RODQ EX KDOND +D]DU GHPLOHU %X NHOLPH WP %XOJDU
HKLUOHULQL GH NDSVDPWU .DUDGHQL] LOH +D]DU GHQL]L DUDVQGDNL E|OJHGH $D
%XOJDUODU \D\RUGX %DWGDNL %XOJDUODU LVH %L]DQV LOH VDYD\RUODUG 'RXGDNLOHU LVH
UDQ LOH oDW\RUODUG 0LOkGv  \\GD +D]DUODU JoO ELU GHYOHW NXUGXODU $VO JFQ
$D %XOJDUODUGDQ DODQ +D]DU .DDQO R NDGDU JoOHQPLWL NL UDQ YH %L]DQVOD ED

ediyordu. Hazarlar, Arap-+D]DU VDYDODU LOH VOkP GLQL LOH WDQWODU 0VOPDQODUQ
baskV VRQXFX +D]DU .DDQO \NOG +D]DUODU 0XVHYv ROGXODU .DUDLP DGQ DOGODU
.UPDJ|oHGHQ+D]DUODUEXUDGDYDUONODUQGHYDPHWWLUGLOHU+D]DUODUQ.DUDGHQL]YH
+D]DU'HQL]LVDKLOOHULQGHEXOXQDQDVOGHYOHWLLVH5XVLVWLOkVQDNDGDUYDUOQNR

rudu.

5XV HJHPHQOLL LOH +D]DU\DGD WLO oHYUHVLQGH WDUP VQUO NDOG $D WLO

'DVWDQ DUDVQGDNL WRSUDNODUGD J|oHEH \DDP GHYDP HWWL +DONQ E\N ELU NVP
J|oHEHLGL<HUOHLNRODQODULVHHNLOLDODQODUGDWDUP\DS\RUGX

Hazar Devleti g ve tLFDUHW\ROX]HULQGHNXUXOPXROGXXQGDQKHP2UWD$V\D


.

KHP GH 'RX $YUXSD WLFDUHWL ]HULQGH HJHPHQ ROGXODU

56

dQN +D]DUODUQ \DDGNODU

VDKD GLO <D\N .XEDQ YH 'RQ 7HQ  QHKLUOHULQLQ DUDVQGD YH dLQ .DUDGHQL]

.DINDVODUgQDV\D0H]RSRWDP\D+D]DUUDQYV\ROODUQQNHVLWLL\HUGL

Bulgar Devletleri
%XOJDU ER\ ELUOLL +D]DUODUQ EDWVQGDQ .XEDQ ER\ODUQGD YH .DUDGHQL]
ER]NUODUQQGRXVXQGD.|NWUN LOHUOH\LLQGHQ|QFHWHHNNOHWPLWLU %XUDGDWDUPYH
]DQDDWOD \DU \HUOHLN KkOH JHOGLOHU $\Q ]DPDQGD NUN WLFDUHWL GH \DS\RUODUG %D]
2JXU ER\ODU $YDU KkNLPL\HWL LOH 3DQRQ\D\D J|oWOHU  \] \O EDODUQGD 2JXU

%XOJDU ER\ODUQGDQ ED]ODU $YDU KkNLPL\HWL DOWQGD D\UW %XOJDU |QGHUL .XEUDW

Bizans ile Avar-6DVDQL LWWLIDNQD NDU DQODW  FLYDUQGD $YDU KkNLPL\HWLQH NDU
D\DNODQS E\N %XOJDU 'HYOHWLQL NXUGX .XEUDW GD |OQFH oRFXNODU ELUELULQGHQ
D\UOGODU%LUNVP+D]DUHJHPHQOLLQHJLUGL%LU NVPLVH3DQRQ\D\D JHOLS \HUOHWL
%XUDGD  \] \O VRQXQD NDGDU YDUONODUQ NRUXGXODU +D]DUODUQ VDOGUODU NDUVQGD
7XQD QHKULQL DDUDN EXJQN %XOJDULVWDQD \HUOHWLOHU .DUDGHQL] ER]NUQGD NDODQ

Bulgarlar (Kara Bulgarlar), Hazar hkimiyetine girdiler.


Tuna Bulgar Devleti
Asparuxun (679-  |QGHUOLLQGH 7XQD\ DS JHOHQ %XOJDUODU NX]H\GRX
%DONDQODUGDQ %L]DQV WRSUDNODUQD JLUGLOHU 2JXU 7UNOHUL WDUDIQGDQ NXUXODQ HQ X]XQ
|PUO GHYOHW RODQ 7XQD %XOJDU 'HYOHWL %L]DQV YH $YDU LPSDUDWRUOXNODU DUDVQGD
KkNLPL\HWLQL VUGUPWU %L]DQVQ $UDSODUOD PFDGHOHVLQGHQ GH

yararlanarak bir

%L]DQV RUGXVXQX \HQHUHN %L]DQVOD DQODWODU %L]DQV GH \DSODQ EX DQWODPD\OD
EXJQN%XOJDULVWDQRODFDN\HULQVDKLSOHULQLWDQPROGXODU$VSDUX[XQFLYDUQGD
|OPHVL LOH LEDQD JHoHQ 7HUYHO %L]DQVD \DUGPODU \DSW %XOJDUO

ar, 717-718de

VWDQEXOXNXDWDQ$UDSODUQ\HQLOPHVLQGHUROR\QDGODU

%XOJDU QIXVXQXQ 6ODY QIXVXQD J|UH oRN D] ROPDV %XOJDUODUQ 6ODYODPDVQD
\RODoW%XOJDUODUEXUDGD6ODYODUODNDUDUDN6ODY

-Bulgarlar hline geldiler.

GLO%XOJDUODU

Hazar hkimiyetine girmek istemeyerek, kuzeye ynelen bir ksm Bulgarlar, til
boylarnda yerlemiler ve burada Mool istilsna kadar devam edecek bir devlet

57

kurmulardr.

til Bulgarlarnn yerletii blge,

slm lkeleri ile Hazarlar ve

skandinav kavimleri arasnda ticaret yollar ]HULQGH LGL %XOJDU ER\ODUQQ RUWD GLOH

YDU WDULKOHUL  \\ RUWDV LOH  \\ EDODUQD NDGDUNL VUH RODUDN WDKPLQ HGLOL\RU
.DUDGHQL] %XOJDUODU JHOL WDULKOHUL QH ROXUVD ROVXQ E|OJHGHNL DVNHUv YHVL\DVv RODUDNHQ

ileri topluluktu. Ticaret ve tarm ile uratklarn bildiimiz Bulgarlar, uzun bir sre
Hazarlara bal kalmlardr. Bulgar

ehri diye bilinen bakentleri, zamann nemli

ticaret merkezlerinden biri idi.

%XOJDU KDQ $OPX 0VOPDQ ROXS +DOLIHGHQ \DUGP LVWHGL YH 2X]ODUOD
DNUDEDON NXUGX %|\OHFH VWQGHNL +D]DU QIX]XQX NUG VOkP GQ\DV GD GRX EDW
NX]H\YHJQH\WLFDUHWLGLO%XOJDUODUQQHOLQGHROGXXLoLQRQODUD\RXQLOJLJ|VWHUGL
GLO %XOJDUODU EX E|OJHGHNL WLFDUHWL HOOHULQGH WXWWXODU  \\ EDODUQGD 5XVODUOD
PFDGHOH N]W 5XVODU YH %XOJDUODU NUN WLFDUHWL LoLQ UHNDEHW HGL\RUODUG %XOJDUODU
GH <XUD\D LOHUOHGLOHU 5XVODU LVH GH .DPD |WHVLQL LJDO HWWLOHU 5XVODU
GH1RYJUDGLQDHGHUHN0RUGYDWRSUDNODUQGDQIXVPFDGH
EX

PFDGHOH

VRQXoODQDPDG

.VD

ELU

VUH

VRQUD

GD

lesine girdilerse de,

E|OJH

WDPDPHQ 0RRO

hkimiyetine girdi.

$YDU.DDQO

dLQ ND\QDNODU EX NDYLP LoLQ -XDQ -XDQ DGQ NXOODQUNHQ $UDS YH %L]DQV
ND\QDNODURQODU$YDUGL\HND\GHGHU%D]0DFDUWDULKoLOHULLVH$YDUODUQ+XQODUQELU
ER\X ROGXX YH

var-hun

DGQ WDGQ EHOLUWLUOHU %X NDYLP 8\JXU E|OJHVLQGHQ

$YUXSD\DJHOPLWLU

$YDUWDULKL$V\DYH$YUXSDRODUDNLNL\HD\UOU$V\DG|QHPLYH\\DUDV

Avrupa dnemi ise, 6.- \\ DUDVQ NDSVDU %XQODU  \OQGDQ  \OQD NDGDU UWL
,UPDQGDQ

.RUD

\DUPDGDVQD

NDGDU

X]DQDQ

E|OJHGH

KkNLPGLOHU

dLQOLOHU

LOH

PFDGHOH\H JLUGLOHUVH GH dLQOLOHUH \HQLOGLOHU $YDUODU %DW $V\DGD HJHPHQOLNOHULQL


VUGUUNHQ .|NWUNOHU EX GHYOHWL \NWODU $YDUODU EDW\D GRUX J|o HGHUHN 9ROJD
,UPD E|OJHVL LOH .DINDVODU DUDVQGDNL E|OJH\H \HUOHWLOHU $YDUODU EXUDGDQ $YUXSD
LoOHULQHGRUXDNQODU\DSWODU$YDUODU $YUXSDWRSUDNODUQGD\HQLGHQWRSDUODQDUDN
\OQGD %D\DQ .DDQQ |QGHUOLLQGH GHYOHW

kurdular. Macaristandan Elbe vadisi, Alp

58

GDODU 6DYD YDGLVLQGHQ 'RQ UPDQD NDGDU RODQ E|OJHGH HJHPHQ ROGXODU $YDUODU
%L]DQVOD \DSWNODU VDYDODUGD VWDQEXOX ELOH NXDWWODUVD GD EDDUV] ROGXODU $YDUODU
)UDQNODUD

\HQLOGLOHU

YH



\OQGD

GHYOHW

GDOG

$YDU

NDOQWODU

EXJQN

0DFDULVWDQGD YH %XOJDULVWDQGD YDUONODUQ VUGUU  %XJQ .DINDVODUGD $YDUODUQ

bakiyeleri mevcuttur.
Avar Devleti, genelde kavimler ve kabilelerden meydana gelen bir federasyon
-Trk kavimleri, Ogur,

\DSVQGD NXUXOPXWX hONHGH ELU oRN NDYLP YDUG %XOJDU

Oturgur, Kuturgur ve Onurgur kavimlerini de gittikleri yere srklediler. Germen ve


6ODYNDYLPOHULGH$YDUHJHPHQOLLQHJLUGL

Kktrk Devleti
.|NWUN 'HYOHWL WDULKWH 7UN DGQ LON NXOODQDQ GHYOHWWLU <DNXW 7

rkleri, Ogur

7UNOHUL %XOJDUODU GQGDNLWP7UNNDYLPOHULQLHJHPHQOLNOHULDOWQGDELUOHWLUGLOHU

dLQ ND\QDNODUQGD $OWD\ 7UNOHUL RODUDN EHOLUWLOHQ .|NWUNOHU  \\GD .X]H\
GHQL]LQGHQ.UP\DUPDGDVQDNDGDU\D\ODQ0LO\RQNP

lik bir alanda kurulan bir

GHYOHWWLU 'HYOHW $YDU .DDQOQD NDU D\DNODQDUDN  WDULKLQGH %XPQ .DDQ

WDUDIQGDQNXUXOPXWXU

0XNDQ .DDQ ]DPDQQGD GHYOHW JoOHQPLWLU .|NWUNOHU 6DVDQvOHUOH DQODDUDN


$NKXQODU GD RUWDGDQ NDOGUPWU .|NWUNOHU 'RX YH %DW RODUDN LNL\H D\UOGODU
gQFH 'RX 7UNOHUL GDKD VRQUD GD ]D\IOD\DUDN %DW 7UNOHUL dLQ HJHPHQOLLQH JLUGL
<DNODN  \O VUHQ EX G|QHP .XWOXXQ LV\kQ LOH VRQD HUGL %|\OHOLNOH GHYOHW
\HQLGHQ NXUXOPX ROGX %LOJH .DDQ YH .OWLJLQ ]DPDQQGD GHYOHW HQ JoO ]DPDQQ
\DDGdLQOLOHULQHQWULNDODUVRQXFX8\JXUNDELOHOHULD\DNODQDUDNGHYOHWL\NW

6RV\DO

KD\DW

KDNNQGD

NHVLQ

ELOJLOHU

HOLPL]GH

\RNWXU

$QFDN

.|NWUN

\D]WODUQGDQ ELOJL HGLQL\RUX] dLQ ND\QDNODUQGD 7UNOHULQ HVDV RODUDN NHoH oDGUGD
\DD\DQ HW \L\HQ YH NP] LoHQ J|oHEHOHU ROGXX DQODWOU .|NWUN \D]WODUQGDQ
RQODUQ \HUOHLN NRPXODUQGDQ LSHN SDPXN WDKO DOWQ YH JP PFHYKHU YH WDUP
DOHWOHUL DOGQ ELOL\RUX] %XQODU \D dLQ HKLUOHUL YH VQU E|OJHVLQGHNL WLFDUHWOH \D GD

59

DNQOD HOGH HGLOLUGL $YUDV\D ]HULQGH \DSODQ PFDGHOHOHULQ EDOFD VHEHSOHULQGHQ ELUL
GH XOXVODU DUDV WLFDUHWLQ HQ |QHPOL PHUNH]L RODQ SHN <RO

geirmekti.

unun denetimini ele

7UNOHUXOXVODUDUDVWLFDUHWWH|QHPOLDUDFODUG2QODUQLPSDUDWRUOXX

YH+LQGLVWDQQ'RX$NGHQL]LOHWLFDUHWLQGHN|SUJ|UHYL\DS\RUGX

in

7UN EDU GRX LOH EDW DUDVQGD PDOODUQ VHUEHVW DNQ VDODG %XQXQ
XOXVODU DUDV WLFDUHWLQ E\PHVLQL WHYLN HWWLL WDKPLQ HGLOHELOLU 7UNOHU WDKW NDYJDODU

ve i mcadeOHOHUOH

]D\IODGODU %DW .|NWUNOHUL VL\DVHWHQ RUWDGDQ NDONPDODUQD

UDPHQ RQODUQ YDULVOHUL \HUOHLN NRPXODUQFD VUHNOL WD]\LN HGLOGLOHU %X G


X\DUFODUQ\RNOXXQGDLVHGHYOHWOHPHEDVNODUD]DOG

Uygurlar
8\JXUODU  \OQGD 7XOD UPD oHYUHVLQGH \D\RUODUG 8\JXUODU .DUOXN
%DVPO 'RNX] 2JX] ER\ODUQ \DQQD oHNHUHN .|NWUN GHYOHWLQL \NDUDN 8\JXU

Devletini kurdular. 744 ylnda Uygur Yabgusu, Basml Kaann malup ederek
kendini kaan ilan etti ve Kutluk Bilge Kl Kaan unvann ald. Bylece Uygur
Kaanl kurulmu oldu.
Bg KaDQ 0DQLKDL]P GLQLQL NDEXO HWPLWLU %X GLQLQ HWNLVL\OH 8\JXUODUGDNL
LOLP VDQDW YH HGHEL\DWWD LOHUOHPHOHU ROPXWXU 8\JXUODU DUDVQGD %XGL]P GLQLQLQ
\D\OPDV|]HOOLNOH8\JXUHGHEL\DWQQJHOLPHVLQH\RODoPWUdQNEX\HQLGLOOHULQ
|UHQLOPHVL

LoLQ

GLQv

NLWDSODUQ

oHYLULOHULQLQ

\DSOPDV

JHUHNL\RUGX

%X

GLQOHU

8\JXUODUQHKLU\DDPQDJLUPHOHULQHGHVHEHSROPXWXU

8\JXUODUQ
YHUPL

NX]H\EDWVQGD

\DD\DQ

.UJ]ODU

8\JXU

KkNLPL\HWLQH

VRQ

lerdir (840). .UJ]ODUQ 8\JXU GHYOHWLQH VRQ YHUPHVL\OH ELUOLNWH \DD\DQ 8\JXU

ER\ODUQQ |QHPOL ELU NVP 'RX 7UNLVWDQD J|o HWPLOHUGLU 'RX 7UNLVWDQD J|o
HGHQ 8\JXUODU 7XUIDQ YH .DUDDU HKLUOHULQLQ \DNQODUQGD \DDPODUGU %X E|OJHOHU
WDUPYHWLFDUHWE|OJHOHULGLU%XE|OJHOHUGHJoOHULQLWRSOD\DQ8\JXUODUWHNUDUNDDQON
NXUPXODUGU   7XUIDQ 8\JXUODU GD GHQLOHQ EX 8\JXUODU NOWU YH PHGHQL\HW
EDNPQGDQLOHUOHPLOHUGLYHKkNLPL\HWOHULQLGH\OQDNDGDUGDVUGUPOHUGLU

60

.UJ]ODUQ GHYOHWL HOH JHoLUPHOHULQGHQ VRQUD GDODQ 8\JXUODUQ ELU NVP

, in

ile Dou Trkistan arasndaki Kansu bOJHVLQH J|o HWWLOHU .DQVX 8\JXUODU GD GHQLOHQ
EX 8\JXUODU \DDGNODU E|OJHQLQ SHN <ROX ]HULQGH ROPDV QHGHQL\OH WLFDUHWWH GH
JHOLWLOHU%XJQEX8\JXUODUD6DU8\JXUODUDGYHULOPHNWHGLU

7UNKDONODULoLQGH\D]OND\QDNODUQGDoRNROPDVQHGHQL\OHHQID]ODELOJL\H
VDKLSROGXXPX]8\JXUODUQPHGHQL\HWDODQQGDLOHULROGXNODUQELOL\RUX]

.DUDKDQO'HYOHWL
.DUDKDQOODU 7UN YH VOkP PHGHQL\HWLQLLON LPWL]DoHWWLUHQ 7UN GHYOHWLGLU 
\\GD 2UWD $V\DGD 7DQU GDODUQQ NX]H\ YH JQH\ E|OJHOHULQGH NXUXODQ .DUDKDQO
.DDQO 6DWXN %XUD +DQQ ]DPDQQGD VOkPL\HWOH WDQW YH 0VOPDQON \D\OG
'HYOHW JHQL VQUODUD XODPW DQFDN +RUDVDQ DOPDN LoLQ *D]QHOLOHUOH \DSWNODU
VDYDWD \HQLOGLOHU <XVXI .DGLU +DQQ GHYOHWL RXOODU DUDVQGD SD\ODWUPDV YH
RXOODU DUDVQGDNL oHNLPHOHU VRQXFXQGD GHYOHW LNL\H E|OQG 'RX .DUDKDQOODUD
.DUDKWD\ODU%DW.DUDKDQOODUDLVH+DU]HPDKODUVRQYHUGL

. (Gl 2004: 54-74).

2. TRKLERDE *g.%/0($6752120)
2.1. Astronomi
Astronomi (gkbilim QJDVWURQRP\ Fran., astronomie esk. ilm-i heyet,
ilm-i felek), astron (Yunanca, gkcismi) ve nomos (Yunanca, kanun) kelimelerinin
ELOHLPLQGHQ JHOLU *|NFLVLPOHULQL YH HYUHQL LQFHOH\HQ ELOLP GDOGU (WUDIP]
oHYUHOH\HQ HYUHQL JH]HJHQOHUL GLHU J|NFLVLPOHULQL J|NWDODU \OG]ODU NX\UXNOX
\OG]ODU oLIW \OG]ODU NDUD GHOLNOHU JDODNVLOHU YE  EX FLVLPOHULQ ROXXPODUQ
HYULPOHULQL IL]LNVHO \DSODUQ YH NLP\DVDO ELOHLPOHULQL ELUELUOHULQH J|UH NRQXPODUQ
YH KDUHNHW \DVDODUQ LQFHOHU $ULVWRWHOHVWH G|UW PDWHPDWLNVHO ELOLPGHQ ELULVLGLU YH
DPDF

\OG]ODUQ

J|UQHQ

KDUHNHWOHULQL

LQFHOHPHNWHQ

YH

JHRPHWULN

\DSODUQQ

belirlenmesinden ibarettir.

$VWURQRPLQLQ JHOLLPLQL EH HYUHGH LQFHOHPHN PPNQGU $VWURQRPLQLQ


ROJXVDO RODUDN JHOLWLL LON HYUHGH DVWURQRPL PHYVLPOHUL EHOLUOHPHN YH WDUPVDO

61

IDDOL\HWOHUL G]HQOHPHN ]HUH VRV\DO ELU |QHP WDPDNWD\G 0g LNLQFL ELQ \OQ
RUWDODUQGD %DELO DVWURQRPODUQFD JH]HJHQOHULQ NRQXPODU VLVWHPDWLN ELU HNLOGH
J|]OHPOHQGLYH\DNODNRODUDNLNLQFLELQ\OQEDODUQGDND\GHGLOPH\HEDODQG0g
 \OODUQGD GD WXWXOPDODU NDUODPD NRQXPODUQ \HWHUL GHUHFHGH NHVLQ ELU HNLOGH
EHOLUOH\HELOPHN
PDWHPDWLNVHO

LoLQ

JH]HJHQ

\|QWHPOHU

KDUHNHWOHULQL

JHOLWLUGLOHU

WDQPOD\DQ

)DNDW

EX

ROGXNoD

\|QWHPOHU

\NVHN

G]H\GH

<XQDQOODUQNL

JLEL

geometrik-kinematik modelleri iermemekteydi. Bu ilk dnemlerde astronomi bilimi


hemen hemen

WDPDP\OD ROJXVDOG YH DVWURQRPL\H LOLNLQ SUREOHPOHU JHQHOOLNOH

PLWRORMLNRODUDNHOHDOQ\RUGX

NLQFL HYUH\L ROXWXUDQ NXUDPVDO DVWURQRPLQLQ JHOLPHVL (VNL <XQDQ G|QHPLQL


NDSVDU (VNL <XQDQOODU DVWURQRPLGH GDKD NDUPDN SUREOHPOHU ]HULQGH GXUGXODU

ve

IL]LNVHO JHUoHNOLL RODQ \D GD ROPD\DQ JHRPHWULN PRGHOOHUOH JH]HJHQOHULQ KDUHNHWOHULQL
EHOLUOHPH\H \|QHOLN VLVWHPOHU NXUPD JLULLPLQGH EXOXQGXODU $VWURQRPL\L JHRPHWUL LOH

temellendirdiler
DoNODPD\D

ve

geometrik-kinematik

oDOWODU

%X

VD\HGH

modellerle

JH]HJHQ

gkyzndeki

KDUHNHWOHULQLQ

hareketleri

DoNODQPDVQD

YH

DQODPODQGUOPDVQDRODQDNVDOD\DQVLVWHPILNULQHXODWODU

$VWURQRPLQLQ

WHPHOLQH

JHRPHWULQLQ

NRQPDV

3\WKDJRUDVoODU

LOH

PDWHPDWLNVHOOHPHVL LVH (XGR[XV 0g   \OODU  LOH EDODG $QFDN EXUDGD
DPDo J|N FLVLPOHULQLQ \DSV GHLO NRQXPODUQQ KHVDEQ YHUHELOPHN \DQL

grnty

(ya da olguyu) kurtarmakW saving the phenomenon). Eudoxus bu amala Ortak


0HUNH]OL .UHOHU 6LVWHPLQL LOHUL VUG $QFDN RQXQ NXUJXODG EX VLVWHP

fizik

\DSVQ $ULVWRWHOHVWH EXODFDNWU $ULVWRWHOHV EX VLVWHP ]HULQH HYUHQLQ IL]LNVHO ELU
HPDVQ JHOLWLUGL YH EX HPD .HSOHU 

-1630) ve Newtona (1642-1727) kadar

JHoHUOLLQLNRUXGX

$VWURQRPLQLQJHUoHNDQODPGDPDWHPDWLNVHOOHPHVL%DWODP\XV 06\OODU 
LOH JHUoHNOHPLWLU %DWODP\XV <HUL HYUHQLQ PHUNH]LQH DODQ PXQWD]DP YH GDLUHVHO

hareket ilkelerine dayanan matematiksel-JHRPHWULNELUVLVWHPLQWHPHOOHULQLDWPYH<HU


0HUNH]OL 6LVWHPL NXUPXWXU %X NXUDPGD DPDo \LQH J|N\]QGHNL KDU
PDWHPDWLNVHORODUDNL]DK\DQL

grnty kurtarmakWU 8QDWD 

62

eketlerin

\]\OD.DGDU$VWURQRPL7DULKLQH%LU%DN
$VWURQRPLQLQ GRXX PHYVLPOHULQ ]DPDQQ |QFHGHQ ELOPH\H \DQL WDNYLP
ELOJLVLQH LKWL\Do J|VWHUHQ WDUP IDDOL\HWOHULQLQ EDODPDV\OD LOLNLOLGLU 7DNYLP LVH J|N
FLVLPOHULQ KDUHNHWOHULQLQ ELOLQPHVL YH DQODOPDV GHPHNWLU YH EX GD oDODU ER\XQFD
\DDPVDO |QHP WDPWU 7RSUDQ VUOPHVL WRKXPODPD YH UQQ WRSODQPDV JLEL
WDUPVDO IDDOL\HWOHU LoLQ HQ HOYHULOL ]DPDQODUQ ELOLQPHVL GH WDNYLP oDOPDODUQD RODQ
|QHPLDUWWUPWU

(VNL G|QHPOHUGHQ NDOPD SDSLUVOHUGHQ |UHQGLNOHULPL]H J|UH PLODWWDQ |QFH


LNLQFLELQ\OQRUWDODUQGD0VUGDPHYVLPGHLLNOLNOHULND\GHGLOPLYHEXGHLLPOHU
VDELW \OG]ODUQ KHO\DN GRXODU ELU J|NFLVPLQLQ *QHWHQ D] |QFH GRPDV  LOH
LOLNLOHQGLULOPLWL <LQH JH]HJHQOHULQ GRX\D GRUX \DSWNODU LOHUL KDUHNHWOHUL JHUL
KDUHNHWOHUL YHGXUXQRNWDODUGDELOLQPHNWH\GL0H]RSRWDP\DGD%DELODVWURQRPLVLQGH

ise tutulma gzlemleri ok

|QHPOL ELU \HUH VDKLSWL %DELO DVWURQRPODUQFD JH]HJHQOHULQ

NRQXPODU GD VLVWHPDWLN ELU HNLOGH J|]OHPOHQPL YH \DNODN RODUDN LNLQFL ELQ \OQ
EDODUQGDND\GHGLOPH\HEDODQPWU

<DNODN 0g  \OODUQGD %DELO DVWURQRPODU WXWXOPDODU NDUODP

NRQXPODUQ \HWHUL GHUHFHGH NHVLQ ELU HNLOGH ELOHELOPHN LoLQ JH]HJHQ KDUHNHWOHULQL
WDQPOD\DQ ROGXNoD \NVHN G]H\GH PDWHPDWLNVHO \|QWHPOHU JHOLWLUPLOHUGL )DNDW EX

-kinematik modeller iermemekteydi.

\|QWHPOHU<XQDQOODUQNLJLELKDUHNHWOLJHRPHWULN

%DELODVWURQRPLVLKHPHQKHPHQWDPDP\ODROJXVDOG

Mezopotamya astronomisi en yksek dzeyine Selkidler (M.. 250'ler)


oDQGD HULPL YH <XQDQ DVWURQRPLVL ]HULQGH ROGXNoD |QHPOL HWNLOHU \DSPWU +LQW
X\JDUOQGDNLDVWURQRPLoDOPDODUQQEDDUV

daha ge tarihlidir. Hintliler, M.S. 5. ve

 \]\OODU DUDVQGD WULJRQRPHWULN RUDQODU GD GLNNDWH DOPDN VXUHWL\OH *QH

Ay-<HU

-Yer,

X]DNONODUQ *QH $\ YH GLHU JH]HJHQOHULQ NRQXPODUQ YH GRODQP

VUHOHULQL KHVDSODPD\D oDOPODU YH EXQODUOD LOJLOL VD\VDO GHHUOHUL LoHUHQ HVHUOHU
EUDNPODUGU 7HNQLN DoGDQ GHYULQH QLVSHWOH ROGXNoD JHOLPL ELU G]H\GH EXOXQDQ
dLQ

DVWURQRPLVLQGH

*DOLOHL
GHQ

|QFH

*QH

63

OHNHOHUL

NRQXVXQGD

ELOJL

YHULOGLL

J|UOPHNWHGLU 0g  FLYDU  $\UFD DVWURQRPL PHWLQOHU

inde, meteor ve meteoritler

LOH QRYD YH VSHUQRYDODU KDNNQGD ND\WODUD GD UDVWODQPDNWDGU 0g  \]\OD DLW
NX\UXNOX \OG] ND\WODU YH 0g OHUGH 6KLK 6KHQ WDUDIQGDQ 06 ODUGD GD
&KKHQ&KRWDUDIQGDQKD]UODQP\OG]NDWDORJODUPHYFXWWXU06\OODUQGD<

Hsi presesyondan bahseder. inde ilk gk kresi ise M.S. 440larda Chhien Lo-Chih
WDUDIQGDQ\DSOPWU6X6XQJXQ\OG]NDWDORJXLVH06\OQGDKD]UODQPWU

Eski Yunan astronomisi kronolojik olarak Mezopotamyada Selkidler


oDQGDNL DVWURQRPL oDOPDODU\OD E\N |OoGH oDGDWU $QFDN 0H]RSRWDP\D
DVWURQRPLVLQLQ WHPHOLQGH DULWPHWLNOH FHELU EXOXQPDVQD NDUQ <XQDQOODU DVWURQRPL\L

-kinematik modellerle gkyzndeki

JHRPHWUL LOH WHPHOOHQGLUHELOPLOHU YH JHRPHWULN

KDUHNHWOHUL DoNODPD\D oDOPODUGU %X VD\HGH DVWURQRPLN ROJXODU DoNOD\DELOHFHN


G]H\L\DNDOD\DELOPLOHUJH]HJHQKDUHNHWOHULQLQDoNODQPDVQDYHDQODPODQGUOPDVQD
RODQDNVDOD\DQVLVWHPILNULQHXODPODUGU

Astronominin temeline geometrinin konPDV3\WKDJRUDVoODU 0g\]\O LOH


EDODU 3\WKDJRUDVoODUGDQ YH |]HOOLNOH 3ODWRQGDQ EHUL J|N\]QGHNL KDUHNHWOHULQ
G]HQOLYHGDLUHVHOJH]HJHQK]ODUQQPXQWD]DPYHVDELWROGXXNDEXOHGLOPLWLU$\Q
]DPDQGD 3\WKDJRUDVoODU <HUL NUH HNOLQGH GQPOHU YH RQX PHUNH]GHQ DOS
PHUNH]H0HUNH]v$WHL\HUOHWLUPLOHUGLU

<XQDQ DVWURQRPLVLQLQ PDWHPDWLNVHOOHPHVL (XGR[XV 0g   \OODU  LOH


EDODU

(XGR[XV

NXUPX

ROGXX

2UWDN

0HUNH]OL

.UHOHU

6LVWHPL

LOH

ELOLPVHO

DVWURQRPLQLQ |QFOQ \DSPWU %X DVWURQRPLN VLVWHP DVWURQRPLN ROJXODUQ


PDWHPDWLNVHO L]DKQD JLULHQ LON <XQDQ DVWURQRPL VLVWHPLGLU (XGR[XVXQ 2UWDN
0HUNH]OL .UHOHU 6LVWHPL GDKD VRQUD $ULVWRWHOHV LOH |QHPOL ELU NRQXPD NDYXPX

zellikle bu sisteminde yer alan kre anlD\

.HSOHUH NDGDU GHYDP HWPLWLU

$ULVWRWHOHVH J|UH NUHHQ PNHPPHO ELoLP ROGXX LoLQHYUHQ

ve Yeryz kreseldir;

JH]HJHQOHU NULVWkO \DSGDNL NUHOHULQH oDNO ELU HNLOGH $\ 0HUNU 9HQV *QH
0DUV -SLWHU 6DWUQ VUDV LOH WDQUODU %X NUHOHU J|NVHO FLVLPOHULQ KDUHNHW HWWLL
E\N ELU PDNLQHQLQ IL]LNVHO YDUO RODQ SDUoDODUGU $ULVWRWHOHVH J|UH $\ NUHVL
HYUHQL LNLIDUNO E|OJH\H D\UU <HUGHQ $\D NDGDU RODQ NVP $\DOW (YUHQL $\GDQ

64

VDELW\OG]ODUNUHVLQHNDGDURODQNVPLVH$\VW(YUHQLROXWXUXU%XLNLHYUHQ\DS
EDNPQGDQ oRN IDUNOGU $\VW (YUHQ YH EXUDGD \HU DODQ J|NFLVLPOHULQLQ KDUHNHWOHUL
GDLUHVHOGLU

YH

GRDO

KDUHNHWL

GDLUHVHO

RODQ

IL]LNVHO

ELU

HOHPHQW

eterden

RODQ

\DSOPODGU HWHULQ PNHPPHO GRDV $\VW (YUHQH |QFHVL] YH VRQUDV] ELU
PNHPPHOOLNVDODU<OG]ODUYHNUHOHUEXHOHPHQWWHQ\DSOPODUGU

(XGR[XVXQ YH $ULVWRWHOHV


LQ RUWDN PHUNH]OL NUHOHU VLVWHPLQLQ NDUPDN ROPDV
YH J|]OHPOHUL \HWHULQFH DoNOD\DPDPDV QHGHQL\OH 6LVDPO $ULVWDUFKRV 0g \DNODN

310- 

\HQL ELU VLVWHP NXUPD LKWL\DF GX\GX YH *QHL HYUHQLQ PHUNH]LQH

\HUOHWLUGL $QFDN RQXQ EX VLVWHPL DOJODUP]D WHUV ROGXXQGDQ YH *QHLQ QHGHQ
PHUNH]GH ROGXXQX DoNOD\DPDGQGDQ |WU WDUDIWDU EXODPDG $ULVWDUFKRVXQ DVO
EDDUV

WDPDPHQ

JHRPHWULN

ELU

\|QWHPOH

*QHLQ

<HUH

RODQ

X]DNOQ

belirleyebilmesidir.

<XQDQ DVWURQRPLVLQLQ HQ VRQ WHPVLOFLVL PLODWWDQ VRQUD LNLQFL \]\OGD \DDP
RODQ VNHQGHUL\HOL %DWODP\XVWXU

%DWODP\XV

ELOJLOHULQLQ VHQWH]LQL \DSP YH EXQODU

]DPDQQD NDGDU

XODDQ

DVWU

onomi

Almagest \D GD DVO DG LOH Matematik Sentezi

(Mathematike Syntaxis)DGO\DSWQGDWRSODPWU%DWODP\XVEXHVHULQGH<HULHYUHQLQ
merkezine alan ve muntazam ve dairesel hareket ilkelerine dayanan matematiksel ve
JHRPHWULN ELU VLVWHPLQ WHPHOOHULQL DWPWU <HU 0HUNH]OL 6LVWHP RODUDN ELOLQHQ EX
NXUDP .RSHUQLN *QH 0HUNH]OL 6LVWHPLQL VXQXQFD\D NDGDU HJHPHQ ROPX YH

gezegen hareketlerini matematiksel ve geometrik olarak verebilen yegne sistem olma


|]HOOLLQLNRUXPXWXU

$ULVWRWHOHVLQ <HUH YH (YUHQH LOLNLQ EHWLPOHPHOHUL 2UWDoD NR]PRORMLVLQLQ


WHPHOLQL ROXWXUXU EX EHWLPOHPH  YH  \]\OODUGD RUWDGDQ NDONQFD\D NDGDU
JHoHUOLOLLQL

NRUXPXWXU

$ULVWRWHOHVLQ

(YUHQ

WDVDUPQGD

ROGXX

JLEL

2UWDoD

HULVWL\DQODUQQ (YUHQ WDVDUPQGD GD <HU (YUHQLQ PHUNH]LQGH EXOXQXU YH NUH
ELoLPLQGHGLU *HUoL +ULVWL\DQOQ LON G|QHPOHULQGH ED] .LOLVH %DEDODU

Kutsal

KitapWDQ HVLQOHQHUHN <HULQ G] ROGXXQD LOLNLQ ELUWDNP J|UOHU RUWD\D DWPODU
gkyzn LVH RQXQ ]HULQH NDSDQP ELU \DUPNUH RODUDN GQPOHU <HU
L NUHVHO
NDEXO HGHQOHUL GLQVL]OLNOH VXoODPODUG

65

$QFDN

$ULVWRWHOHVLQ

ELU \HWNH

RODUDN

J|UOG VRQ G|QHPOHUGH EX J|U FLGGL\H DOQPDPWU ]LUD $ULVWRWHOHVLQ <HULQ
NUHVHOOLLQHLOLNLQNDQWODPDODUoRNJoOYHDNOD\DWNQG0DWHPDWLNVHODVWURQRPODU
DUDVQGD LVH %DWODP\XV DVWURQRPLVL \LQH \D\JQG %DWGD %DWODP\XV DVWURQRPLVL
%DWWDQvYH)HUJkQvQLQNLWDSODUDUDFOLOHRQLNLQFL\]\ORUWDODUQDGRUXWDQQPD\D
EDODQG %DWODP\XVXQ RULMLQDO oDOPDV

Almagest

LON RODUDN $UDSoD EDOQ ELU

NVPQQ ER]XOPDV\OD OHUGH  \DQGD |OHQ &UHPRQDO *HUDUG WDUDIQGDQ

Latinceye evrildi (Unat 2003b: 639).


2.3. Eski Trklerde Astronomi ve Kozmoloji
Orta Asya Trk tarihi M.. 8000lere ve hatta ok daha eskilere kadar
J|WUOPHNWHGLU $UNHRORJODU WDUDIQGDQ EXJQ GH VUGUOPHNWH RODQ ND]ODUGD WD
GHYULQGHQ NDOPD oDQDN YH o|POHNOHUH oDNPDN WDQGDQ YH WDWDQ \DSOP WRSX] YH\D
NDUJ ELoLPLQGHNL VLODKODUD EXGD\ YH DUSD \HWLWLULOGLLQH LOLNLQ L]OHUH UDVWODQPWU
'DKD VRQUD GHPLU NXOODQOQFD\D NDGDU JHoHQ VUH LoLQGH KD\YDQODU HYFLOOHWLULOPL
EDNU YH NXUXQGDQ oHLWOL H\DODU \DSOPWU ON GHID DODP RODUDN EURQ]X NXOODQDQ

Trklerdir. Demir devrinden sonra,

LNOLP NRXOODUQQ ER]XOPDV QHGHQL\OH 7UNOHULQ

JQH\H GRUX J|o HWWLNOHUL J|UOPHNWHGLU 2UWD $V\DGD DW HYFLOOHWLUPLOHU YH 0g
 \O VUDODUQGD DUDED\ LFDW HWPLOHUGLU (YUHQLQ oHLWOL J|UQOHULQL PHNDQ YH

zaman iinde tm evreni kapsayan


VDQODQ dXODUD 0g 

ELU G]HQ RODUDN DoNODPD JLULLPL 3URWR

-Trk

249) atfedilmektedir. ulara gre evren ve evrenin

J|UQOHUL J|N YH \HU\]Q WHPVLO HGHQ YH ELUELULQL WDPDPOD\DQ LNL ]WWDQ LNL
HYUHQVHO QHIHVWHQ ROXPXWXU dXODUQ EX NR]PRORMLQH HYUHQVHO ROPD LGGLDVQGD
EXOXQGXXQGDQ (YUHQVHOFLOLN \D GD (YUHQFLOLN DG YHULOPHNWHGLU dXODUD J|UH
HYUHQ VLOLQGLULN J|YGHOL YH NXEEHOL ELU RWDD \D GD VWQGH RWD HNOLQGH HPVL\H

ye 28 blmdr ve bunlar 28 burcu;

EXOXQDQ LNL WHNHUOHNOL ELU DUDED\D EHQ]HU HPVL

DUDEDQQLNLWHNHUOHLLVH*QHYH$\WHPVLOHGHU*|NELUNXEEHELoLPLQGH\HU\]
LVH G|UW YH\D VHNL] N|HOLGLU YH GHQL] LoLQGH \]HU .XWXS <OG] $OWXQ
$OWQ .D]N \D GD 'HPLU

- Kazguk

-Kazguk  'HPLU .D]N  J|N kubbenin merkezidir. Bu kubbe,

DOWQYH\DGHPLUGHQELUND]N\DQL.XWXS<OG]oHYUHVLQGHPXQWD]DPELUK]ODG|QHU
.XWXS <OG] J|Q KNPGDUGU J|NVHO WDQUQQ VDUD\GU (VLQ   
(WUDIQGDNL \OG]ODU KNPGDUQ DLOHVLQH YH HWUDIQGDNLOHUH EHQ]HU %XUoODU WDG
GQOHQ HNOLSWLN oDUN LVH EXQD GLN RODUDN \HUOHWLULOPLWLU +NPGDUQ DUDEDV

66

<LWLNHQ <HGL +DQODU %\N $\ 7DNP\OG]  .XWXS <OG]QD EDO RODUDN GDLUHVHO
KDUHNHW \DSPDNWDGU %X \OON WDNYLPL EHOLUOHU <OON GRODQPQ \DQQGD \OG]ODU
WD\DQ J|N oDUNQQ GD GRODQP YDUGU *|NWHNL EX G]HQ <HU\]QH GH \DQVPWU
.XWXS <OG]QQ WDP DOWQGD <HU\]QQ \|QHWLFLVL RODQ KDNDQQ RWXUGXX NHQW

bulunur. Ordug
\OG]QQ

DG YHULOHQ EX NHQWLQ SOkQ GD J|NVHO G]HQL \DQVWU 1DVO J|N NXWXS

oHYUHVLQGH

G|Q\RUVD

WRSOXPGDNL

LOHU

GH

KNPGDUQ

oHYUHVLQGH

dnmektedir.

.|NWUN YH 8\JXU G|QHPLQGH GH NkLQDW VLOLQGLU YH NXEEHOL KNPGDU RWDQD
EHQ]HWLOL\RUGX %LU 8\JXU PHWQLQGH LVH NkLQDW RWD HNOLQGH GQOS RWDQ
RUWDVQGDNL DDo VWXQD EHQ]H\HQ IDNDW VHNL] N|HOL ROXX\OD G|UW DQD \|Q YH G|UW DUD
\|Q NDYUDPQD GD LDUHW HGHQ

yiti erdinilig (yedi cevherli) bir

VUXNXQ VUN  VXODU

VWQGHNL \HU\]Q  GHVWHNOHGLL LIDGH HGLOPHNWHGLU .kLQDWQ HNVHQL VHNL] N|HOL


VWXQX+LQWNR]PRORMLVLQLQHVNLELUGQFHVL\GL (VLQ 

(VNL 7UN ER\ODU DUDVQGD J|N FLVLPOHULQLQ |QHPOL ELU \HUL YDUG gUQHLQ
.UJ]ODU 9HQV YH 6DWUQH WDSDUODU DQFDN 0DUVQ XXUVX] ROGXXQD LQDQUODU
.RPDQODU \OG]ODUD WDSDUODUdLLO7UNOHULGH*QHL YH\OG]ODU E\NELUWXWNX\OD
VHYPHNWHGLUOHU

06

ELULQFL

\]\OGDQ

EDOD\DUDN

\NVHN

$V\DQQ

J|oHEH

WRSOXPODUQGD J|N *QH YH \OG]ODU NOW YH\D \OG]ODU *QH YH $\ NOW
JHOLPLWLU g]HOOLNOH *QH YH $\ |QHPOL ELU URO R\QDPDNWD YH GROD\V\OD HQ oRN
EXQODUQDGDQOPDNWDGU

(Roux 2002: 132).

(VNL 7UNOHUGH DPDQ GDYXOODU ]HULQGHNL J|NVHO FLVLPOHULQ YDUO GD GLNNDW
oHNPHNWHGLU YDQRYXQ HOOL $OWD\ GDYXOX ]HULQGH  \DSW LVWDWLVWLNv ELU DUDWUPD\D
J|UH EX GDYXOODUQ RWX] VHNL]L *QH $\ YH 9HQVQ UHVLPOHULQL LoHUPHNWHGLU
'LHUOHULQGHGHoHLWOLWDNP\OG]ODUVHUJLOHQPHNWHGLU 5RX[ 

7UNOHULQ.XOODQGNODU7DNYLPOHUYH2QNL+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPL
%LOLQHQ LON 7UN \D]O DQW RODQ 2UKXQ <D]WODUQ RUWD\D NR\DQ *|NWUNOHU

(552- 

7UNOHULQ WDNYLPOHU RODUDN YDUVD\ODQ RQ LNL KD\YDQO 7UN WDNYLPLQL

NXOODQPODUGU *QH \O HVDVQD GD\DQDQ ELU WDNYLP RODQ 2Q NL +D\YDQO 7UN

67

7DNYLPLQGH \OODUQ YH D\ODUQ DGODU KD\YDQ LVLPOHUL LOH DGODQGUOU 6kO  7UNkQ
7UN<O RODUDNDGODQGUODQYHRQLNLOLGHYUH\HJLUHQKD\YDQODU|\OHGLU 6oDQ 
6U   3DUV   7DYDQ   (MGHU   <ODQ   $W   .R\XQ   0D\PXQ   7DYXN
 .|SHN 'RPX]2QLNL\OVUHQKHUGHYUHGHQVRQUDD\QDGODUWD\DQLNLQFLELU
GHYUH EDO\RUGX 'HYUH\L WHNLO HGHQ KD\YDQODU GHYUHGHUNHQ DLW ROGXNODU \OODUQ
|]HOOLNOHULQL GH EHOLUOL\RUGX %LU JQ  HLW NVPD D\UOU YH KHU ELULQH oD GHQLUGL
<DQLELUoDVDDWHNDUONJHOL\RUGX%XoDODUDGD\LQHKD\YDQQDGYHULOL\RUGX
*Q JHFH \DUV \O GD LONEDKDU EDODQJF LOH EDODUG '|UW PHYVLP YDUG <O 
JQON  KDIWD\D D\UOPW VOkPL\HWLQ NDEXOQGHQ VRQUD GD 2Q NL +D\YDQO 7UN

Takvimi bir ok Trk deYOHWLQGH

NXOODQOPD\D GHYDP HWPL DQFDN +LFUv

-Kamer

7DNYLPNXOODQPDUONND]DQPWU%XWDNYLPGH\OQED0DUWWU$QFDN*QH
<O LOH $\ <O DUDVQGD  JQON ELU IDUN EXOXQGXXQGDQ  0DUW WDULKL ED]
WRSOXOXNODUGD 0DUW
Q XQD QDGLUHQ ED] WRSOXOXNODUGD 

-3 Nisan ve 21 Hazirana
-

WHNDEO HGHQ NXWODPDODUD \RO DoPWU 7UNOHULQ ELU GH $\ *QH \O YDUGU %XUDGD
D\ODU $\Q KDUHNHWLQH J|UH \O LVH *QHH J|UH KHVDSODQU  \O  D\D E|OQU %X
D\ODU |\OHGLU   $UDP   NLQGL NLQFL  $\   hoQo $\   7|UWLQo $\   %HLQo
$\ $OWQo$\ <LWLQo$\ 6HNL]LQo$\ 7RNX]Qo$\ 2QQo$\ %LU
<LJLUPLQo 2Q%LULQFL$\  dDNDSDW$\

2.5. OrtaaTrklerinde Astronomi


 YH  \]\OODU DUDVQGD 2UWDoD +ULVWL\DQ 'Q\DV NDUDQON ELU G|QHPGHQ
JHoHUNHQ 2UWDGRXGD \HQL ELU GLQ GRGX VOkP 'LQL %X GLQLQ PHQVXSODU
+ULVWL\DQODUQ WDOLS ROPDGNODU ELOLP YH IHOVHIH PLUDVQ VDKLSOHQGLOHU YH  YH 
\]\OODUGD0VOPDQODU<XQDQELOLPLQLQE\NELUE|OPQ$UDSoD\DDNWDUSELOLPH
NDWNGD

EXOXQGXODU

ON

G|QHPOHUGH

VOkP

DVWURQRPODU

+LQW

DVWURQRPLVLQGHQ

HWNLOHQPHOHULQH NDUQ GDKD VRQUD $QWLN <XQDQ DVWURQRPLVL LOH WDQWODU YH $QWLN
<XQDQ DVWURQRPLVLQGHQ HWNLOHQGLOHU VOkP 'Q\DVQGD DVWURQRPODU KHP J|

zlem

aletleriyle gkyzn gzlemlediler (pratik astronomi) hem de gzlem verilerini


KDUHNHWOL JHRPHWULN G]HQHNOHUOH DQODPODQGUPD\D oDOWODU NXUDPVDO DVWURQRPL 
VOkP DVWURQRPODU SUDWLN DVWURQRPL DODQQGD GDKD EDDUO ROGXODU ON J|]OHPHYOHUL

onlaU WDUDIQGDQ NXUXOGX J|]OHPOHULQ GDNLNOLLQL DUWWUPDN LoLQ \HQL J|]OHP DUDoODU YH
J|]OHP

WHNQLNOHUL

JHOLWLUGLOHU

DoODUQ

|OoPQGH

68

NLULOHU

\HULQH

WULJRQRPHWULN

IRQNVL\RQODU NXOODQGODU .XUDPVDO DVWURQRPL VDKDVQGD LVH 0VOPDQ DVWURQRPODU

BatlamyXV 06\OODU YH$ULVWRWHOHVLQ 0g-322) yolundan giderek, Yerin


KDUHNHWHWPHNVL]LQHYUHQLQPHUNH]LQGHGXUGXXQDYH*QHGHGDKLOROPDN]HUHGLHU
EWQ J|N FLVLPOHULQLQ RQXQ oHYUHVLQGH GDLUHVHO \|UQJHOHU ]HULQGH VDELW K]ODUOD
GRODQGQ NDEXO HWWLOHU 7UNOHU \DNODN RODUDN  \]\OGDQ LWLEDUHQ VOkPL\HWL
EHQLPVHPH\H EDODGODU YH KkNLP ROGXNODU G|QHPOHUGH YH PHPOHNHWOHUGH JHUHN
DoWNODUELOLPYH|UHWLPNXUXPODUYHJHUHNVH\HWLWLUGLNOHULELOLPDGDPODUDUDFO\OD

bilimin geOLLPLQH

oRN

|QHPOL

KL]PHWOHUGH

EXOXQGXODU



YH



\]\OODUGD

0kYHUkQQHKLU \ROX\OD VOkP 'Q\DVQD JLUHQ 7UNOHULQ E\N ELU E|OP $EEkVv
KDOLIHOHULQLQ YH H\kOHWOHUGHNL $UDS YH $FHP YDOLOHULQ KL]PHWLQGH DVNHU YH\D PXKDI]
RODUDNJ|UHY\DSPDNWD\GODU\]\OQEDODUQGDQLWLEDUHQ6kPkQv'HYOHWLQGH7UN
YDOL YH NXPDQGDQODU JoOHQHUHN GHQHWLPL YH \|QHWLPL HOH JHoLUGL YH  \OQGD
6kPkQvOHULQWRSUDNODU7UNOHUWDUDIQGDQLNL\HE|OQG&H\KXQ,UPDQQEDWVQGDNL
E|OJHOHUGH *D]QHOLOHU YH GRXVXQGDNL E|OJHOHUGH LVH .DUDKDQOODU KkNLPL\HWL HOH

geirdi.
963- \OODU DUDVQGD +RUDVDQ $IJDQLVWDQ YH .X]H\ +LQGLVWDQGD KNP
VUHQ *D]QHOLOHU 6kPkQvOHULQ +RUDVDQ 2UGXODU .XPDQGDQ $OS 7HJLQ LOHRQXQ HQ oRN
JYHQGLL NLLOHUGHQ ELUL RODQ 6HEN 7HJLQ WDUDIQGDQ NXUXOGX YH 6HEN 7HJLQLQ ROX
*D]QHOL 0DKPXGXQ KNPGDUO G|QHPLQGH HQ SDUODN JQOHULQL \DDG <DSP
ROGXX IHWLKOHU VRQXFXQGD 7UN $UDS $FHP YH <XQDQ X\JDUONODUQQ ELU GHID GDKD
+LQW X\JDUO LOH NDUODPDVQ YH ND\QDPDVQ VDOD\DQ YH EX \ROOD (VNL 'Q\DQQ
|QGH JHOHQ X\JDUONODU DUDVQGDNL EDODU VDODPODWUDQ *D]QHOL 0DKPXG oHLWOL
XOXVODUD PHQVXS 0VOPDQ VDQDWo YH ELOJLQOHUL GHYOHWLQLQ EDNHQWL RODQ *D]QH
HKULQGH ELUDUD\D JHWLUGL %LU \DQGD E\N $FHP kLUL )LUGHYVvQLQ

hnmesi (1010)

GLHU \DQGD 2UWDoDQ HQ E\N ELOJLQOHULQGHQ ELULVL RODQ %H\UQvQLQ PDWHPDWLN YH
DVWURQRPL ELOLPOHULQH LOLNLQ \DSWODU 7UN \|QHWLPLQLQ EXUDGD VDODP ROGXX
RODQDNODU LoLQGH GQOG YH \D]OG .DUOXN 7UNOHULQGHQ JHOHQ

ve 840- \OODU

DUDVQGD 0kYHUkQQHKLU YH 'RX 7UNLVWDQ


D HJHPHQ RODQ .DUDKDQOODU 6DOWXN %XUD
+DQ
Q 
D GRUX VOkP EHQLPVHPHVL\OH \DYD \DYD \HQL ELU PHGHQL\HWH GRUX

e sindirdikten

DGPDWWODU VOkP X\JDUOQQ ROXWXUPX ROGXX ELULNLPL |UHQGLNWHQ Y

VRQUD ELOLPLQ oHLWOL DODQODUQGD \DSWODU YHUPH\H EDODGODU .DJDUO 0DKPXGXQ

69

Divnu Lugti't-Trk, Yusuf Has Hcibin Kutadgu Biligi ve Edib Ahmed


Ykneknin Atebet'l-+DNk\NEXG|QHPGH7UNoHRODUDN\D]OG

.DUDKDQOODU 2UWDoD VOkP 'Q\DVQQ GRX XFXQGD NXUXOPX \HUHO 7UN


GHYOHWOHULQGHQ ELUL\GL YH VOkP WDULKLQGHNL \HUOHUL 6HOoXNOXODUQNL NDGDU |QHPOL GHLOGL
6HOoXNOXODU LVH EWQ 0VOPDQODU D\Q ED\UDN DOWQGD WRSODPD\D oDOPODU YH EX
\|QGHNL JLULLPOHUL LOH VDGHFH 2UWDoD VOkP WDULKL ]HULQGH GHLO 2UWDoD +ULVWL\DQ
WDULKL]HULQGHGHoRNHWNLOLROPXODUG

1038-

WDULKOHUL DUDVQGD KNP VUHQ YH HQ JoO ROGXNODU G|QHPGH

+DUH]P +RUDVDQ UDQ ,UDN YH 6XUL\H\H HJHPHQ RODQ 6HOoXNOX 7UNOHUL GH

Gaznelileri yenerek Byk Seluklu Devleti'ni kurdular. 1075'te ise Anadolu Seluklu
'HYOHWLNXUXOGX<NVHNHLWLPYH|UHWLPNXUXPODURODQPHGUHVHOHULONGHID6HOoXNOX
VXOWDQ

$OS

$UVODQ
Q

EDYH]LUL

1L]DP
O 0ON

WDUDIQGDQ

NXUXOGX

.D]YLQv
QLQ

bildirdiLQH J|UH ELU JQ 6XOWDQ $OS $UVODQ EDYH]LUL 1L]DP


O-0ON LOH 1vkEU
GD
GRODUNHQ ELU FDPLQLQ NDSVQGD VWOHUL EDODU SHULDQ YD]L\HWWH ELU WDNP JHQoOHU

J|UU YH RUDGD QH DUDGNODUQVRUDU 1L]kP


O 0ON GH %XQODU LQVDQODUQ HQ HUHIOLOHUL

olup, Dnya zevkleri olmayan ilim talipleridir. deyince, Alp Arslan bunlar iin bir yurt
LQD HGLOPHVLQL YH JLGHUOHULQL NDUOD\DFDN NDGDU SDUD YHULOPHVLQL HPUHGHU %|\OHFH LON
1L]kPL\H PHGUHVHVL  \OQGD 1vkEUGD NXUXOPX ROXU %XQGDQVRQUD PHGUHVHOHU
VUDWOH\D\OUYHVXOWDQODUYH]LUOHU EH\OHUYHKDWXQODUPHGUHVHLQDHWWLUPHNLoLQDGHWD
ELUELUOHUL\OH \DUU NVDELU VUH LoLQGH %DGDW EDWD ROPDN ]HUH %DVUD +HUDW0HUY
%HOK$POYH0XVXOJLELVOkPNHQWOHULPHGUHVHOHUOHGRQDWOU

2.6. G]OHPHYOHULYH7UNOHU7DUDIQGDQ.XUXODQ*|]OHPHYOHUL
%LU NXUXP RODUDN J|]OHPHYOHUL LON GHID VOkP 'Q\DVQGD RUWD\D oNPWU
$VWURQRPLWDULKLQGHROGXNoD|QHPOLRODQEXJHOLPHVD\HVLQGHJ|]OHP\DSPDQQ|QHPL
DQODOPYHEXDPDoODKNPGDUODUQGHVWHL\OHE\N J|]OHPHYOHULNXUXOPXWXU%X
J|]OHPHYOHULQGH PXQWD]DP YH GHYDPO J|]OHPOHU \DSOPWU *|]OHPHYLQLQ VDELW ELU
\HUL |]HQOH YH GLNNDWOH KD]UODQP kOHWOHUL |]HO ELU NWSKDQHVL J|]OHPFLOHUL
KHVDSoODUYHEXJ|]OHPYHKHVDSODUGHHUOHQGLUHQDVWURQRPODUYDUG$UDWUPDFODUD
\DUGPFROPDNDPDFLOHLGDUvHOHPDQODUGDJ|UHYOHQGLULOPLWL

70

*|]OHPHYOHULQGHNL oDOPDODU DVWURQRPL ELOLPLQLQ YH RQD \DUGPF ELOLP


GDOODUQQ VRUXQODU ]HULQGHNL DUDWUPD YH oDOPDODUD D\UOPW $PDo GDNLN
J|]OHPOHUH GD\DQDQ \HQL DVWURQRPLN NDWDORJODUQ ROXWXUXOPDV LGL %X NDWDORJODUD

zc

GHQLOPHNWH\GL =vFOHU EX WDEORODUQ \DQ VUD G|QHPOHULQGHNL WULJRQRPHWUL\H NUHVHO


DVWURQRPL\H WDNYLP oHLWOHULQH YH \DSPQD L]GP \|QWHPOHULQH J|]OHP kOHWOHULQ

in

\DSOYHNXOODQPDVWURORML\HYHLEDGHWYDNLWOHULQLQEHOLUOHQPHVLQHLOLNLQELOJLOHULGH
NDSVDPDNWD\G 8QDW

-12).

71

(6. 7h5d( *g. %/0 $6752120 

2. BLM

7(50/(5
1. Gk

Bu blm Kinat ve Gkyz, Hava, $WPRVIHU ROPDN ]HUH LNL DQD EDON DOWQGD
LQFHOHQPLWLU

1.1. Kinat
5RX[ (VNL $OWD\ NR]PRJRQLOHUL KDNNQGD ELOJLOHULQ \HWHUVL] ROGXXQX EX GXUXPGD GD
7UNOHULQ NkLQDWQ ROXXPXQD ROGXNoD D] LOJL GX\GXNODUQ V|\OHPHNWHGLU
<D]WODU

Orhon

nda geen ze kk teri asra yaj] \HU NOQWXNGD HNLQ DUD NLL RjO NOQP
{stte mavi gk

NLL RjOQWD ]H HoP DSDP %XPQ .DjDQ WHPL .DjDQ ROXUP

\] DOWWD GD \D]\HUROXWXX]DPDQLNLVLQLQDUDVQGDLQVDQRXOODURUWD\DoNP
QVDQ RXOODUQQ ]HULQH GH  DWDODUP GHGHOHULP %XPQ +DNDQ YH WHPL +DNDQ
KNPGDU RODUDN  WDKWD RWXUPX` LIDGHOHUL EHONL GH 7UNOHULQ NkLQDWQ ROXXPXQD
\|QHOLNGQFHOHULQGHKDUHNHWQRNWDVRODELOLUDQFDNEXLIDGHOHU]RUXQOXRODUDN\RNWDQ

YDU HWPH DQODPQD JHOPH] %XUDGD NXOODQODQ ILLOLQ G|QO HGLOJHQ \DSV NHVLQ ELU
DQODPDYDUPD\RODQDNONOPDPDNWDGU$\UFDNO

- fiili yaratma fikrini iermez ve ona

EX DQODP YHUPHN KDWDO ROXU .O  ILLOL VDGHFH \DSPDN DQODPQD JHOLU %XQD NDUQ
EXJQ \DUDWPDN DQODPQ
DQODPODUQGDNXOODQODQ

a gelen; ama o zamanlarda dzenlemek, var etmek

yarat-ILLOLKNPGDUWDQPODPDNLoLQRODDQRODUDNNXOODQODQ

X GH\LPGH J|UOPHNWHGLU WHxUL \DUDWP ^7HQJUL *|N  WDUDIQGDQ YDU HGLOPL`


5RX[ 'ROD\V\ODNkLQDWQ ROXXPXQD\|QHOLN NR]PRORMLN ELOJLOHULPL]
EXG|QHPLoLQVQUOGU(VNL7UNoHGHNkLQDWODLOJLOLWHULPOHULVHXQODUGU

1.1.1. evren
< T. ew--r-gen : fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden fiil yapma eki (ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden
isim yapma eki.
Kinat, lem, devrn, felek (KB-'=1 

72

evren V|]F .|NWUN YH 8\JXU G|QHPL \D]O HVHUOHULQGH J|UOPHPHNWHGLU %X
V|]FN (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQGHQ VDGHFH .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVLQGH YH ELU GH 2Q NL

Hayvan Takviminin BXOJDUFD HNOLQGH J|UOPHNWHGLU evren V|]F EL]FH evr-,


evrl- ILLOOHUL\OH LOLNLOHQGLULOHELOLU dQN 8\JXU HO \D]ODU LOH \D]OP ELUoRN HVHUGH
evr-, evrl-, tevrl-, evrl- JLEL V|]FNOHUH oRN UDVWODQOPDNWDGU (VNL 7UNoH
G|QHPLQGH VIDW

-fiil eki -jDQJHQ HNOLQGH LGL .DJDUv EX HNLQ SHNLWLULOPL VIDWODU

\DSWQ EHOLUWWLNWHQ VRQUD 2X]ODUQ

-j-/-g- VHVOHULQL GUGQ LIDGH HWPHNWHGLU

evrenV|]FQGHNL-enHNLQLQHVNLHNOLQLQ-genROGXXQXGQ\RUX]
Clauson, evren V|]F LoLQ WDKPLQHQ evir- HNOLQGHQ JHOGLLQL HHU E|\OH\VH \D\JQ
RODQ \DQ DQODPQQ G|QHQ ELU H\LQ DQODP ROGXXQX EXQGDQ GROD\ GD G|QHQ NXEEH
JLEL J|UOHQ J|N NXEEH DQODPQGD ROGXXQX YH .DJDUvGH NXEEH HNLOOL IUQ
RODUDN JHoWLLQL

Kutadgu Biligde de

\DUDWW N|U HYUHQ WXo HYUOU

(Allah) durmadan

G|QHQ J|N NXEEH\L \DUDWW HNOLQGH JHoWLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU $\UFD EX V|]Q
PXKWHPHOHQ YFXGXQX NYUGQGDQ \ODQ LoLQ GH NXOODQOGQ LIDGH HWPHNWHGLU
('   1LDQ\DQ GD EX V|]Q G|QGUPHN oHYLUPHN DQODPQGDNL

evr- biiminden

JHOGLLQL J|N NXEEH NXEEH HNOLQGHNL IUQ IHOHN NkLQDW kOHP DQODPODUQGD

evren/evran V|]FQQ

ROGXXQX V|\OHPHNWHGLU 1LDQ\DQ    7LHW]H LVH


E\N \ODQ DQODPQ YHUHUHN (W

evren

o|UHNOHQHQ H\ DQODPQD JHOGLLQL LIDGH

HWPHNWHGLU 7LHW]H    (\XEROX HWLPRORML V|]OQGH EX V|]F

ev-ren

HNOLQGH LQFHOHPLWLU (\XEROX   6|]FQ PRUIRORMLN EDNPGDQ EX HNLOGH


LQFHOHQPHVLEL]FHGRUXGHLOGLU%L]
NRXPDN DQODPQD JHOHQ

fiilden -()r- ile ew-r-

evren szcQQN|NQQELUH\LQHWUDIQGD

ew- (DLT-'=1    ILLOL ROGXX NDQVQGD\] %X

ILLOL \DSOP VRQUDGD GD

GQ\RUX] 'DKD VRQUD LVH

-gen ekindeki -g-

-gen

LOH LVLP \DSOPWU GL\H

VHVL GPWU %X GQFHPL]L

DLTGHNL KHU ]DPDQ HYLULS oHYLUHQ DQODPQGDNL ewrgen tewrgen (DLT-'=1


 V|]QQYDUO\ODVRPXWODWUDELOLUL]

bolu birs evrenWXoHYULO


~orEROVXGPDQED~DYUOX

(KB / 119).

73

yarattN|UevrenWXoHYULOU
DQxELUOHWHJ]LQo\LPHWH]JLQU

(KB / 126).

Eski Trklerde tu V|] WXQo YH EURQ] PDQDVQGD GD V|\OHQPLWLU $VOQGD EX
V|] |\OH DQODOPDOGU

evren WXo HYULOU yani evren srekli dner. Felek evrilirken

hayat da (tegzin) dnyor ve devrediyordu (tezginr) (gel 2002: 158).


1.1.2. VXPU
< Toh. A/B sumir < Skr. Sumeru Evrenin merkezi (AY II 1991: 111).

pratyikabut-lar~a birer birer

VXPU taj-a yiti ertini-

OHULJ |JS EX

birser %WQ 3UDW\HNDEXGGKDODUWHNWHN EWQ 6XPHUXGDNDGDU


yedi mcevherleri vp sadaka verse (AY II 176/12).
1.1.3. sav
< Skr. VDK? .kLQDWQDG DTSl: 492; EUTS 1993: 131).
bu savDWOj yersuvGD\RU\XUWQOjODUj~ut~arur (Kuan / 15 ).


1.1.4. saman o

UV

< T. sap-an + *ojXr--V : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki + fiil kk-fiilden isim
yapma eki-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL
Samanyolu (KB )
Kutadgu Biligde geHQ

YH 6DPDQ\ROX DQODPQD JHOHQ

saman ojUV sz grubu

Kutadgu BiligLQGL]LQLQGH\HUDOPDPDNWDGU
Saman (Et. sap+an > saban > saman) V|]F PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGH AzT. saman,
Tuv. sava,

.UJ

saman, Kzk. saban, KKlp. saban, Tat. saban, KBalk. salam/saman,

zb. smn, YUyg. saman, Trkm. sPDQHNOLQGHEXOXQPDNWDGU

74

0RGHUQ 7UN OHKoHOHULQH EDNOGQGD NHOLPHQLQ

saman ve saban HNLOOHULQGH \HU

DOG J|UOU dDOPDVQGD EX GXUXP ]HULQGH GXUDQ +DVDQ (UHQ 7UNoH

saman

biimiyle Tatarca, Kazaka gLEL GL\DOHNWOHUGH NXOODQODQ saban ELoLPL DUDVQGDNL LOLNL
IRQHWLN EDNPGDQ DoNWU 7UN GL\DOHNWOHULQGH

m- ~ -b- GHLPHOHULQH VN VN WDQN

oluyoruz demektedir.
Makalesinde m- ~ -b- GHLPHOHUL LOH LOJLOL |UQHNOHUL YHUGLNWHQVRQUD saban ve saman
DGODU ]HULQGH GXUDQ (UHQLQ J|U X HNLOGHGLU %X |UQHNOHUH J|UH

saman

biiminin saban V|]QGHQ oNW DoN RODUDN DQODO\RU 7UN GL\DOHNWOHULQGH saban
sznn samanELoLPLQLDOPDVQGD -n-VHVLQLQURODoNWU(UHQVRQRODUDN NHOLPHQLQ
JHOLLPLQL X HNLOGH J|VWHUPLWLU %L]LP LQDQFP]D J|UH

saban (> saman) biimi

Trke sap tarladan harman yerine getirilen ve henz dvlmeyen hububat kknn nHNL\OH\DSOPELUWUHYLGLUsap+an > saban > saman
ClausonLVHV|]OQGH saman iin stUDZDQODPQYHUPLWLUDQFDNNHOLPHQLQN|NHQL
NRQXVXQGDKHUKDQJLELUDoNODPD\DSPDPWU ('  *O 

ojU LVH KUV] KD\GXW DQODPQD JHOLU (876    +DVDQ (UHQ V|]FQ
N|NQQELOLQPHGLLQL\D]PWU (UHQ %L]EXV|]FQN|NQQoDOPDN
KUV]ON HWPHN DQODP\OD LOLNLOHQGLUGLLPL]

7DUDGP](VNL7UNoHV|]ONOHUGH

*ojXr- ILLOL RODELOHFHLQL GQPHNWH\L]

*ojXr- ILLOLQHUDVWOD\DPDGNDQFDNQL\HWOHQPHN
ojXra- fiili ve KUV]ON HWPHN

\DSPDN LVWHPHN \DSPD\ GQPHN DQODPQGDNL

ojXrla- (EUTS 1993: 93) ILLOLQLQYDUOEL]LPEXGQFHPL]L


j
desteklemektedir: ojXrla- < *ojXr-(u) -la-

oDOPDNDQODPQDJHOHQ

Bahaeddin gel, Trk Mitolojisi

DGO HVHULQGH 6DPDQ\ROX GH\L YH DQOD\QQ

7UNOHUH UDQ HGHEL\DW YH PLWRORMLVL \ROX\OD JLUGLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU gJHO

Samanyolu

kah-NHkQ, yani saman eken

LOH LOJLOL X ELOJLOHUL YHUPHNWHGLU UDQOODU EX \ROD


GHUOHUGL UDQ GQFHVLQH J|UH

Samanyolu J|NWH VDPDQ oHNLOLUNHQ \HUH GHQ VDPDQ

WR]ODUQGDQYHVDPDQSDUoDODUQGDQROXPXWX%LUVDPDQKUV]QQ EUDNWL]OHU
GH 7UN GQFHVLQH \DQVPWU (VNL 7UNOHU

75

saman ojUV

diye

\DQL VDPDQ KUV]

GHPLOHUGLU +DFODU \ROX +DF \ROX LVH 7UNOHULQ VOkPL\HWH JLULLQGHQ VRQUD
ROXPXGH\LPOHUGLUdQNEX\ROJQH\GRX\DGRUXJLGL\RUGX%XV|]OHUGHGHUDQ
WHVLUL YDUGU 6DPDQF \ROX 6DPDQON \ROX GH\LOHULPL]LQ ND\QD GD )DUV HGHEL\DW
ROPDOGU *|N \DUXX *|N NDSXV LVH RULMLQDO 7UN GH\LOHUL ROVD JHUHNWLU

Anadoluda grlen Gk dere ile Gk yolu ise eski Trk mitolojisinin izlerini
WDPDNWDGU2UGX\ROX.XODU\ROXRULMLQDOELUHVNL7UNGQFHVLGLU%L]FHHQHVNL
YHRULMLQDOGH\LP.XODU\ROXYH\D.X\ROXLGLdQNJ|oHEHNXODUQL]OHGLNOHUL

yn de Samanyolu idi. Bunun


\DWPDNWDGU .UJ] 7UNOHUL

DOWQGD GD ELU HIVDQH YH PLWRORMLN ELU GQFH

Samanyoluna .X FROX  7UNPHQOHU .XODU \ROX

.D]DQ7UNOHULLVH.L\LNND]\XOGHUOHU gJHO 

1.2. Gkyz, Hava, Atmosfer


1.2.1. kk
< T. *k-k : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.
Mavi, gk rengi; sema, gk; gece (EUTS 1993: 77).
kk V|]F AzT. gy %DN kk, Kzk. kk .UJ kk, zb. kk, Tat. kk, Trkm.
gk, YUyg. kk, Yak. kq, uv. kovak biimindedir.

%XV|]FQ

kkHNOLQGHLVLPN|NROGXXGDV|\OHQHELOLUDPDEL]V|]FQN|NQQ

\DQPDN |UQHLQ

k-mr  DQODPQD GD JHOHQ *k- ILLOL ROGXXQX GQ\RUX] %X

ILLOLQ DQODPODUQGDQ ELUL GH \XNDUGD ROPDN RODELOLU +DPLOWRQ    .|NWUN

dnemi metinlerinde kk V|]FQn renk (mavi  DQODP gkyz DQODPQD J|UH GDKD
kuvvetlidir.

Bu

NDUODQPDNWDGU
DQODPQGD

dnemde

gkyz

DQODP

LVH

GDKD

oRN

teri

kelimesiyle

teri kelimesi Kktrke metinlerde hem gkyz hem de


a

NXOODQOPDNW GU

7DQU

Teri kelimesi daha sonraki dnemlerde gkyz

DQODPQGD NXOODQOPDP YH NHOLPH DQODP GDUDOPDV\OD VDGHFH 7DQU DQODPQD


EUQPWU %X V|]FQ EUDNW EROXX GD
GQ\RUX] dQN R G|QHPOHUGH EX LNL N
NXOODQOPDNWDGU%|\OHFH

kk

NHOLPHVL GROGXUPXWXU GL\H

elime genellikle kk teri HNOLQGH ELUOLNWH

kkV|]FDQODPJHQLOHPHVL\OHJ|N\]VePDDQODPQ

GDDOPWU

76

*|N V|]F DVWURQRPL OLWHUDWUQGH J|]HULPL ]HULQH NDSDQDQ VRQVX] \DUoDSO


PDYLNXEEHEXNXEEHQLQLo\] .]OUPDN HNOLQGHWDQPODQPDNWDGU

Uygur Trkesinde kk, kk szckleri gk


genellikle

J| GHQLU $]HUL dDDWD\ D]QGD

NDUOQGD GD NXOODQOU $QDGROX 7UNoHVLQGH

ya\JQGU

DQODPQGDGU $QDGROX KDON D]QGD

1LWHNLP

gkten treyen

gk

V|]F VDODP VDONO HVHQ

gk V|] PDYL \HLO JLEL DQODPODUGD

J|HUPHN J|YHUPHN

eylemleri de

\HHUPHN

PDYLOHPHNGHPHNWLU (\XEROX 

Trklerde gk \OG]ODUOD DU *QH LOH $\ GD LoLQH DODQ JHQL ELU GH\LPGLU Orhon
<D]WODUQGD KHU H\LQ ]HULQGH RODQ

gk idi. Bu yD]WODUGD |QFH \XNDUGD PDYL J|N

DDGD \D] \HU ROXPX VRQUD GD LQVDQROX RUWD\D oNPWU $OWD\ YH .UJ]
GHVWDQODUQGD

GD

|QFH

gk

\DUDWO\RU

VRQUD

GD

yer

\DUDWO\RUGX

<DUDWOWD

gk+yer+insan ls birlikte grlyordu. Gk-yer ikilisinde nceleri gk


sylenirken 11. yydan sonra Kutadgu Biligde yerni kkni yaraktan

\HUL J|

yaratan denme yoluyla yer |QH JHoL\RUGX DQFDN 8\JXU \D]ODUQGD \FHOHUGHQ RODQ
gkVWQOQNRUX\RUGX(gel 2002: 145).

*|N\] 7UNOHU WDUDIQGDQ NXWVDO VD\ODQ PHNkQODUGDQ ELULGLU .|NWUN YH 8\JXU
NDDQODU WHxUL WHJ WHxULGH EROP VD\OS DoN ROPD\DQ ELU HNLOGH J|H DLWWLOHU .DDQ
VR\XQGDQ NLPVHOHULQ UXKXQXQ J|H YH\D <LWLNHQ \OG] WDNPQD \DQL *|N 7DQUVQQ
PHNkQ RODQ .XWXS \OG]

\|QQH XoWXX VDQO\RUGX %X

GXUXPGD 7UNOHULQ

KNPGDUODUQQ J|NVHO UXKODU DUDVQGD \HU DOG DQODOPDNWDGU $\UFD dLQGH


ROGXXJLEL.|NWUNNLWDEHOHULQGHGH*|N7DQUVELUKNPGDURODUDNGQOS

teri-

kan denmekteydi (Esin 2001: 59).

(Q HVNL oDODUGD


7UNOHUGH

evren LNL E|OPGHQ ROXPDNWD\G *|N kk) ve yeryz (yr/sub).

J|Q

HNOL

KHP

GQ\D\D

SDUDOHO

ELU

GDLUH

KHP

GH

NXEEH

RODUDN

GQOPHNWHGLU EXQXQ DoN ELU oHOLNL ROPDVQQ \DQ VUD EX ELUOLNWHOLN ELU DUDGD
\DDPWU (VNL 7UN \D]WODUQGD
PDYL PDYLPWUDNWU $\UFD

gk LNL VIDW ND]DQU *|N ze, yksektir ve kk,

k Jo YH GROD\V\OD klg NXGUHWOHGRQDWOPWU

77

DQFDN EX V|]FN KLoELU ]DPDQ NXOODQOPDPDNWDGU %WQ EXQODU \DNODN RODUDN ELU
*|N 7DQUVQQ RODDQ QLWHOLNOHULGLU

ze V|]F 7X-NLXODUGD GDKD \D\JQ HNLOGH

NXOODQOPDNWDGU*HUoHNDQODPVWWHRODQ\HULEHOLUWHQELUV|]GU

Kk LVPLQH \D]WODUGD GDKD HQGHU UDVWODQPDNWD ROXS 2UKRQ <D]WODUnda ancak iki,
(OHJHV <D]W

ndaysa bu szle bir kHUH NDUODOPDNWDGU. Codex Comanicusta kk

kelimesi Ltinceye caelum olarak ve teri de deus olarak evrilmektedir. Kk


NHOLPHVLQLQ WDP DQODP WDUWOPDNWDGU YH EXQXQ PDYLGHQ oRN JUL DQODPQD JHOGLL
NDEXO HGLOPHNWHGLU (Q D]QGDQ J|Q R GHQOL |]HO ELU UHQJLQL KDWUODWPDNWDGU NL

kk,

J| DGODQGUPDGDQ |QFH J|NVHO DQODPQ ND]DQPWU 7UNOHU NHQGLOHULQL N|NWUN


RODUDN0RROODUGDN|NHRODUDNDGODQGUPODUGU 5RX[

-120).

Evrensel iki ilkeli (kk-\pUVXE NkLQDWGQFHVLQLQ\D]OLDUHWOHULGHYDUGYHEXQODUD


ince kua, Trke
ince chien

UN

(kozmolojik ideogram) denirdi.Gk, Eski Trke kk veya teri,

WLHQ  VD\ODU     GXU ONHVL \DUXN UNODU ELU D\GQON QRNWD

YH\DWHNoL]JLYH\Do\DGDDOWoL]JLGLU<|Q
JQH\ YH\D NX]H\EDWGU

ze \XNDUGD  YHGDKDJHQHODQODP\OD

Trkische Turfan Texte metinlerinde kidin-tajWQ WHxUL NDSj

EDW NX]H\ DUDV J|N NDSV  YH \UJDUX WQ RUWXV \XNDU JHFH \DUV  WDELUOHUL EHONL
J|N WDQUVQQ PHNDQ VD\ODQ .XWXS\OG]QQ JHFH J|QGHNL \HULQH LDUHW HGL\RUGX
*|NVHO FLVLPOHUL J|N WDQUVQQ PHNDQ VD\ODQ YH 7UNoH DG

temr kazuk olan

.XWXS\OG] LOH .XWXS\OG]QQ HWUDIQGD \O ER\XQFD G|QHUHN \LUPL HYUH LOH WDNYLPH
LDUHWHGHQ(VNL7UNoHDG\OD

Yitigen\OG]WDNPGU (VLQ 

Trkler gk, gksel cisimler ve atalar iin ayinler de dzenlemekteydiler. Bu ayinlerde


GDYXOODU oDOQPDNWD KDWWD HQ E\N GDYXO J|N D\LQLQH D\UOPDNWDGU $\LQOHU VUDVQGD
EXOXWODU NDUDUU YH \DPXU \DDUVD J|N WDQUV GDYHWH JHOPL VD\OUG 2 ]DPDQ HOLQGH
NDONDQ YH EDOWD WXWDQ KNPGDU LOH DVNHUv RNXOGD \HWLWLULOHQ JHQoOHU J|N WDQUVQ
HOHQGLUPHN LoLQ GDQV HGHUGL .DGQODU GD oLoHN VHUSHUGL *|N D\LQLQGH KNPGDU NRo
SRVWX JL\HUGL (VLQ    dLQ ND\QDNODUQGD .|N 7UNOHULQ J|N D\LQL LoLQ |\OH
GHQLOPHNWHGLU %HLQFL D\Q RUWD JQ LoLQGH 7HPLU VX\XQGD EXOXXU YH J|N WDQUVQD
NXUEDQVXQDUODU%HLQFLD\LoLQGH7UNOHUNRoODUYHDWODU|OGUSJ|HNXUEDQHGHUOHU

(Esin 2001: 114).

78

W|UWGLQ \xD~ \RU \XU

kvrgler

-)lar stn kkte DOW Q  \Djzta t(r)

'|UW FLKHWWHQ \UUOHU \XNDUGD J|NWH DOWWD \HUGH

sonra davullar (TekinMaitr 36/7).


ze kk teri asra yaj] \HU NOQWXNGD HNLQ DUD NLL RjO NOQP NLL
ojOQWD ]H HoP DSDP %XPQ KajDQ WHPL .DjDQ ROXUP stte
PDYL J|N \]  DOWWD GD  \D] \HU ROXWXX ]DPDQ LNLVLQLQDUDVQGD
LQVDQ RXOODU RUWD\D oNP QVDQ RXOODUQQ ]HULQH GH  DWDODUP
GHGHOHULP %XPQ +DNDQ YH WHPL +DNDQ KNPGDU RODUDN  WDKWD
RWXUPX 7HNLQ

98: 38-39).

kk V|]F EXOXQDQ YH J|N ELOLP DVWURQRPL  WHULPL ROPD\DQ V|]FNOHU GH

oLQGH

YDUGU N|NLQ *|PV J|N UHQNWH '/7 '=1   

kmkk (kpkk)

Gmgk (DLT-'=1  kk trk 'RX7UNOHUL*|NWUNOHU 77HNLQ


1988: 149), kk ty Gk sincap (ETY 1987: 814), kk buymul togan Mavi,
(ETY 1987: 866).

ER\QXEH\D]GRDQ

~

1.2.1.1. kk

~

DO

< T. *k-k +

- : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma

~DO ~

eki.
Gk yz, uzay, esir (h1998: 157).


DO

zDOja~DO~a~DOD~

(AtaKuran 2004: 420; ETG 2000: 277; EUTS 1993: 108).

<XNDU NDW NXOH J|N

(ETG 2000: 277; EUTS 1993: 54,108); hava, atmosfer, gk,

sema (DLT-'=1 

79

&ODXVRQEXV|]FQQRUPDOGHKDYDDWPRVIHUDQODPQGDROGXXQXED]HQWHNEDQD
ED]HQ

GH

JHQHOOLNOH

J|N\]

kk

DQODPQGD

~DO~

ELoLPLQGH

J|UOGQ

sylemektedir (ED: 620). Bizce ~DO~ V|]FQQ N|N VoUDPDN DQODPQD JHOHQ
~DO-

ILLOL\OH

LOLNLOHQGLULOHELOLU

%X

GQFHPL]L

DLTdeki

NDO 

VoUDPDN

oDPODQPDNNDOPDJQHOLN\NVHNoDUGDNNDO VoUDPDNNDOW NDONWPDN


VoUDWPDN

kalkan kalkan (belki NDO-k-an veya kalk-an) szckleriyle desteklememiz

mmkndr (DLT-'=1    ~DO- ILLOLQGH VoUDPDN \DQL \NVHNOLN


kk ~DO~GDJ|N\]QQ\NVHNWHROGXXQXLIDGHHWPHNWHGLU

DQODPEXOXQGXXQDJ|UH

JQHOLN \NVHN oDUGDN DQODPQGDNL NDOPD V|]F EL]LP EX GQFHPL]GHNL

- ise, fiilden isim yapar.

KDUHNHWQRNWDP]ROPXWXU~DO~V|]FQGHNL ~

7UNOHU KDYD LOH GLHU J|N YDUONODUQ NHVLQ RODUDN ELUELULQGHQ D\UPODUG %X KDYD
EROXXQD ~DO~ GHQLOLUGL 7UN NOWU oHYUHOHUL oRN JHQLWLU 8\JXUODU LVH

kk

~DO~

szn btn gk LoLQ V|\OHUOHUGL <HU\] QDVO LQVDQODUQ YH GLHU FDQOODUQ \HUL YH
yurdu ise,

~DO~

%XQGDQ GROD\

yani hava GD NXODU LOH GLHU FDQOODUQ JH]LQGLNOHUL ELU E|OJH LGL

hava \HU\]QQ DGHWD ELU GHYDP JLEL GQO\RUGX (gel 2002:

153).

&RVPRV X]D\ LOH GQ\DQQ WPQH YHULOHQ ELU DGGU 'Q\D LVH 0LFUR

-cosmostur.

Dnya bir kk lem idi. Macro-FRVPRV LVH \OG]ODUQ GRODWNODU VRQVX] X]D\
byk lem idi. Trkler gk kubbesini GH NoN kOHP LoLQGH GQPOHUGL &DQOODUQ
a

XoXWXNODU YH \DDGNODU KDYD WDEDNDVQ GD ~ O~ DG LOH NoN kOHPH NDWPODUG

(gel 2002: 160).


bo kk

~
DO

~
-ta XODW o W|UOJ LWLJVL]-l-(e)r-QLQJ XODW \RO W|]-n-l(e)r

kir-si-ning a EROXU %X J|NWHQ Na)

EDOD\DUDN o WUO DUWV]

GXUXP ODUQYH\RODVLOOHUJHUoHLQLQDVROXU h

97a/7).

1.2.1.2. kk ayaz
< T. *k-k + aya-z : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk-isimden isim yapma
eki.
80

$oNKDYD (7 

ayaz (ayas V|]FKDNNQGD&ODXVRQVWHSOHUGHNL NJQOHULoRX]DPDQ EXOXWVX]


oRN VRXN ROGXX LoLQ EX V|] SDUODN EXOXWVX] DQODPODUQGDGU 6|]FQ VRQ VHVL

belirsizdir. Uygurcada ikisinden biri (-s/-z) olabilir. Bu, diyalektik bir zellik olabilir
('   GHPHNWHGLU 1LDQ\DQ

ayaz V|]FQn Et. ayas ROGXXQX YH SDUODN

EXOXWVX]NXUXVRXNDQODPODUQGDNXOODQOGQLIDGHHWPHNWHGLU 1LDQ\DQ 
+DVDQ (UHQ LVH EX V|]FQ DoN KDYDGD oNDQ NXUX VRXN JHFH LoLQ  VRXN
DQODPQYHUGLNWHQVRQUDPRGHUQOHKoHOHUGHNLGXUXPXQDGDGHLQPLWLU(UHQ\D]VQQ
GHYDPQGD XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU

ayaz, Orta Trkede ayas olarak da geer. Ancak,

oDGD GL\DOHNWOHUGHNL ELoLPOHU YH |]HOOLNOH dXYDoDGD NXOODQODQ

uyar biimi gz

|QQH DOQUVD EXV|]QVRQXQGDNLQV]Q ROGXXDoNoDDQODOU (VNL.SoDNoDGD

da ayazRODUDNNXOODQOUD\- D ]HNL (UHQ %L]+DVDQ(UHQLQGHGLL


JLEL EX V|]FQ N|NQQ

ay

LVPL ROGXXQX GQP\RUX] %L]H J|UH

V|]FQQ N|N DoN DQODPQ GQGP]

aya

ayaz(s)

LVPLGLU %X GQFHPL

zi

DLTdeki aya kk DoN KDYD LIDGHVL GHVWHNOHPHNWHGLU $\UFD aya isminin avu ii
DQODP GD YDUGU NLDYXo LoL GH DoNWU

dikkat ekicidir. Uygurcada kk ayaz


Trkesinde aya kk

kk ayaz

DoN KDYD

DoN KDYD

ifadesinin sz dizimi de

olarak geen bu sz grubu KarDKDQO

DoN KDYD HNOLQGH JHoPHNWHGLU 'ROD\V\OD 8\JXUFDGD VIDW

WDPODPDV RODUDN GQOHQ DoN KDYD DQODPQGDNL


WDPOD\DQOD WDPODQDQ \HU GHLWLUPLWLU $\Q H\L

kk ayaz kelime grubunda

ay ayaz D\GQON PHKWDSO JHFH

(EUTS 1993: 18) iin de sylemek mmkndr. Bu durum Trkenin sz dizim


\DSVQDX\PDPDNWDGU

kk ayaz-QQJ kn ay-WHJDOQoV]\RUX\XDoNKDYDGDNLJQHYHD\
JLELLOLLNVL]GRODS (7 

1.2.1.3. N|NoUV
< T. *k-k + oU-V: fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKV
iyelik eki.

81

*|NoDUNIHOHNJ|NGHUHVL

(DLT-'=1 

Eski Trkler gk kubbenin Altun (veya Temr)-kazguk HWUDIQGD \OON GRODQPQQ


\DQQGD D\UFD ELU GH \OG]ODU WD\DQ J|N oDUNQQ G|QGQ YDUVD\\RUODUG %X
NDYUDPQ oRN HVNL ROGXX %D\NDO *|OQGH ELU DGDGD EXOXQDQ YH ]HULQGH \OG]

DGODUQQ \D]O ROGXX YH 9,, ,; \]\OODUD WDULKOHQGLULOHQ ELU NDGUN HLUoHN

ten

; Yusuf Has Hcib ise tezgin

oNUN DQODOPDNWDGU *|N oDUNQD .DJDUv N|N oUV


G|QHQ GHPHNWHGLU .DJDUv N|N oUV

ibaresini Arapa falak felek olarak

oHYLUPHNWHGLU .DJDUvQLQ ND\GHWWLL X EH\LWWH LVH oUQQ \OG]ODU WD\DUDN


G|QG YH JHFH LOH JQG]Q E|\OHFH ELUELULQL WDNLS HWWL DQODWOPDNWDGU 'HPHN NL
.DJDUv\HJ|UHJ|NoDUNQQKDUHNHWLJQONELUGRODQPG

Teri ajun trtt


dU

udhu tezginr

<OG]ODUoXUNHLS

Tn kn ze yrkenir .DJDUvYDUDN
Gk kubbenin en alttaki

oU

sQ IHOHN  ELU oLIW J|NVHO HMGHULQ oHYLUGLL KDNNQGDNL

LEDUHOHU ELU 8\JXU NDDQQQ DGQD VXQXOPX 0DQL GLQLQH DLW PHWLQGH \HU DOPDNOD
EHUDEHU EX GQFHQLQ 0DQL GLQLQGHQ oRN EHONL 2UWD $V\D NR]PRORMLVLQH EDO
EXOXQGXX WDKPLQHGLOPHNWHGLU$\Q GQ
oUVQELU

ceyi Yusuf Has Hcib de tekrar ederek kk

evrenLQ HMGHULQ HYLUGLLQLV|\OHPHNWHGLU

\DUDWWN|UHYUHQWXoHYULOU
DQxELUOH

tegzin yime tezginr (KB / 126).

%XHNLOGHJ|NNXEEHJ|NoDUNYHEXQODUQVLPJHOHULQGHQRODQJ|NHMGHUL(VNL7UNoH
DG\OD

Kk-luu veya evren KHP J|NVHO PHNkQQ KHP ]DPDQQ VLPJHVL ROPDNWD\G %X

NR]PRORMLQLQ JHUHL RODUDN J|N WDQUVQQ ]DPDQ LODK

VRQXFXoNPDNWDGU

82

d teri  NDYUDPQ GD LoHUGLL

*|N NXEEHQLQ YH J|N oDUNQQ \OON YH JQON GRODQPQGDQ *QHOH ED] J|NVHO
FLVLPOHULQGQ\DQQPHUNH]LHWUDIQGDNL\OONYHJQON$\Q LVHJQON YHD\ON 
DDPDO  ELUHU KDUHNHW LoLQGH G|QGNOHUL GQFHVL VRQXFXQD YDUOPDNWDGU %XQODUGDQ
*QH YH $\ ELUELULQLQ ]WW VD\OPDNWDGU *QH GRXGD EHOLULUNHQ $\Q EDWGD
\HU\]QQ DOWQGD EDWW *QH JQON KDUHNHWLQGH |OH\LQ YH \OON KDUHNHWLQGH \D]
HNLQRNVXQGD ]LUYHGH\NHQ $\Q \HU\]QQ DOWQGDNL VXODUQ GHULQOLLQGH KDUHNHWLQLQ

en DD QRNWDVQD YDUP ROGXX VDQOPDNWD\G 7NoH ELU UNta ise

NQOL D\O N|UGL

LIDGHVL\OH $\ YH *QHLQ ELU DUD\D JHOGLNOHUL G|QHP RODUDN GQOHQ HNLQRNV
G|QHPOHULQH EDKDU LOH VRQEDKDU  YH \HQL D\D NDUON JHOGLL DQODOPDNWDGU (VLQ

2001: 43,44).
1.2.2. teri
< T. te-i-r-i : fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden fiil yapma eki (ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim
yapma eki.

*|NJ|N\]WDQU

(T.Tekin 1988: 169); J|NFLVLPOHULQLQVIDW +VDQ 

Teri kelimesi Kktrk yD]WODUQGD J|N J|N \] J|Q UHQJL PDYLOLL  YH
WDQU DQODPODUQGD NXOODQOPWU %XUNDQF 8\JXU PHWLQOHULQGH WDQU

kelimesi, ilh,

WDQU %XGD %XUNDQ (IHQGL DQODPODUQD JHOPHNWHGLU VOkPL\HW VRQUDV G|QHPLQ


EDODQJFQGD  $OODK  LOkK DQODPQGD GDKD VRQUD LVH  LOkK  $OODK
NDUOQGDNXOODQOPD\DEDODQPWU

(Bilgin 2005: 190).

%X V|]FN KDNNQGD &ODXVRQ NHOLPHQLQ DQODPQD YH WDULKv OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPXQD
GHLQPLN|NHQLKDNNQGDKHUKDQJLELUDoNODPD\DSPDPWU

(ED: 523).

Biz, teri NHOLPHVLQLQ N|NQQ KDYDODQPDN KDYD\D \NVHOPHN DQODPQGDNL teILLOL ROGXXQX GQ\RUX] $\Q N|NWHQ WUH\HQ

teek hava, teit- KDYD\D GRUX

ykseltmek, tetr- HOLQGHNLQL KDYD\D GRUX VDOGUPDN \NVHOWPHN ter- havaya


GRUX \NVHOLSND\EROPDN\NVHOHQELUH\LVDOYHUPHN
V|]FNOHULEL]LPEXGQFHPL]LGHVWHNOHUPDKL\HWWHGLU

83

(DLT-'=1 

teri V|]F PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHQ $]7 WDQU %DN tri, Kzk. tri .UJ teir,
zb. tngri, Tat. tri, Trkm. taxU, YUyg. tri, Yak. tanara, uv. tura biimindedir.
(Et. teri  V|]FQQ J|N VHPD J|N WDQU DQODPODUQD JHOGLLQL

1LDQ\DQ WDQU

sylemektedir

1LDQ\DQ   

Et. teri

WHULPL ELU \DQGDQ YDUOQ PDGGL HNOL

RODQJ|GLHU \DQGDQGD*|N7DQUVQWDQPODPDNWDGU'ROD\V\OD(VNL7UNoHGH

kk ile teriDGELUELULQL WDPDPODPDNWDGUdLQFHGHGH gk yani tien denince

7DQU

da

LoLQGH LGL g]HOOLNOH (VNL 7UN GQFHVLQGH LNLVL DUDVQGD NHVLQ ELU D\UON J|VWHUPHN

ok gtr. Ancak UygXU \D]ODUQGD teri %XGLVW WDQUODUQ \HULQH JHoPLWLU (gel
2002: 147).

7UNOHUGH J|N VRQVX]OXN DQODPQD JHOPHNWHGLU VOkPL\HWWHQ |QFH

Trklerde kk teri

LQDQF YDUG

Buna gre gk

7UNOHU WDUDIQGDQ NXWVDO NDEXO

edilmektedir. 7DQUQQWHNOLLYHJ|NOHUGHROXX7UNOHUDUDVQGDNL*|N7DQULQDQFQQ
HVDVQ ROXWXUPDNWD\G 7UNOHULQ VOkPL\HWL NROD\ NDEXO HWPHOHUL YH NVD VUHGH
VOkP GLQLQLQ HVDVODUQ

hayat felsefesi olarak benimsemelerinin temelinde eski din

LQDQoODU HWNLOL ROPXWXU VOkPL\HWH JHoLOGLNWHQ VRQUD GD 7DQUQQ 7UNOHU WDUDIQGDQ
J|N\]QGH ROGXX GQOPWU 2\VD VOkP LQDQFQD J|UH 7DQU $OODK  VDGHFH
J|NWH GHLO KHU \HUGHGLU *QP]GH GH NXOODQODQ \XNDUGD $OODK YDU YE V|\OH\L
NDOSODUQQ

kk teri dininin bir NDOQWVROGXXV|\OHQHELOLU+DWWD7DQU\D\DOYDUUNHQ

\D GD 7DQUGDQ ELU H\ LVWHUNHQ HOOHULPL]L J|N \]QH DoPDP]Q \]P] J|N
\]QH oHYLUPHPL]LQ WHPHOLQGH GH HVNL LQDQoODUP]Q YH J| VRQVX] NXWVDO
GQPHPL]LQ HWNLOL ROGXXQX GQPHNWH\L] .

o 2002: 82). kk teri terimi

VOkPL\HWWHQVRQUDGDLODKYH$OODKNDUOQGDNXOODQOPWU %LOJLQ 

ze kk teri asra yaj] \HU NOQWXNGD HNLQ DUD NLL RjO NOQP NLL
ojOQWD ]H HoP DSDP %XPQ .DjDQ WHPL .Djan

ROXUP

stte

PDYL J|N \]  DOWWD GD  \D] \HU ROXWXX ]DPDQ LNLVLQLQDUDVQGD


LQVDQ RXOODU RUWD\D oNP QVDQ RXOODUQQ ]HULQH GH  DWDODUP
GHGHOHULP %XPQ +DNDQ YH WHPL +DNDQ KNPGDU RODUDN  WDKWD
RWXUPX 7HNLQ

teri

-39).

LOH LOJLOL RODQ \DOQ] J|N ELOLP DVWURQRPL  WHULPL ROPD\DQ V|]FNOHU LVH

XQODUGU

t(e)ridem 7DQUVDOJ|NVHOWDQU\D|]JLOkKL(AY II 1991: 114), terilig

84

Dindar (IrkBit 2004: 60), teriken OkKLVHPDYL "  A.Le Coq 1936: 43), teirgen
TaQU\DWDSQDQELOJLQ 0VOPDQROPD\DQ7UNOHUGLOLQFH (DLT-'=1 

oDNU

< T. ak--r : fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.

dDNUJ|NPDYL

AtaKuran 2004: 310).

Clauson oDNU V|]FQQ VRQUDGDQ GDKD ID]OD NXOODQODQ PDYL PDYL-JUL DQODPQ
YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD EX V|]Q DVOQGD J|]OHU LoLQ NXOODQOGQ V|\OH\LS NHOLPH N|NHQL
KDNNQGD ELU DoNODPD \DSPDPWU ('   %L]H J|UH EX V|]FQ N|N LPHN

ak- |UQHLQGHQ KDUHNHWOH ak- H\OHPL ROPDOGU Kelimedeki - U ise tilr dileyen,
r sndrc, gdir methiye, vg (Gabain 2000: 54) rneklerindeki gibi fiilden
LVLP \DSDQ HNWLU LPHN oDNW ]DPDQ J|N\]QGH PDYLPVL ELU SDUODNON ROXXU

dDNU V|]F GH J|N\]QGH FHUH\DQ HGHQ EX ROD\GDn hareketle mavi ve gk
DQODPODUQ DOP ROPDOGU %LU J|] PDYL RODQ oDNUGRDQ NXXQGDQ KDUHNHWOH PDYL
J|]ONLLOHULoLQGHoDNUJ|]OLIDGHVLNXOODQOU

~
ol kn kim rlr borju iie terer-miz yazu~lujODUQ RO NQ a U
kzlgler (AtaKuran 2004: 310).
1.2.4. yel kkn
< T. yel + *k-k-n : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim
yapma eki.

*|NNXD %DKgJ

Hsan 1975: 197).


yel kkn sz grubuKDNNQGD3HWHU=LHPH

(VNL7UNoHGHJ|NNXDDQODPQDJHOHQ

D\UQWO ELU DoNODPDGD EXOXQPXWXU =LHPH DUDWUPDVQGD


XQODUV|\OHPHNWHGLU%XNHOLPH\L%URFNHOPDQQ
RNXQX

YHUPHPLWLU

8\JXUFDQQ

LPGL\H

yel kkn

KDNNQGD

yil kkenGL\HRNXPX$WDOD\LVHELU

NDGDU

G]HQOHQPL

RODQ

GL]LQ

ve

V|]ONOHULQGH J|NNXD DQODPQD JHOHQ NHOLPH JHoPHPLWLU )DNDW EL] X YHULOHUL

85

gsterebiliriz: Suv 434 (20-21)de kara yurng yil kgen b()lgrgy yaviz ir b()lglr boljay NDUD YH DN J|NNXDNODU N|W EHOJLOHUL RUWD\D NR\DFDN  .HOLPH EDND bir
Uygurca metinde yili kgnHNOLQGHJHoPHNWHGLU%|\OHFHJ|NNXDLoLQXHNLOOHUL
HOGH HWPL EXOXQX\RUX]
J|NNXD LoLQ oRX

yil kken, yili kgn, yil kgen. Yeni Trk dillerinde

kpr veya

NXDN NHOLPHOHUL\OH NXUXOPX oRN oHLWOL GH\LPOHU

buOPDNWD\]$UDWUPDP]QoHUoHYHVLLoLQGHEL]L|]HOOLNOHV|]FQ.UJ]FDGDNLHNOL
LOJLOHQGLUPHNWHGLU dQN .UJ]FDGD J|NNXD LoLQ EXOGXXPX] HNOLQ \XNDUGD
VUDODQDQ YHULOHUOH LOLNLVL NXUXODELOPHNWHGLU 6|]Q HWPHN LVWHGLLPL] GH\LP

kk

celeROXSWSN\XNDUGDNL YHULOHUGHROGXXJLELLNLNVPGDQROXPXWXU*|NNXD
LoLQ NXOODQODQ 8\JXUFD GH\LPLQ VHPDQWLL KDNNQGD GQGNOHULPL] ELU VDQGDQ
LOHUL\H JLWPHPHNWHGLU $QFDN EX GH\LPGHNL LNLQFL NHOLPHQLQ .DJDUvQLQ J|NNXD

kelimesinden

KHPHQ |QFH ND\GHWWLL

kgen

LOPLNOL N|VWHN VW VDODFD ]DPDQ

KD\YDQODUQ D\DQD YXUXOXU  NHOLPHVL\OH D\Q ROGXXQX WDKPLQ HGHELOLUL] $\Q


NHOLPH\L .UJ]FDGD GD EXOX\RUX]
.UJ]FDGD J|NNXD LoLQ
GH YDUGU %XUDGD

kgn

NoN NX]XODUQ EDODQG ELU LS 

kk cele GH\LPLQGHQ EDND cez kempirdin kgn deyimi

cez kempir PDGHQGHQ SHQoHOHUL YH PDGHQGHQ ELU EXUQX RODQ \DO

H\WDQ NDU  DQODPQD JHOHQ FH] WXPXN LOH D\Q DQODPGDGU 'HPHN ROX\RU NL
.UJ]FDGD J|NNXD LoLQ NXOODQODQ EX GH\LP H\WDQ NDUQQ LSL DQODPQ
WDPDNWDGU .UJ]FDGD J|NNXD DQODPQD JHOHQ

kk cele deyimi gk ipi

DQODPQDJHOPHNWHGLU%XGXUXPX8\JXUFDLOHNDUODWUDFDNROXUVDN8\JXUFDGH\LPLQ
LNLQFLNVPRODQ

kgnNHOLPHVLDoNODNDYXPXROX\RUONNVPRODQyili veya yil

NHOLPHVLQH JHOLQFH EXQXQ GD .UJ]FDGDNL

cele NHOLPHVLQLQ 8\JXUFD HNOL ROGXXQX

WDKPLQ HGL\RUX] (HU EX NHOLPH JHUoHNWHQ \XNDUGDNL LOH D\Q NHOLPH LVH

yl

RNXQPDOGU%X WDKPLQOHULPL]HJ|UH8\JXUFDGDJ|NNXDLoLQNXOODQOP RODQ

ve kgn

yil

NHOLPHOHULQLQ KHU ELULQLQ KD\YDQODU EDODPD\D \DUD\DQ LS DQODPQGD

ROGXNODUQ YH DQFDN LNL NHOLPHQLQ ELU DUDGD VNFD EDODQP RODUDN J|NNXD
DQODPQD JHOHQ GH\LPL WHNLO HWWLNOHULQL WDKPLQ HGL\RUX] =LHPH D 

-465).

0HKPHW gOPH] GH EX V|]FN KDNNQGD ED] DoNODPDODUGD EXOXQPXWXU =LHPHQLQ YH
7H]FDQQ DoNODPDODUQD GHLQGLNWHQ VRQUD 'KDUPRGJDWD %RGKLVDWWDYD |\NOHULQLQ
8\JXUFDVQ\D\POD\DQ7HNLQLQJ|UOHULQH\HUYHULU7HNLQHJ|UH EXLIDGHGHNL

ikinci szck kkn RNXQPDO YH *k-k+-n RODUDN o|]POHQPHOLGLU 2ODV ELU *keylemi ise kl-EDODPDNH\OHPLLOHNDUODWUOU %DKgJ 1998: 273). DLTGHHHU

86

ED DQODPQGD

kk

V|]F YDUGU '/7 '=1    'ROD\V\OD

kkn

V|]FQQEXNHOLPH\OHGHLOLNLVLNXUXODELOLUGL\HGQ\RUX]

*|NNXD DQODPQD JHOHQ

yel kkn ifadesinin de Trkenin sz dizimine uygun

ROGXXQXV|\OHPHNJoWU

-inr rkn krdi taGQ \QJDT W|UW \RO \XUQJ yel kgn WDGQT
yultuzdQ NQWQ\QJDTNlOLSSXUQDYDV\XOWX]TD -QU LNHQ XQX 
J|UG  .X]H\ \|QQGH G|UW \RO

G|UW WDQH D\U D\U  EH\D]

J|NNXDQQ NX]H\GHNL o \OG]GDQ JQH\H GRUX JHOLS LNL]OHU

burcuna (Hsan Tsang s. 43/71).

DND

< Skr.Na *|N\] (7 

-ta~D\WHxUL-ni at~DQPEROXSD\-a-ta~HUGLQL-QLojQSVDOP-a

DND

*|N \]QGHNL D\ WDQU\D NHQGLQL NDSWUDUDN DYXFXQGDNL FHYKHUL


EUDNYHUPH (7 

q

1.2.6.

DU

$U*|QHQ\NVHNWDEDNDVIHOHN .% '=1 

VOkPL\HWWH DU J|Q HQ \NVHN WDEDNDV  IHOHNWLU 7UNOHUGH GH

idi.

$U V|]F LON GHID

gk nceleri 9 kat

Kutadgu Biligde grlmektedir. Trkler ediz kk yce gk

\HULQH DUWN DU GHPH\H EDODPODUGU gJHO    7UNOHU $\ *QH YH
\OG]ODUNDWQ]HULQGHGQ\RUODUG gJHO 

bu DUta ~Rrkr sera~a tegi


tz bara bir teg bayat~DPXx(KB / 3354).

87

1.2.7. bavagir
bavagir

a

bayagir

a EDEDJU a

bDYDJU AY II 1991: 86; EUTS 1993: 24; AY 1994:

400,407).
< Toh. B (?) bhavggr < Skr. bhavarga (= Uyg. t(e)ngri yiri) Gk, sema, gkyz;
YDUONVHEHEL

AY II 1991: 86).

DGQoJ GXN W|S RUXQ EDYDJUQQJ LGLVL DUJ NLUVL] oDQJY D oUJ
DOWXUXWXWGDoDU\DVDQJEROP

bo orun ..
>NO

(AY 678/14).

EDEDJUND WHJL >N|O VXYQJD WHJL@  EXOWXNJD\ DQ ELOJHOL 

(AY 351/9).

1.2.8. felek
< Ar. Felek, gk (AtaKuran 2004: 358).

gQDV\DQQ\NVHN

kltrlerine gre felek, durmadan zerimizde dnen gk kubbesi idi.

*|U3WROHPHYH%DWODP\XVGDQJHOL\RUGX$UDSYHUDQNOWUOHULGHEXG|QKkOLQH

erh-i felek

GHPLOHUGLU 7UNOHU GH EX GH\LPL 7UNoHOHWLULS oDUN IHOHN \DSPODUG

Trkler durmadan dnen bu gk kubbesine

J|NoUVGL\RUODUGdUV|]FQQLNL

PDQDV YDUGU  IHOHN YH oDUN  oNUN WHNHUOHN dU GHLUPHQ VX GRODE JLEL
kOHWOHULQ oDUNODU LoLQ GH V|\OHQLUGL S HLUPHN LoLQ NXOODQODQ kOHWOHUH GH oU
dNUN

denirdi.

sz ise bunun kltme eki ile bir tremesidir (gel 2002: 155). Mslman

Trklere gre felek \XNDUGDQ DD GRUX |\OH VUDODQ\RUGX  NDWQ \XNDUV: Atlas,
9. kat$U8. kat\OG]ODULOHEXUoODUQEXOXQGXXYHG|QGNOHULNDW7. kat: yedi kattan
ROXDQJ|NNDWODU*|QNDWODU%DW7UNOHULQHJ|UH'RX7UNOHULQHJ|UHNDWLGL
(VNL 7UNOHU IHOHL LQVDQODU NDGHUOHULQH J|UH HOH\LS D\UPDV EDNPQGDQ ELU HOHH
EHQ]HWL\RUODUG gJHO 


amujfelek iinde we tezginrler (AtaKuran 2004: 358).

88

1.2.9. VWUD\DVWUL
< Skr. trayastrimsat6HPDODUGDQELULQLQDG(EUTS 1993: 138).

VL]Lx PXQWD NHOPLLxL]NH VWUD\DVWUL

tri yiri

~XW ~Y DOXU

Sizin

r y

EXUD\D JHOPHQL]GHQ GROD\ 7 VWULPK DGO  WDQUODU ONHVLQLQ


PXWOXOXXDUWDU

(TekinMaitr 89/35).

1.2.10. tujit
< Skr. tumita%LUVHPDQQDG(ETG 2000: 302).

mhaklp-ta katajODQPQ tujit tri yiri-ntin ~RG LQLS DMXQ WXWXS WRjD
yarl~DPQ MahNDOSD PGGHWLQFH FHKGHWWLLQL 7XmLWD DGO WDQUODU
GL\DUQGDQ DD\D LQLS LQVDQODU kOHPLQGH KDPHWOH GRGXXQX HYL
EDUNWHUNHGLS

(TekinMaitr 1/22).

89

2. Gezegenler
%XE|OP *H]HJHQDQODPQD JHOHQWHULPOHUOH*H]HJHQ$GODUR

lmak zere iki ana

EDONHWUDIQGDHOHDOQPWU

2.1. Gezegen
Eski Anadolu Trkesinde

JH]HHQ GDLPD JH]HQ DQODP\OD NXOODQOPWU %X V|]FN

D]ODUGD GD oRN JH]HQ NLPVH DQODPQGDGU *|N ELOLPL WHULPL RODQ

gezegen ise,

gezegenlerin srekli hareNHW KkOLQGH ROPDVQGDQ \ROD oNODUDN &XPKXUL\HW GHYULQGH


WUHWLOPLELUWHULPROVDJHUHNWLU .DUD 

Gezegen,

*|NELOLP 7HULPOHUL 6|]OQGH 'XUDQ \OG]ODUD J|UH VUHNOL RODUDN \HU

GHLWLUHQ*QHoHYUHVLQGHGRODQDQRQGDQDOG\DQVWDQJ|NFLVLPOHULQLQRUWDN
DG .]OUPDN    HNOLQGH WDQPODQPWU (VNL 7UNoH PHWLQOHUGH JH]HJHQ
DGODU \OG] NDUOQGD GD NXOODQOPDNWDGU (VNL 7UNoH G|QHPLQGH EXJQN
GRNX] E\N JH]HJHQGHQ DOWV ELOLQPHNWHGLU .RUSXV LoHULVLQGH \

er alan tarama

\DSWP]HVHUOHUGHJHoHQJH]HJHQDQODPQGDNLWHULPOHUDDGDGU

2.1.1. grax
grax ~ garx
< Toh. grak, < Skr. graha Planet (gezegen) (BT III 1974: 89).

-lar grax-larTXYUD-ELUOlROD\TOQ-OEXOr-WQ

TXYUD O \XOGX]

DU QVLOLJLQQGL

-lr (BT III, 385).

SDJDUO

< Sogd. paxar Seyyare; gezegen (ETY 1987: 831).

EDODQG \LWL SDJDUOQQ \PH EL WUOJ PXQoXNXQ WDODUQ HUGHPL

belglg

sablar

EDODQG

\HGL

VH\\DUHOHU

\HQH

EH

WUO

ETY 1987: 249).

PFHYKHUOHULQWDODUQID]LOHWLQLELOGLUHQV|]OHU

90



UDzX
UDzX

< Skr. UKX Seyyare, planet (EUTS 1993: 126; TT VII: 115).
raxu graxilnr. (TT VII 13/8).

EX\DY]RO

2.1.4. kitu
< Skr. ketu Gezegen (TT VII: 109).

EXLLN\DY]RO

kitu graxLOlQUROWRTX]LLNWNlGL (TT VII 13/47).

2.1.5. lkr
< T. lkr : isim kk.

7UNOHUEDODQJoWDEWQJH]HJHQOHULoLQ

lker veya lgelGH\LLQLNXOODQ\RUODUG%X

GH\L VRQUDGDQ GLHUOHULQGHQ D\UOD D\UOD HQ VRQXQGD


ROPXWXU <DNXW 7UNOHULQLQ OHKoHVLQGH

rgel

lker

\OG] LoLQ ELU DG

V|] EXJQ ELOH *|Q GHOLL

DQODPQGDNXOODQOPDNWDGU gJHO 

%N]NU

lkr\OG]

*H]HJHQ$GODU

2.2.1. Merkr
2.2.1.1. arzu tilek
< Far. arzu + T. ti-l-e-k : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil
yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki.
-

8WDULW 0HUNU \OG] .% '=1 

Kutadgu Biligde Merkr iin biri FarVoD GLHUL 7UNoH LNL LVLP NXOODQODUDN EX \OG]D
arzu tilek GHQLOPLWLU 2\VD +DUH]P 7UNoHVL HVHUOHULQGHQ .VDVO-enbiyGD EX \OG]
iin sadece Farsa arzuLVPLQLQNXOODQOGQJ|UPHNWH\L] 7RSUDN 

91

Clauson tilek V|]FQQ N|NHQLQLQ tile- ILLOL ROGXXQX V|\OHPHNWH NHOLPHQLQ WDULKv
OHKoHOHUGHNLGXUXPXQDGHLQPHNWHGLU (' 

tilekV|]FQQN|NEL]FH(Wti-

demek fiil kkne kadar indirilebilir. ti- fiilinden -l fiilden isim yapma eki ile til dil
LVPL\DSOP (UHQ

12), sonra -e ile fiil; -kLOHGHLVLP\DSOPWU

Utarit 0HUNU  7UNOHUH J|UH XXUOX ELU JH]HJHQGL %XQXQ LoLQ (VNL 7UNOHU GH RQD
tilek yani dilekGHUOHUGL0HUNUHNDUGLOHNOHUGLOHQLUYHEXGLOHLQ\HULQHJHWLULOPHVL
beklenirdi (gel 2002:

  <LQH oRN HVNL ELU 7UN DLUL RODQ <XVXI +DV +DFLE EX

JH]HJHQLoLQ|\OHGHPHNWHGLU

basa keldi arzu tilek arzular


ayu~a yajXVDDxDU|]XODU (KB / 136).

2.2.1.2. bud
< Skr. budha 0HUNU \OG] KDIWD WDNYLPLQH J|UH oDUDPED JQ (876   
Utarit (gezegen) (ETG 2000: 270).
-

EXXLTDQ O WD GDTWRSUDTTXWOX







~

bud grax ilnr (TT VII 1/3).

irpis u ru u

< T. irpis + *~urur-jX~u : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-nc teklik
DKVL\HOLNHNL

Bu sz grubu Drevnetyurkskiy SlovariGH 0HUNU JH]HJHQL RODUDN WDQPODQPWU


(DTSl: 211).
irpis

V|]F

EUTSGH

NHGL

DoNODQPDNWDGU (876   

FLQVLQGHQ

Clauson

DN

LUEL a

GHQLOHQ

irbi

KD\YDQ

YDDN

RODUDN

irpis V|]FQQ 6LELU\D

SDQWHUL DQODPQ YHUPL YH EX V|]FQ $YUXSD ]RRORML WHUPLQRORMLVLQH GH JLUGLLQL
V|\OHPLWLU

$UDWUPDF

V|]FQ

RULMLQDO

WHOkIIX]XQXQ

LUSL

RODELOHFHLQL

GQPHNWHGLU(VNL8\JXUDOIDEHVLQLQED]JoONOHULQGHQGROD\V|]FQVRQVHVLQLQ

92

NHVLQ ROPDGQ VRQ VHVLQ EHONL


HWPLWLU

-s RODELOHFHLQL DPD - ve -z RODPD\DFDQ LIDGH

(ED: 199).

Clauson, ~urru~ sznn kknn *~urur-RODELOHFHLQLGQPV|]F~urur-jD~


HNOLQGH DoNODPWU ('  
EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOU

kudruk 

Hasan Eren ise kuyruk KDNNQGD (VNL 7UNoHGHQ

*RPERF] EX V|]F 0RROFD

ELUOHWLUPLWLU &ODXVRQD J|UH 0RROFD

qudurja biimiyle

qudurja ELoLPL 7UNoHGHQ DOQPWU 5XVoD

kurdjuk biimi Trk diyalektlerinden kalma bir bLoLPGLU YH EX ELoLP VHV EDNPQGDQ
GQGUFGU GHPHNWH YH V|]FQ N|N KDNNQGD KHUKDQJL ELU DoNODPDGD
EXOXQPDPDNWDGU (UHQ 

u ruju DGQ WD\DQ 8WDULW 0HUNU  JH]HJHQL 8\JXU VDQDWQGD ELU FLQV WXJ

USLV ~ r

olarak gsterilmektedir. rpis

u ruju

~ r

J|NVHO HNLOGH XXUOX VD\O\RU IDNDW \HU

DOWQGDNLKDUHNHWOHULQGHN|WELUUXKJ|UQPDO\RUGX (VLQ 

NQ \RU DL |OWoL lUNOLJ WDL VXL VDU RUX

ulu LUSL] TXGUXT,

\XPX]XOX EL WUOJ WRSUDT lUNOLJL \LU WlxUL TDQ VROWXQ N|N OXX
RxGXQ DT EDUV NQWQ T]O VD]DQ NLGLQ TDUD \ODQ DOW TDS
\DUDPD]

(TT VI 93).

2.2.1.4. suv
< T. suv : isim kk.
Merkr gezegeni (TT VII: 116).
suv [yu]lduz VDQJ- bir [yg]rmi-g kmnr kmn[r] barar (TT
VII 1/19).
2.2.2. Vens
2.2.2.1. altun
< T. altun : isim kk.

93

Zhre (Vens) \OG]QQDGVDEDK DNDP \OG]QQDG (876 

+DVDQ (UHQ EX V|]FQ (VNL 7UNoHGHQ EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOGQ 2UWD 7UNoHGH

altn RODUDN JHoWLLQL YH N|NHQLQLQ DoN RODUDN ELOLQHPHGLLQL ND\GHWPHNWHGLU (UHQ
   $OWQ DQODPQQ GQGD EX V|]FQ (VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVLQGH 9HQV
JH]HJHQLDQODPGDEXOXQPDNWDGU

r
al un yultuz toquz ygrmi-g tnl srilr (TT VII 1/45).

LW\O T|UrQPLELJUD[ ODU\RU  VDQJRORRWVXY\D

r
, al un,

topraq skiz (TT VII 1/80).


2.2.2.2. rklig
< T. rk-lig : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
Zhre (gezegen) (ETG 2000: 272); Zhre (Vens) \OG] (876 
rk NXYYHW Jo NXGUHW (876    DQODPQGDNL V|]FNWHQ -lig isimden isim
\DSPDHNLLOHWUHWLOPLWLU

rklig V|]FQQJoONXYYHWOLKNPGDUDQODPODUGD

EXOXQPDNWDGU (876    7UNOHU 9HQV JH]HJHQLQH |QHP YHUPHNWH\GLOHU

Vens yani rklig (rlig) JoO\LLWGHQLOHQELUNLLJQDDUUNHQJ|UQHQ\OG]ODU


|OGUHQVDYDoGU7UNoHGH\OQGDQEHULEHOLUWLOHQFHKHQQHPOHUWDQUVYH|OOHU
GQ\DVQQ KNPGDU

YamaQQ NDUW RODUDN PRGHUQ ]DPDQODUQ Erlik Han ROPDN

]HUH J|NWHQ \HUH LQHFHNWLU 'DOL]PH RODQ HLOLPL ED]HQ RQX J|NOH UHNDEHWH
]RUOD\DFDNWU =DWHQ $OWXQ .|O ,

rkligL |OP WDQUV RODUDN VXQPDNWDGU %HONL GH

J|NVHO VDYDo VDQOGQGDQ GDKD HUNHQ ELU ]DPDQGD \HUH LQPL RODELOLU +HUKDOGH EX

yzden XI. yy.da yaruk yultuz Q \OG] GL\H GH DGODQGUODQ 9HQV Lucifer
9HQV 6DEDK <OG]  RODUDN WDQPODQPDNWD\G $\Q ]DPDQGD YH\D ELU VUH VRQUD

etnogrDI\D \D\QODUQGD oban LVPL\OH NDUWUODFDN RODQ YH KHUKDOGH DNDPD GRUX
RUWD\DoNWQGDQ|WU

olpanSDUODNRODUDN DGODQGUODQ\OG]D solbonDG\ODWHNUDU

UDVWODQODFDNWU 5RX[ 

94

<HU DOW YH |OP WDQUV

rklig

ana verilen rklig XQYDQ D\Q ]DPDQGD Zhre

(Vens JH]HJHQLQHGHDLWEXOXQX\RUGXdLQGHROGXXJLEL7UNOHUGHGHZhre (Vens);


VDYD VLODKODU ]UKODU JLEL DVNHUL NDYUDPODUQ YH |OP FH]DVQQ VLPJHVL VD\O\RUGX
.|NWUNG|QHPLDOSPH]DUODUQQELULQGHDGJHoHQ

rkligin, Zhre veya YamaROPDV

LKWLPDO EXOXQPDNWDGU +HU LNLVL GH |OP YH \HUDOWQGDNL KDUHNHWOHULQGH


NDQ\ODLOLNLOL\GL 7UNOHUGH

Yir teri-

Toprak yultuzYHVDUUHQJLQLQ GQ\DPHUNH]LQGHNL WRSUDN

XQVXUXQXQ VLPJHVL ROPDV QHGHQL\OH 6DUJ

bir Trke metinde rklig

-orungulug (Sar-ED\UDNO  GHQHQ Zuhal de,

an, rklig (Zhre) ve yir teri-NDQ ile birlikte

VD\OPDNWDGU (VLQ 

NQ \RU DL |OWoL

rklig, tai-VXL VDU RUXulu LUSL] TXGUXT

\XPX]XOX EL WUOJ WRSUDT lUNOLJL \LU WlxUL TDQ VROWXQ N|N OXX
RxGXQ DT EDUV NQWQ T]O VD]DQ NLGLQ TDUD \ODQ DOW TDS
\DUDPD]

2.2.2.3. na
< Sogd.

(TT VI 92).

QJG =KUH \OG] DNDP \OG] oREDQ \OG] VDEDK \OG]

(DTSl: 354;

EUTS 1993: 90); Vens (ETY 1987: 820).

\UQ WD XUP]W W|]OJ RO VDUJ WD QDJG W|]OJ RO NDUD WD NLZDQ
W|]OJROWLJWDPDJW|]OJ$oNWD-SLWHUDVOQGDGU6DUWD9HQV
HVDVGU .DUD WD 6DWUQ HVDVGU 6DU NUP] WD $\Q HVDVGU

(ETY 1987: 250).


2.2.2.4. sevit
< T. sew-i-t : fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.

=KUH 9HQV \OG]

KB-'=1 

9HQV JH]HJHQL DVWURORMLGH DN YH VHYJL NDYUDPODUQ VLPJHOHPHNWHGLU %XUDGDQ

hareketle sevit gezegen isminin sev- fiiliyle ilgisi kurulabilir.

95

Clauson da

V|]FQ N|NQQ

JH]HJHQL

DQODPQGD

V|\OHPHNWHGLU$\UFD

sev- ILLOL ROGXXQX V|\OHGLNWHQ VRQUD NHOLPHQLQ 9HQV

NXOODQOGQ

KBQLQ

YH

\D]DU

WDUDIQGDQ

LFDW

HGLOGLLQL

RabjuzQLQGHV|]F KBGHQDOGQDGHLQPLWLU(ED: 785).

Imre Gyarmati, An Enigmatic Turkic Planet Name EDONO PDNDOHVLQGH KBde sevit
RODUDNJHoHQ9HQVJH]HJHQLQdDDWD\7UNoHVLQGH
GD ELU \D]P KDWDV ROGXX V|\OHPHNWHGLU

sa~WHNOLQGHJ|UOGQEXQXQ

KBde v sesi Arap harfleriyle kafQ ]HULQH

o QRNWD LOH J|VWHULOL\RUGX %X VHV dDDWD\FDGD ~ RODUDN DOJODQP E|\OHFH

KBdeki

sewitV|]FEXOHKoHGHsa~WROPXWXU Gyarmati 2003: 81-86).

sevit

VHYJ\]XUXQGELLQoL

seve ba~Werse sen zni DYW (KB / 135).


~

2.2.2.5. yaru


\XOGX]

< T. *ya-r-u-~ + *ya-l-tuz- : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma ekifiilden isim yapma eki + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma ekioQFWHNOLNDKVL\HO

7DQ \OG]

ik eki.

(DLT-'=1    Bu szck, Eski Trkede Vens (Zhre)

JH]HJHQLDQODPQGDNXOODQOPWU

%DW kOHPLQGH

Vens, n Asyada da Zhre JLEL DGODUOD DQODQ EX JH]HJHQ KHU LNL

GQ\D PLWRORMLVLQGH GH E\N ELU \HU WXWPXWXU 7

rk mitolojisinde de bu, Kutup

\OG]QGDQ VRQUD HQ ID]OD |QHP ND]DQDQ ELU JH]HJHQ ROPXWXU 7UNOHUH J|UH EX
JH]HJHQoRNJ]HOELUN]LGL%DWGDNL

Vens ve ZhreGHGDLPDNDGQJ]HOOLLQLQELU

VHPEROROPXODUG

%X \OG] VDEDKD NDU GRDU %XQXQ

iin de Anadolunun birok yerinde

6DEDK \OG]

GD GHQPLWLU %X JH]HJHQH $N\OG] GL\HQOHU EXOXQGXX JLEL 'RX $QDGROXGD 6DU

<OG].DQO <OG]0DYL <OG]

da denir.

96

Eski Trkler bu gezegene Yaruk yulduz yani 3DUODN

\OG]  GHUOHUGL .DJDUO

MDKPXGXQ V|]OQGH GHUOHGLL oRN HVNL ELU 7UN LLULQGH ZhreQLQ GRXX YH
VDEDKQROXX|\OHDQODWOPDNWDGU

Yaruk yulduz togarda, udhnu kelip bakarmen,


6DWXOD\XVD\UDSWDWOQQNX|WHU

(DLT III, 194).

3DUODN\OG]GRDQGDX\DQDUDNEDNDUP
*HYH]HOLNHGHUHNWDWOVHVOHNX|WHU

(VNL7UNHGHEL\DWQGDGD

ZhreJ]HOOLLQELUVHPEROLGL1LWHNLPKutadgu Bilig, bu

\OG]LoLQ|\OHGL\RUGX

VHYJ\]XUXQGELLQoLVHYLW

seve ba~Werse sen zni aYW (KB / 135).


%HLQFL=KUHoNWYXUGXJ]HO\]Q
6DEDKYDNWLNDUODVHQGHDYXWJ|QOQ

Yakut Trklerine gre Vens veya Zhre, RN J]HO ELU N] LPL YH lker gezegenini
VHYHUPL%XLNLVHYJLOLJ|NWHQH]DPDQNDUODUODUVDNDOSOHULQGHQE\NDNYHVHYJL

. Yakutlar kt

IUWQDODU NRSDU EX VXUHWOH \HU\] NDU IUWQDODU LoLQGH NDOUP

KDYDODUQ QHGHQLQL KHS EX VHEHEH GD\DQGUUODUP %X LQDQWD JHUoHNOLN SD\ GD \RN
GHLOGLU dQN

Zhre ile lkerLQ \DNODPD ]DPDQ NX]H\ E|OJHOHULQGH DOWQFD D\D

WHVDGIHGL\RUGX7DELv RODUDNEXDOWQFD\<DNXWODUQWDNYLPLQHJ|UH KHVDSODQPELU


oDGU%XD\GDNX]H\E|OJHOHULQGHE\NIUWQDODUROXUGX

.UJ]ODUDJ|UHLVH
EX \OG]D

Zhre$\QN]LGLlkerGH$\QROXGXU7UNOHUJHQHORODUak

olpan GHUOHUGL %X V|] GLHU 7UN OHKoHOHULQGH olpon ve Anadoluda da

dREDQ \OG] KkOLQH JHOPLWLU 0RROODU GD EX \OG]D

Solbon veya Sulbun derlerdi.

g\OH DQODO\RU NL EX \OG]Q DG 0RROODUD GD 7UNOHUGHQ JHoPLWLU 7UNOHU JHQHO
RODUDNEX\OG]D7Dx<XOGX]

yani 7DQ\OG]GHPLOHUGLU %XGD\OG]QVDEDKODLOJLVL

GROD\V LOH LGL $QDGROXGD LVH 6DEDK \OG] LIDGHVL NXOODQOU 7UNOHU \OG]ODUQ

97

SDUODNONODUQD EDNDUDN DG YHUPLOHUGLU 0HVHOk (VNL 7UNOHU

Zhreye Yaruk

\XOGX]

yani ,N\OG]GDGHPLOHUGLU$QDGROXQXQELUoRN\HULQGHZhreye $N\OG] denir.


(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)
Yaruk yulduz togarda, udhnu kelip bakarmen,
6DWXOD\XVD\UDSWDWOQQNX|WHU

(DLT III, 194).

2.2.2.6. NU
XNXU a NU

(ETG 2000: 296).

< Skr. ukra Zhre (Vens) seyyaresi (ETG 2000: 296).

buu ksk-Jl VDQO T LSTDQ-O VXSUDT DOruQ TXWOX NU grax


ilnr urrabarbt yulduz-OX LW \O-T |UrQPL EL JUD[-ODU \RU-
, alrun, topraq skiz (TT VII 1/74).

VDQJRORRWVXY\D

2.2.3. Dnya
2.2.3.1. ajun
ajun a azun a asun aDXQ ETG 2000: 263; EUTS 1993: 15).
< Sogd. wn : isim kk.

9DUONELoLPLKD\DW h

Ajun

1998: 123); dnya (EUTS 1993: 6).

V|]F 7UNoH %XGLVW PHWLQOHUGH KD\DW DQODP WDUNHQ VOkPv G|QHPGH

GQ\DDQODPQDGDJHOPLWLU (VLQ 

taplaj-j bulP-O D U D\j ajun-ta bulur-l(a)r. 7DKDPPO EXOPX


RODQODU

N|W

YDUON

ELoLPLQGH

ELOPHGHQ

(DSUDWLVDPN\QLURGKD) bulurlar. (h 125a/13).

j
2.2.3.1.1. ajunlu
< Sogd. ajun + T. -lujVLPN|N-isimden isim yapma eki.

98

V|QPH\L

Dnyev, dnyev dnya ile ilgili (EUTS 1993: 6; TekinMaitr 1976: 346).

PHQ \LPH NoP \LW PLoH WDSQS

j
ajunlu  azu~ Ben de gcm

\HWWLLQFH KL]PHWHGLSGQ\HYvD]N 7HNLQ0DLWU 

2.2.3.2. cihan
< Far. lem, kinat, dnya, yeryz (KB-'=1 

ne rrm ne krrm ne ersig eren


ajunda tetig er yidi bu cihan (KB / 279).
2.2.3.3. ambudivip
ambudivip aambudiwip aimbudvip (EUTS 1993: 39; ETG 2000: 271; TT.V 8,81).

< Skr. samdudvipa 'Q\D NkLQDW (876    EX GQ\DQQ DG ETG 2000:
271).
bu ambudvip XOX o WUOJ XOXj oj \DOQ~a tkellig boljay Bu
GQ\DooHLWE\NDVDKLSRODFDN 7HNLQ0DLWU 

2.2.3.4. dnya
< Ar. Dnya, lem (KB-'=1 
yaj]\LU\SDUWROGNDIXUNLWLS
bezenmek tiler dnya krkin itip (KB / 64).
2.2.3.5. orun
< T. or-u-n : isim kk-\DUGPFVHV-isimden isim yapma eki.
Yer (h 1998: 168).

99

5lVlQHQ EX V|]FQ PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPXQD GHLQPL N|NHQL KDNNQGD ELU
L]DKWDEXOXQPDPWU 5lVlQHQ &ODXVRQGD

orunDGLOHLOJLOLRODUDNSODFH

YHGDKD|]HORODUDNKLJKSODFHWKURQHDQODPODUQYHUPHNWHGLU.HOLPHQLQWHNEDQD
GD NXOODQOG JLEL |]HOOLNOH

yir yer ve linxua /RWXV oLoHL LOH ELUOLNWH JHoWLLQL GH

EHOLUWPLV|]FQN|NHQLNRQXVXQGDELUDoNODPD\DSPDPWU (' %OHQW*O

de

(VNL 7UN 7DUP 7HULPOHUL EDONO GRNWRUD WH] oDOPDVQGD EX V|]F HOH DOP

V|]FQ \HU DQODP GQGD |]HOOLNOH ELUoRN 8\JXUFD PHWLQGH WDUOD DQODPQGD GD
NXOODQOGQEHOLUWPLWLU *O 

Kelimenin kkeni bizce or LVPL ROPDOGU (VNL 7UNoHGH or taht, yer (EUTS 1993:
95)

DQODPODUQGDGU

DLTde orna- \HUOHPHN \HU WXWPDN \HU HGLQPHN YH ornat-

yerine koymak (DLT-'=1

   ILLOOHULQLQ YDUO NHOLPHQLQ N|NHQL

KDNNQGDNL GQFHPL]L GHVWHNOHPHNWHGLU <LQH

DLTde oru LVPL YDUGU %X V|]FQ

DQODP GD DOJDP EXGD\ YH EXQD EHQ]HU H\OHUL VDNODPDN LoLQ ND]ODQ oXNXUGXU

(DLT-'=1    KBde ise oru ]LQGDQ DQODPQGD NXOODQOPDNWDGU .%'=1 'ROD\V\OD \HUDQODPQGDNL

orunV|]FQQGQ\DDQODPGD

GQOHELOLU

... luj RUXQ rr : al~XLUDYDNSUDW\DNDXWODUQWDUjlajRUXQlUU


 O \HULGLU EWQ LUDYDN SUDW\DNDXWODUQ WDUOD \HULGLU %7 9,,,

B245246).
arbuda atlaj orunta YLNDWDGDPWLUL ELUOl PD[DQDVL ER NLLGLU WDUjlj
rr...$UEXGDDGO\HUGHYLNDWDGDPWLULLOHPD[DQDVLEXWDUODGU %7
VII 4041).
j

2.2.3.5.1. orunlu

< T. or-u-n-luj : isim kk-\DUGPFVHV-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma


eki.
Yerli (AY 1994: 624).

100

ikinti orunlug
EXUNDQODUQQJ

EROJX N|QJOJ Y D MU WHJ E H N NDW

g knglg

(AY 68/10).

2.2.3.6. sansar
< Skr. samsra |OPOHULQ \DDG  'Q\D DF oHNLOHQ GQ\D YDUOQ G|QP
(AY II 1991: 110).
sansar iinde bir elig orun-larta az vke bilig-VL] ELOLJGH XODW XWun
-

-lar-Qx

Q] YDQ

NoHGGNLQWH 6DPVkUD LoLQGH NUN ELU WUO 

\HUOHUGH KUV KLGGHW LOH  ELOJLVL] ELOJLGH GDKDV N|W WXWNXODUQ


JoOHQGLLDQODUGD

(AY II 133/17).

j
VDQVDUO

sansarlag a VDQVDUOJ(TekinMaitr 1976: 454; AY 1994: 654).


< Skr. sansar + T. -Oj : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

Sansara ait (TekinMaitr 1976: 454).


or~XS D\QS sansarla

DxV] ~

mei toana berksizin mes-zin

mnin ~adajQ VD~QS 3HN NRUNXS UNS GQ\DQQ Vaadetinin ve


NXGUHWLQLQ

oUNOQ

JHoLFLOLLQL

VXoXQX

LGUDN

HGHUHN

(TekinMaitr 68/11).
2.2.3.7. yr
yr a yir aLU
< T. yr : isim kk.
Yer (ETY 1987: 891); yeryz, toprak (DLT-'=1 
yer V|]F $]7 yer %DN yir, Kzk. jir .UJ cer, zb. yer, Tat. cir, Trkm. yer,
YUyg. yr biimindedir.

101

%OHQW *O oDOPDVQGD V|]FQ WDULKv YH PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL HNLOOHULQL YHUGLNWHQ
VRQUD EX V|] KDNNQGD

yer kelimesi Trkede yer, toprak, dnya, yeryz gibi

anlamlDU WD\DQ ELU NDYUDPGU (VNL 7UNoHGHQ LWLEDUHQ HVHUOHUGH VN ELU HNLOGH EX
DQODPODUGDNXOODQODQNHOLPHQLQWDUODDQODPGDYDUGUGHPHNWHGLU *O 

7UNOHUH J|UH 'Q\DQQ HNOL J|N NXEEHVLQLQ HNOL EDNPQGDQ NXEEHOL ELU WHSVL

gibiyGL*|NNXEEHVLQLQ \XYDUODNO YH \OG]ODUQG|Q7UNOHUH GQ\DQQELUWHSVL


JLEL ROGXXQX GQGUPW 7UNOHULQ EX GQFHVL VOkP GLQLQGHNL

felek ve

felekiyat GQFHVLQH GH X\PDNWD\G <DNXW 7UNOHULQH J|UH LVH  'Q\D KHP \XYDUODN
hem de drtN|HOLLGL gJHO *QP]GHGHGQ\DQQG|UWELUN|HVLQGHQ
V|] HGLOPHNWHGLU %X GXUXP HVNL ELU 7UN LQDQQ \DQVWDQ ELU V|\OH\LWLU 7UNOHUH
J|UH GQ\DQQ G|UW ELU N|HVLQGH GPDQODU \DDPDNWDGU .HQGLOHUL GH GQ\DQQ WDP

merkezinde, D\UFDONO ELU QRNWDGD EXOXQPDNWDGUODU 2UDGD 7X-kiular iin tken


RODUDN ELOLQHQ ELU GD YDUGU YH EX GDQ KHP J|Q WHPHO GLUHL KHP GH GQ\DQQ
HNVHQL ROGXX NDEXO HGLOPHNWHGLU 7UNOHULQ EX WHSVL\H EHQ]H\HQ NDUH GQ\D DQOD\
GDKDVRQUDNL\OODUGD .DJDUOQQKDULWDVQGD \HULQLELUGDLUH HNOLQHEUDNPWU

(Roux

2002: 107).
yer \]QH \HU NUW GHQLU +HUKDQJL ELU \]H YH \D\J\D NUW
denmez (DLT I, 461).

\pUVDJUV

< T. \pUVDJU-V : isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL

<HU\]\HU\D\JV

DLTde

(DLT-'=1 
-

VDJU V|]F GHUL DQODPQGDGU '/7 '=1    \pU VDJUV

JUXEXGD\HU\]GQ\DDQODPQDJHOPHNWHGLU

EXQGDQ DOQDUDN

yer sagUV GHQLU NL \HU \] \HU \D\JV GHPHNWLU

(DLT I, 422).

102

sz

\pUNUW

< T. \pUNUW-: isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL


Yeryz (DLT-'=1 
DLTde
Clauson,

NUW

V|]F \] UHQJL \] DQODPODUQGDGU '/7 '=1   

NUW V|]FQQ N|NQQ NUW  RODELOHFHLQL KDWWD NU  LOH GH ELU LOLNL

NXUXODELOHFHLQLEHOLUWPHNWHGLU

yer yzne

(ED: 649).

\HU NUW

denir. Herhangi bir \]H YH \D\J\D NUW

denmez (DLT I, 461).


2.2.3.7.3. udu yr
< T. udu + yr : isim kk + isim kk.
Dnya (ETY 1987: 891).
DLTde udu

V|]QQ WHSH DQODP YHULOPL

kum udu

NXOODQOPWU '/7 '=1    'ROD\V\OD

NXP \Q DQODPQGD

udu yr V|] JUXEX GD \HU \Q

WRSUDN \Q GQ\D DQODPQD JHOPHNWHGLU %X V|] JUXEXQGD  GD V|] GL]LPLQGHNL
GHLLNOLNJ|]HoDUSPDNWDGU

WDx WDxODUG

udu yir \DUXG XGX NQ WRJG NDPDJ ]H \DUXN EROW

DIDN V|NW GQ\D D\GQODQG *Q GRGX KHU H\ VWQGH N

oldu. (ETY 1987: 271).


2.2.3.7.4. yrtn
yrtn a yertin a yirtin (Hamilton 1998: 235; h 1998: 203).
< T. yr-tin- : isim kk-X]DNODPD KkOL HNL >NDOSODP@ -isimden isim yapma
eki.

103

Yer, dnya (Hamilton 1998: 235; h 1998: 203).

LQDVL7HNLQEXV|]FNKDNNQGD7LEHWoHGHD\QDQODPD JHOHQELU

jig-rtan kelimesine

EDNDUDN EXQX 7LEHWoH LOH DoNODPDN LON EDNWD DNOD \DNQ JLEL J|UQVH GH

yirtinnn

Trkede Trk-TiEHW NOWU DOYHULLQLQ EDODG ;,-XII. yy.lardan ok daha nceki


GHYLUOHUGHNXOODQOPROGXX GQOUVH EXELoLPGHNLDoNODPDQQ\HWHUVL]OLLRUWD\D
oNDU 2 ]DPDQ

yirtin\ EDND WUO DQODPDP] JHUHNLU yir+tin+? Burada +tin,

ELOLQHQ oNPD KkOL HNL NDOSODP YH \DSP HNL GXUXPXQD JLUPLWLU 0HVHOk

trttn

HNLOOHUL JLEL

+

ngdn,

HNL FDQO ELU HN ROPDPDNOD ELUOLNWH X ELU LNL |UQHNWH

grlmektedir: tnle geceleyin < tn++le (Trkische Manichaica II, s. 11);


kelec sz, kelime < *kele+c (kelenHNOLLOH0RROFDGD \DDQDEX NHOLPH 7UNoHGH
ND\EROPXWXU GHPHNWHGLU

XODW \R~

(TekinMaitr 1976: 282,283).

inip yime yirtinde (antaj  RVXjOXj DGQ E|] Yok, fakat

GQ\DGDE|\OHELUEDNDNXPD

(TekinMaitr 24/23).

2.2.3.7.5. yrtinlg
< T. yr-tin--lg : isim kk-X]DNODPDKkOLHNL>NDOSODP@ -isimden isim yapma
eki-isimden isim yapma eki.
Dnyev, profen, dnya ile ilgili (EUTS 1993: 194).

RO PXQ

yirtinlg yivek t(on) itigin itdi O, bunu dnyev malzeme,

elbise ve sslerle ssledi. (TekinMaitr 21/3).


2.2.3.7.6. yr suv
< T. yr + sub : isim kk + isim kk.
Dnya, cihan (dDWDQL 1945: 73).

%X V|]FN 7UNOHULQ GQ\D\D EDN DoODUQ GD J|VWHUPHNWHGLU 7UNOHU GQ\D\

yer

(toprak) ve suRODUDNDOJODPODUGU=DWHQNkLQDWGD7UNOHUHJ|UH gk ve yer suvdan

104

ROXPDNWDGU%X7UNOHULQHQHVNLEHONLGH|]NR]PRORMLOHULGLU%XNR]PRORMLDQOD\

gk ve yerLQWHPVLOHWWLLLNLLONH\HGD\DQGLoLQGHGLNRWRPL LNLLONHOLVLVWHP DGQ


DOPDNWDGU

(Esin 2001: 19).

kimedin ara bu yirtin yirsuvda burzDQOj knteri rley toja


kelgey$UD V  oRN JHoPHGHQEXGQ\DGDEXUKDQO *QHWDQU JLEL
\NVHOHUHNGRXS

gelecek. (dDWDQL: 280).

2.2.4. Mars
~

2.2.4.1. angara
< Skr.

DQJ UD~  0DUV \OG]QQ DG (876    0HULK JH]HJHQ 

ETG 2000:

261).
-

oQo DL NoJ ELU \DQJ V EX \RQW SL

-i kn barani yultuz angarak

garxRODOW\DQJ-DWVLUNL (TT VII 4/19).


~

2.2.4.2. ba

so um

ba~UVR~uma ba~UVX~un (DLT-'=1.%-'=1 


< T. ba~U + so~u-m : isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.

Merih (Mars) \OG] '/7-'=1.%-'=1 


Rsnen, ba~U kelimesinin Farsa bazU HNOLQGHQ JHOGLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU 5lVlQHQ
   %X J|U EL]FH ]D\I NDOPDNWDGU oQN EDNU V|]F EDWD

DLT olmak

zere birok Eski Trke kaynakta gemeNWHGLU )DNDW V|]FQ N|NHQLQL WDP RODUDN
bilemiyoruz. Eski Uygur Trkesinde ba~r EDNU ba~UODj EDNUGDQ \DSOP ba~
EDNU WDUW |OoV VLNNH SDUD PDQJU

maden olarak

(EUTS 1993: 21) szckleri mevcuttur. Bir


-

EDNUQ GQ\DGD LON GHID $QDGROXGD (OD]  0DGHQ OoHVL  LOHQGLL

ELOLQPHNWHGLU %DNUQ LON EXOXQGXX WDULK 0g  \OODUQD NDGDU GD\DQPDNWDGU
%DNU WDKPLQHQ 0g \OODUQGD $VXUODU GDKD VRQUD 5RPDOODU WDUDIQGDQ

105

, kltrel ve ticar aOYHULOHU QHWLFHVLQGH $V\D\D GDKD

LOHQPLWLU  'ROD\V\OD EDNU

VRQUDODUJLWPLROPDOGU<HUOHLNELUWRSOXP RODQ dLQOLOHULQLVH7UNOHUGHQGDKD|QFH


EDNU LOHGLNOHUL PXKDNNDNWU ]DWHQ .DJDUO 0DKPXG GD EDNU V|]FQ DoNODUNHQ
|QFHdLQSDUDVGHPHNWHVRQUDEDNUDQODPQYHUPHNWHGLU

(DLT-'=1 

%XQHGHQOHN|NHQLQHWRODUDNNHVWLULOHPH\HQEXV|]FQ7UNoH\HEHONLdLQFH\ROX\OD
JHoWLLGQOHELOLU

Clauson, VXNPV|]FQQN|NQsuk-ILLOLRODUDNYHUGLNWHQVRQUDV|]FQDQODPODU
]HULQGH GXUPX YH
LIDGHHWPLWLU

Et.

ED~U

DLTdeki

EDNU VXNPQ 0DUV JH]HJHQL DQODPQGD ROGXXQX

(ED: 811).

VR~XP

sz grubu,

.SoDN

7UNoHVL

PHWLQOHULQGHQ

Kitbl-idrkte

EDJUVDJDQ'HEHUDQ<OG]DoNODPDV\ODYHULOPHNWHGLU 7RSUDN 

Eski Trklerin MeULK 0DUV  JH]HJHQL\OH LOJLOL GQFHVL dLQGHNLQH EHQ]HPHNWH\GL


0DNDPJQH\XQVXUXDWHDG2RRW\XOWX] DWH\OG] PHYVLPL\D]JQG|QPYH

|OH YDNWL UHQJL N]O RQJXQX N]O N $WHLQ VLPJHVL RODUDN DWHL LFDW HGHQ YH
PDNDP6LQ\OG]QDGD0HULKH\DNQELUNDYUDPVD\O\RUGX

0HULK 0DUV VLODKODOSODURUGXODUYH |OP FH]DVYHUHQOHULWHPVLOHGHQ\|Q\OHEDW

gezegeni brkligH =KUH9HQV GHEHQ]HPHNWH\GL0HULKLQ(VNL7UNoHDGODU%DNU


sokum ve Krd idi. Merihe atfedilen N]O UHQNYH EDNUVRNXP EDNUGDQ RN WHPUHQL 
simgeleri, yine Kn UNQGDEXOXQPDNWDGU (VLQ 

0DUV JH]HJHQLQLQ (VNL 7UNoH DG RODQ

ba~U VR~um N]OONWD EDNUD EHQ]HU So~um,

(VNL 7UNoHGH ELU NDS YH\D NDSDN PDQDVQGD V|\OHQPL ROPDOGU

DLT, So~um

V|]F LoLQ X DoNODPD\ YHUPHNWHGLU %LU DDo SDUoDVGU NL oDP NR]DV HNOLQGH

NHVLOHUHN LoL R\XOXU ho WDUDIQGDQ GHOLQHUHN RNXQ ]HULQH NRQXU '/7 '=1 
  %X ELU VONO RN ROVD JHUHNWLU (VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVLQGH EX

yultuz 77 9,, V  HNOLQGH JHoHU KBde ise


HNOLQGHJHoPHNWHGLU

EDNU VRNQD \XOWX]

(gel 2002: 217).

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maden,_Elaz%C4%B1%C4%9F
106

szck

EDNU VRNUD

(KB / 2889, 4889)

urSEDUGD]UD~ orXQG\DQD
~
~
W|SGLQVDYOPba UVX una (KB / 4888).

2.2.4.3. krd
krd akrd (KB-'=1(' 
< T. *k-r--d : fiil kk-fiilden fiil yapma eki-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.
KB-'=1 

0HULK 0DUV \OG]

&ODXVRQ EX V|]FQ SUDWLN DPDoODU LoLQ 0DUV JH]HJHQL DQODPQGD NXOODQOGQ YH

KBQLQ

\D]DU WDUDIQGDQ LFDW HGLOGLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU

RabjuzGH
GHLQPLWLU

UDVWODQOGQD

YH

RabjuzQLQ

GH

krd

V|]F

V|]FQH ELU GH

KBGHQ

NRS\DODGQD

(ED: 738).

Mars gezegeni Krd DG\OD NXUDNON VLPJHVL RODQ KLGGHWOL ELU NLLQLQ \] RODUDN
GQOPHNWHGLU (VLQ    0HULK \OG] DVWURORMLGH GH VDYD KLGGHW NXUDNON
NDYUDPODUQNDUODPDNUDGU 7RSUDN 

Merih (Mars) gezegeninin N]OUHQJL7UNOHULQJ|]OHULQGHQNDoPDPWU$YUXSDGDEX


gezegene,

.UP] \OG]

denilir. Eski Trkler ise, Mars gezegenine bakU

GHUOHUGL7UNPLWRORMLVLYHGQFHVLEDNPQGDQ.XWXS\OG]\DQL

kum

VR

temr kazukla bir

EHQ]HUOLL YDUG $QDGROXGD 0DUVD <DOGUN

da derler. Bu da ok eski Trke bir

GH\LWLU .DUDKDQOODU oDQGD 7UNOHU 0DUVD

krd GHPH\H EDODPODUGU 7UNOHUH

J|UH 0DUV JH]HJHQL NRUNXQo YH DWHL LOH KHU H\L \DNDQ ELU JH]HJHQGLU gJHO 

206). bakU VRkum

DG GD EXQGDQ GROD\ YHULOPL ROPDOGU

JH]HJHQLLoLQ|\OHGL\RUGX

ni krdNHOGLN|NVQ\RUU
ayu~a bu ba~VD\DDUP~XUU (KB / 133).

107

Kutadgu Bilig, Mars

2.2.4.4. oot
< T. oot : isim kk.
Mars gezegeni (TT VII: 111).
oot yultuz aram ai prvabadirpt, urrabarapat, rivadi toquz yDQJD
barar (TT VII 1/6).

2.2.5. Jpiter
z

2.2.5.1. bar asuvadi

barzasuvadi abrazaswadi abr(a)zasiwadi (EUTS 1993: 22; ETG 2000: 270).


< Skr. brhaspati -SLWHU \OG] (876    0WHUL JH]HJHQ  ETG 2000:
270).
-lar- lUVlU DGLW\-a garx-qa st gr som-a garx-TD \RUXW-OX D

angarak garx-TD \DO EXUoDT |]-lNL D EXG JDU[-TD \D-O D


r
barxasuva i garx-qa VW NU JDU[-TD \D-O D DQLoDU JDU[-qa
-

-qa knit z-lNL D

\DO EXUoDT TXQGX EXUoDT |] lNL D UD[X JDU[

kitu garx-TDEDQWTDWONnit z-lNLD (TT VII 16/12).


2.2.5.2. erentz
eren tz aerentir (DLT-'=1.%-'=1 
< T. er-en-tz : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.

7HUD]L \OG] 0WHUL -SLWHU  \OG]

(DLT-'=1   .%-'=1 

157).

7HUD]LEXUFXLOH -SLWHUJH]HJHQLoHLWOLND\QDNODUGDELUELULQH NDUWUOPWU%XQXQHQ


L\L \RUXPXQX %URFNHOPDQQ \DSPWU (VNL 7UNoHGHNL

Erentz V|] \OG] RODUDN

-SLWHUL EXUo RODUDN GD 7HUD]L EXUFX LoLQ V|\OHQPLWLU -SLWHU PDQDVQD .DUD NX

108

ile

\HU GHLWLUPLWLU .DUD NX EXUo RODUDN 7HUD]L YH \OG] RODUDN GD -SLWHU LoLQ
V|\OHQPLROPDOLGL gJHO 

Szck hem DLTde hem de KBde terazi burcu olarak evrilmektedir. Clauson ise
V|]FQLNL]OHUEXUFXDQODPQGDROPDVJHUHNWLL]HULQGHGXUPDNWDGU

Clauson, Eski Trke Astronomi Terimleri

EDONO PDNDOHVLQGH 

erentz

V|]F

KDNNQGD X ELOJLOHUL DNWDUPDNWDGU %X \OG]Q JHUoHN NLPOLL EHOOL GHLOGLU YH
KDUIOHQGLULOPHVL GH \DQOON LoHUPHNWHGLU

DLTGH EX LEDUH LNL NHOLPH LOH oHYULOPLWLU

Eren HUNHNOHU RODUDN oHYULOPL YH manzilul-qamar RODUDN JHoPLWLU %X V|]FN
ELOGLLP NDGDU\OD

DLTde bir kez gemektedLU D\Q ELOJL yultuzun evirisinde de

J|UOPHNWHGLU$VOQGDoQFD\NRQD OXQDUPDQVLRQ 

iolaGUYHEXUoODUQ\HGLQFLVL

de gamaGU %X LEDUH KBde 139. beyitte ve Rabguzde de gemektedir; ancak burada
\HGLQFL GHLO oQF EXUo RODUDN J|]NPHNWHGLU EDUH $UDW QHULQGH

erentir 

\D]OPWU EX ELU KDWDGU %X \DQOON

erentir olarak

GLHU ND\QDNODUGDNL \D]OODUD

X\PDPDNWDGU%XQXXHNOLGHJ|VWHUHELOLUL]

6DWU

)HUJDQDQVKDV

Kahire nsh.

9L\DQDQVKDV

139

e:re:n di:z

yok

eren tez

5676

ere:n: ti:z

ere:n ti:r

(oti teg)

6221

ere:n ti:z

ere:n qi:r

eren tez

KBQLQ .DKLUH QVKDVQGDQ DOQDQ NoN DOQWODUD J|UH \D]DUQ NHOLPH\L \D] HNOL
eren tizdir; ama bunun eren tzQER]XOPXKkOLROPDVGDPXKWHPHOGLU%XGDEL]H
PVWHQVLKOHULQ KDWDO LVWLQVDKODU \DSDELOGLL L]OHQLPLQL YHUPHNWHGLU (HU 7UN \OG]
LVLPOHUL D\Q HNLOOHUL OXQDU PDQVLRQ  YH EXUo VLPJHOHUL DUDVQGD WDP ELU EHQ]HUOLN
ROPDGQ NDEXO HGHUVHN

T II D 79daki bilgi ve KBGHNL UHIHUDQVODUOD X]ODODELlir;

oQN EXQODUQ KHSVL J|N\]QQ D\Q E|OP\OH DOkNDOODU $PD

DLTdeki bilgiyle

X]ODDPD]ODU oQN   YH  EXUoODU ELUELULQGHQ oRN D\U GQ\RUODU %HONL GH
.DJDUv KDQJL \OG]Q QH DQODPD JHOGLLQL WDP RODUDN ELOPL\RUGX YH EHONL GH

erkek/iQVDQ HLWOLL
DOPDG

YH\D VHYL\H NDYUDPQ WHUD]LQLQ LNL NHIHVLQLQ VHYL\HVL RODUDN

Erentzn 2. ve 3. burlardaki yeri, onu takip eden arjU LOH WXWDUOGU (HU

109

LQVDQ VHYL\HVL HLWOLL NDYUDP

Alfa ve OrionGDNL KHUKDQJL ELU SDUODN \OG] JLEL WHN

biU \OG]GDQ oRN WDNP\OG] ROGXXQX LPD HGL\RUVD VRUXQ EDWD J|UOG NDGDU ]RU
GHLOGLU

eren tz ve aruq taqIDUNO\]\OODUGDYHIDUNOFRUDI\DODUGDNXOODQOPD\Q

DQODPNDUOD\DQV|]FNOHUGLU &ODXVRQ 

Clauson, etimoloji szlQGH LVH NHOLPH\L eren (men) ve tz DOLNH  HNOLQGH ELU
ELUOHLN LVLP RODUDN DoNODP YH V|]FH

KBGH LNL]OHU EXUFX DQODPQ \NOHPL

DLTGHNLoHYLULOHULQLVH\DQOROGXXQXV|\OHPLWLU(ED: 237).
na gelen er LVPL ROGXXQX -en ekinin

%L] LVH NHOLPH N|NQQ HU HUNHN \LLW DQODP

GH VDGDNDW YH NXYYHWOHQGLUPH DQODP NDWDQ HVNL oRNOXN HNL  *DEDLQ    HN
ROGXXQX GQ\RUX] 6|]FQ VRQXQGDNL

-tz eki ise sekendiz Satrn, yiltiz kk,

temel, esas, kunduz kunduz, kntz gndz, savG] \D]O YH V|]O HGHEL\DW
\DOG]

alevli, parlak rneklerindeki gibi isimden isim yapan bir ektir.

\DUXGEDVD\OGU~

arjUELOH

tizilti erentir zin belgle (KB / 5676).






~
~

ara

~

yulduz

< T. ~ara + ~X + *ya-l-tuz : isim kk + isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma ekiisimden isim yapma eki.

0WHUL \OG] %N]

erentz (DLT-'=1    -SLWHU JH]HJHQL .%-'=1

1979: 223).
ara

~X DG DOWQGD PWHUL \OG]QGDQ V|] HGHQ (V

ki Trke iki beyit, bu gezegeni

]DPDQEDNPQGDQELUPL]DQ |Oo XQVXUXRODUDNWDQWPDNWDGU%XEH\LWHJ|UH\HLO

PDYLUHQNWHILUX]HGHQELU NXEEHJLELGQOHQ J|NWHEH\D]\HLPWDODUQDEHQ]HWLOHQ

ara ~X gezegeni, gn ve gecenLQPL]DQQG]HQOHPHNWH\GL

\OG]ODUDUDVQGD

<DUDWW\DOoH
6DYXUGUQJND

110

~
~
Tizildi ara X
Tn-kn ze yrkenr .DJDUvYDUDN 

$QFDNXYDUNL.DJDUv

ara ~XXQ7UNLOOHULQGHVDEDKJ|]NWQ ND\GHWPHNOH

PL]DQ J|UHYLQL \OODUD GHLO JQG] YH JHFHQLQ GRODQPQD EDODPDNWDGU (VLQ
 $\UFD7UNOHUGHED]\UWFNXODU*|N7DQUVQQWHPVLOFLVLVD\OPDNWD\G
gUQHLQ 7UNOHUGH

kuzgun *|N 7DQUVQQ NXX\GX 0WHUL Jpiter)

ara ~Xtu (kartal).

.]

JH]HJHQLQLQ DG

l-VDJ]JDQ VDNVDDQ DGQELU\OG] WDNPQDYHUPLWL (Esin

 %XGXUXP(VNL7UNOHUGHED]NXODUQNXWVDOVD\OGQGDJ|VWHUPHNWHGLU

%XJH]HJHQDG

Kutadgu BiligGHLVHXHNLOGHJHoPHNWHGLU
~

ba~a krdi dn ara

~
X

tojup

~RSDNHOGL\LUGLQ\DOQWHJEROXS

(KB / 5675).

2.2.5.4. oay
< T. o-ay : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
Jpiter gezegeni (KB / 132).
Kutadgu Biligde geen ve -SLWHUJH]HJHQLDQODPQGDNXOODQODQEXV|]FNKutadgu
BiligLQGL]LQLQGHEXDQODP\OD\HUDOPDPDNWDGU
o V|]F VD EDW \|Q DQODPQGDGU -SLWHU DQODPQGDNL oay V|]FQQ
kk bizce o LVPLGLU &ODXVRQ HWLPRORML V|]OQGH EX V|]FQ -SLWHU JH]HJHQL
DQODPQGD ROGXXQX V|]FQ

KBGH JHoWLLQL DLTde bu szck iin

NDUD NX

sz

JUXEXQXQ NXOODQOGQ V|\OHPHNWH NHOLPHQLQ N|NHQL KDNNQGD LVH KHUKDQJL ELU L]DKWD
EXOXQPDPDNWDGU

(ED: 191).

-SLWHU(VNL7UNOHULQWDNYLPELOJLOHULQGH|QHPOLELUUROR\QDUG-SLWHULQ(VNL7UNoH
DG

erentz idi. XI \]\OGDQ VRQUD 7UNOHU EX JH]HJHQH oay GHPH\H EDODPODUGU

Bugn Anadolunun birok yerinde bu gezegene ay veya ey DG YHULOPHVL GH
111

]HULQGH GXUXOPDV JHUHNHQ |QHPOL ELU PHVHOHGLU 2Q LNL KD\YDQO 7UN WDNYLPL RQ LNL
JH]HJHQ EXUFXQ G|Q VUHOHULQH J|UH NXUXOPXWX -SLWHULQ G|Q VUHVL GH RQ LNL
EXUFXQ

G|QOHULQH

\DNQG

YHUPLOHUGLU gJHO 

%X

EDNPGDQ

7UNOHU

-SLWHUH

E\N

ELU

Kutadgu BiligEX\OG]LoLQ|\OHGL\RUGX

DQxGDEDVDEROGLNLQo

oay

bir evde ~DOURQDrQLNLD\ (KB / 132).

2.2.5.5. tai-sui
< in. tai-suei0WHUL -SLWHU \OG](EUTS 1993: 144).
NQ \RU DL |OWoL lUNOLJ

tai-sui VDU RUXulu LUSL] TXGUXT

\XPX]XOX EL WUOJ WRSUDT lUNOLJL \LU WlxUL TDQ VROWXQ N|N OXX
RxGXQ DT EDUV NQWQ T]O VD]DQ NLGLQ TDUD \ODQ DOW TDS
\DUDPD]

(TT VI 92).

2.2.5.6. XUP]W
< Sogd. xwrmzt Jpiter (ETY 1987: 876; DTSl: 614).

\UQ WD XUP]W W|]OJ RO VDUJ WD QDJG W|]OJ RO NDUD WD NLZDQ
W|]OJROWLJWDPDJW|]OJ$oNWD-SLWHUDVOQGDGU6DUWD9HQV
HVDVGU .DUD WD 6DWUQ HVDVGU 6DU NUP] WD $\Q HVDVGU

(ETY 1987: 250).


j

2.2.5.7. \ a

a a\ja

< T. -ja : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

0WHUL -SLWHU \OG]

EUTS 1993: 191).

112

|QHP

a

1LDQ\DQ EX V|]FQ (W jDo  \j

HNOLQH GHLQGLNWHQ VRQUD DDo WDKWD

a V|]FQQ N|NQ

DQODPQ YHUPLWLU 1LDQ\DQ    &ODXVRQ jDo  \j

ismine gtrmektedir (ED: 79). Marcel Erdal da -ja ekinin

ELWNL DQODPQGDNL

LVLPGHQ LVLP \DSDQ ELU HN ROGXXQX V|\OHPL YH j

a |UQHLQL YHUHUHN &ODXVRQXQ EX

HWLPRORMLVLQHNDWOPWU (UGDO 7LHW]HGHV|]OQGHDDoV|]QDoNODUNHQ


EX J|UOHUL EHQLPVHPLWLU 7LHW]H

2002: 109). Bugnk

a, bilhassa Uygurcada y protezi ile

\j

a

DDo V|]F (VNL 7UNoHGH

HNOLQGHGLU 6|]FN

DLTde de bu

HNLOGHGLU%XV|]FQDDoDQODPGQGD-SLWHUJH]HJHQLDQODPGDYDUGU

\ D

yultuz DELoL LUDYDQ LUDYDQ W|UW \DQJD VlUlU LUDYDQ-ta

srr (TT VII 1/32).

buu ksk-Jl VDQO T LSTDQ-O VXSUDT DOrXQ TXWOX NU JUD[


ilnr urrabarbt yulduz-OX LW \O-T |UrQPL EL JUD[-ODU \RU-
, suv, \D, alrun, topraq skiz (TT VII 1/78).

VDQJRORRW

2.2.6. Satrn
2.2.6.1. kivan
kivan akiwan (EUTS 1993: 76; ETY 1987: 813).
< Sogd. NZQ6DWUQ\OG] (876(7< 

\UQ WD XUP]W W|]OJ RO VDUJ WD QDJG W|]OJ RO NDUD WD

kiwan

W|]OJROWLJWDPDJW|]OJ$oNWD-SLWHUDVOQGDGU6DUWD9HQV
HVDVGU .DUD WD 6DWUQ HVDVGU 6DU NUP] WD $\Q HVDVGU

(ETY 1987: 250).


2.2.6.2. sekentir
< T. *sek-en-tir : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.
< T. *sek-(g)en-tir : fiil kk-ILLOGHQLVLP\DSPDHNL VIDW-fiil eki)-isimden isim yapma
eki.

113

=KDO 6DWUQ \OG]

KB-'=1 

Clauson, An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-thirteenth-Century Turkishte V|]FQ


6DWUQ JH]HJHQL DQODPQGD ROGXXQX V|\OHGLNWHQ VRQUD
ROGXXQD GHLQPLWLU 6|]FQ VRQ VHVLQLQ ED]HQ

sekentirLQ \D]PQQ SKHOL

-r bazen de -z LOH \D]OGQ GLHU

gezegenlere gre en yksekte sekentirLQ EXOXQGXXQX RQXQ  \O YH  D\ ER\XQFD ELU
EXUoWD NDOGQ EHOLUWPLWLU $\UFD EX V|]FQ 7UNoH HWLPRORMLVLQLQ \DSOPDVQQ
PPNQ ROPDGQ V|\OHPHNWH YH V|]FNOH LOJLOL KHUKDQJL ELU N|NHQ \RUXPX GD
\DSPDPDNWDGU

(ED: 822).

Brockelmann sekentir HNOLQLQ sekendizH G|QP ROGXXQX EHOLUWHUHN EXUDGDNL HNLQ


yultuz, kntz, muntuz kelimelerinde grlen isimden isim yapma eki olan +tIz eki
ROGXXQDGLNNDWoHNPHNWHGLU 7RSUDN 

%X NHOLPHQLQ HWLPRORMLVL LNL HNLOGH RODELOLU GL\H GQ\RUX] %LULQFLVL


V|]FQGHQ KDUHNHWOH

erentz

sekentir NHOLPHVLQLQ GH DQDORML \ROX\OD WUHWLOPL RODELOHFHL

GQOHELOLU DQFDN WDULKv ND\QDNODUGD

*sek

LVLP N|NQH UDVWODQODPDPWU %X

n kknn *sek- ILLOL RODELOHFHLGLU %X

NHOLPH\OH LOJLOL LNLQFL J|UP] LVH V|]F


KkOGHGQOUVHNHOLPHGHNL

-en eki, -gen HNOLQGHQRUWDKHFHGPHVL\OHROXPX ELU

-fiilden sonra -tir HNLQLQ JHOPHVL GQGUFGU )XQGD

VIDW ILLO HNLGLU )DNDW VIDW


7RSUDN

NRQX\OD

LOJLOL

oDOPDVQGD

V|]F

EHOLUWWLLPL]LNLQFLJ|U]HULQGHGXUPXWXU

n kkyle ilgili olarak bizim de

(Toprak 2005: 23).

bularda e stn sekentir\RUU


LNL\OVHNL]D\ELUHYGH~DOU

(KB / 131).

DQLoDU
DQLoDUa

saniar (ETG 2000: 295; EUTS 1993: 129).

< Skr. anaicara Zhal (Satrn) gezegeni (ETG 2000: 295).

DQLoDU

garx-qa \DO EXUoDT TXQGX EXUoDT |]-lNL D

16/13).

114

(TT VII

2.2.6.4. topraq
< T. topur-(a)k : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki (kltme eki).
Satrn gezegeni (TT VII: 119).

dDGDGL\DOHNWOHUGHGH

topurN|NWRSUDNDQODP\ODVDNODQPWU&ODXVRQDJ|UHEX

szck topra- kurumak fiilinden -k HNL\OH \DSOPWU ('   'RHUIHUH J|UH EX
szck, Trke top kknden -rak HNL\OH NXUXOPX ELU WUHYGLU /LJHWL LVH EX V|]F
Ana Altayca yoluyla toz ELoLPLQH EDODPWU 2QD J|UH $QD 7UNoH\H toprak ve toz
RODUDNJHoPLWLU5DPVWHGW7UNoH

toprakV|]FQ0RROFD towusun toz biimiyle

ELUOHWLUPL GDKD VRQUD 0RROFD WRE

0RROFDWRXUDj

rajQ

7UNoH

toprakWDQ

JHOGLLQL \D]P

biimini de Trke toprakV|]\OHNDUODWUPWU (UHQ 

topraq yultuz mul yana [mu]l-ta mul mul yana [mu]l-ta mul mul mul
ar (TT VII 1/58).

DOW\DQJDEDr

115

*QH
%XE|OPGH*QHLOHLOJLOLWHULPOHULQFHOHQPLWLU

*QH
*|NELOLP

7HULPOHUL

6|]OQGH

*QH

V|]F

KHU

JQ

GRXS

EDWWQ

J|UGP] HQ SDUODN J|N FLVPL HNOLQGH WDQPODQPDNWDGU .]OUPDN  

Eski Trkede *QHDQODPQDJHOHQYH*QHLOHLOJLOLWHULPOHUXQODUGU


3.1.1. aditya
< Skr. GLW\D*QH ETG   ELU \OG]DQODPQGDROXS*QHLLIDGHHGHU
cuma gn (EUTS 1993: 3).
-lar- lUVlU adity-a garx-qa st gr som-a garx-TD \RUXt-OX D

angarak garx-TD

\DO EXUoDT |] lNL D EXG JDU[ TD \D O  D

barxasuvari garx-TD VW NU JDU[-TD \D-O D DQLoDU JDU[-qa


-

-qa knit z-lNL D

\DO EXUoDT TXQGX EXUoDT |] lNL D UD[X JDU[

kitu garx-TDEDQWTDWONnit z-lNLD (TT VII 16/10).


~

3.1.2.


X\D

< T. ky-H : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.


-

*QH (876 NR\XVFDN*QHLQLGGHWOHYXUPDV '/7 '=1

390).

%N]NUNQH

bu

NX\D RO NLLQL XVWJDQ %X *QH LGGHWOL VFDN DGDP oRN VWU

susatU (DLT I, 155).

NQH

< T. ky-H : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.

116

*QHJQ

(IrkBit 2004: 56).

NQH V|]F PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGH AzT.


zb.

, Trkm. gn, Tat.

NX\D

, Kzk. kn .UJ kn,

JQH %DN NR\D

, YUyg. kn,

NR\D

, Yak. kn, uv.

NX\D

$vel

biimindedir.
Clauson

in kknn kn LVPL ROGXXQX EHOLUWPHNWHGLU ('   Rsnen,

NQH

V|]F NQl HNOLQGH LQFHOHPLWLU 5lVlQHQ    1LDQ\DQ JQH

sznn

gnLVPLQGHQJHOGLLQL\D]PDNWDGU 1LDQ\DQ 
Biz ise, NQHV|]FQQN|NQQ(Wky-\DQPDN (876 ILLOL\OHLOLNLOL
ROGXXQX GQPHNWH\L] *QHLQ GH \DNFOQGDQ KDUHNHWOH EL]H J|UH EX V|]FQ

kk, Eski Trkedeki ky-

ILLOL ROPDOGU 8\JXUFDGD EX ILLOLQ WUHYOHUL

knk-

tamamen yanmak, knr- yakmak, ky- yanmak, kyir- yakmak (EUTS 1993:
  HNOLQGHGLU %X GQFHPL]L

DLTGH GH JHoHQ \LQH *QH DQODPQGDNL NX\D


-

V|]FQQ YDUO GHVWHNOHPHNWHGLU '/7 '=1    8\JXUFDGD


D]ODU ROPDN ]HUH LNL D] YDUGU 6|]JHOLPL
D]QGD

koy koyundur. Bize gre

D]ODUOD DoNODQDELOLU %X V|]FN

n ve y

n D]QGD NR koyun olan szck y

NQH V|]FQQ LNLOL ELoLPLQLQ YDUO GD EX

n D]QGD NQH, y D]QGD NX\D HNOLQGH JHOLPL

ROPDOGUGL\HGQ\RUX]6|]FQJHOLLPLN\HaNX\DaNQHaJQHHNOLQGH
ROPDOGU (VNL 7UNoHGH JHQHOOLNOH NQH

yerine kn

V|]FQQ NXOODQOGQ

grmekteyiz.

7UNOHULQGQFHVLQGH*QHKHUGDLPELULQFLVUD\DOPWUoQN7UNOHUKHUoDGD
*QHOL \HUOHUGH \DDPODUG dLQ YH +LQGLVWDQGD ROGXX JLEL J|NOHUL EXOXWODUOD NDSO
GHLOGL 06 WH 8\JXUODU 0DQL GLQLQL NDEXO HGLQFH \DYD \DYD $\ GD E\N ELU
|QHPND]DQPD\DEDODPW%XQXQODEHUDEHU+XQODU]DPDQQGDKHP*QHHKHPGH
$\D D\U D\U VD\J J|VWHULOGLNWHQ VRQUD NXUEDQODU NHVLOGLLQL GH ELOL\RUX] 7UNOHUGH
*QHGRXQXQ$\GDEDWQQVHPEROLGL gJHO 

117

Trklerde genel olarak, "*QH-Ana" ve "Ay-Baba

GH\LPOHUL NXOODQO\RUGX %X

VHEHSOHEWQPDVDOYHHIVDQHOHUGHJQHLQGLLYHD\QGHHUNHNRODUDNUROR\QDGQ

gryoruz.

*QP]GH $QDGROXQXQ ED] \|UHOHULQGH GH KDON *QHLQ GLL $\Q

HUNHNROGXXQDYH$\Q*QHHkNROGXXQDLQDQU%XLQDQDJ|UH$\\DQGD
QXU WRSX JLEL ELU RODQP *|N 7DQUQQ N] *QH KDQPD kN ROPX RQX
EDEDVQGDQLVWHPL*QHN]LLQIDUNQDYDUQFDQXUOX\]QGHNLQNYOFPODUQ
$\Q J|]OHULQH EDWUDUDN RUDGDQ NDoP $\ RODQQ *QH KDQPQ NDoPDVQGDQ
LoOHQGLLQL J|UHQ *|N 7DQU GHUKDO N]Q WXWXS DOPDVQ HPUHWPL $\ GD N] WXWPDN
LoLQ KHPHQ \HULQGHQ IUOD\DUDN *QHLQ DUNDVQD WDNOP YH NRYDODPD\D EDODP 2
JQEXJQKkOk*QHLQSHLQGHQNRXSGXUXUPX WXWWXXJQPXUDGQDHUHUPL%X
DQODW EL]H \HU YH *|N 7DQU LQDQF L]OHULQLQ KkOHQ KDON DUDVQGD \DDPDNWD ROGXXQX
J|VWHUPHNWHGLU *|NGD    gQ $V\D NOWUOHULQGH GH JQH GLL YH D\ GD
HUNHNWL 7DELv RODUDN NDUONO WHVLUOHULQ QH ]DPDQ PH\GDQD JHOGLLQL NHVWLUPHN oRN

gtr.
l olarak grlr.

$OWD\7UNOHULQGHJHQHORODUDNJQHVFDQYHD\GDVRXXQVHPER

QVDQODUQ JQG]OHUL VFDNWDQ \DQDUNHQ JHFHOHUL GH VRXNWDQ PHOHUL EX LQDQQ
GRPDVQD\RODoDQHQ|QHPOLVHEHSOHULQGHQELULROVDJHUHNWLU

(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)
kneki nelk togay?
*QHWHGXUX\RU

NQHNH

olurur ol

.RYDV QLoLQ GRQVXQ"

IrkBit 57).

3.1.4. kn
< T. kn : isim kk.

*Q*QH

(ETY 1987: 816).

Et. kn V|]F PRGHUQ OHKoHOHULQ oRXQGD GD EX KkOL\OH EXOXQPDNWDGU $]7 gn,
kn, Kzk. kn.UJkn, zb. kn, Tat. kn, Trkm. gn, YUyg. kn.

%DN

118

Hamilton kn V|]F LoLQ E\N LKWLPDOOH D\Q DQODPGDNL 7RKDUFD kom ya da kaum
NHOLPHVLQGHQWUHPLWLUGHPHNWHGLU +DPLOWRQ %L]HJ|UH EXV|]F

k Trke

kkenlidir. kn V|]F (VNL 7UNoHGH KHP JQ KHP GH *QH DQODPODUQGD
NXOODQOPWU

rr altun-OXOLP-lri bdiz-lig bilmi-lri kngVXUWUJWRQODU \DOWUWXU  TDPD RQ ROXU $OWQ LOHPHOL GLUHNOHUL UHVLPOL
VWXQODU "  JQHL J]HO NRNXOX JL\LPOHU  SDUOGDWU

Toplam (olarak) on (Hsan Tsang s.15/54).


3.1.4.1. knli tnli
< T. kn-lig + tn-lig : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki + isim kk-isimden isim
yapma eki.
Geceli, gndzl (ETY 1987: 816).
yogaru

V \RUS

tnli knli \LWL |GNH VXEV] NHoGLP ordu ile

\U\SJHFHOLJQG]O\HGL|G " GHVXVX]JHoWLP (7< 

3.1.4.2. knlik
< T. kn-lig : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
Gnlk (ETY 1987: 816).

ELQ \OON WPHQ

knlik bitigimin bHOJPLQDQGD\DV WDND\DUDWWGP

%LQ \OON RQ ELQ JQON NLWDEHPL DOkPHWLPL RUDGD G] WDD
\DSWUWWP (7< 

3.1.4.3. kntz
kntz akndz (T.Tekin 1988: 152; AH 1992: XLI).
< T. kn-tz : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

119

Gndz, gndzn (T.Tekin 1988: 152).


Et. kn isminden -tz HNL\OH WUHWLOPL kntz V|]F 7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGH GH D\Q
DQODP\OD\DQLJQQVDEDKWDQDNDPDNDGDUVUHQD\GQONE|OPJHFHNDUWRODUDN
NXOODQOPDNWDGU LQDVL 7HNLQ EXUDGDNL

-tz HNLQLQ 0RROFDda bulunma hli ekinin

NDOSODPDV ROGXXQX V|\OHPHNWHGLU NQG] 

kn+tz) (TekinMaitr 1976: 295).

$KPHW.DUDGRDQGD|]HODGODULQFHOHGLL\NVHNOLVDQVWH]LQGHEXV|]F

gndz <

kn--t--z: isim kk isimden fiil yapan ek fiilden fiil yapan ek (ettirgenlik eki)
\DUGPF VHV

fiilden isim yapan ek

HNOLQGH WDKOLO HWPLWLU .DUDGRDQ oDOPDVQQ

GHYDPQGD NRQX\OD LOJLOL RODUDN XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU

Bu kelime kn kkne

nunda da tekraU LVLP \DSOPWU

GD\DQPDNWDGU %X N|N GDKD VRQUD ILLO \DSOP HQ VR

Eren, kelimeyi kn N|NQH J|WUP YH dz HNL\OH WHNUDU LVLP \DSPWU (UHQ 
167). Fakat Trkede isimden isim yapan dz HNLQLQ EDND |UQHNOHULQL EXOPDN SHN
PPNQ GHLOGLU .DUDGRDQ    .DUDGRDQQ EX J|UQ GRUX

kabul

etmek iin knt-ILLOLQLQYDUOQWHVSLWHWPHNJHUHNLUNLE|\OHELUILLOWDULKvYHPRGHUQ


OHKoHOHUGHEXOXQPDPDNWDGU%L]EXUDGDNL

-tz ekinin isimden isim yapan Trke bir ek

ROGXXQX GQ\RUX] %X GQFHPL]L GH

yultuz \OG] JH]HJHQ erentiz Jpiter,

sekendiz Satrn, yiltiz kk, temel, esas, kunduz kunduz,

VDYG] \D]O YH V|]O

edebiyat, \DOG]DOHYOLSDUODNYE|UQHNOHUGHVWHNOHPHNWHGLU5lVlQHQGHV|]OQGH
kn+tzHNOLQGHLQFHOHPLWLU 5lVlQHQ 

EXV|]F

trN ERGXQ oQ WQ XGPDGP kntz ROXUPDGP 7UN KDON LoLQ
JHFHX\XPDGPJQG]RWXUPDGP 77HNLQ 

3.1.4.4. kn kning
< T. kn + kn-i-n-g : isim kk + isim kk-oQF WHNOLN DKV L\HOLN HNL-zamir
nsi-\DNODPDKkOLHNL>NDOSODP@ .
Her gn (EUTS 1993: 82).
ym kn kning RODUQQJ DP O \DYD N|QJOL \DUD \XPD VDY
szi bilg biligi (M III 20).

120

3.1.4.5. kndm
< T. kn-dm : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

*QHJLEL

(ETG  *QHOL ETG 2000: 46).

bi WQJUL NoL NLP kndm  GLQGDUODU QQJ lW |]LQGlQ TXUWXO (M III
17/21).
3.1.4.6. kndri
< T. kn-dr-i : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-oQF WHNOLN DKV L\HOLN HNL
>NDOSODP@

Cenupta (ETG 2000: 285).

%X V|]FN KDNNQGD LQDVL 7HNLQ

dri, kidirti, strdi vb. kelimelerde de grlen

WXUWUHNLQLQ0RROFDGDNLEXOXQPDKkOLHNLROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLU NUNQG]

kn+tz 

$UDWUPDF

kn-dr-i

V|]FQGHNL

iQLQ

LVH

L\HOLN

HNL

ROGXXQX

GQPHNWHGLU 7HNLQ0DLWU    %L] EX HNLQ 7UNoH ROGXXQX GQPHNWH\L]
%LOLQGLLJLEL7UNoHGH

-r- a -z- birbirinin yerine geebilen seslerdir: T. \OG] > uv.

soldor gibi. Bizce buradaki -dr eki de -dz eki gibi isimden isim yapan Trke bir
ektir.
3.1.4.7. knt
knint aknt (ETG 2000: 285; Hsan 1975: 156).
< T. kn-t : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
Her gn (ETG 2000: 285; Hsan 1975: 156).
G-ODU \ODG-lar kntNLL W|UWQo D\ W|UW \ H J L UPL-kw tolp
rdnde

WD\Q WODU DODWODU +HU JQ  NLL G|UGQF D\Q RQ G|

btn rahip(ler) (Hsan Tsang s. 48/74).

121

3.1.4.8. kntmk
< T. kn-te-m-ek (< k) : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma ekiisimden isim yapma eki.
Her gn (ETG 2000: 285).
Bkz. TT. I. not 160

LNL WR\Q |WQ WHJLQU PHQ NL

m kntemek meni evim-WH DDQ]-unlar

NL UkKLS LVWL\RUXP KHU JQ EHQLP HYLPGH \HVLQOHU 7HNLQ0DLWU

25/16).
~

3.1.5. yaru

< T. *ya-r-u-~ : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim
yapma eki.

$\GQ SDUODN

(h 1998: 200) N D\GQON ,UN%LW    *QH OTG 2003:

258); nXUOXDDDGDUQXUDH\LOLNHVDVQDPHQVXS ho+LN 

&ODXVRQ V|]FQ N|NQQ


V|]FQN|NQ

yaru- ROGXXQX V|\OHPHNWHGLU ('   LQDVL 7HNLQ ise

*ya- fiiline kadar gtrmektedir (TekinMaitr 1976: 318,319).

Szck 2X].de arukHNOLQGHJHoPHNWHGLU\DUN!oDUXN 2X]. 


ang irde bolduk-GDRX]NDDQ-QXQJNXUNDQ--DNQGHJELU aruk
kirdi7DQDDUQFD2X].DDQQoDGUQD*QHJLELELUNJLUGL
2X].

139).

yaruk LOH LOJLOL GLHU V|]FNOHU XQODUGU yarumak


yarutmak

$\GQODWPDN

SDUODWPDN

3DUOGDPDN

(TekinMaitr 1976: 505), y(a)ru lu

j
,NO SDUODN EH\D]

123), yaru suz ,NV]EXODQN(ETG 2000: 309).

122

(IrkBit 2004: 63),

(AY II 1991: 123), yartlamak

WPDN
~

$\GQODQPDN

(AY II 1991:

WDx WDxODUG XGX\LU\DUXG XGX NQWXJGNDPDJ ]H

yaruk EROW WLU

DIDN V|NW YH \HU D\GQODQG YH *QH GRGX +HU H\LQ ]HUL
D\GQONROGXGHU

IrkBit 26).

~
\DX

\DX~a\D~

< T. *ya--u-~ : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim
yapma eki.
(

3DUODND\GQ h NSDUOW 7HNLQ0DLWU *QH

(KB-'=1

1979: 530).
Clauson,V|]FQ N|NQQ\DX- ROGXXQX V|\OHPHNWHGLU ('   LQDVi Tekin ise
V|]FQ N|NQ

tahmini bir *ya- fiiline kadar gtrmektedir (TekinMaitr 1976:

318,319). 6|] NRQXVX NHOLPH EXJQ GH DQODP ND\EQD XUDP KkOL\OH ED] OHKoHOHUGH
ve Trkiye Trkesinde NHNOLQGH\DDPDNWDGU

EXODUGDHxDOWQEX\DOo~

\D

yoUU

birle utru ba~VDWROU (KB / 137).

\DXN LOH LOJLOL GLHU V|]FNOHU XQODUGU \DXPDN 3DUODPDN PDN

(TekinMaitr

1976: 505), \DXWPDN,WPDN AY 1994: 798), \DXNVX],NV] AY 1994: 798).

*QHLQ'RXX

3.2.1. iir
ingir aiir aimir(EUTS 1993: 64; ETG 2000: 275).
< T. iir : isim kk.

7DQDIDNIHFLU (876 DODFDNDUDQON

123

ETG 2000: 275).

VDTQoD\XELUlOLP

ingirRXU-WDWDGQVQJDU (TT V 8/76).

3.2.2. irte
irte airt art apUWH 2X]. ETG 2000: 275; AH 1992: 184).
< T. ir-te : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

(UWHVDEDK 2X]. HUNHQ

ETG 2000: 275); erken vakit (AH 1992: 184).

dang irde bolduk-GD RX] NDDQ N|UGL 7DQ DDUQFD 2X] .DDQ
J|UG 2X]. 

bu mal kelse erte barur baz kie

%X PDO VDEDK JHOLUVH DNDP \LQH

gider.
j

3.2.3. kn to

~

XV

< T. kn + toju-V~: isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.

*QGRXVX

(ETY 1987: 816).

7UNOHULoLQ\OG]ODU YHELOKDVVD*QHYH$\JHQHOOLNOH FDQOELU YDUONRODUDNWHODNNv


HGLOPLWLU %XQX V|]Q HWWLLPL] J|NVHO FLVLPOHULQ LON J|UOG DQGD V|\OHQHQ

GRPDN

ILLOLQGHQ

DQO\RUX]

1LWHNLP

*QHLQ

LON

GRGXX

GHQLOPHNWHGLU%XQDNDUQ7UNOHU*QHYH$\Q|OPQGH
NQEDWW

DQGD

kn tojG

n sz etmezler; bu durum

, D\EDWWHNOLQGHLIDGHHGLOLU
ilger

NQ WXJVNND ENOL NDJDQND WHJL VOH\ ELUPL 'RXGD JQ

GRXVXQGD %NOL KDNDQQD NDGDU VHIHU HGLYHUPLOHU 77HNLQ 

38).

j
3.2.3.1. kn to PYDNW
kn tojakn tuj

124

toj-

< T. kn + tojPYDNW : isim kk + fiil kk-ILLOGHQLVLP\DSPDHNL VIDW-fiil eki)


+ isim kk.

*QHLQGRX]DPDQVDEDK

AtaKuran 2004: 511).

toj ILLOL LOH LOJLOL RODUDN +DPLOWRQ QO RGDQ oRN X\D \DNQGU GHPHNWHGLU 'RHUIHU
buna dayanarak Tacike

WXJXOPL

kelimesiyle ilgili olarak eski biimin tuj ROGXXQX

ileri srmektedir (Hamilton 1998: 222).

j
~
tesbiy ~OXUODUNpoHKHPkn tu PYD tta (AtaKuran 2004: 511).

3.2.4. ta
< T. ta : isim kk.

7DQDIDN

(IrkBit 2004: 59).

ta V|]F AzT. dan %DN ta, Kzk. ta .UJ ta, zb. tang, Tat. ta, Trkm.
da, YUyg. taHNOLQGHGLU

2X] .DDQ 'HVWDQ

nda ta

V|]F

ang HNOL\OH J|UOU tang > ang. Arat, bu

GXUXPXQ LPGL\H NDGDU KLoELU 7UN LYHVLQGH J|UOPH\HQ ELU VHV GHLPHVL ROGXXQX
EX \]GHQ GH GXUXPXQ ELU PVWHQVLK KDWDV RODELOHFHLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU 2X]. 

42).
ang irde bolduk-GDRX]NDDQ-QXQJNXUNDQ--DNQGHJELU oDUXN
kirdi7DQDDUQFD2X] .DDQQoDGUQDJQHJLELELUNJLUGL
2X].

39).

WDx WDxODUG XGX\LU\DUXG XGX NQWXJGNDPDJ ]H \DUXN EROWWLU


DIDN V|NW YH \HU D\GQODQG YH *QH GRGX +HU H\LQ ]HUL
D\GQONROGXGHU

IrkBit 26).

125

3.2.4.1. ta atmak
< T. ta + at-mak : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

7DQ\HULDDUPDN

WDxDWW

(DLT-'=1 DIDNV|NPHN (876 

WDQ\HULDDUG

(DLT III, 356).

3.2.4.2. talamak
< T. ta-la-mak : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar
eki).
(Gnle LOJLOLRODUDN GRPDNDDUPDN +DPLOWRQ 

5lVlQHQGHV|]F

ta-la-HNOLQGHHOHDOPDNWDGU 5lVlQHQ 

yettin kn ta talayur erkn dg gli tegin uluNEUJWRTWSLQol


WHS\DUOTDG<HGLQFLJQDIDNV|NHUNHQ\L'QFHOL

Prens byk

GDYXOXoDOGUS|\OHEX\XUGX +DPLOWRQ 

3.2.4.3. talarmak
< T. ta-la-r-mak : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim
yapma eki (mastar eki).

7DQ DWPDN DIDN V|NPHN

(IrkBit 2004: 59).

Clauson bu fiilin tala-\HULQHELU\D]P\DQOROGXXJ|UQGHGLU(UGDOLVHEXILLOLQ


talaWDQYDNWLDIDNOH\LQ]DUIQGDQ-r-LOHWUHPLELUILLOROGXXNDQVQGDGU IrkBit:
 NLEL]GH(UGDOQJ|UQHNDWO\RUX]

, udu yir yarud XGX NQ WXJG DIDN V|NW YH \HU

WDx WDxODUG

D\GQODQGYH*QHGRGX

IrkBit 26).

126

3.2.4.4. ta ntrmek
< T. ta + n-tr-mek : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden fiil yapma eki (ettirgenlik eki)fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

7DQ DDUPDN

(ETY 1987: 856),

*QH  oNPDN WDQ  DWPDN DIDN  V|NPHN

(OTG

2003: 257).
Eski Trkede n-ILLOLoNPDNWUPDQPDN\NVHOPHNNDONPDNDQODPODUQGDGU%X
fiilden -tr- HNL\OH*QHLQ\NVHOPHVLDQODPQGDELUILLOGDKDWUHWLOPLWLU
boluka ta ntr tegdimiz %ROoX\D WDQ \HUL DDUUNHQ GHGLN
(ETY 112).
3.2.5. yarun
< T. *ya-r-u-n : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim
yapma eki.

DIDNJQDDUPDVWDQDWPDV

EUTS 1993: 188).

Bkz. \DUXN\DXN

\DUQ

< T. *ya-r--n : fiil kk-fiilden fiil yapma eki-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.
Sabah ,UN%LW \DUQ(AH 1992: LXXII).

.|NWUNoHGH VDEDK DQODPQGD RODQ EX NHOLPH .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVLQGH \DUQ


DQODPQGDNXOODQOPWU

Talat Tekin s|]FN KDNNQGD &ODXVRQ EX V|]FQ (VNL 7UNoH yaru- parlamak
H\OHPLQGHQ WUHGLLQL LOHUL VUPWU ('   %X HWLPRORML GRUX RODPD] oQN EX

eylemin ikinci hece nlsGHLOudur demektedir (IrkBit: 35).

127

tensi men \DUQ kie altun rgin ze olurupan meileyr men*|Q


ROX\XP 6DEDK DNDP DOWQ WDKW ]HULQGH RWXUDUDN PXWOX ROX\RUXP

(IrkBit 18).
3.2.7. sata
sata a VWD ('KB-'=1 
< T. sata : isim kk.

DIDNYDNWL

(ED: 799).

&ODXVRQ V|]FN KDNNQGD XQODU ND\GHWP

ektedir: Bu kelimeyi, bu listeye gerek bir

7UN DVWURQRPL WHULPL ROGXX LoLQ GHLO V|]FQ LPGL\H NDGDU DVO GRDVQQ
DQODODPDG LoLQ HNOL\RUXP 6|]FN

KBde en az drt kez gemektedir: 4892, 4895,

EH\LWOHUGHYHEDNDELUEH\LWWHGDKDJHoPH

ktedir.

gJGOPL 2rjXUPD RODQ ]L\DUHWLQGHQ G|QGQGH HYLQH JLWWL \DWW *Q EDWP YH
KDYD VDPXU UHQJLQL DOG 'Q\D \]H\GHNL N|PU UHQJLQL DOG YH R GD X\NX\D GDOG
7HNUDUNDONWYHEDQNDOGUG'RXGDDWHJLELELUH\EHOLUGLYH\]QLO

k defa aan

JHOLQ JLEL SDUODG 6DWDQQ |UWV NDONW 'Q\DQQ NDUPDNO EH\D] ELU PFHYKHUH
G|QW %X HNLOGH LNLSDVDMGD GD

sata\ J|U\RUX] .HQGL KkOLQGH YH VDWDQQ |UWV

HNOLQGH .HOLPHQ \D]O LVH IDUNOON J|VWHUPHNWHGLU )HUJDQD QVKDV

nda kelime s.ta

RODUDN LON KHFHGH QO ROPDGDQ \D]OPDNWDGU .DKLUH QVKDVQGD GD EX HNLOGH YH

fatya HNOLQGH \D]OPWU 9L\DQD QVKDVQGD LVH VWD HNOLQGH LNL \HUGH JHoPHNWHGLU
Bu yzden

VWD

yerine sata HNOL WHUFLK HGLOPHNWHGLU %X \D]P HNOL GH Arattan

DOQPWU 5DGORII o SDVDMQGD NHOLPH\L *QH RODUDN oHYLUPLWLU NL EX WDPDPHQ
\DQOWU $\UFD NHOLPH\L
VDWD

NDONDQQ

GD

sada RODUDN NXOODQPWU $UDW LVH sata\ P]UDN RODUDN

P]UDNODU

YH

NDONDQ

RODUDN

oHYLUPLWLU

.HOLPHQLQ

E|\O

DQODPODQGUOPDV GD GRUX GHLOGLU 6|]FQ JHoWLL G|UW |UQHN FPOH\L J|] |QQGH
EXOXQGXUGXXPX]GD ROD\Q DN X HNLOGH J|UOPHNWHGLU  VDWDQQ J|UQ 
JQGRXPX  VDWDQQ NDONDQQQ J|UQ $QODODQ R NL NHOLPHQLQ DQODP DIDN

vaktinin  JLEL ELU H\ ROPDOGU %X GXUXPGD sataQQ WHN EDQD DQODP DIDN

128

YDNWLGLU %|\OH ROXQFD GD 5HGKDXVHXQ HQJLQ DIDN  RODUDN oHYLUGLL EX NHOLPH

Arapa bir szck olan satiqQLQ\DQONXOODQOPKkOLGLU(Clauson 1964: 365,366).

ClausRQ HWLPRORML V|]OQGH LVH XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU Early Turkish Astronomical


Terms EDONO PDNDOHPL]GH EX V|]Q $UDSoD satiq DIDN LOH LOLNLOL ROXS ROPDGQ
WDUWPWN%XQGDQGROD\V|]FQDQODPODUDUDVQGDPHKWDSGDYDUGU (' 

abir brkirer teg tnerdi ~DO~


VWD ~RSW\LUGLQ\DrOGEXW~

(KB / 4892).

*QHLQ<NVHOPHVL*Q2UWDV

3.3.1. NX\D|GL
< T. ky-H + d-i : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk-oQF WHNOLN DKV
iyelik eki.
-

*QRUWDV '/7 '=1

1999: 390).

WUN YDNLW DQODPQD JHOHQ ELU NHOLPHGLU WUN NX\D |GL

 JQ RUWDV

(DLT I, 353).

NQRUWXV

< T. kn + ortu-V : isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL

*QRUWDVFHQXS|OHYDNWL

(ETY 1987: 816).

kn ortu ytrp, tn ortu kanta negde bulgay ol, tir Gpegndz


IrkBit 24).

ND\EHGLSJHFH\DUVQHUHGHQDVOEXODFDNGHU

3.3.3. yle
< T. d-le-g : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki.

gOHYDNWL 2X]FD 

(DLT-'=1 
129

+DVDQ (UHQ EX V|]FQ JQ RUWDV DQODPQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD NRQX\OD LOJLOL RODUDN
XQODU ND\GHWPHNWHGLU 7UNP

yle |OHGHQ VRQUDNL YDNLW 1RJ yle |OH |OH

YDNWL .DJDUO 0DKPXGXQ WDQNOQD J|UH 2X]ODU


NXOODQUODU %XQD NDUON (VNL .SoDNoDGD

yle

|OH YDNWL ELoLPLQL

zle olarak geer. Trkede d zaman,

vakit kknden -le HNL\OH \DSOPWU 7UNoH dnle geceleyin (dn < tn gece),
tala veya dala (ta, da VDEDKQ JQ GRPDGDQ |QFHNL YDNWL  VDEDKOH\LQ VDEDK
vakti rneklerinGH

ROGXX JLEL %UDKPL \D]VQD GD\DQDUDN

EHQLPVHQPLWLU (VNL 7UNoH

d yerine d biimi

-d- sesinin diyalektlerin byk bir blmnde -z- GXUD

yoluyla -y-\HoHYULOGLLQLELOL\RUX]gUQHLQ(VNL7UNoHadak biimi azakGXUDQGDQ


geerek Trkede ayakD G|QPWU %XQD J|UH (VNL 7UNoH d de yH oHYULOPLWLU
2 EDNPGDQ 7UNPHQFHGH JHoHQ

yle biimi etimolojik bir biimdir. Trkede

NXOODQODQ |OH ELoLPL LVH HWLPRORMLN ELU \D]P GHLOGLU (UHQ    1LDQ\DQ
V|]FQ N|NQQ (W

dh vakLW ]DPDQVDDWROGXXQX V|\OHPLWLU 1LDQ\DQ 


dlegHNOLQGHROGXXQXV|\OHPL*dle-ELoLPLQLYHUPLWLU

 &ODXVRQLVHV|]FQ

(ED: 55,56).
d+le-g  GQ\RUX] %L]FH EX V|]FN

%L] GH V|]FQ HWLPRORMLVLQL EX HNLOGH

Hasan Erenin belirWWLLJLELd+leHNOLQGHGQOHPH]oQN7UNoHGHLVLPGHQLVLP


yapan -le HNLQL EXOPDN JoWU 2 EDNPGDQ ]DPDQ DQODP WD\DQ d ismi -le ekiyle
|QFH ILLO \DSOP

g LOH GH LVLP \DSOPWU 6RQUD LVH VRQGDNL g GPWU %X GD

7UNoHGH\D\JQELUROD\GU6RQGDNL

gVHVLQLQGPHVL\OHGHDVOQGDLVLPGHQILLO\DSDQ

-le eki, isimden isim yapan bir ek gibi gzkmektedir.


yle|OHYDNWL2X]FD (DLT I, 113).

*QHLQ%DW

3.4.1.

Dz

DP

< Far. $NDP '/7-'=1 


Hasan Eren bu szcQ

UDQ N|NHQLQGHQ )DU kP  JHOHQ ELU DOQW ROGXXQX

EHOLUWPLWLU (UHQ 

130

z
a DP$NDPJQLQPH]DPDQ (DLT I, 107).

3.4.2. batar
< T. bat-ar : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.
-

%DW .% '=1 

amujPPLQj
~
tojDUGQbatar aWHJLD\DUj(KB / 6512).

\LPH\DUO~ jO~

3.4.3. ki
ki akie (OTG 2003: 247; IrkBit 2004: 55).
< T. *ke--e : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.

$NDPDNDPOH\LQ

OTG 2003: 247; IrkBit 2004: 55).

*QH EDWWNWDQ JQ DDUPD\D EDOD\QFD\D GHLQ JHoHQ VUH DQODPQGDNL

gece (Et.

kie V|]F.|NWUNoHGHDNDPDNDPOH\LQDQODPQGD .DUDKDQO7UNoHVLQGHLVH


gece, geceleyin (AtaKuran DQODPQGDNXOODQOPDNWDGU
- to be late eylemiQGHQ WUHWLOGLL J|UQGHGLU ('  

&ODXVRQ EX V|]FQ N

Erdala gre ise bu szck ken ve kedin szcklerinin de kk olan eski bir *ke DGQGDQ
-

JHOPHNWHGLU 7DODW 7HNLQ GH EX V|]FQ HVNL YHUPH EXOXQPD HNL DOP ELoLPL
ROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLU

(IrkBit: 35). Hamilton *ke aGQQVRQUDVRQUDNLDUNDDUNDGD


k

LoLQGHEDWDQODPODUQGDROGXXQXYHEXQGDQWUH\HQ uQN

, kuz, kur- vb. szcklerin

X]XQ QOO RODELOHFHLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU +DPLOWRQ    +DVDQ (UHQ


V|]FQQ 7UNoH

ki (k 

N|NQGHQ oNWQ 7U

gece

ke ki uzun (sre), Orta

Trkede ise ki (veya k JHo YDNLW DQODPQDJHOGLLQLoDGDGL\DOHNWOHUGHGHEX


DQODPGD NXOODQOGQ V|\OHPHNWHGLU 7UNoH

ge,

%DN

ge, Trkm. gi ge, Tat. ki DNDP

kis DNDP 1RJ NH DNDP JHo ..OS kH DNDP JHo .UJ ke

131

DNDP JHo g]E

ke DNDP JHo <DN kis, uv. ka DNDP +DVDQ (UHQ

\D]VQQ GHYDPQGD EX YHULOHUH J|UH

ELoLP ROGXX DQODO\RU

gece biiminin -e (a -a  WDNV\OD \DSOP ELU

ku-e > > gece. Eski ve yeni diyalektlerde gece \DQQGD tn

DGGDNXOODQOPDNWDGUGHPHNWHGLU (UHQ 

WHQVLPHQ\DUQ

kie altun rgin ze olurupan meileyr men*|Q

ROX\XP 6DEDK DNDP DOWQ WDKW ]HULQGH RWXUDUDN PXWOX ROX\RUXP

(IrkBit 18).
3.4.3.1. keelik
< T. *ke--e-lik : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden
isim yapma eki.
Gece (AtaKuran 2004: 434; DLT-'=1 
3.4.3.2. kelig d
< T. *ke--e-lik + d : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma ekiisimden isim yapma eki + isim kk.

$NDPYDNWL

Hsan 1975: 151).

WHS WHGL  RO RT NQ WRTX] \DQJ

-qa kelig dt VDPWVR DoDU SU\DQ-

GQ QS SU\DQNHGLQNL VXY |JlQ GH\LS GHGL $\Q JQ D\Q 
GRNX]XQX JQ DNDP YDNWL 7ULSL DND VWDW KFUHVLQGHQ oNS

hFUHQLQDUNDVQGDNLVXDUN +VDQ7VDQJV 
3.4.4. kirmk
< T. kir-mk : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

%DWPDN *QH  (876 

132

EDONODU |OP NDSJQJD

kirip agt-DUOX W|QJGHULO DJQD\XUODU HUWL

(AY 601/11).
kn tngri kirdi yir iLQWl \UXPDJ WOG N|N TDO-ta uar qu uu
XPDGQWXUG

(TT. I 7, 22)

ol -dn tngri ilig toiqa kirip didmin ba-QJDXUG (TT. I 8, 67)

3.4.5. kn batmak
< T. kn + bat-mak : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

*QH EDWPDN

AtaKuran 2004: 253).

3.4.5.1. kn bat almak

< T. kn + bat-ja-l-mak : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil


yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).
Batmak zere olmak (KB-'=1 

sevincin tojar erdi tojPNQP


j
knm bat DOU teg yarumaz tnm (KB / 1072).

3.4.5.2. NQEDWV

~

< T. kn + bat-V~ : isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.

*QEDWV 77HNLQ EDW (876

ilger kn

ETG 2000: 267).

WRJVNND ELULJHU NQ RUWXVxDUX NXUJDUX

kn

EDWVNxD

\UJDUX WQ RUWXVxDUX DQWD LoUHNL ERGXQ NR>S@ P>Dx@D N|U>U


OHUL GH  JQ GRXVXQD JQH\GH JQ RUWDVQD NDGDU JHULGH JQ

133

EDWVQD YH NX]H\GHJHFHRUWDVQDNDGDUEX VQUODU LoLQGHNL EWQ 

halklar hep bana tbidir. (T.Tekin 1988: 2,3).


3.4.5.3. NQEDWX
< T. kn + bat-u- : isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden isim yapma
eki.

%DW 2X]. 

EXDOGXQ\DNQGR G QGD

kn EDGXD-a degen irdi%XDOWQ

\D\JQGRXVXQGDQWDJQEDWVQDNDGDUXODPW 2X]. 

3.4.6. ornamak
< T. or-u-n-a-mak : isim kk-\DUGPF VHV-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil
yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

*QHEDWPDNND\EROPDN

(DLT-'=1 

Marcel Erdal, kelimeyi orun+a- HNOLQGH LQFHOHPLWLU (UGDO    DLTde bu
NHOLPHQLQ DQODPODU \HUOHPHN \HU WXWPDN \HU HGLQPHN *QH EDWPDN ND\EROPDN
RODUDN

YHULOPLWLU

DQODPQGDNL

(DLT-'=1



 

'ROD\V\OD

V|]FQ

N|N

\HU

or ismiyle ilgiOL ROPDOGU orun \HU PHNDQ DQODPQGD ROGXXQD J|UH

orna-GD*QHLQ\HULQLGHLWLUPHVL\DQLEDWPDVDQODPQDJHOPHNWHGLU

JQHND\EROGXDQODPQDNQRUQDG

denir (DLT I, 289).

HE

< Far. Gece (AtaKuran 2004: 636).

KHP \DQD QLkQ RODU~

arur-PL] DQxGQ NQG]QL (AtaKuran

HE o~

2004: 636).

134

3.4.8. tn
< T. tn : isim kk.
Gece, geceleyin (T.Tekin 1988: 176); dn (AtaKuran 2004: 697).
tnEDODQJoWDQEHUL7UNoHGHNXOODQOPELUNHOLPHGLU%XJQ2X]JUXEXGQGDNL
lehelerde tn/tn JHFH DQODPQD JHOLUNHQ kee YH RQXQ VHV GHLPHVLQH XUDP
ELoLPOHULGQDQODPQDJHOPHNWHGLU .DUD 

tn LOH LOJLOL GLHU V|]FNOHU LVH XQODUGU tnle Geceleyin, gece (AtaKuran 2004:
697), tnle eltmek Geceleyin gtrmek (AtaKuran 2004: 697), tnemek
Gecelemek (DLT-'=1 tnrmk .DUDQONEDVPDN(ETG 2000: 303);
gece olmak (DLT-'=1

  

tnetmek Karartmak (AH 1992: LXVI);

geceletmek (DLT-'=1 tnerig .DUDQON Hik 1946: 119).


kn ortu ytrp, tn ortu kanta negde bulgay ol, tir Gpegndz
IrkBit 24).

ND\EHGLSJHFH\DUVQHUHGHQDVOEXODFDNGHU

3.4.9. lz
< T. *-l--z : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim
yapma eki.

6|QN *QH 

(EUTS 1993: 177).

N|N NDON \]LQWHNL NQ WHxUL UDKXND VLNLUWPL WHJ \DUXNVX] \DXNVX]

sz lesEROW (AY 617/7).


3.5. Yer
3.5.1. r
r air (DLT-'=1.%-'=1 
< T. r : isim kk.

135

<HULQJQH\HEDNDQ*QHOLWDUDI '/7 '=1.% '=1 

Bkz. yer
z kz ir NOD

 DGDP NHQGL LLQL NHQGL \DSW EDNDVQD EUDNPDG

%XNODQJQH\WDUDIQDODQDGDPJLELGLU

(DLT I, 464).

3.5.2. yer
< T. + yer : isim kk + isim kk.

*QHOL\HU

(ETY 1987: 829).

Clauson, 

V|]FQQ VV] WHUN HGLOPL DQODPODUQ YHUPHNWH YH V|]FQ

NXOODQOGWDULKvPHWLQOHUGHQ|UQHNOHUVXQPDNWDGU (' 

zlk at yirde

DUS RxXS WRUX NDOPL %LU ELQHN DW o|OGH

yorgunluktan (ve susuzluktan) bitkLQKkOGHNDODNDOP IrkBit 20).


3.5.3. kuz
< T. kuz : isim kk.

*QH J|UPH\HQ \HU J|OJHOL \HU

(DLT-'=1    NX]H\ (KB-'=1 

295).

+DVDQ (UHQ EX V|]FN KDNNQGD $]ODUGD

guz *QH DOPD\DQ \HU RODUDN JHoHU

Deny, bu sz kuytu JQ  DOPD\DQ \HU YH kuytak ukur, kuytu yer biimleriyle
ELUOHWLUPLWLU 2QXQ 7UNoH

kuzdaki -znin -yye evrilmesini Eski Trkede -rden

\ROD oNDUDNDoNODPDVGQGUFGU 'HQ\QLQ 7UNoH

yaz ve yay ELoLPOHULQL WDQN

olarak vermesi ilgintir. demektedir (Eren 1999: 272).


kuzda NDU HNVPHV NR\GD \D HNVPHV
eksik olmaz (DLT I, 326).

136

 NX]D\GD NDU NR\XQGD \D

4. Ay
nde yerin uydusu olan gk cismi HNOLQGH

$\V|]F*|NELOLP7HULPOHUL6|]O

WDQPODQPDNWDGU .]OUPDN (VNL7UNoHGH$\LOHLOJLOLWHULPOHUXQODUGU

DUGU

ardir (EUTS 1993: 12; ETG 2000: 261).

DUGUa

< Skr. UGU Kamerin menzillerinden biri (ETG

   ELU \OG] DG (876

1993: 12).
ygrmi-g ingir-t kmnr kririk-t ardir, punarvasu-ta barar
(TT VII 1/23).
4.2. ay
< T. ay : isim kk.
Ay, kamer (ETY 1987: 766); (gkteki) ay (TekinMaitr 1976: 356).

%XV|]FNPRGHUQOHKoHOHULQoRXQGDGDD\HNOLQGHGLU

Clauson ayV|]FQELUJ|NFLVPLWKHPRRQRODUDNWDQPODPYH]DPDQELULPLRODQ
ayQ PRQWK J|N FLVPL RODQ ay LOH D\Q N|NWHQ ROGXXQX GLOH JHWLUPLWLU (ED: 265).
6HYDQ1LDQ\DQV|]FQ(VNL7UNoHGHGH

ayHNOLQGHROGXXQXV|\OHPLYHV|]F

J|N FLVPL YH VUH ELULPL RODUDN DoNODPWU 1LDQ\DQ 

33). Andreas Tietze de

&ODXVRQXQ J|UQ EHQLPVHPL YH V|]FH 7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGHQ |UQHNOHU YHUHUHN


NRQX\XDoNODPD\DoDOPWU 7LHW]H 

.HOLPH.|NWUN\D]OPHWLQOHUGHXHNLOGHWDQNODQPWU

7|U DSD LoUHNL EHQ EH \HLUPL \DGD LQLP HoLP NRQoX\P >D@ EXQD
DUGOGP>D@VL]LPHNQ

ay>D@D]GP>D@%HQLoWHNL7|U$SDRQEH

\DWD NoN NDUGHLP DDEH\LP SUHQVHVLP GHQ  PNHGGHU D\UOGP

137

6L]OHULP GHQ  *QH D\ D]GP

 GDOkOHWH GWP  %HJUH <D]W D

2; ETY 1987: 481).


Kk terid kn ay D]GP \WD VL]LPl DGUOWP 0DYL VHPDGD JQH
D\ D]GP QH oDUH VL]OHULPGHQ D\UOGP (OHJH <D]W  (7<

1987: 590,591).

8\JXUG|QHPLQGHLVHXHNLOGHJHoPHNWHGLU

(kn) ay WHQJUL N|UNLQ EHOJUW S   Q RPOD\X \DUO~ap

utjaru

\DUO~ G *QH YH\D  D\ WDQUV NOQD JLULS  KDPHWOH YDD]


YHUHUHNKDPHWOHNXUWDUG 7HNLQ0DLWU 

Ay NQL SDNoDQWD  WDSQjay udunjaylar $\Q KHU JQ LVWLUkND


GDOP WDSQDFDNODUKUPHWHGHFHNOHU 7HNLQ0DLWU 

WOXj

tni

da ~uWOXj siz err siz kim muntaj trlg ojulluj erdnig on ay

~DUQQWD N|WU WXWGXQJX] VL] %DKWL\DUODU EDKWL\DU VL]VLQL] NL

EXQX JLEL ELU RXO FHYKHULQL RQ D\Q JHFHVL NDUQQ]GD WDGQ]

(TekinMaitr 90/13).
eki tesiri inkr edilemez bir gerektir.

7DELDW XQVXUODUQQ LONoD WRSOXP KD\DW ]HULQG

%WQ KD\DW ER\XQFD WDELDWOD PFDGHOH\H PHFEXU WXWXODQ KHU LQVDQ WRSOXOXX \DDPD
KDNN NDUO ROXU RQD KHP ER\XQ HPHN KHP GH JHUHNHQ VD\J\ J|VWHUPHN
PHFEXUL\HWLQGH LGL *QGHOLN KD\DWQ KHU DQ GPHQLQL HOLQGH WXWDQ YH oHLWOL YD]LIHOHU
]HULQH DOP EXOXQDQ WDELDW XQVXUODU DUDVQGD KLo SKHVL] PKLP URO R\QD\DQODUGDQ
ELUL GH $\ YH *QH ROPXWXU 7UN HSLN HVHUOHULQGH GH \HU DOP EXOXQDQ WDELDW
XQVXUODU EXD\ YH JQH WHOkNLVLWHVDGIH EDO EDVLW ELU ROD\ RODUDNGQOHPH]
%X KHU H\GHQ |QFH HVNL WRSOXP KD\DWQGD VDODP ELU \HU WXWPX RODQ VHPD
DOkPHWOHULQH NDU VD\J JHOHQHNOHULQLQ ELU EDNL\HVLGLU %XQD J|UH GH oRN HVNL PD]L\H
J|WUOHFHN RODQ EX $\ YH *QH XQVXUX KHUKkOGH HVNL 7UN NOWUQH EDO KDON
HVWHWLN |OoOHULQLQ ELUHU WH]DKU YH EHOLUWLVL PDKL\HWLQGH ROPXWXU %LUELULQLQ D\UOPD]

138

DUNDGDON YD]LIHVLQL J|UHQ EX LNL] XQVXU KD\DW DUWODU LFDE 2UWD $V\D 7UNOQQ
HVNL DPDQL]P oDQQ HVDV XQVXUODU ROPX YH KDON KD\DWQQ Qk]P LGDUHFLVL
GXUXPXQGDEXOXQPXWXU7DPDP\ODELUNOWKDOLQHJHWLULOHQEXWHODNNLEQ\HVLQGHNL
WHVLU YH WHSNLVLQL ROGXX JLEL DPDQLVW 7UNQ EWQ KD\DW FHSKHOHULQGH EHOLUPLWLU
dLQND\QDNODUQQYHUGLLELOJLEXQXWDPDP\ODWH\LWHWPHNWHG

ir.

1LWHNLP KD\DWQ EX NDELO oHLWOL NOWOHU ]HULQH NXUPX RODQ $OWD\ DPDQ 7UNOHUL
*QHH DQG LoPH\L VN ELU IRUPOH EDODGNODU JLEL 0VOPDQ 0LHU 7UNOHUL GH
D\Q JHOHQHL EXJQ ELOH \DDWPDNWDGU %XQD J|UH GH $OWD\OODUGD *QH DQD
$\ GD DWD PHYNLLQH \NVHOWLOPL PPWD] DLOH \DSFODUGU +DWWk $\ YH *QH
ELUHUNOWRODUDNGQ\D\DUDWOHIVDQHVLQGHGH\HUDOPWUhOJHQLQRWXUGXXGDEX
LNL XQVXUXQ QLPHWLQGHQ ID\GDODQG JLEL LON LQVDQQ \DUDGO HIVDQHVLQH J|UH G

e ilk

\DUDWODQ LQVDQ D\ EDED PkQDVQD JHOHQ $\ $WDP DGQ DOPWU %X NDELO
DGODQGUPDODU 7UN DQWURSRQLPLVLQGH EHNOHQLOHQGHQ oRN ID]OD ELU \HU WXWPDNWDGU

Bunlar Kn-WRG

DQWURSRQLPL ]HULQGH GXUDQ 9 9 %DUWKROG EX DGQ HVNL

7UNOHUGHNL JQH GRPDVQD GDLU KDON PXKD\\LOHVLQGH \HUOHPL RODQ ELU NOWH
EDODQPDNWDWHUHGGGHGPWU.DUD.UJ]7UNOHULQGHD\Q$\NOWEXJQGDKL
EWQ LOH PHYFXWWXU $D \XNDU <DNXW 7UNOHULQGH GH $\ YH *QHL NXWVD\DQ

yerli bir bayrama rastlanmaNWDGU $QODODQ DPDQLVW 7UN KDONDODUQQ KD\DWQGD EX
LNL NOW ELU QHYL NDoQOPD] KD\DW DUWODUQGDQ ELUL ROPXWXU %\N LKWLPDOOH |QFHOHUL
2UKXQ 7UN NDDQODU OkNDSODUQGD NXOODQODQ $\ NHOLPHVL PLOOv

ELU DPDQ

JHOHQHLQGHQ ROGXX KkOOHUGH GDKD VRQUDODU %XGLVW YH 0DQL GLQOHUL PHQVXSODU RODQ
8\JXUODUFDGDNXOODQOPWU

1LWHNLP 7UN 8\JXU KDQODUQQ XQYDQODU EDQGD ELU QHYL LPWL\D] XQVXUX RODUDN \HU
DODQ$\NHOLPHVL]HULQGHGXUDQ):.0OOHUEXQXQ7UNOHUDUDVGDNL\D\OQ
DPDQL]PGLQLQHGHLOELODNLV0kQLGLQLQLQ 7UNOHUDUDVQGDNLJHOLPHVLQHEDODPD\D
oDOPDNWDGU %X GLQ LVH ELOLQGLL ]HUH 6kVkQLOHUGHQ LPSDUDWRU kSXUXQ ]DPDQQGD

(242- RUWD\DoNPEXOXQPDNWDGU+DOEXNLEXGLQ8\JXUODUFDDQFDN%|J.DDQ
zamDQQGD NDEXO HGLOPLWLU NL WDULK DUDVQGD HQ D] EH \] \OON ELU DUDON ROGXXQD
EDNODFDNROXUVDKHUKDOGHLOHULVUOHQILNLUGHJHYHPLRODFDNWU

139

$\Q0DQLKHLVWOHUWDUDIQGDQGDVD\OGQNDEXOHWPHNOHEHUDEHU7UNOHULQEXWDELDW

unsurunun

VD\OPDVQ YH \FHOWLOPHVLQL 0DQLKHLVWOHUGHQ |UHQPHOHULQH DVOD LKWL\Do

\RNWX %LU GHID 2UKXQ kELGHOHUL \D] VLVWHPLQGH 7XNL\X 7UNOHULQH PDKVXV ROPDN
]HUH$\WHPVLOL]HULQH$\KHFHVLQHLIDGHELULDUHWPHYFXWROPXWXUNLEXLDUHWLQ
YDUO EX XQVXUXQ 7UNOHUFH WDQQGQ YH ELOLQGLLQL J|VWHUPHNWHGLU .DOG NL dLQ
ND\QDNODUGDKLHVNL+XQLPSDUDWRUXQXQ7HxULYH0XNDGGHV\HUWDUDIQGDQKLPD\H
J|UG JLEL $\ YH *QH WDUDIQGDQ GD NXWVDO VD\OGQ ELOGLUPHNWHGLU %XQD

gre Hun impaUDWRUODUELUGHUHFH\HNDGDU$\NOWQHEDONDOPRQDWDSPODUGU


Bu kadar bariz ve kesin olmamakla beraber Gk-7UNOHU GH DPDQ GLQLQH EDO
ROPDODUKHVDELOH$\ YH*QHLNXWVDOVD\PODUGU=LUDEX LNL PHIKXP7UNOHULoLQ

belirli bir maQD LIDGH HWPHNWHQ JHUL NDOPDPWU 'DKDVRQUDNL ]DPDQODUGD LVH $\ YH
*QHNOWQH7UNDGODUQGDGDUDVWODQPD\DEDODQPWU &DIHUROX

-21).

Eski Trklerin aya ok nem verdikleri gzkmektedir: Hiong-QXODU JQG] *QHH


gece Aya ibaGHWHGHUOHUGL%XQODUVDYDODUQ$\Q hareketine gre tanzim ederler; Ay
E\GNoH KDUHNHWOHULQL LOHUOHWLUOHU NoOGNoH JHUL oHNLOLUOHUGL 0RROODU GD ELU LH
JLULHFHNOHUL ]DPDQ $\ EDODQJFQ YH\D RQ G|UGQ EHNOHUOHUGL <DNXWODU UNXWVN YH

Lena arDVQDJHOGLNOHULYDNLWNRPXODU%XU\DWODURQODUEXUDGDQNRYPD\GQGOHUVH
GHRVUDGD$\EWQROPDGQGDQVDYDWDQVDNQGODU

Turan 2004: 44).

4.2.1. tolun ay
tolun atulun (ETG 2000: 301; EUTS 1993: 165).
< T. tol-u-n + ay : fiil kk-\DUGPF ses-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk.

$\QEHGLUKDOLGROXQD\

(ETG  D\QRQG|UG '/7-'=1 

&ODXVRQ GD EX V|]FQ N|NQQ

tol-

ILLOL ROGXXQX EHOLUWPL YH WDULKv OHKoHOHUGHQ

|UQHNOHUOHNRQX\DL]DKJHWLUPH\HoDOPWU (

7UNOHULQ

JQGHOLN

\DDPODUQGD

|QHPOL

D: 501).

RODQ

LOHULQL

$\Q

KDUHNHWOHULQH

J|UH

EHOLUOHGLNOHULQGHQ \XNDUGD V|] HWPLWLN 7UNOHUGH |QHPOL RODQ LOHU $\Q E\G

140

]DPDQODUGD NLL\L ]RUD GUHFHN H\OHUVH $\Q NoOG ]DPDQODUGD \DSOUG

HXQODUGDQEHUL$\QKkOOHULQLQJ|]OHQGLL$\LOHEHUDEHUKDUHNHWHGLOGLL|]HOOLNOHGH
DVNHUv KDUHNHWOHULQ $\ WDUDIQGDQ \|QOHQGLULOGLL dLQ ND\QDNODUQFD EHOJHOHQPLWLU
.|NWUNOHU VDYD KFXPODUQ EDODWPDN LoLQ $\Q GROXQD\ GXUXPXQD JHOPHVLQL

beklerlerdi (Roux 2002: 137).

7UN PLWRORMLVLQH J|UH $\Q HYUHOHUL |\OH DoNODQU $\ ED]HQ GROXQD\ WHSVL JLEL
E\NYHSDUODNROXUED]HQGHNoOUYHGRQXNODU(OEHWWHNLLQVDQODUEXQXQVHEHEL
QHGLU GL\H DNOODUQ \RUPX YH GQPOHUGL $\ QLoLQ N

lr ve niin byrd?

+HUKDOGH D\ KHU NoOGNoH RQX ELU H\ \HPHNWH YH ELWLUPHNWH LGL %XQX \L\HELOHFHN
H\ GH NXWVDO NXUWODUGDQ EDND ELU H\ RODPD]G gJHO    0LWRORML\H J|UH
7UNOHU$\QHYUHOHULQGHNLKkOOHULNXUWODUQ\HPHVLHNOLQGHGQPOHUGLU

rtmkindin birkan sln-si tolun ay EH \JlUPL WQOl-sint (BT


III / 59).

oLQGH

ay V|]F EXOXQDQ YH J|N ELOLP DVWURQRPL  WHULPL ROPD\DQ V|]FNOHU LVH

XQODUGU

oglak ay Yeni gnden -nevruz- sonra gelen ilk bahar (DLT-'=1 1999:

52), XOXRJODND\2JODND\GDQVRQUDJHOHQ\OSDUoDV '/7-'=1 XOX


ay <D]RUWDV '/7-'=1 
4.2.2. ay ayaz
< T. ay + aya-z : isim kk + isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

$\GQONPHKWDSOJHFH (876 

%N]NU

kk ayaz

ay ayaz QDYD]" QDODUJD\D]QDO(Pfahl 23,16).

141

~
\DOo

< T. *ya-l-o~ : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki (kltme
eki).
Ay (KB / 137).
Sadece Kutadgu Biligde geen ve ayDQODPQGDNXOODQODQ bu szck Kutadgu Biligin
GL]LQLQGH\HUDOPDPDNWDGU

&ODXVRQ EX V|]FQ

Kutadgu BiligLQ \D]DU WDUDIQGDQ LFDW HGLOGLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU

*HUoHNWHQ GH $\ NDUO RODUDN NXOODQODQ \DOo~ V|]F \DOQ]FD EX ND\QDNWD

grlmektedir.

Clauson,

\DOo~Q

\DXNWDQ

SKHOHQPHNWHGLU$UDWUPDFEXNHOLPHQLQ

DQDORML

\ROX\OD

\DSOGQGDQ

yal-oNRODUDNGDGQOHELOHFHLQLIDNDW

-oNQWDQQPELUHNROPDGQLIDGHHWPHNWHGLU (' 
Kelimenin kknn *\DOo- ILLOL ROGXX GD GQOHELOLU dQN (VNL 7UNoHGHLWLUDN
-

HWPHN NDWOPDN DQODPQD JHOHQ \DOoW  (876    GL\H ELU ILLO YDUGU
EXUDGD NXOODQODQ

*\DOo- fiilinin

\DOo~

Fakat

ile anlamsal ilgisini kurmak gtr. O hlde

\DOo~ NHOLPHVLQLQ N|NQ SDUODPDN PDN DQODPQD JHOHELOHFHLQL GQGP]

*ya- ILLOLQGH DUDPDN JHUHNLU dQN $\Q GD NOD SDUODNONOD LOJLOLVL YDUGU *yafiilinden -lLOHLVLP\DSOP-o~LOHGHNoOWPHDQODPYHULOPLWLU

Kutadgu BiligGH $\ JH]HJHQOHUOH ELUOLNWH GQOPWU EN] -141. blmler).


%XGHLLNELUDVWURQRPLDQOD\GU$\6DWUQ-SLWHU0DUV*QH0DUV9HQVYH

Merkrden sonra gelmektedir. Bu durum KBGHJHoHQXEH\LWWHDQODWOPWU

~
EXODUGDHxDOWQEX\DOo \RUU

\D~

birle utru ba~VDWROU (KB / 137).

142

4.4. purnavasu
< Skr. punarvasu $\Q  PHQ]LOLQGHQ QDNmDWUD  ELULQLQ DG NL]OHU EXUFX Hsan
1975: 167).
inr rkn krdi taGQ\QJDTW|UW\RO\XUQJ\HON|JlQWDGQT
o \XOWX]GQ NQWQ \QJDT N|OLS

purnavasu yultuzqa tgilip samtso

aaU \DrP SU\DQTD HQLS WOS WXUP-Q DGUWO Nrdi -QU LNHQ
XQX  J|UG NX]H\ \|QQGH G|UW \RO

G|UW WDQH D\U D\U  EH\D]

J|NNXDQQ NX]H\GHNL o \OG]GDQ JQH\H GRUX JHOLS NL]OHU


EXUFXQD GHLS 7ULSL DND VWDGQ \DWW KFUH\H LQLS LoH
GXUGXXQXD\UQWORODUDNJ|UG +VDQ7VDQJV

ri girip

-72).

4.5. sinau
< in. hsin-chaaHPDWLND\VLVWHPLQLQELUSDUoDV(EUTS 1993: 135).

DLNQLNLUU\LWL\DQJ

-Dsinau kirr (TT VII 6/9).

4.6. soma
< Skr. soma Ay (kaymer) (ETG 2000: 294).
-

oQoDLELU\DQJ VXOXSLWRSUDTTXWOXLWN
ROXGTRLQTRLX

n grax-soma pa kn

(TT VII 6/13).

DWDEL
DWDELa VDWDELa DWDELo

ETG 2000: 295; EUTS 1993: 130,142).

< Skr. atabhisaj $\Q ELU PHQ]LOL ELU \OG] DG ETG 2000: 295; EUTS 1993:
130,142).

VDWDEL

PD

bir tn bir kn turur (TT VII 3/23).

< Ac. Ay, mah (ETY 1987: 818).


143

\UQ WD XUP]W W|]OJ RO VDUJ WD QDJG W|]OJ RO NDUD WD NLZDQ
W|]OJ RO WLJ WD

mag tzlg $oN WD -SLWHU DVOQGDGU 6DU WD

9HQV HVDVGU .DUD WD 6DWUQ HVDVGU 6DU NUP] WD $\Q
HVDVGU

(ETY 1987: 250).

144

<OG]ODU
%X E|OP <OG] YH

<OG]

VLPOHUL

ROPDN ]HUH

LNL DQD EDON DOWQGD

LQFHOHQPLWLU

<OG]

Gkbilim Terimleri

6|]OQGH

\OG]

V|]F

J|N\]QH

VHUSLOPL

NO

QRNWDODUGDQKHUELULHNOLQGHWDQPODQPWU .]OUPDN 

5.1.1. yultuz
yultuz a yulduz (EUTS 1993: 198; AtaKuran 2004: 423).
< T. *ya-l-tuz : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.

<OG]%XUo3ODQHWJH]HJHQ

EUTS 1993: 198).

yultuz (\OG]  V|]F AzT. ulduz %DN yondoz, Kzk.

MXOG] .UJ FOG]

, zb.

yulduz, Tat. \ROG], Trkm. \OG], Yak. sulus, uv. soldor YUyg. jultuz biimindedir.
nde yultuz

5lVlQHQ V|]O

yulduz

V|]FQQ WDULKv YH PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL

HNLOOHULQL YHUPL YH NHOLPHQLQ N|NHQL KDNNQGD KHUKDQJL ELU DoNODPD \DSPDPWU

(Rsnen 1969: 210).

$KPHW.DUDGRDQ\OG]V|]FQXHNLOGHLQFHOHPLWLU

\OG] < \O-- t - z : fiil kk \DUGPFVHV fiilden fiil yapan ek (ettirgenlik eki)
\DUGPFVHV fiilden isim yapan ek.

7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGH GH \D\JQ RODUDN NXOODQODQ \OG] *QH YH $\ GQGD J|N \
]QGHJ|UOHQNOJ|NFLVLPOHULQGHQKHUELULDQODPQGDGU

Clauson, kelimenin tarih

YHPRGHUQOHKoHOHUGHNLHNLOOHULQHGHLQPLIDNDWN|NKDNNQGDELUH\V|\OHPHPLWLU

(ED: 922,923). Kelimenin kk

\O

- / yal- SDUODPDN ILLOLQH GD\DQPDNWDGU )LLOH EX


ehelerde ve metinlerde

KkOL\OH KLoELU \HUGH UDVWODQPD] DQFDN WUHYOHUL oHLWOL O

grlmektedir. Trkede

\OGUD  ILLOL (VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVLQGHQ EHUL NXOODQOPDNWDGU

145

Bu fiildeki GU ve aNVPODUQQILLOGHQILLO\DSPDHNOHULROGXXDoNWU%XGXUXPGD
-

ILLO UDKDWONOD \O  N|NQH LQGLULOHELOLU .DUDGRDQ    .DUDGRDQQ EXUDGD


EDKVHWWLL \OGUD

ILLOLQL LQDVL 7HNLQ X HNLOGH WDKOLO HWPLWLU

yaltra- < *ya-l-WU-a- :

fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden fiil yapma eki
(TekinMaitr 1976: 318).
Fatma zkan, konuyla ilgili biU oDOPDVQGD 7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGH YDUOQ VUGUHQ
\OG] \OGUP N Q DOHY \DOP \DOQ DOD]\DOD]

kelimelerinin ortak *ya- fiil

N|NQGHQ WUHGLL ILNULQL RUWD\D NR\PDNWDGU $UDWUPDF EX GQFHVLQL 7UNoHQLQ

tarih lehelerinde geen yaUXN

\DXN

\DODxJX\DODJX \DOWUDN\DOGUDN

\DNWX

DOD]\DOD] \DOP \DOPDQ V|]OHUL LOH GHVWHNOHPH\H oDOPDNWDGU g]NDQ  

179). Brockelmann kelimenin etimolojisini < yul-duzHNOLQGH\DSPDNWDYHHNLOHLOJLOL


NQG]EDOG]PXQGX]

rneklerini vermektedir (Toprak 2005: 21). Eski Trke yultuz

NHOLPHVLQLQ N|N SDUODPDN PDN DQODPQGDNL WDKPLQL ELU


EDODQDELOLU %X N|NWHQ

-l

LOH LVLP \DSOP VRQUD GD

GQ\RUX] 7DUDPD \DSWP] HVHUOHUGH


N|NQH UDVWODPDGN IDNDW

-tuz

*ya- fiil kkne

HNL JHOPLWLU

diye

parlaPDN PDN DQODPQ veren bir *ya-

yula PHDOH ERPED yulaj N yul~a PHDOH (EUTS

1993: 198) szcklerini tespit ettik. Bu szcklerden hareketle yultuzXQN|NPDN


parlamak

DQODPQD JHOHQ

\DSOPWU

tahmini bir *ya- fiili

ROPDOGU

Bu fiilden -l ile isim

Kelimedeki -tuz eki ise erentiz Jpiter, sekendiz Satrn, yiltiz kk,

temel, esas, kunduz kunduz, VDYG]\D]OYHV|]OHGHEL\DW\DOG] alevli, parlak,


kntz gndz rneklerindeki gibi isimden isim yapan bir ektir.

\OG]

ve

\OGU

szckleri bugn Trkiye Trkesinde fono-VHPDQWLN EDNDODPD\D

XUDPLNLV|]FNWU .DUD 

7UNOHUGHG|UWE\N\OG]WDNPYDUGU

(Esin 2001: 27). in


(Gksel ejder),

Kk-OXX.]O-VDJ]JDQ$N-bars, Kara-\ODQ

DVWURORMLVLQLQ 7UNOHU WDUDIQGDQ GD NDEXO HGLOHUHN

.]O VDJ]JDQ .]O VDNVDDQ 

Kk-luu

Ak-bars $N YH\D DN DODFDO SDUV  LOH

Kara-\ODQ dLQGH NDSOXPEDD\D VDUOP \ODQ  DGQ DODQ KHU ELUL \HGLHU \OG]
WDNPQGDQ

ROXPX

G|UW

E\N

\OG]

WDNPQQ

GQOPHNWHGLU %XQD J|UH %DKDU HNLQRNVXQGD

146

NDUONO

KDUHNHW

HWWLL

Kk-luu GRXGD J|]NQFH .]O-

VDJ]JDQ J|Q ]LUYHVLQGH

Ak-bars EDWGD J|UO\RU YH Kara-\ODQQ \HULQ DOWQGD


ediliyordu. Yaz gndnmnde Kk-luu

KDUHNHWLQLQHQDDQRNWDVQGDEXOXQGXXIDU]

]LUYH\H YDUQFD .]O VDJ]JDQ EDWGD EDW\RU


DDQRNWDVQGDEXOXQGXXIDU]HGLOL\RUYH

ekinoksunda Kk-luu

EDWGD EDW\RU .]O

Kara-\ODQGRXGDJ|]N\RUGX6RQEDKDU

-sag]JDQQ \HULQ GLELQGH KDUHNHWLQLQ HQ

DD QRNWDVQGD EXOXQGXX IDU] HGLOL\RUGX


EXOXQX\RUGX . JQG|QPQGH

Ak-barsQ \HULQ DOWQGD KDUHNHWLQLQ HQ

Ak-bars GRXGD YH Kara-\ODQ zirvede

Kk-luuQXQ

\HULQ GLELQGH KDUHNHWLQLQ HQ DD

QRNWDVQGDEXOXQGXXIDU]HGLOL\RUGX.]O VDJ]JDQGRXG

a, Ak-bars J|Q]LUYHVLQGH

ve Kara-\ODQEDWGDJ|]N\RUGX (VLQ 
-

NQ \RU DL |OWoL lUNOLJ WDL VXL VDU RUX

ulu LUSL] TXGUXT

\XPX]XOX EL WUOJ WRSUDT lUNOLJL \LU WlxUL TDQ VROWXQ

odun aq bars, kntn


\DUDPD]

 

n, kidin

T]O VD ] D

kk luu,

TDUD \ODQ DOW TDS

(TT VI 93).

(VNL dLQGH YH 7UNOHUGH ED] \UWF NXODU *|N 7DQUVQQ WHPVLOFLVL VD\OPDNWD\G

Trklerde kuzgun *|N 7DQUVQQ NXX\GX 0WHUL Jpiter)


~X

JH]HJHQLQLQ DG

ara

tu (kartal). .]O-VDJ]JDQ (VDNVDDQ DGQELU\OG]WDNPQDYHUPLWL (Esin 2001:

 %XGXUXP(VNL7UNOHUGHED]NXODUQNXWVDOVD\OGQGDJ|VWHUPHNWHGLU

W \OOj NLL EX

~
yultuz a

HNLO  VDQOj

tujDU OLYL D WXWXUjan titir

.|SHN \OQGD GRDQ  NLL EX \OG]D HNLO  EDO RODUDN GRDU YH
RQXQNXUEDQ\HPHLSLULQoGLU 779,,

-28).

7UNOHUGH\OG]ELOJLVL oRN|QHPOLELUURO R\QDPWU (VNLGHQEHULGQ\DQQWDQQP


DW\HWLWLUHQOHUL YHVDYDoODURODQ7UNOHU \OG]ODUGDQELU \DQGDQ JQONKD\DWODUQGD

istLIDGHHGHUOHUNHQ GLHU\DQGDQGDRQODU LoLQHIVDQHOHUG]PYHLLUOHU \D]PODUGU


\L ELU \OG] ELOJLVL DWo YH VDYDo ELU NDYLP LoLQ KD\DWL ELU |QHP WDUG $NQODU
NHUYDQODUQ YH VUOHULQ \ROD oN PHUD\D JLGL \DW YH NDON KHS \OG]O

ara gre

\DSOUG 'DKD GQH NDGDU (VNL $QDGROX N|\OHULQGH \OG] ELOJLVL LOH VDDWL ELOH WHVSLW
HWPH PPNQG %LOKDVVD \D] D\ODUQGD DIDNOD ELUOLNWH HKLUGHNL SD]DUGD EXOXQPDN
LVWH\HQ N|\OOHULQ \ROD oN VDDWOHULQL hONHU \OG]QQ GXUXPXQD J|UH D\DUODGNODU

147

ELOLQPHNWHGLU %X VHEHSOH \OG] ELOJLVL 7UNOHU DUDVQGD EDOFD LNL EDNPGDQ |QHPOL
VD\OPWU

 9DNWL |UHQPH EDNPQGDQ \OG] ELOJLVL oRN ID\GDO LGL g]HOOLNOH \HQL ELU KD\DWQ

ir bilgiye sahip olma, Trk

EDOD\DFD VDEDKD \DNQ VDDWOHUGH EX NRQXGD VDODP E


WRSOXPXQDE\NID\GDODUVDO\RUGX

<OG]ELOJLVLLOH\|QOHULYH\ROXEXOPDDWOYHVDYDoNDYLPOHULoLQLKPDOHGLOHPH]

bir bilgi idi.

*HUHN YDNWL YH JHUHNVH \ROX EXOPDN LoLQ L\L NXOODQODQ E|\OH ELOJLOHU ELU WRSOXPD
ELUoRNID\GDODUVDO\RUODUG<LQHD\QELOJLOHURWRSOXPXQJ|]OHULQLYHGLNNDWOHULQLGH
J|H oHYLUL\RUODUG %X LOJL WRSOXPGD ELU \DQGDQ VDODP YH DPD] \OG] ELOJLVL
PH\GDQD JHWLULUNHQ GLHU \DQGDQ GD J|Q YH 7DQUQQ EX GHLPH] G]HQL LoLQ

inVDQODUGDKD\UDQONX\DQGUPDNWDQJHULNDOP\RUGX
(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)

~ ~
5.1.2. uya ma
< T. uy-a~-ma~ : fiil kk-fiilden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki
(mastar eki).

<OG]ODUQV|QPHVLEDWPDV

EUTS 1993: 176).

<OG]VLPOHUL

5.2.1. a

rj

< T. arjU : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.

6LULV\OG] .% '=1 

Clauson, Eski Trke Astronomi Terimleri EDONO PDNDOHVLQGH  EX V|]FN KDNNQGD
D\JU YH GDP]ON DW NDUONODUQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU
YHQXPDUDOEH\LWOHUGHJHoHU'DKDoRN\OG]\OGU~

148

KBde

ve az da olsa eren tz

LOH DOkNDOGU %X V|]FN WDKPLQHQ

a~ arjU V|]FQQ NVDOWOP ELoLPL RODELOLU

DQFDN EX V|] JUXEXQXQ DQODPODU GD GHLPHNWHGLU 6|]JHOLPL

a~ arjU

EQL

Mhennda beta ve gama DQODPQD JHOHQ al-far~DGQ LNL NDUGHOHU  WHUFPH HWPHN
LoLQ NXOODQOPDNWDGU IDNDW

Buljat ve Tuyfatta Sirius, Canis Major iin

.DUODODQPHWLQOHULNLQFLDQODPGDKDPXKWHPHONOPDNWDGU

far~DGQ

Buljat ve Tuyfatta al-

LNL RODUDN oHYULOPLWLU 0XKWHPHOHQ \D EQL 0KHQQk DW YH D\JU

NDUWUP\DGD

al-far~DGQ ve a~ arjUDUDVQGDYDURODQ ED]NHOLPHOHUoNPWU%X

yzden arjU  6LULXV LOH WDQPOD\DELOLUL] &ODXVRQ  ).


farkdan

NXOODQO\RU

GHQLOHQ

oHYULOPLWLU

oLIWH

$N DGJU

\OG]ODU

DQODPQGDGU

sz grubunda

7UNoH\H

geen ak

$N D\JU

LNL

VIDWQQ

, Arapada

NDUGHOHU

UHQN

DG

RODUDN

DQODPQGD

kuOODQOPD\S\|QELOGLUHQELUJ|UHYGHNXOODQOPROPDVNXYYHWOHPXKWHPHOGLU%XJQ
Akdeniz ve Karadeniz isimlerindeki ak ve kara VIDWODUQQ UHQN GHLO \|Q ELOGLUGLL
NRQXVXQGD oDOPDODU GD YDUGU .SoDN 7UNoHVL V|]ONOHULQGHQ

Bulgatl-PWkN ve

Kitbl-idrkte DND\JU<HPHQWDUDIODUQGDJ|UOHQELU\OG]HNOLQGHJHoPHNWHGLU
$G JHoHQ \OG] LVPLQLQ <HPHQ WDUDIODUQGD J|UOP RODUDN YHULOHQ DoNODPDV

ak

NHOLPHVLQLQJQH\\|QQLDUHWHWWLLQLGQGUPHNWHGLU 7RSUDN 

Clauson,

HWLPRORML V|]OQGH GH

arjU V|]FQQ N|NHQL KDNNQGD KHUKDQJL ELU

L]DKWD EXOXQPDPWU ('   1LDQ\DQ LVH HUNHN DW DQODPQGDNL NHOLPHQLQ (W
DGKJU HNOLQL YHUPLWLU 1LDQ\DQ    7LHW]H GH D\JU V|]FQQ GDP]ON
HUNHN HW DQODPQ YH

2002: 237).

rmekte ve Eski Trkedeki arjU ELoLPLQH GHLQPHNWHGLU 7LHW]H


elimeyi hengst

6|]OQGH N

D\JU  DQODP\OD YHUHQ

Rsnen ise bu

V|]FQ PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPXQD GHLQPL N|NHQL KDNNQGD ELU L]DKWD


EXOXQPDPWU 5lVlQHQ    +DVDQ (UHQ LVH GDP]ON HUNHN DW DQODPQGDNL
D\JU V|]FQQ PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGH 7UNP D\JU

zb. aygir, Tuv.

, Tat.

, Kaz.

D\JU %DN D\JU

D\JU

DVNU HNOLQGH ROGXXQD GHLQPL (VNL YH 2UWD 7UNoH G|QHPOHULQGH

arjU RODQ EX V|]FQ 2X]FDGD D\JUa evrildLLQL LIDGH HWPLWLU %X V|]FQ
7UNoHGHQ EHOOL EDO ED] GLOOHUH GH JHoWLLQL V|\OH\HQ (UHQ V|]FQ 0RROFD\D LVH

acirga RODUDN JHoWLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU (UHQ \D]VQQ GHYDPQGD V|]FQ HWLPRORMLVL


KDNNQGDLVHXELOJLOHULDNWDUPDNWDGU3RSSH7UNoH0RROFDYH7XQJX]FDELoLPOHUL
VD\GNWDQ VRQUD

DGUJD

ELoLPLQGHQ

\ROD

149

oNP

0RROFD

ELoLPLQ

7UNoHGHQ

JHOHPH\HFHLQL GLOH JHWLUPLWLU 3RSSHQLQ J|UQ D\UQWO RODUDN HOHWLUHQ 'RHUIHU


D\JUQ 7UNoH

ad- (ay- 

GQPWU oHUEDN GD


D\JU

WUHQQHQ D\UPDN D\UW HWPHN  N|NQGHQ JHOGLLQL

ay- (< ad-  N|NQGHQ JHOGLLQL \D]PWU 8EU\DWRYD GD

ay- \DUDWPDN N|NQH EDODPWU 6HYRUW\DQ D\JUQ *ay- ~ *ad- ~ *az-

N|NQGHQ JHOGLLQL |Q VUP |]HOOLNOH 7UNoH

az- FLQVHO GX\XODU DUWPDN Eiimini

YHUPLWLU $QFDN 6HYRUW\DQQ EX DoNODPDV VHV \|QQGHQ RODQDNV]GU (UHQ 

27,28).

\DUXGEDVD\OGU~

rj
a U bile

tizilti erentir zin belgle (KB / 5676).


j

5.2.2. sa

an

< T. saj-z-jan : isim kk-\DUGPF VHV-isimden isim yapma eki- isimden isim
yapma eki.

6DNVDJDQDGOELU\OG]6DNVDDQ

(EUTS 1993: 127).

&ODXVRQV|]FQHVNLELUKD\YDQDGPDJSLH VDNVDDQ ROGXXQXV|\OHPLV|]F

saj]-jan HNOLQGH LQFHOHPLWLU 'LHU OHKoHOHUGH V|]FQ PHWDWH] \ROX\OD sagzagan /


VDNVDDQ HNOLQL DOGQD GD GHLQPLWLU ('   6HYDQ 1LDQ\DQ V|]FQ (W

saj]jDQVDNVNDQHNOLQLYHUPL\DQVPDELUVHVWHQWUHGLLQLN|NQQVDNVDNVHVL
oNDUPDN DQODPQGDNL

Hasan

*saksamak RODELOHFHLQL GQPWU 1LDQ\DQ   

(UHQ LVH EX V|]FN KDNNQGD XQODU ND\GHWPHNWHGLU 5DPVWHGW EX V|]

0RROFD

sijaDjay

ELoLPL\OH ELUOHWLUPLWLU

Rsnen,

5DPVWHGWLQ ELUOHWLUPHVLQL

YHUPHNOH \HWLQPLWLU %URFNHOPDQQ .DJDUO 0DKPXGXQ YHUGLL ELoLPL VDUJDQ


RODUDNDOPGRDOELUVHVRODUDNGHHUOHQGLUPLWLU'DKDVRQUDVD]JDQ
\DSOP WUHYOHU DUDVQGD VD\PWU 'PLWULHY GH

saksagan -gan

(!)

-gan ekiyle

HNL\OH \DSOP ELU

|UQHNRODUDNYHUPLWLU (UHQ 

6|]FQ N|N EL]H J|UH VDNVDDQQ oNDUG

sak sak sesL

GROD\V\OD \DQVPD

(onomatope) bir kk olan saj ismidir. DLTde sak sak nbetinin, bekinin kaleyi ve

150

DW NRUX\DELOPHN LoLQ X\DQN ROPDVQ HPUHGHQ V|]


DQODPQGDGU

an eki de

  

saj isminden kgz J|V kz gz, tiz diz (Gabain 2000: 46)

|UQHNOHULQGH GH ROGXX JLEL oRXQOXNOD LNL]OLN ELOGLUHQ


j

(DLT-'=1

VDNUJDQ E\N VoDQ JHPH

-z LOH WHNUDU LVLP \DSOPWU -

(DLT-'=1    |UQHLQGHNL JLEL

isim yapar.
-

NQ \RU DL |OWoL lUNOLJ WDL VXL VDU RUX

ulu LUSL] TXGUXT

\XPX]XOX EL WUOJ WRSUDT lUNOLJL \LU WlxUL TDQ VROWXQ N|N OXX

odun aq bars, kntn


\DUDPD]

~

 

T]O VD ] DQ NLGLQ TDUD \ODQ DOW TDS

(TT VI 95).

~

5.2.3. temr azu

< T. temr + ~az-ju~: isim kk + fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.

Kutup\OG]GHPLUND]N(DLT-'=1 

'HPLU PDGHQL GQ\DGD LON GHID 7UN NOWU oHYUHVLQGH .DUDVXN NOWU  LOHQPL YH
NXOODQOPWU %N]

1. Blm  'ROD\V\OD EX V|]FN 7UN GLOL N|NHQOLGLU Clauson

konuyla ilgili makalesinde temr

azu~ /

azu~

V|]F KDNNQGD XQODU LIDGH

HWPHNWHGLU (GHEv DQODPGD GHPLU ND]N RODUDN NXWXS \OG]Q WHPVLOHQ NXOODQOP
ELU V|]FNWU NLQFL NHOLPHQLQ YDU\DQWODU VDGHFH LYH IDUNOONODUQGDQ ND\QDNODQU YH
oRN GD |QHPOL GHLOGLU ON NXOODQP

YHEX\]GHQNXWXS\OG]

DLTde ~azu~ ND]N DQODPQGDNL al-watadGU

temr ~azu~GHPLUND]NRODUDNJHoHUoQNLQDQDJ|UH

J|N\] RQXQ HWUDIQGD G|QHU %X LEDUH

yultuz NDYUDP DOWQGD temr ~azu~ al-qutb /

il-falak olarak da geer.

da temr ~azu~ HNOLQGH J|UOU Qauxinin

EQL 0KHQQk

GH GXUDDQ EX \]GHQ GH EDWPD\DQ DQODPQD JHOHQ

temr xazu~ olarak geer.

Kelime Sanglakhta iki kez gemektedir: Biri temr ~azu~ \DQL NXWXS \OG] DQODPQD
JHOHQ GHPLU ND]NWU oQN EX ELU NXWXSWXU YH KDUHNHWL NROD\ IDUN HGLOPH] 'LHUL GH

azu~WXU EX D\UFD temr ~azu~ olarak da bilinir.

JQH\ NXWXS \OG]Q WHPVLO HGHQ ~


SKHVL]

NL

EX

KkOk

ELUNDo

GLOGH

YDUOQ

151

VUGUPHNWHGLU

PHVHOk



\\

$QDGROXVXQGD

.RQ\DGD

NXOODQODQ

dir~D]~

V|]F

  $UDWUPDF HWLPRORML V|]OQGH LVH

YDUGU

(Clauson 1964:

temr V|]FQQ N|NHQL\OH LOJLOL

KHUKDQJL ELU DoNODPD \DSPDPVDGHFHV|]FQ WDULKv OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPXQX J|]OHU


|QQH VHUPLWLU ('   ND]XN V|]FQQ N|NHQLQLQ LVH
YXUJXODPWU ('   1LDQ\DQ

demir V|]FQQ (W temr

kaz-

nu

ILLOL ROGXX

1LDQ\DQ   

HNOLQL YHUPL ND]N V|]FQ GH \HUH oDNODQ ND]N HNOLQGH WDQPOD\DUDN (W

kazjuk/kazukWDQ JHOGLLQL YH N|NHQLQLQ kaz- ILLOL ROGXXQX EHOLUWPLWLU 1LDQ\DQ


2003: 224). Hasan Eren de
oXEXN

GLUHN

VRSD

ND]N V|]Q WRSUDD oDNOPDN LoLQ KD]UODQP XFX VLYUL

HNOLQGH

WDQPODP

YH

D]ODUGD

gazuk

RODUDN

JHoWLLQL

YXUJXODPWU %X V|]Q (VNL 7UNoHGHQ EHUL NXOODQOGQ 2UWD 7UNoHGH


RODUDNJHoWLLQLV|\OHPLYHV|]F

kazuk

kaz- + -gukHNLHNOLQGHWDKOLOHWPLWLU(Eren 1999:




  (VNL 7UNoHGH GHPLU ND]N DQODPQQ \DQQ GD

temr ~azu~ sz grubu Kutup

\OG]DQODPQGDGDNXOODQOPWU

Altun (veya

dLQGHYH7UNOHUGHJ|QNXWEXVD\ODQ.XWXS\OG](VNL7UNoHDG\OD

Temr)-kazguk
VDQOPDNWDGU

dLQ DVWURORMLVLQGH J|N KNPGDU GHQHQ J|NVHO WDQUQQ VDUD\


.XWXS

\OG]QQ

HWUDIQGDNL

\OG]ODU

GD

KNPGDUQ

DLOHVLQH

benzetilmektedir. Trkede Yitiken \HGL KDQODU  GHQHQ %\ND\ \OG] WDNPQQ


KNPGDUQ

DUDEDV

VD\OS

.XWXS

\OG]QD

EDO

RODUDN

PHYVLPOHU

ER\XQFD

J|N\]QGH GDLUHVHO HNLOGH KDUHNHW HWWLL YH \OON WDNYLPL EHOLUOHGLL ND\GHGLOPLWLU
7UNOHU J|Q

Altun (veya Temr)-kazgukHWUDIQGD G|QGQ VDQ\RUODUG 7UNOHUGH

YitikenLQ \OON KDUHNHWL ER\XQFD GD KHU  D\Q EHOLUOL ELU JQQGH ELQ PXP \DNDUDN
D\LQ\DSPDJHOHQHLYDUG (VLQ 

 NXWXS \OG]QD WHPU ND]QXN GHQLU GHPLUGHQ \DSOP ND]N

demektir; sanki gk bunun zerinde dnyor. (DLT III, 383).

7UN PLWRORMLVLQH J|UH 7UNOHU J|Q GLUHL RODUDN .XWXS \OG]Q GQPOHUGLU
%XQXQ LoLQ .XWXS \OG]QD 'HPLU ND]N

veya $OWXQ ND]N GHPLOHUGLU %X GQFH

GDKD oRN E\N GHYOHW NXUPX 7UNOHUGHQ JHOPLWL %D] 7UN NOWU oHYUHOHULQGH LVH

buna 'HPLU DDo veya Demir direk GHQL\RUGX (VNL 7UN GQFHVLQH J|UH .XWXS
\OG] J|NWH KLo NPOGDPDGDQ GXUX\RU EWQ JH]HJHQOHU LOH \OG]ODU LVH RQXQ

152

oHYUHVLQGH J|UQ\RUODUG .XWXS \OG] 7DQUQQ NO ONHOHUL RODQ \NVHN J|NOH

yeryzn ELUOHWLUHQ NXWOX ELU NDS LGL %X NDS J|NOH \HUL UXK kOHPL LOH PDGGH
GQ\DVQ YH D\Q ]DPDQGD LQVDQ LOH 7DQU\ ELUELULQGHQ D\UDQ ELU VQU LGL gJHO

2002: 170).
mel

.XWXS \OG] 7UN PLWRORMLVLQLQ X]D\ LOH LOJLOL NR]PRORMLN GQFH G]HQLQLQ WH

", ".DSV KHS NXWXS \OG]QGDQ JHoHUGL

QRNWDVQPH\GDQD JHWLUPLWLU*|Q GLUHL

%WQ JH]HJHQOHU GH .XWXS \OG]QQ HWUDIQGD G|QHUGL 2QODUD J|UH EX G]HQLQ
ER]XOPDVGHPHNGQ\DYHNkLQDWQVRQXGHPHNWL(VNL7UNPLWRORMLVLQHJ|UH

da

Dnya

G|Q\RUGX 'Q\DQQ EX G|Q KHP NHQGL KHP GH NXWXS \OG] HNVHQLQGH

PH\GDQDJHOL\RUGXdQNGQ\D.XWXS\OG]LOHJ|HEDOLGL

$QDGROXGD HVNL 7UN PLWRORMLVLQLQ .XWXS <OG] LOH LOJLOL L]OHUL KkOk \DDPDNWDGU

Zaten, "'HPLU ND]N", "Demir Direk JLEL V|]OHU $QDGROX 7UNOQQ GH .XWXS
\OG] LoLQ NXOODQGNODU PWHUHN GH\LPOHUGLU %X \OG]D ED] \HUOHUGH GH 

Kuluka"

GDGHQLU%XDGGD\OG]QKDUHNHWHWPHPHVLQGHQGROD\YHULOPLROPDOGU

Trkede "ND]N \HULQGH GXUDQ NPOGDPD\DQ WDKWD YH\D GHPLUGHQ \DSOP E\N
ELU oLYLGLU %XQD EDODQDQ DWODU GD KD\YDQODU GD RQXQ HWUDIQGD G|QHU GXUXUODU .XWXS

Uzaydaki btn

\OG] GD JH]PH\HQ ELU \OG]GU <LQH 7UN PLWRORMLVLQH J|UH 

\OG]ODU WSN ELU DW JLEL RQD EDODQP YH RQXQ HWUDIQGD G|QHUOHU $\Q ]DPDQGD

"*|Q J|EHL GH \LQH .XWXS \OG]GU WH 7UNOHULQ J|NWHNL \OG]ODUQQ G]HQL
KDNNQGDNL DVWURQRPLN GQFHOHULQL YH X]D\ 0DFURFRVPRV  LOH LOJLOL WDVDYYXUODU EX
HNLOGH|]HWOHQHELOLU

Yine Trk mitolojisinde

.XWXS \OG] SDUODNOQ ELU VHPERO JLEL\GL $WH JLEL

SDUOD\DQELUH\DWHLOHGHLOGH.XWXS\OG]JLELHNOLQGHWDULIHGLOLUGL*QHN
YH VFDNON VDoDQ ELU YDUON LGL .XWXS \OG]QQ |]HOOLL LVH \DOQ]FD SDUODPDN YH
SDUODN ROPDNW

Uygurca

2X] .DDQ 'HVWDQ

na gre, 2X] +DQ ELU JQ ELU \HUGH

7DQU\D GXD HGL\RU YH \DOYDU\RUPX 7DP EX VUDGD HWUDI ELUGHQ ELU NDUDQON EDVP
YH J|NWHQ $\GDQ GD JQHWHQ GH SDUODN ELU N LQPL ,Q LoLQGH J]HO ELU N]

153

RWXUX\RU YH EDQGDNL ELU WDo GD SDUO SDUO SDUO\RUPX 7Do R NDGDU SDUODNP NL

SDUODNOWSN.XWXS\OG]Q\DQL$OWQ.D]N
DQGU\RUPX

(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)

.XWXS\OG]DQODPQDJHOHQ

temr ~azu~ sz grubu Uygurca 2X].DDQ'HVWDQnda

altun kazukHNOLQGHJHoPHNWHGLU

XEX \DUXN

-nung ara-VQGD ELU N] EDU LUGL \DOX] ROGXUXU LUGL \DN

krk-OJ ELU N] LUGL DQXQJ EDQGD DGD-lug yaruk-OX ELU PHQJ-i
bar irdi, aldun kasuk deg irdi. 2 Q LoLQGH ELU N] YDU \DOQ]
RWXUX\RU dRN J]HO ELU N]G %DQGD DOQQGD"  DWHOL YH SDUODN ELU
EHQLYDUGGHPLUND]N NXWXS\OG] JLELLGL 2X]. 

5.2.4. lkr
< T. lkr : isim kk.
-

hONHU\OG] (876 VUH\\D\OG] '/7 '=1 

7UNoHGH JHUHN LVLP JHUHNVH ILLO N|NOHUL EDODQJoWD WHN KHFHGHQ LEDUHWWL 7HN KHFHOL
ROGXX KkOGHDVOQGDJHQLOHPL\DQL J|YGHGXUXPXQGDRODQELUoRN LVLPYHILLOYDUGU

Mesel kr- < k-r- grmek fiili -r- LOH JHQLOHPL ELU J|YGHGLU oQN EXQX J|UPH
RUJDQ

kz / k-z LVPL LVSDW HWPHNWHGLU $QFDN .DUDKDQO VDKDVQGD ELUGHQ ID]OD WHN

KHFHOL QLFH NHOLPHOHU PHYFXWWXU NL EXQODUQ SHN oRXQX WHN KHFH\H LQGLUPHN PPNQ
GHLOGLU +DFHPLQROX    WH E|\OH NHOLPHOHUGHQ ELUL GH

lkr V|]FGU

)D\GDODQGP] HWLPRORML V|]ONOHULQLQ KLoELULQGH EX V|]FQ N|NHQL\OH LOJLOL


KHUKDQJLELUELOJL\HUDVWOD\DPDGN

Funda Toprak, NRQX\OD LOJLOL DUDWUPDVQGD lker V|]FQQ N|NQQ WHrazi burcu
DQODPQGDNL

lg LOH D\Q RODELOHFHLQH GHLQPL lkerin kknn le- OHWLUPHN

SD\ODWUPDNILLOLQGHDUDQPDVQQX\JXQRODELOHFHLQLEHOLUWPLWLU 7RSUDN 

154

edir: Sreyya

&ODXVRQNRQX\ODLOJLOLPDNDOHVLQGHV|]FNKDNNQGD XQODU ND\GHWPHNW

EXUFX <HGL QO NLLGHQ ROXDQ JUXSWDQ ELUL $UDSoDGD XUD\\  HNOLQGHGLU YH ELUoRN

PRGHUQ 7UN GLOLQGH KkOk \DD\DQ ELU NHOLPHGLU .DJDUvGH


oHYULOPLWLU 6DYDWD SXVXGD\NHQ D\UOPD\D

lker,

diye

DXUD\\

lker erig denir. Ordu kk blklere

D\UOU KHU \|QGHQ DVNHU J|QGHULOLU ELU E|ON oHNLOLQFH GLHUL J|QGHULOLU YH EX HNLOGH
GPDQOD EDD oNOU 0XKWHPHOHQ NHOLPH SXVXGDQ WUHPL YH PHFD] DQODP RODUDN
NoN \OG] JUXSODUQ LIDGH HGHQ
NXOODQOPWU .HOLPH

Pleiades (lker

EXUFXQXQ \HGL \OG]  RO

KBde 4889. ve 6216. beyitlerde gemektedir.

Qawnin haricinde tm Arap szlklerinde

arak

EQL 0KHQQk

ve

DXUD\\  NDUOQGD NXOODQOPDNWDGU

(Clauson 1964: 363).


en lker, in

7DNYLPGH \HUL RODQ VRPXW HNLOGH GQOHQ J|NVHO FLVLPOHUG

astrolojisinde Mao DG DOWQGD 7UNOHULQ GH LoLQGH EXOXQGXX +XODUD NX]H\OL YH EDWO
J|oHEHOHU  EHQ]HWLOLU YH RQODU JLEL X]XQ VDoO ELU NLL RODUDN GQOUG
NX]H\EDW\|QQHEDOVD\O\RUYH
. JQG|QPQGH JHFH J|QGH

lker,

Kara-\ODQ\OG]WDNPQQRUWDVQda bulunuyordu.

lker zirvede bulunurdu. lker \OG] 0g 

VUDODUQGD *QH LOH D\Q ]DPDQGD GRDUDN EDKDU HNLQRNVXQX KDEHU YHUPHNWH\GL

Nitekim, inde Mao KDUIL ELU NDS ]HULQGH GRDQ *QHL UHVPHWPHNWH\GL lkerin
\DQQGDNLELU\OG]LVHdLQLQNX]H\EDWVQUODUQGD+XODUDNDUVDYDODUGDNXOODQODQ
DUDEDODUWHPVLOHGL\RUGX+XODUDNDUdLQLQELQOHUFH\OGHYDPHGHQVDYDODU\ODLOJLOL
EX NDYUDP 7UNOHULQ VDYDWD \XNDUGD GD GHLQGLLPL]

lker erig Hklinde birbirini

L]OH\HQNoNELUOLNOHUOHKFXPHWWLLKDNNQGDNL.DJDUvULYD\HWLQLKDWUODWU/%D]LQ

Trk takviminde lkerLQ

|QHPLQH LDUHWOH

PHYVLPOHULQ

lkerin hareketleriyle

EHOLUOHQGLLQLVDQPDNWDGU (VLQ 

Anadoluda da bu yOG]D lker veya rker GHQLU %X V|\OHQL KHPHQ KHPHQ EWQ
7UN OHKoHOHULQGHD\Q JLELGLU%XV|\OH\LLQ GRUXVX WDEv RODUDN

lker idi. Yine btn

7UNNDYLPOHULQGHLNLQFLELUDGEXOXQPD\DQWHN\OG]GDEXLGL

lker sz, Anadoludan Kuzey Buz Deni]LQH NDGDU X]DQDQ EWQ 7UN D]ODUQGD
VUD YH GL]L DQODPQD JHOLU %X VHEHSOH lkerV|] EXUoODUQ YH WRS \OG]ODUQ XPXPL
ELU

DG

RODUDN NXOODQOPWU

lker

\OG]

155

DVOQGD

DOW

\OG]GU )DNDW GQ\D

PLWRORMLOHULQGH EXQODU \HGL \OG] RODUDN NDEXO HGLOPLOHUGLU %X VHEHSOH$YUXSDOODU GD

lker \OG]QD <HGL N] NDUGH

GHPLOHUGL 7UNOHU GH

lkerL \HGL \OG] RODUDN NDEXO

HWPLOHUGLU $QDGROXGD 2UWD $V\D YH 6LELU\DGD 7UNoH NRQXDQ KDONODU LVH EX \HGL
N]GDQ ELULQLQ %\ND\ EXUFX WDUDIQGDQ NDoUOGQD LQDQ\RUODUG %X VHEHSOH

Anadoluda da lker \OG]QD <HGLJHU <HGLJHQ <HGL .DUGH <HGLOHU <HGL .DQGLO
DGODU YHULOPLWLU $VOQGD

Yediger %\ND\ EXUFXQXQ DG LGL $QDGROXGD EX LNL

\OG]Q DGODUQ NDUWUDQODU SHN oRNWXU (VNL

Trke bir szck olan YedigerV|]F

Anadoluda Ydi ker, Yedi yar, Yedi yarlar HNLOOHULQH JLUPLWLU lkerLQ \OG]ODU
oRN \DQDNWUODU %XQXQ LoLQ $QDGROXGD RQODUD

Topalar da denilmektedir. Bu sz

r.

ROGXNoDJHo]DPDQODUGDPH\GDQDJHOPLROPDOG

7UNOHU \OG]ODU WSN J|Q ELU GHOLL JLEL ]DQQHWPHNWHGLUOHU

lkerLQ DOW \OG] GD

J|Q HQ |QHPOL GHOLNOHULQGH DOW WDQHVL RODUDN VD\OPDNWDGU *HUoL .XWXS \OG]QQ
GHOLL J|Q ELU QHYL NXWVDO NDSV RODUDN NDEXO HGLOL\RUGX 7DQU\D JLGL YH JHOL KHS
EX NDSGDQ ROXUGX )DNDW

lker \OG]QQ DOW GHOLL GH \HU\]QH VFDN YH\D VRXN

KDYDODU VRNDQ YH LNOLP GHLLNOLNOHUL PH\GDQD JHWLUHQ NDSODUG %X PHVHOHQLQ
HIVDQHOHUH NRQX WHNLO HWPL ROPDVQD UDPHQ JHUoHNOH GH LOJLVL \RN GHLOGL
$QDGROXGDELOHNDVPD\QGDEDOD\DQIUWQDODUD

lker dnm denilmesinin belki bu

LQDQODELUEDODQWVNXUXODELOLU

(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)
yana krdi lkerVDYOPED
tojDUGQoDran ~RSP|UOHSWX(KB / 4889).
j

5.2.5. ya

] V

un

< T. yaj] + Vjun : isim kk + isim kk.

%LU\OG]DG

(Clauson 1964: 366).

&ODXVRQ NRQX\OD LOJLOL PDNDOHVLQGH EX V|] JUXEX KDNNQGD XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU

Buljatta al-GDEDUQ \DQL $OGHEDUDQ \OG]GU ON NHOLPH NDKYHUHQJL DQODPQGDNL


yaj]GUVjXQ VjQ Uygurcada ok iyi bilinen bir Trke kelimedir ve KBde 79. ve
156

 EH\LWOHUGH JHoPHNWHGLU $\UFD EX V|]

DLTGH GH JHoPHNWHGLU $VOQGD NHOLPe

HUNHN JH\LN DQODPQGDGU IDNDW EX KD\YDQQ ELOLQPHGLL ED] E|OJHOHUGH NHOLPH
EDNDJH\LNoHLWOHULLoLQGHNXOODQOPWU%XV|]FNNDKYHUHQJLJH\LNEH\D]D\JU
YH LNL JUL DWQ \DQQGD PDQWNO ELU \OG] DG ROPXWXU $OGHEDUDQ \OG]  \OG]
NPHVLQGHQ ELULGLU YH 7UNoH NDUO
DNWDUOP KkOLGLU %X \DQOON

bajU sojrn PXKWHPHOHQ EX LEDUHQLQ \DQO

KBQLQ 9L\DQD QVKDVQGD GD J|UOPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ

1964: 366).
Hasan Eren,

\D] V|]FQQ (VNL YH 2UWD 7UNoH G|QHPOHULQGHQ EHUL NXOODQOGQ

EHOLUWWLNWHQ VRQUD V|]FQ HWLPRORMLVLQLQ WDP RODUDN ELOLQPHGLLQL LIDGH HWPHNWHGLU

Clausona gre bu szck byk bir ihtimalle \D- kknden gelir. Ramstedt, Poppe ve
9ODGLPLUWVRY NHOLPH\L 0RROFD JH\LN DQODPQGDNL

dayir

LOH ELUOHWLUPLOHUGLU

dayir7UNoHGHQNDOPDHVNLELUDOQWGU (UHQ 

&ODXVRQDJ|UH0RROFD

Eren,

VQ LOH LOJLOL RODUDN LVH V|]FQ DOD JH\LN DQODPQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD PRGHUQ

lehelerde Trkm. sXQ geyik, KKlp.

VXZQ JH\LN HNLOOHULQL YHUPL YH V|]FQ

(VNL oDODUGDQ EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOGQ .DJDUO 0DKPXGD J|UH V|]FQ 2UWD

Trkede

VXQ RODUDN JHoWLLQL 5DPVWHGWLQ EX V|]F 0RROFD VRX VXX

ELUOHWLUGLLQLEHOLUWPLWLU

ile

(Eren 1999: 363).

j
un muyjD~ erse su~a~\DY~

saa yim tkemez ay erg ~O~(KB / 5374).

5.2.6. \OGU
\DOGU~a

~

yaldra~a \OGU~

< T. *ya-l-dr--~ : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki-\DUGPF
ses-fiilden isim yapma eki.

<OGUN

(Siris) \OG]%N]arjU (KB-'=1 

157

&ODXVRQ%XNHOLPHGHQWUH\HQILLOLQVHVOHQGLULOPHVLKHU]DPDQKDWDOROPXWXU

T II D

79da kelime yaldra~HNOLQGH\D]O\RUYHHVHVOLVLGHROPD\QFDV|]FN\OGU~oluyor.


-

8\JXUFDGD SDUODPDN DQODPQGDNL ILLO \DOGU WU YH EX V|]FN \OGUP

modern szcklerin de kkenidir.

\DOGU~

gibi bD]

DLTGH SDUOD\DQ\D GDNJL\LPOLNDGQ

WHPVLO HGHU %X \]GHQ GH ELU \OG] LVPL RODUDN SDUOD\DQ ELU QHVQH DQODPQ
ND]DQPWU %XDQODPQQGQGD\\$QDGROXVXQGD 0DUVNDUOQGDNXOODQODQ

bu szck, grnen o ki sadece T II D 79da ve KBGH


JHoPHNWHGLU ONLQGH  \OG] NPHVLQGH NL DUDODUQGD

ELU \OG] LVPL RODUDN

yenge de bulunur) 4. burcu

WHPVLO HGHU <HQJHoWHNL EX \OG] YH GLHU \OG]ODU  \OG]GDQ GDKD SDUODN RODPD]

KBde 5676. ve 6220. beyitlerde arjU muhtemelen sz geen yenge ve siris


DUDVQGDNL HQ SDUODN \OG]GU GHPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ    $UDWUPDF

HWLPRORML V|]OQGH GH V|]FQ N|NQ \DOWU  ILLOL RODUDN YHUPLWLU ('  

Biz

&ODXVRQGDQIDUNORODUDNNHOLPHQLQN|NQQGDKDJHUL\HJLGHELOHFHLQLGQ\RUX]

)XQGD7RSUDNLVHNRQX\ODLOJLOLoDOPDVQGDV|]NRQXVXNHOLPH\L

*ya-l+dIrIkHNOLQGH

ekinin de boyunduruk|UQHLQGHNLJLELLVLPGHQLVLP

LQFHOHPLWLU.HOLPHGHJHoHQ GUN

yapan bir ek olduXQX V|\OHPLWLU (Toprak 2005: 25) 7RSUDNQ NHOLPHQLQ N|N\OH
LOJLOL GQFHVL GRUX NDEXO HGLOHELOLU IDNDW V|]FQ VRQXQGDNL GUN

eki bizce iki

D\U HNWLU %X GQFHPL]L (VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVLQGH EXOXQDQ \DOWU  SDUODPDN N

samak, yaltra~

N SDUOW

yaltra- parlamak (EUTS 1993: 184) kelimeleriyle

VRPXWODWUDELOLUL]

Bu kelimenin kk bizce tahmini bir *ya-

SDUODPDN PDN ILLO N|NQH NDGDU

gtrlebilir. *ya- fiil kknden -lLOHLVLP\DSOP-GULOHILLO\DSOP- ~ ile tekrar


LVLP \DSOPWU GL\H GQ\RUX]

Bizce

\OGU~ V|]F EXJQ 7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGH

\OGUDN HNOLQGH SDUOGD\F SDUOGD\DQ LPHN 7'.    DQODPODUQGD


\DDPDNWDGU

~
\DUXGEDVD\OGU

arjUELOH

tizilti erentir zin belgle (KB / 5676).

158

\LWLNHQN|WUGL\DQDED|U

~
titti yana \OGU arjU naru (KB / 6220).

5.2.7. yitikn
yetigen a yitikn (DLT-'=1(876 
< T. yiti-kn : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
<HGL NDUGDODUDGYHULOHQ \OG] (DLT-'=1  %\N $\ \OG] (876
1993: 194).

%\N $\ DQODPQGDNL

yitikn V|]F EX \OG] JUXEXQX ROXWXUDQ \HGL E\N

\OG] WHPVLO HGHU <HGL DQODPQD JHOHQ

yiti V|]FQGHQ WUHPLWLU %X V|]FN LON

olarak Budist <HGL <OG] 9HFL]HOHULnin Trke


J|UOPWU

Kelime

DLTde kez geer. Burada yetigen,

TT VII No. 40ta

EDQ W QD RODUDN oHYULOPLWLU

da ve Arap-.SoDNND\QDQGDGDKDJ|UOPHNWHGLU Kitb al-

EQL 0KHQQk

idrk 91de yetegen


11de

oHYLUL |UQHLQGH

EDQ W QD

olarak, Buljat 2, 13te EDQW QD \HWJHQ; Tuyfat 7a

EDQ W QD \HWLJHU HNOLQGH J|UOU 6RQXQFXVX ELU \D]P KDWDV GHLOGLU IDNDW

V|]FQ\\GDQJQP]HJHOHQ2VPDQOFDGDJ|UOHQLNLQFLELUIRUPXGXU%XQXQ

iin

7DQNODU\OD 7DUDPD 6|]OQH EDNODELOLU %X V|]FN KkOk

&XPKXUL\HWLQGH GH YDUGU .HOLPH

gelen yetigen, yediler ve yedi

gnmz Trkiye

SanglakhWD E\N D\ WDNP \OG] DQODPQD

~DUGD RODUDN JHoHU .HOLPH KkOk NX]H\GRXGD ED]

modern lehelerde yettegen YH EHQ]HUL HNLOOHUGH NXOODQOPDNWDGU &ODXVRn 1964:


  &ODXVRQ V|]OQGH EX V|]F

yeti (yetti) + -gen (-gn  HNL RODUDN LQFHOHPLWLU

(ED: 889). Clauson, -gen ekinin birliktelik eki -gn

LOH LOJLVLQLQ RODELOHFHLQL

V|\OHPLWLU

Gabain, +han, +kan ve +ken LVLPGHQ LVLP \DSDQ HNOHU EDO DOWnda burhan < bur
Buda, teriken

ODKL +D]UHWOHUL

tarhan yksek bir mevki isimlerinde bir de

.DGUNDQ gWNHQ JLEL GD LVLPOHUL\OH

yitiken \HGL EH\OHU \DQL E\N D\ \OG]

LVLPOHULQGHEXHNLQNXOODQOG|UQHNOHULYHUPHNWHGLU0DUFHO(UGDOGD
DOWQGD

+kAnHNLEDO

yetiken the name of Ursa Major, which consists of seven stars etimolojisini

vermektedir. Burada geen yediVD\DGNRQXVXQGDGDIDUNOJ|UOHURUWD\DNR\PXWXU


159

Ramstedte gre Trke ye-

N|NQGHQ JHOLU 2QD J|UH DVOHQ VD\ DG ROPD\S

SDUPDNODUD YHULOHQ DGGU +DUWPDQQ

yediyi *yet-di RODUDN DoNODPWU 0XQNDFVL GH

yediyi yet-N|NQGHQJHWLUPLWLU+DUWPDQQQDoNODPDVQ5lVlQHQGHEHQLPVHPLWLU
-

6FKPLGW $OWD\ GLOOHULQGH DOW RQ DUDVQGDNL VD\ DGODUQQ IDUNO ROGXXQX GLO

JHWLUPLWLU 7RSUDN 

%\N$\\OG]QQHQHVNL7UNoHDG<HGLJHUGLU%XDGLPGLELOH$QDGROXQXQ
ELUoRN \HULQGH \DDPDNWDGU 7DELv RODUDN $QDGROX 7UNOHUL EX oRN HVNL 7UNoH \OG]
LVPLQLDQODPDPODUYHRQXWUOHNLOOHUHVRNPXODUGU.LPL<HGLN|UGHPLNLPLVL
GH<HGLNHU\DQL<HGLHHNDQODPQDJHWLUPLOHUGLU%|\OHFHGH$QDGROXGDELUoRN
HIVDQH WUHPLWLU $QDGROXQXQ N\ E|OJHOHULQGH EX \OG]D *HPL \OG] GHQLU
.|PNGL\HQOHUGHYDUGU%XGH\LGH7UNNOWUEDNPQGDQD\UELU|QHPWDU

$OWD\OODUQNX]H\LQGHNL7UNOHU EX\OG]D$W\HWWHJHQ\DQL<HGLDW$W\HGLOLVL
GHPLOHUGLU.UJ]7UNOHULLVH%\ND\EXUFXQXQ\OG]ODUQ<HGLGDNR\XQXJLEL
GQPOHU YH EXQXQ LoLQ GH RQD <HWL DUNDU DGQ WDNPODUGU 7UNOHU %\ND\
EXUFXQXQ VD WDUDIQGD SDUOD\DQ LNLOL \OG] WRSXQD GD E\N N\PHW YHUPLOHUGL
$QDGROXGDEXLNL\OG]DNLNDUQGDYH\DNLNDUGH GHGHQLU 2UWD$V\D7UNOHUL
LVHEXQODU.Rg]\DQLdLIWgN]DGLOHDQPODUGU

%\ND\ \DQL <HGLNDUGHOHU EXUFX KDNNQGD 2UWD $V\D YH 6LELU\DGD V|\OHQHQ
HIVDQHOHULEDOFDLNLJUXEDD\UDELOLUL]

 %DW 6LELU\D KDONODU <HGLNDUGHOHU EXUFXQD JHQHO RODUDN *H\LN DGQ YHULUOHUGL

Orta Asya Sibirya vH $OWD\ GDODUQQ NX]H\OHULQH JHOLQFH HIVDQHOHU GDKD GD GXUXODU
YH EX EXUFD JH\LN GHQPHVLQLQ VHEHSOHUL DQODOUG 0HVHOk <HQLVH\OLOHU \DOQ]FD G|UW
N|H RODUDN GL]LOHQ G|UW \OG]D 

Geyik DG YHULOLUNHQ EDWDNL o \OG]D GD $YF"

derlerdi. Bu, "ho DYF YH G|UW JH\LN PRWLIL <HGLNDUGH EXUFX LOH LOJLOL HIVDQHOHULQ HQ
DoNYHHQEHUUDNPRWLIOHULLGLOHU

160

 <HGL \OG] <HGL NDUGH RODUDN NDEXO HGHQ HIVDQHOHU 2UWD YH %DW $V\D
7UNOHULQLQ LQDQODUQD GD X\JXQGXU %X LNLQFL WU HIVDQHOHUGH \HGL \OG]  YH 
GL\HLNL\HD\UPDSHNJ|UOP\RUGX

%XQODUQKHSVLGHNDUGHKDQYH\DKXWGDKUV]HNOLQGHKHSEHUDEHUFHURO
R\QX\RUODUG

(VNL 7UNOHU <HGLNDUGHOHU EXUFXQD <HWLJHQ GHUOHUGL %XQGDQ GD DQODO\RU NL RQODU

daEX\HGL\OG]ELUEWQRODUDNGQ\RUODUG

%\ND\ EXUFXQXQ JH]LL YH DOG GXUXODU ELU 7DNYLP YH+DYD UDSRUX RODUDN GD
LH\DUDPW.X\UXXQXQJ|VWHUGLL\|QHJ|UHPHYVLPGHLWLUGL.X\UXNGRXGDLVH
EDKDUJQH\GH\D]EDWGDVRQEDKDUYHNX]H\HND\DQNX\UXNGDNQJHOHFHLQLKDEHU
YHULUGL %XUFXQ JHULOHPHVL YH NODUQQ D]DOPDV GRQ EDODQJFQ GDKD NO YH

". nk kuzey

SDUODNROPDVGDNDU\DLOHVFDNODUQDUWDFDQJ|VWHUHQDOkPHWOHUGL
E|OJHOHUGHNDUQ\DPDVGD

bir mjde idi.

2UWD$V\DQQHVNLDWO7UNOHULEX\OG]DE\NELU|QHPYHULUOHUGL$QDGROXLOH2UWD
$V\D\ ELU GHUYL N\DIHWL LOH JH]HQ + 9DPEHU\QLQ GH EX \OG]D YHULOHQ |QHP

, yani Yedi haydut

J|]QGHQ NDoPDPW 2QD J|UH .UJ]ODU EX EXUFD <HGL .DUDoN


GHUOHUGL (Q XoWDNL LNL \OG]

Ak-Boz at ile Kk-Boz DGO LNL D\JUG Ak-boz deyimleri,

EX DWODUQ UHQNOHULQL J|VWHUL\RUODUG 2UWDGDNL \OG] GD ELU QHYL DUDEDQQ RNX

".

ROX\RUPX %X VXUHWOH EX LNL DW .XWXS \OG]QD NRXOPX RODUDN J|NWH NRDUODUP

9DPEHU\ GH EX HIVDQHQLQ VX NDWOPDP ELU 7UN J|U ROGXXQX V|\OHGLNWHQ VRQUD
KD\UDQOQEHOLUWPHNWHQJHULGXUPDPW

(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)
yitikenN|WUGL\DQDED|U
titti yana \OGU~ arjU naru (KB / 6220).

5.2.8. abii
< Skr. abhijit%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 1).

161

\D

yultuz abii LUDYDQ LUDYDQ W|UW \DQJD VlUlU LUDYDQ-ta


-

VlUlU VlUlU LUDYDQ WD LUDYDQ

srr abii-(da) srr abii-(da) (TT

VII 1/33).

DGU

< Skr. DUGU\OG] (876 


adir bir tn turur (TT VII 3/4).
5.2.10. anurat
anurad aQXUG (876779,, 
< Skr. DQXUGK%LU\OG]QDGGU (876 

NU JU

ax anurad yultuz ygrmi-g [sirk]i bir ygrmin [ai] kiig

(TT VII 4/64).


5.2.11. DOLV
< Skr. aslm%LU\OG]GU (876 
adit[ya] grax >D@O>L@\XOWX] trt ygrmi-g sirki (TT VII 4/71).
5.2.12. DYLQL
< Skr. asvini%LU\OG]GU (8TS 1993: 16).

>D@YLQL

bir kn bir tn turur (TT VII 3/27).

5.2.13. barani
< Skr. baharanu<OG]DGGU (876 

-i kn barani yultuz angarak

oQo DL NoJ ELU \DQJ V EX \RQW SL


JDU[RODOW\DQJ

-DWVLUNL (TT VII 4/19).

162

5.2.14. aitir
< Skr. FLWU%LU\OG]QDGGU (876 
soma grax aitir yultuz iki ygrmi-Jl V L UNL DOW \JUPL-g qu-ni
rdm (?) (TT VII 4/50).
5.2.15. oLW
< Skr. lyestha%LU\OG]QDGGU (876 

oLW

bir tn turur (TT VII 3/16).

5.2.16. GDQL
< Skr. dhanistha%LU\OG]DG (876 
[soma gar]x GDQL>\XOWX]@ygrmi-[g sirki] ksi [](TT VII 4/78).
5.2.17. rivadi
rivadi ~ iravadi ~ irivadi
< Skr. revatu%LU\OG]QDGGU (876 

n yultuz-rivadiDOW\DQJVLUNLRQ\DQJ-DW (TT

S>L@VoDQTDLN

VII 4/12).

z 
5.2.18. ast
< Skr. hasta<OG]DG (876 
bud garx xast yult[uz] ygrmi sirki onun [ai u]l[u@ELU \DQJ-V
(TT VII 4/58).
~

5.2.19. anya

< Skr. ~DQ\%LU\OG]DG (EUTS 1993: 110).


163

rapalguni, xast = kany-a (TT VII 2/13).

Xr

~

5.2.20. umunsi

< in. chu-mn-sing%LU\OG]DGGU(EUTS 1993: 123).


ikinti kumunsiDWO\XOWX]ROYX-VEXlUU (TT VII 14/13).
5.2.21. limin
< in. tien-tsen%LU\OG]DGGU(EUTS 1993: 84).
liminDWO\XOWX]RO vu-VEXlUU (TT VII 14/45).

ELLQo

5.2.22. liusun
< in. lu-tsun<OG]DGGU(EUTS 1993: 85).
n liusunDWO\XOWX]RO vuu-VEXlUU (TT VII 14/24).


5.2.23. lu usus

dLQdLQFHELU\OG]DGGU

PXQJDWRPNLL

(EUTS 1993: 85).

-lr luqususi yulduz-DVDQXU (TT VII 17/5).

5.2.24. maidun
< Skr. mithuna%LU\OG]DGGU(EUTS 1993: 85).

PULJ D LUDUGLU

PD~

5.2.25.

ara

maidun (TT VII 2/6).

< Skr. ma~ara%LU\OG]DG(EUTS 1993: 86).

164

XrUDDWLUDYDQ

makara (TT VII 2/22).

5.2.26. mina
< Skr. muna%LU\OG]DG(EUTS 1993: 87).

purvabadra, utrabadra, irivadi = mina (TT VII 2/26).


S
SD
D~X
~XQ
QVL

5.2.27.

< in. po-chn-sin%LU\OG]QDGGU(EUTS 1993: 104).


PXQJDWRP>NLL@

-lr pakunsi yulduz-DVDQXU (TT VII 17/19).

5.2.28. purva pulgani


< Skr. pUYDSKDOJXQu%LU\OG]DG(EUTS 1993: 105; DTSl: 398).

ad(i)ty-a garx yultuz- purvapalguni bir ygrmi-g sirki (TT VII


4/44).

SX

< Skr. pusya%LU\OG]DG(EUTS 1993: 105).


ti kn

SX \XOWX]VDQLoDU JDU[ WRTX] \DQJ VLUNL\LWLQo DL NLoLJ

(TT

VII 4/38).
5.2.30. rivadi
rivadi ~ iravadi ~ irivadi ~ rivadi (TT VII: 115).
< Skr. revatu<OG]N|PHVL(EUTS 1993: 126).

oot yultuz aram ai prvabadirpt, urrabarapat, rivadi WRTX] \DQJD


barar (TT VII 1/7).

165

5.2.31. simak
$U(Q\NVHNLNL\OG]QDG $+/9, 

simaktin erizrek tutar himmet ol


sezDVPHNDULPLNLGHUPDQ(AH /49).

5.2.32. urugini
< Skr. rohini%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 174).
kuu kn yultuz-uruguniEXGJDU[\LWL\DQJVLUNL (TT VII 4/25).
5.2.33. utarabativarat
utarabativarat audarabatirawat (EUTS 1993: 175; ETG 2000: 304).
< Skr. XWWDUDEKDGUDSDG%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 175).
buu ksk-Jl VDQO T LSTDQ-O VXSUDT alrXQ TXWOX NU JUD[
r

ilnr u raba rbt yulduz-OX LW \O-T |UrQPL EL JUD[-ODU \RU-
, alrun, topraq skiz (TT VII 1/74).

VDQJRORRWVXY\D

5.2.34. utrapalguni
< Skr. uttaraphalguni<OG]DG EUTS 1993: 175).
[utra]palguni bir kn turur (TT VII 3/10).

XWUDDGL

< Skr. uttarasadha<OG]DG EUTS 1993: 175).

XWUDDGL

bir kn bir tn turur (TT VII 3/19).

5.2.36. viay
< Skr. vijaya%LU\OG]DG(TekinMaitr 1976: 498).

166

LNLQWL D\ VHNL] \Dx~D SX \XOWX]~

EXYDQOj

a viay DWOj muyurt~a iki

~U~ ~XW

ir belgke tkel-lig sekiz on trlg nayrajQ \DUDWDjOj

krtle krkle

olua yaru~Q

\DOWUD\X ~DOW EXOXWGQ NLQFL D\Q

VHNL]LQGH 3XV\D \OG] GHYULQGH 9LMD\D VDDWLQGH 0XKXUWD  RWX] LNL

mukaddes almet (ir belg) ve seksen trl ikinci dereceden almet


LOH GRQDWOP YH WSN X\JXQ ELU ]DPDQGD SDUOW\OD SDUOD\DUDN ELU
EXOXWWDQ oNP*QHJLELELU%XUNDQGRGX 

(TekinMaitr 13/56).

~
YLD

< Skr. viskha%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 181).

YLDN

5.2.38. v

bir kn bir tn yana bir kn turur (TT VII 3/14).

UzDU
UzDU

< Skr. Vrsika%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 181).

YUL

< Skr. Vrsabhsa%LU\OG]DG EUTS 1993: 181).


kirrik, urugini = YUL (TT VII 2/4).
~

5.2.40. vu uu

< in. mbvy-khyog%LU\OG]DG (EUTS 1993: 181; DTSl: 635).


vukuuDWO\XOWX]RO vuu-VEXlUU (TT VII 14/55).

DOWQo

5.2.41. yunkiu
< in. uen-k%\N$\QQ\OG]ODUQGDQELUL EUTS 1993: 199).
trtn yunkiuDWO\XOWX]RO vuu-VEXlUU (TT VII 14/35).

167

5.2.42. DUGU
ardUaardir
< Skr. UGU%LU\OG]DG (876 
-

ELLQoDLXOXELU\DQJ VTSOXXSLNQEUD[DVYDGLJDU[
WRTX]\DQJ

ardir yultuz

-DVLUNL (TT VII 4/31).

rLN
rLN

5.2.43. kri

kirtik ~ kirrik
< Skr. NUWWLNy%LU\OG]DG 779,, 

r
ygrmi-g ingir-t kmnr kri ik-t ardir, punarvasu-ta barar (TT
VII 1/22).
5.2.44. mag
< Skr. PDJK%LU\OG]DG 779,, 
mag bir kn bir tn turur (TT VII 3/8).
5.2.45. mul
< Skr. POD%LU\OG]DG 779,, 
mul bir kn bir tn turur (TT VII 3/17).
5.2.46. punarvasu
punrvasu ~ punarbasu
< Skr. punarvasu %LU\OG]DG 779,, 

168

RQ

\DQJ

-D

WRDU

punarvasu

SX WD

DOL

PDJ

SXUYDSDOJXQL

urrapalguni urUDSDOJXQL [DVW >[D@VW oDLGLU oDTSDW VXYDGL VXDN


(TT VII 1/12).
5.2.47. purvabadirapat
prvabadirpt ~ purvabadra
< Skr. SUYDEKDGUDSDG %LU\OG]DG 779,, 
oot yultuz aram ai prvabadirpt, urrabaUDSDW ULYDGL WRTX] \DQJD
barar (TT VII 1/6).

5.2.48. SXUYDDGL
SXUYDDWaSXUYDW

< Skr. SUYmrK%LU\OG]DG 779,, 

SXUYDDGL

[bir k]n bir tn turur (TT VII 3/18).

VDWDEL

sarDELaVWDEL
< Skr. atabhimaj %LU\OG]DG 779,, 

VDWDEL

bir tn bir kn turur (TT VII 3/23).

5.2.50. suvadi
VXYDGLaXYDGLU

< Skr. VYW Bir\OG]DG 779,, 

RQ

-D

\DQJ

WRDU

SXQDUYDVX

SX WD

DOL

PDJ

SXUYDSDOJXQL

urrapalguni urUDSDOJXQL [DVW >[D@VW oDLGLU oDTSDW suvadi VXDN


(TT VII 1/12).

169

5.2.51. LUDYDQ
< Skr. UDYDQD %LU\OG]DG 779,, 
\D

yultuz abii,

LUDYDQ LUDYDQ W|UW \DQJD V

rr

LUDYDQ

-ta

srr (TT VII 1/32).


5.2.52. urugini
urugini ~ uruguni
< Skr. URKLQ %LU\OG]DG 779,, 

DYLQL EDUDQL PL NLUr

ik, urugini YUL PULJ D LU DUGLU PDLGXQ 

(TT VII 2/2).


5.2.53. tamlang
< in. tm-lang %LU\OG]DG 779,, 
-D DQJLONL >W@DPODQJ DWO \XOWX] ol vuu-V EX lUU

WDS XGX T O X

(TT VII 14/4).

170

6. Burlar
6.1. Astroloji, Astrolog
6.1.1. krmi
< T. *k-r--m-i : fiil kk-fiilden fiil yapma eki-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden isim yapma
eki-isimden isim yapma eki (meslek eki).

.kKLQIDOFPQHFFLP\OG]DEDNDQ

(EUTS 1993: 79).

7UNoHGH JHUHN LVLP JHUHNVH ILLO N|NOHUL EDODQJoWD WHN KHFHGHQ LEDUHWWL 7HN KHFHOL
ROGXX KkOGHDVOQGDJHQLOHPL\DQL J|YGHGXUXPXQGD RODQELUoRNLVLPYH ILLOYDUGU

Mesel kr- < k-r- grmek fiili -r- LOH JHQLOHPL ELU J|YGHGLU oQN EXQX J|UPH
RUJDQ

kz / k-z ismi ispat etmektedir

+DFHPLQROX   

krm V|]F (VNL

8\JXU 7UNoHVLQGH U\D G J|UQ QD]DU QRNWDV EDN IDO


DQODPODUQGDNXOODQODQELU NHOLPHGLU

(EUTS 1993: 79)

krmiV|]GH(VNL8\JXU7UNoHVLQGHIDOF

DQODPQGDNXOODQOPWU

DGDVWXGDVNlOWNWl|WUWlUVWlWUELWNloL

krmiWDSDEDUUODU (TT

VI 264).
6.1.2. mneccim
< Ar. Mneccim (KB-'=1 

LOLP DGDPODU ELUOH ~DWOPD~Q D\XU \LPH RWDoODU PXD]]LPOHU

muabbirler mneccimlerDLUOHUWDUjoODU (KB / C 58).

6.1.3. ncum
$U<OG]ODULOPLKH\HWLOPL

KB-'=1 

ncum bilse tEKHP\RUDELOVHW


DQx\RUPWHJV|]LNHOVHWX

(KB / 2632).

171

6.1.4. \XOWX]o
< T. *ya-l-tuz-o : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden
isim yapma eki (meslek eki).

0QHFFLP\OG]DEDNDQ

EUTS 1993: 198).

n trlg iWLJ \DUDW EDU rsr, krmi

\XOWX]o D D\WPD] LWlU

rtilr (TT VI 133).


6.2. Bur
6.2.1. burun
< T. bur-u-n : fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-ILLOGHQLVLP\DSPHNL
Burun, bur (KB-'=1 
Trkm. burun, YUyg. burun, zb. burun, Tat. boron, Nog.
, Kzk.

PXUQ

EXUQ .UJ

murun, KKlp.

, Yak. murun (Bkz. Eren 1999: 64) biimlerde Trk lehelerinde

PXUQ

NDUP]DoNDQNHOLPHHVNLG|QHPOHUGHQEHULNXOODQOPDNWDGU (' 

6|]FQ N|NQ +DVDQ (UHQ 'L\DOHNWOHUGH NXOODQODQ

vermek kknden (u)n


DGODUQGD

HNL\OH \DSOG DoNWU

bura-, *bur- kokmak, koku

bur- + -(u) n. Trkede organ

n HNLQLQ VN VN NXOODQOG J|]H oDUSDU DOQ EH\LQ ENQ ER\XQ HULQ

tabanYE ELoLPLQGHDoNODPWU (UHQ 


Seyfullah Trkmen, EskL

$QDGROX 7UNoHVLQGH 7S 7HULPOHUL EDONO GRNWRUD WH]

oDOPDVQGD EX V|]FNOH LOJLOL RODUDN XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU

burun Eski Uygu

7UNoHVLQGH NRNODPD YH VROXQXP RUJDQ DQODPQQ \DQQGD HVNLGHQ LON EDWD |QFH

(EUTS 1993: 36) DQODPQGDGDNXOODQOPDNWDGU.HOLPHEXJQN7UNOHKoHOHULQGHGH


D\Q DQODPODUQ GHYDP HWWLUPHNWHGLU .HOLPHQLQ LON DQODP NRNODPD YH VROXQXP
RUJDQHNOLQGHRODQGUgQFHLONEDWDDQODPQGDKDVRQUDND]DQPROPDOGU'LO

bilimine gre bir kelimenin ilk nce somXW

172

GDKD VRQUD VR\XW DQODP PH\GDQD

JHOPHNWHGLU %XUXQ \]Q |Q WDUDIQGD \HU DOG LoLQ NHOLPH E|\OH ELU DQODP
JHQLOHPHVLQHXUDPWU 7UNPHQ 

6|]FN .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL G|QHPLQGH LVH EXUo DQODPQ GD ND]DQPWU

(KB-'=1

1979: 117).

\D~\DQGEROjD\\DQDRUQxD

EDO~~ rU~QGQ~R]EXUQxD

~

6.2.2. ar

(KB / 66).

z

< Skr. graha Bur (EUTS 1993: 111; DTSl: 289).


skiz otuz yultuz-ODU [XYUD-Q |JLUQ-trdi skiz ulu karx-ODU
DUWDGWDo

(U II, 58 (8)/5).

6.2.3. VxDU
sxDUa siar (EUTS 1993: 134,135).
< T. VxDU : isim kk.

%XUo PQWNDV \|Q WDUDI ELU QHVQHQLQ \DUV

(EUTS 1993: 134); gk ciheti ve

ynleri (EUTS 1993: 135).

&ODXVRQ V|]FQ DQODPODU YH WDULKv OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPX ]HULQGH GXUPDNWD

etimolojLVL\OH LOJLOL ELU L]DK \DSPDPDNWDGU ('   5lVlQHQ LVH EX V|]F
si(n) + -garHNOLQGHLQFHOHPHNWHGLU 5lVlQHQ 
ipin

VxDU VXPLU WD TD WlJPL WlJ RO \lN

burxanqa (TT X 330).


6.2.4. kk
kk agk
< T. *-kk : fiil kk-ILLOGHQLVLP\DSPHNL
173

-ni ki ym tri

Bur (AtaKuran 2004: 719; KB-'=1 


Rsnen kk / keg NHOLPHVLQLQ DQODPQ NXWX VDQGN RODUDN YHUPL V|]FQ
kknn ise -ROGXXQXV|\OHPLWLU 5lVlQHQ &ODXVRQGDV|]FQoHLWOL
aQODPODUQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD $UDSoD burc NDUOQGD NXOODQOGQ V|\OHPL N|NHQL
NRQXVXQGDKHUKDQJLELUDoNODPD\DSPDPWU (' 

on iki kek ol bularda arQ


ayu iki evlig ~ayu bikre in (KB / 138).

%XUoODU.XD =RG\DN
%XUoODU .XD *|NELOLP7HULPOHUL6|]OQGH J|NNUHVLQGHWXWXOXPXQJHoWLLYH
]HULQGH RQ LNL EXUFXQ HLW DUDONODUOD GDOG NXDN RODUDN WDQPODQPDNWDGU
.]OUPDN 

Kutadgu BiligGH \O EDKDUGD EDODPDNWD YH =RG\DN D\ODU NXOODQOPDNWDGU $\ODUn
DGODU |\OHGLU .R]
.DJDUvGH

(Kuzu), Ud (kz), Erentir, Sacu, Arslan,

%XGD\

, lg

Erentz), adan (Akrep), Ya (Yay),2ODN.|QHN%DON.DJDUvLVH7UN

\OQQ \LQH EDKDUGD EDODGQ V|\OHPHNWH YH RQ LNL KD\YDQ VUDVQQ KHP \OODU KHP

aylarLoLQNXOODQOGQXV|]OHUOHDQODWPDNWDGU2QLNL\OD\ODUQVD\VQDXDQGDNL
D\ODUQYHWDNP\OG]ODUQVD\VQDX\JXQGXU1LWHNLPRQLNLKD\YDQVUDVQQ=RG\DN
VUDVQQDD\XNDUNDUOROGXXWHVSLWHGLOPLWLU

(Esin 2001: 106).

6.3.1. arslan
< T. DUVO-an : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
Arslan burcu (KB-'=1 
Szck modern lehelerden AzT. aslan, Trkm. DUVODQ, Tat. arslan.UJ arstan, Nog.
, Kzk. DUVWDQ%DNrslan biimindedir.

DUVODQ

174

Clauson bu buro KDNNQGD XQODU V|\OHPHNWHGLU KBde 140. beyitte 5. bur olarak
da ve Sanglakhta da arsalan yani arslan olarak

JHoPHNWHGLU $\UFD EQL 0KHQQk


JHoPHNWHGLU%XD\UFD

burj-i falakQLQGHNDUOGU%XDQODPGDarslanKDNNQGD

EDNDELUEXOJX\DUDVWOD\DPDGP &ODXVRQ 

Hasan Eren ise arslan V|]FQQ HWLPRORMLVL KDNNQGD X ELOJLOHUL YHUPHNWHGLU (VNL
7UNoHGHQEDOD\DUDNNXOODQOUDUVO
DUVO

+ -anHNL.DJDUO0DKPXGXQWDQNOQDJ|UH

kestane rengi, kumral olarak kullaQOU 6RQXQGDNL -(a)n da eski ve diyalektlerde

\D\JQRODUDNNXOODQODQELUNoOWPHHNLGLU(FNPDQQ 1pPHWKLQHWLPRORMLVLQLROGXX
JLEL EHQLPVHPLWLU 3DWUXEiQ\ DUVODQ DUVODQ ELoLPLQL DoNODPDN LoLQ 7UNoH VDU

V|]FQQ <DNXWoD NDUOQGDQ \ROD oNPWU <DNXWoDGD EDWDNL OHULQ GWQ

biliyoruz. Buna gre Trke

VDUQQ <DNXWoDGD DU\D oHYULOGLL GQOHELOLU

Patrubnya gre Trke DUVODQDUVODQ biimi Yakutada


-VO eki + a. Sonundaki a diyalektlerde
gre

DUQQELUWUHYLGLU DU

YDKL KD\YDQ RODUDN JHoHU %X DoNODPD\D

DUVODQQ VDUPWUDN YDKL KD\YDQ DQODPQD JHOGLL DQODO\RU ON EDNWD EX

DoNODPD GQGUFGU %XQD J|UH

arslan (> aslan) sznn Yakuta bir biim

ROPDV JHUHNLU $QFDN EWQ 7UNOHU DUDVQGD \D


ELoLP ROGXX GQOHPH] %XGHQ]

ayan arslan (> aslan Q <DNXWoD ELU

arslanQ HWLPRORMLVL ]HULQGH GXUXUNHQ kaplan ve

VUWODQ V|]OHULQL GH J|] |QQGH WXWPDN JHUHNWLLQL V|\OHPLWLU %XGHQ] JLEL %DQJ GD

arslan kaplan ELoLPL\OH ELUOLNWH DoNODPD\D oDOPWU %DQJ 7UNoH ODQ


VUQHQ V|]QH GD\DQPDN LVWHPLWLU 2QD J|UH

arslan sz

DUVO ODQ

a \ODQ

biiminden

oNPWU 7UN GL\DOHNWOHULQGH \DD\DQ ELoLPOHU DUDVQGD DUVO ELoLPL GH NXOODQOU

Patrubny gibi Bang da


JH\LN VQ DGQGDNL

DUVOQ

ar- blmnde bir renk aQODP DUDP YH arpulan ala

ar V|]Q |UQHN RODUDN NXOODQPWU 1pPHWKLQ \D]G JLEL

%DQJQ DoNODPDV EHQLPVHQHPH] <DOQ] NDSODQ VUWODQ JLEL V|]OHULQ ROXXPXQGD

arslan ELoLPLQLQ DQDORMLN EDVNV J|] DUG HGLOHPH] 9iPEpU\ arslan DUV gl ve
lan

YDKL KD\YDQ E|OPOHULQH D\UPWU 5DPVWHGW HVNL DoNODPDODU J|] |QQH

almayarak arslan ars- (arkira- kkremek) ve la (< ince lan YDKL KD\YDQ 
E|OPOHULQH D\UPWU (JRURY 9iPEpU\ 5DPVWHGW YH oHUEDNQ  DoNODPDODUQ |]HW

RODUDN YHUPL .UJ]FD DUVOGD  NNUHPHN ILLOLQL GH VD\PWU oHUEDN

NHVWDQH UHQJL DQODPQD JHOHQ UQ VO HNL\OH NXUXOPX DUVO

biimiyle a sznn

ELUOHPHVLQGHQ ROXWXX \ROXQGDNL HVNLHWLPRORML\L EHQLPVHPLWLU %X HWLPRO

175

arslanQ

ojiye gre

a sz arslanD \UWF KD\YDQ DQODPQ ND]DQGUPWU oHUEDND J|UH EX DoNODPD


VHV YH DQODP \|QOHULQGHQ LQDQGUF ROPDNOD NDOPD]
VUWO

kaplan (<

NDSO

-an),

VUWODQ

(<

-an JLELEHQ]HUKD\YDQODUQDGODQGUOPDVQGDNXOODQODQ\|QWHPHGH uyar. Trke

arslanQVRQXQGDNLHNLQ\UWFKD\YDQDQODPQDJHOHQaV|]QGHQJHOGLLQLVDYXQDQ
uzmanlar, arslanQ HVNL YH \HQL GL\DOHNWOHUGH arslan RODUDN JHoWLLQL J|] DUG HGHUHN
oDGD

GL\DOHNWOHULQ

NoN

ELU

E|OPQGH

YHUPLOHUGLU $QFDN EX ELoLPLQ \DOQ]


DQODO\RU %X GXUXP NDUVQGD

NXOODQODQ

arsla biimine aUON

a V|]QQ \DDG GL\DOHNWOHUGH NXOODQOG

arsla biiminin halk etimolojisi sonunda ortaya

oNW DoNON ND]DQ\RU %X HWLPRORML\L GRUXODPDN ]HUH WDQN RODUDN NXOODQODQ
NDSODQ VUWODQ JLEL V|]OHU GH HVNL YH \HQL GL\DOHNWOHUGH \DOQ] NDSODQ VUWODQ
JHoHU .DOG NL

arslanQ VRQXQGD JHoWLL LOHUL VUOHQ a sznn Trke bir ge olup

ROPDGQ GD DoN RODUDN ELOPL\RUX]

Rsnen arslan -lan HNL\OH NXUXOPX ELU trev

RODUDN YHUPLWLU 7UNoH NDSODQ VUWODQ


NXOODQODQ

-lan

gibi. Clauson arslanQ

HQGLQJL LOH NXUXOGXXQX YH

ELOGLUPLWLU 2QD J|UH 0RROFD


DOQWGU

olarak

arslan ve

KD\YDQ DGODUQGD

DUVODQ RODUDN JHoWLLQL

arslan/arsalan biimi Trkeden kalma eski bir

Ligeti de arslan -lan, -len HNL\OH NXUXOPX WUHYOHU DUDVQGD DUV-lan olarak

YHUPLWLU3ULWVDN

arslanQUDQFDparsWDQJHOGLLQL\D]PWU (UHQ 

kr arslan bile ~RQEXjGD\ED


EDVDOJEROGoDrDQ\DLL

(KB / 140).

6.3.2. bDON
< T. EDON : isim kk.
-

%DONEXUFX .% '=1 

+DVDQ

(UHQ

V|]FQ

(VNL

7UNoHGHQ

EDOD\DUDN

NXOODQOGQ

YH

N|NQQ

ELOLQPHGLLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU (UHQ    &ODXVRQ GD V|]FQ N|N\OH LOJLOL


KHUKDQJLELUJ|UELOGLUPHPLWLU

(ED: 335).

~
basa keldi ojOD~knek hem EDO 
bularWRjGHUVH\DUXG~DO~(KB / 141).

176

6.3.3. bu

GD\ED

< T. bujday + ED- : isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL

%DDNEXUFX .% 

Kutadgu BiligGH EDDN EXUFX DQODPQGD NXOODQODQ bujGD\ ED sz grubu Kutadgu


BiligLQGL]LQLQGH\HUDOPDPDNWDGU

%OHQW *O NRQX\OD LOJLOL RODUDN X ELOJLOHUL DNWDUPDNWDGU &ODXVRQ V|]OQGH

bujday

NHOLPHVLQLQ YDU\DQWODUQ YHUPLWLU DPD KHUKDQJL ELU HWLPRORMLN DoNODPD

\DSPDPWU ('   %XGD\ 7UNoHGHQ 0RROFD\D GD


%XGD\ 0DFDUFDGD GD

buudai HNOLQGH JHoPLWLU

bza HNOLQGH \DDPDNWDGU 6|]FN KBGH  QXPDUDO

EH\LWWH X HNLOGH J|UOPHNWHGLU N|U DUVODQ ELOH TRQ EXjGD\ ED  EDVD OJ EROG

aDQ \D LL Bak, EsedLQ NRPXVX 6QEOHGLU VRQUD $NUHE YH .DYVLQ DUNDGD
Mzan gelir. KBde geen bu bujGD\ED ifadesi iin de Clauson, the ear of wheat, the
$U QDPH RI 9LUJR DoNODPDVQ \DSPDNWDGU
(IHQGL 6|]O

nde bujday iin

YHULOHQ EX $UDSoD NDUONODUGDQ

NDUOD\DQ ELU LVLP RODQ EDDN DQODPQ WDU

LIDGHVL IDUNO DQODPGD NXOODQOPWU


KHP EDDN NHOLPHVLQL KHP GH

Sanglahda, KBde ve

H\K 6OH\PDQ

snble \LQH EXGD\

KBde verilen bu beyitte bujGD\ ED

bujGD\ ED LoLQ oHYLULGH $UDWQ YHUGLL snble

burlardan

EDDN NDUODU =DWHQ EH\LWWH JHoHQ

lg

terazi burcunu, aslan aslan burcunu, adan GD DNUHS EXUFXQX NDUODPDNWDGU %X
ELOJLOHULQ QGD

(burc-i snble)

bujdayQ VOkPv oHYUH PHWLQOHULQGH  EXGD\ 2. (snble)

EDDN

3.

EDDN EXUFX HNOLQGH o DQODPQQ ROGXXQX V|\OH\HELOLUL] %DDN

NHOLPHVL ELOLQGLL ]HUH EXjGD\ ED YH HNLQ ED DQODPODUQGD NXOODQODQ ELU

kelimedir. KBde bu nedenle


yerine

EDDN EXUFX DQODWOPDN LVWHQGLLQGH EDDN EXUFX GHPHN

EXGD\ ED EDDN EHQ]HWPHVL\OH LVWHQLOHQ ILNLU DQODWOPWU *DOLED

bujday

EDQQ EDDN EXUFXQXQ \HULQH NXOODQOPDVQQ VHEHEL VDGHFH KHP EXGD\ ED LoLQ
KHP GH DG JHoHQ EXUo LoLQ 7UNoHGH EDDN NDUOQQ YHULOPHVLGLU %LOGLLPL]
NDGDU\OD 7UNL\H 7UNoHVLQGH

bujGD\ ED kulODQPQQ \HULQL EDDN DOPWU $QFDN

177

EDDNQ

bujGD\ EDQD J|UH GDKD \HQL ELU NXOODQP ROGXXQX V|\OH\HELOLUL] *O

2004: 292-297).

j
kr arslan bile ~RQbu GD\ED
EDVDOJEROGoDrDQ\DLL

6.3.4. a

(KB / 140).

rDQ
rDQ

< T. aran : isim kk.

Akrep burcu (KB-'=1 


Clauson, makalesinde aranQ

DNUHS

KBGH

VHNL]LQFLVL ROGXXQX V|]FQ VRQUDNL HNOLQLQ

 YH  EH\LWOHUGH EXUoODUQ

ayan ROGXXQX EQL 0KHQQkda ve

Sanglakhta 210. beyitte ayan, 222. beyitte iyan olarak her ikisinde de akrep
DQODPQGD D\UFD

UDVWODPDGQ

burj-i aqrab

EHOLUWPHNWHGLU

RODUDN GD JHoWLLQL V|]FN KDNNQGD EDND ELU ND\GD

&ODXVRQ



 

Rsnen, aranQ akrep

DQODPQGD ROGXXQX V|\OHGLNWHQ VRQUD WDULKv YH PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL HNOLQL YHUPL
N|NHQL KDNNQGD KHUKDQJL ELU DoNODPD \DSPDPWU 5lVlQHQ    1LDQ\DQ

iyan V|]FQH (W adhan DNUHS DQODPQ YHUPLWLU 1LDQ\DQ    7LHW]H
ise

o\DQ V|]FQH oRN D\DNO VDU ELU E|FHN DQODPQ YHUPL YH V|]FQ (W

aranGDQ DNUHS JHOGLLQL EHOLUWPLWLU 7LHW]H    +DVDQ (UHQ LVH o\DQ
V|]F KDNNQGD X DoNODPDODU \DSPWU 6DUPWUDN UHQNWH ]HKLUOL E|FHN
$]ODUGD

bir biim

ayan DNUHS YH NUN D\DN  RODUDN JHoHU 7UNP iyan DNUHS *|oPHOL

ROGXX DoNWU  1RJ D\DQ

HNOLQGHGLU2UWD 7UNoHGH

yenge, Kzk.

, KKlp.

D\DQ

D\DQ .UJ

ayan

aran akrep olarak geer. Trkede birinci hecede -a-QQ

--\D oHYULOGLL J|]H oDUS\RU 'LOLPL]GH EXQD EHQ]HU |UQHNOHU YDUGU 2UWD 7UNoHGH -nin oDGDGL\DOHNWOHUGH-y-\HoHYULOPHVLNXUDOGU (UHQ 

kr arslan bile ~RQEXjGD\ED


r
EDVDOJEROGa an\DLL(KB / 140).

178

\DQDN|UGLONHUVDYOPED

r
tojDUGQa an ~RSP|UOHSWX(KB / 4889).

6.3.5. erentz
erentir aerentz (KB-'=1'/7-'=1 
< T. er-en-tz : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.

NL]OHU EXUFX 0WHUL -SLWHU  \OG]

(DLT-'=1   .%-'=1 

157).
Bu szck hem DLTde hem de KBde terazi burcu DQODP\OD JHoPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ
LVHV|]FQLNL]OHUEXUFXDQODPQGDROPDVJHUHNWLL]HULQGHGXUPXWXU (' 

%N]NU

erentz (Jpiter)

~R]\D]~\XOGX]EDVDXr

kelir

erentir ~Xo~ELUOHVDQoX\RUU (KB / 139).


~

6.3.6.

R]

< T. ~R] : isim kk.

Ko burcu (KB-'=1 

.Ro EXUFX DQODPQGDNL EX V|]FN

KBGH  YH  EH\LWOHUGH EXUoODUQ LONL RODUDN

gemektedir. Sanglakhta ise koyun ve burj-i hamal


&ODXVRQ    6|]FN 7UNoHGHQ 0RROFD\D

qurijan RODUDN JHoPLWLU dDGD

GL\DOHNWOHULQ ELU E|OPQGH GH 0RROFDGDQ NDOPD NXUDDQ

(Eren 1999: 272).




~
R]

yaz~\XOGX]EDVDXr kelir

179

RODUDN DQODPODQGUOPWU

(>

NXUQ  ELoLPL NXOODQOU

erentir ~Xo~ELUOHVDQoX\RUU (KB / 139).

\D~\DQGEROjD\\DQDRUQxD

EDO~~ rU~QGQ R]EXUQxD

(KB / 66).

6.3.7. knek
< T. kn-ek : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki.
Kova burcu (KB-'=1 

5lVlQHQ V|]OQGH EX V|]FQ 0RROFD\D

kng HNOLQGH JHoWLLQL V|\OHPL YH

PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL GXUXPXQD GHLQPL N|NHQL KDNNQGD ELU L]DKWD EXOXQPDPWU

(Rsnen 1969: 290).


DLTdeki kn- ILLOL G]HOPHN GRUXOPDN \ROD JHOPHN LQNkUGDQ VRQUD LNUkU HWPHN
-

\ROD oNPDN '/7 '=1    DQODPODUQGDGU %X ILLOGHQ JHQHOOLNOH kOHW LVPL

yapan -ek

HNL\OH +DFHPLQROX    NRYD DQODPQGDNL

WUHWLOPLWLU GL\H GQ\RUX] (VNL 8\JXUFDGD

knek kelimesi

kni NHOLPHVLQLQ DQODPODUQGDQ ELUL GH

NRYDGU (876 

basa keldi ojOD~knekKHPEDO~


bular WRjGHUVH\DUXG~DO~(KB / 141).
~

6.3.8.

~

Xo

< T. ~u--~: fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden isim yapma eki.

Yenge burcu (seretn) (KB-'=1 

5lVlQHQ EX V|]FQ DQODPQ \HQJHo EXUFX RODUDN YHUPL YH N|NQQ ~

u- fiili

ROGXXQX V|\OHPLWLU 5lVlQHQ    &ODXVRQ GD V|]FQ \HQJHo DQODPQ

verdikten sonra kkeninin ~u- ILLOLROGXXQXEHOLUWPLWLU (' 

180

KBdeki

DLTdeki

u- kucaklamak,

~XoX

 NXFDNODPDN

uam kucak,

uak kucak,

1999: 372,373) kelimelerindeQ

(KB-'=1

  

uaklamak kucaklamak (DLT-'=1

KDUHNHWOH EL] GH EX V|]FQ N|NQQ ~

u- fiili

ROGXXQXGQ\RUX]

~R]\D]~\XOGX]EDVDXr

erentir

kelir

Xo ELUOHVDQoX\RUU

(KB / 139).

6.3.9. PL
< Skr. mema Zodiaktaki ko, ko burcu (EUTS 1993: 88; TT VII: 111).

, kirrLN XUXJLQL YUL PULJ D LU DUGLU PDLGXQ 

DYLQL EDUDQL PL

(TT VII 2/2).


j

6.3.10. o lak

< T. ojul-(a)k : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki (kltme eki).

2ODNEXUFX FHG\ 

KB-'=1 

Szck, modern lehelerde Trkm. ovlak, Nog. ulak, KKlp.

ODN %DN

ODN .UJ ODN

zb. ulakHNOLQGHGLU
Hasan Eren RODNV|]FQQNHoL\DYUXVXDQODPQYHUGLNWHQVRQUDRXO -(a)k
kltme eki. Trkede

RXODN ! RODN RODUDN JHOLPLWLU 'HQ\ RODN R

ELoLPLQGHDoNODPWU2QXQEXDoNODPDVQDNDW
RXQD

yaban tekesi,

RXOFD RDOFD

-lak

lan Ligeti RN|NQ0RROFDRXQX,

yaban koyunu, biimlerinin

-,

RX

RD

N|NOHUL\OH ELUOHWLUPLWLU GHPHNWHGLU (UHQ    1LDQ\DQ GD NHOLPHQLQ


DQODPQ \DYUXFXN NHoL \DYUXVX RODUDN YHUPHNWH YH V|]FQ XO

kknden

JHOGLLQL EHOLUWPHNWHGLU 1LDQ\DQ    &ODXVRQ EX V|]FQ

KBde 141.

EH\LWWH  EXUo RODUDN JHoWLLQL ND\GHWPHNWHGLU 6|]FQ

181

SanglakhWD G|UW D\ON

NX]X DQODPQGD

burj-i jady RODUDN JHoWLLQL YH EX DQODP KDNNQGD EDND ELU ND\QDD

UDVWODPDGQ LIDGH HWPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ    &ODXVRQ HWLPRORML V|]OQGH GH

o ulRODUDNYHUPLWLU (' 

V|]FQN|NQ j

jO
jODD~

basa keldi o

N|QHNKHPEDO~

bular tojGHUVH\DUXG~DO~(KB / 141).

6.3.11. ordu
< T. or-du : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

<OG]EXUFX

Hsan 1975: 162).

Eski Trkede or taht, yer (EUTS 1993: 95)


N|NQ \HU DQODPQD JHOHQ
V|]FQ N|NQ

or-

DQODPODUQGDGU &ODXVRQ GD V|]FQ

or LVPL RODUDN YHUPHNWHGLU ('   1LDQ\DQ LVH

ILLOL RODUDN DoNODPDNWDGU 1LDQ\DQ    6|]FQ

VDUD\RUGXJkKDQODPODUQQ\DQQGD<OG]EXUFXDQODPGDEXOXQPDNWDGU

bilg t()ngri t()ngrisi burxan nirvanTD NLU \ D UOTDP-da iki


\ H J L UPL \RO \XUQJ \HO N|JlQ NHGLQ \QJDT NlOLS  DWO 

qa

ordu-

VDSOP lUGL KDNLP WDQUODU WDQUX %XGGKD QLUYDQD\D JLUPL

ROGXXQGD RQ LNL \RO EH\D] J|NNXD EDW \|QQGHQ JHOLS  DGO
EXUFDX]DQPLGL +VDQ7VDQJV 

6.3.12. purnavasu
< Skr. punarvasuNL]OHUEXUFXQXQ *HPLQLWDNP\OG] DGGU (Hsan 1975: 110).
inr rkn krdi taGQ\QJDTW|UW\RO\XUQJ\HON|JlQWDGQT
o \XOWX]GQ NQWQ \QJDT N|OLS

purnavasu yultuzqa tgilip samtso

DoDU \DrP SU\DQ TD HQLS WOS WXUP Q DGUWO N


XQX  J|UG NX]H\ \|QQGH G|UW \RO

rdi -QU LNHQ

G|UW WDQH D\U D\U  EH\D]

J|NNXDQQ NX]H\GHNL o \OG]GDQ JQH\H GRUX JHOLS NL]OHU

182

EXUFXQD GHLS 7ULSL DND VWDGQ \DWW KFUH\H LQLS LoHUL JLULS
GXUGXXQXD\UQWORODUDNJ|UG +VDQ7VDQJV

-72).

6.3.13. sertan
< Ar. seretan Seretn burcu, yenge (KB-'=1 
sertan bu ev evrilr

EXD\EXUF

evi evrilr hem zi evrilr (KB / 744).

r
6.3.14. u
< T. ud : isim kk.
KB-'=1 

%RDEXUFX

&ODXVRQ EX V|]FN KDNNQGD ERD EXUFX NDUOQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD V|]FQ
 QXPDUDO EH\LWWH JHoWLLQL ND\GHWPHNWHGLU $\UFD 7UNoHGH

KBde

ud sznn kz

NDUOQGDGDNXOODQOGQLIDGHHWPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ 

~R]\D]~\XOGX]EDVD

r
u kelir

erentir ~Xo~ELUOHVDQoX\RUU (KB / 139).

6.3.15. lg
< T. *-l-g : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden isim yapma eki.
Terazi (mizan) burcu (KB-'=1 

&ODXVRQHWLPRORMLV|]OQGHEXV|]FQ N|NQQ
  %L] LVH EX V|]FQ N|NQQ
GQPHNWH\L]

*l- fiLOLQGHQ

GDKD JHUL\H JLGHELOHFHLQL

l < -l SD\ KLVVH DQODPQGDGU 3D\ KLVVH DQODP\OD WHUD]L

DUDVQGDNLDQODPLOLNLVLGHDoNWU%XLVLPGHQ

*l-ROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLU ('

 SD\ODPDN

le- < l-e-SD\ODWUPDNOH- < le-

lg < l-g pay, hisse szckOHUL WUHPLWLU %X NHOLPH GH -

fiilinden -l- ILLOLQLQ WHHNNO LOH PH\GDQD JHOHQ ELU J|YGHGHQ -g HNL LOH WUHPL ELU
183

isimdir. Yine Kutadgu Biligde lgLVPLQLQYDUO l isminden l-- fiili, oradan da -g


LOH \HQL ELU LVLP \DSOGQ J|VWHUPHNWHGLU NL EX V|]FQ GH DQODP SD\ KLVVH

demektir. Hem KBde hem de DLTde

O LVPL YDUGU %X V|]FQ N|N GH \LQH

ILLOLQH GD\DQPDNWDGU %X |UQHNOHU J|VWHUL\RU NL SD\ KLVVH DQODPQGDNL


EDNDELUGH

l isminden

l- ILLOLYDUGU2KkOGHDVON|N- SD\ODPDN ILLOLROPDOGUYHl ismi de

bu - fiilinden -lHNLLOH\DSOPWU +DFHPLQROX 

&ODXVRQ EDND ELU \D]VQGD LVH EX V|]FQ

libra 7HUD]L EXUFX  DQODPQ YHUGLNWHQ

sonra KBGH  EH\LWWH  EXUo RODUDN JHoWLLQL SanglakhWD LVH DQODPQQ burj-i
mizn

\DQL WHUD]L ROGXXQX V|]FH

burj-i mizn

HNOLQGH EDND ELU \HUGH

UDVWODPDGQV|\OHPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ 

nasya kltrlerinde Mizn ve Terazi

DG YHULOHQ EX EXUFD HVNL 7UNOHU

GHPLOHUGLUg\OHDQODO\RUNLEXHVNL7UNoHV|]FNGH\LQH

lg

Terazi sznden tercme

\ROXLOHPH\GDQDJHOPLWLU(VNL7UNOHU7HUD]LEXUFXQD.DUDNXGDGHPLOHUGLU

2UWD $V\D 7UNOHUL JHQHO RODUDN UDQ NOWUOHULQLQ WHVLUOHUL DOWQGD NDOPODU YH
$QDGROXGD ROGXX JLEL

Terazi veya

7DUD] V|]FNOHULQL NXOODQPODUGU $OWD\GDNL

Telet Trkleri ise, Terazi burcuna ho0LJDNGHPLOHUGL

$QDGROXGD 7HUD]L EXUFX GH\LPL oRN \D\JQGU )DNDW EX EXUFD 2VPDQO GHYOHWLQGH
%HNDUQGDDGYHULOPLWL$QDGROXGDN|\OOHUDUDVQGDL

se %HNDUGHOHU denir. Trk

PLWRORMLVLQGH o DQD \OG] LOH LNL \DQ \OG] ELUELULQGHQ D\UOPW ho \OG] J|H
NDoDQJH\LNOHU YHLNL\DQ \OG]LVH RQODUNRYDOD\DQDYF LOH \D\ ROPXODUG %X EXUFD
\DOQ]FD

arkar, yani hoGDNR\XQX diyen TrkleUGHYDUGU

Terazi burcuna Orta Asyada Kesil; Anadoluda


EXUo$UDSODUQ

.X\UXN \OG] GL\HQOHU GH YDUGU %X

Cevza veya Seyf l CebbarGHGLNOHULoO\OG]NPHVLGLU$YUXSDOODU

$UDSODUQWHVLULDOWQGDNDODUDNEXEXUoLoLQ2ULRQNOF

ifadesini NXOODQPODUGU

(http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM)

kr arslan bile ~RQEXjGD\ED

184

basa lgEROGoDrDQ\DLL (KB / 140).


~

~

6.3.16. ara


X

< T. ~ara + ~X : isim kk + isim kk.

Terazi (mizan) burcu (KB / 6219).


Eski Trkler Terazi burcu iin ~ara ~XGDGHPLOHUGLU$QFDNEXEXUFDQLoLQ~ara ~X
GHQGLLQL WDP RODUDN ELOHPL\RUX] $VOQGD (VNL 7UNoHGH -SLWHU JH]HJHQL DQODPQGD

ara ~X sz grXEX.DJDUO0DKPXGXQV|]OQGHGHUOHGLL(VNLELU7UN

NXOODQODQ~

LLULQGHJHFHYHJQG]QPL]DQQ |OoVQ G]HQOHPHNWHGLU

<DUDWW\DOoH
6DYXUGUQJND

~
~
Tizildi ara X

Tn-kn ze yrkenr .DJDUvYDUDN 

%XEH\LWHJ|UH\HLO

-mavi renkte fiUX]HGHQELUNXEEHJLELGQOHQJ|NWHEH\D]\HLP

WDODUQD EHQ]HWLOHQ \OG]ODU DUDVQGD

ara

ara

G]HQOHPHNWHGLU .DJDUO 0DKPXG ~

~X JH]HJHQL JQ YH JHFHQLQ PL]DQQ

~XXQ 7UN LOOHULQGH VDEDK J|]NWQ

ND\GHWPHNWH YH PL]DQ J|UHYLQL \OODUD GHLO JQG] YH JHFHQLQ GRODQPQD
EDODPDNWDGU (VLQ %HONLGHEX\]GHQ

Eski Trkler Terazi burcu iin ~ara

~XGDGHPLRODELOLUOHUGL\HGQ\RUX]

ara ~X\XOGX] (Jpiter)

%N]NU~

7HUD]L

EXUFX

DQODPQGDNL

ara

~X V|]F

gemektedir:

~
~
tojDUGQ ara X ~RSXS|UOHGL

185

Kutadgu BiligGH

GH

X

HNLOGH

yDjRWN|WUPLWHJRW\OGUDG (KB / 6219).

6.3.17. ya
< T. ya : isim kk.
Yay burcu (KB-'=1 

kr arslan bile ~RQEXjGD\ED


EDVDOJEROGoDr

an yaLL (KB / 140).

6.3.18. kanya
< Skr. NDQ\%DDNEXUFX 779,, 
rapalguni, xast = kany-a (TT VII 2/13).

Xr

6.3.19. karka

r

< Skr. karkaa Yenge burcu (TT VII: 108).

SXQDUEDVXSXDOL

r
karka (TT VII 2/8).

6.3.20. kumba
< Skr. kumbha Kova burcu (TT VII: 108).

GDQLVDWDEL

kumba (TT VII 2/24).

6.3.21. maidun
< Skr. mithuna NL]OHUEXUFX 779,, 

PULJ D LUDUGLU

maidun (TT VII 2/6).

186

6.3.22. ma ara

< Skr. ma~ara 2ODNEXUFX 779,, 




XrUDDWLUDYDQ

makara (TT VII 2/22).

6.3.23. mina
< Skr. muna %DONEXUFX 779,, 
purvabadra, utrabadra, irivadi = mina (TT VII 2/26).
6.3.24. tanu
< Skr. dhanus Yay burcu (TT VII: 117).

PXOSXUYDDW

tanu (TT VII 2/20).

6.3.25. tulya
< Skr. WXO Terazi burcu (TT VII: 117).
airLUXYDrir = tuly-a (TT VII 2/15).

6.3.26. vrik
< Skr. YUFLND Akrep burcu (TT VII: 121).

VXDNDQXUDW

vrik (TT VII 2/17).

YUL

< Skr. vrmabha%RDEXUFX 779,, 

kirrik, urugini = YUL (TT VII 2/4).

187

7. Zaman
%X EDON DOWQGD ]DPDQ NDYUDP WD\DQ KHU V|] GHLO DVWURQRPL LOH LOJLOL RODQ
*QHH $\D EDO ]DPDQ ELOGLUHQ (VNL 7UNoH V|]FNOHU LQFHOHQPLWLU

Gkbilim

7HULPOHUL 6|]OQGH ]DPDQ NDYUDP DNS JLGHQ ROD\ODUQ WHNUDU HGHQ J|N
ROD\ODUQD J|UH VUDODQPDVQGDQ GRDQ ELU NDYUDP *QH YH \OG]ODUQ |OHQH J|UH
DoVDO X]DNOQD VDDW DoVQD  NDUON ELU |Oo HNOLQGH WDQPODQPWU .]OUPDN

1969: 116).

2QNL+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPL
'RXGQ\DVQGDdLQOLOHUHDLWROGXXGQOHQEXWDNYLP7UNELOLPDGDPODUYHED]
%DWO

bilim  DGDPODUQD J|UH 7UNOHUH DLWWLU (GRXDUG &KDYDQQHVLQ Le Cycle turc des

Douze Animaux (On iki Hayvanli Turk Takvimi)

DGO DUDWUPDVQD J|UH $V\DGD

NXOODQODQ 2Q NL +D\YDQO 7DNYLP 7UNOHUH DLW ELU WDNYLP VLVW

emi idi ve inliler bu

WDNYLPL 7UNOHUGHQ DOPW &KDYDQQHV EX \]GHQ GH DUDWUPDVQQ

DGQ 2Q NL

+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPLNR\PXWXU

2Q NL +D\YDQO 7DNYLPLQ GLHU WDNYLPOHUGHQ D\UOG QRNWD VDGHFH ELU \O LIDGH
HWPHPHVLGLU +HU \O ELU KD\YDQ DG\OD DQODQ EX WDNYLP RQ LNL KD\YDQD DLW RQ LNL
\OON GLOLPL NDSVD\DQ IDUNO ELU KHVDSODPD\D GD\DQU *QH 7DNYLPLQL WHPHO DODQ
2Q NL +D\YDQO 7DNYLPGH ELU \O  JQ  VDDW  GDNLND  VDQL\HGLU %LULQFL
KD\YDQQ DG\OD RQ LNL \OON GLOLP EDODU RQ LNLQFL KD\YDQQ DG\OD DQODQ \O ELWLQFH
WHNUDU LON KD\YDQD DLW \OD JHUL G|QOU gWH \DQGDQ  \OQ  NDW RODQ  \OON JHQL

zaman dilimleri de bu takvimde nemlidir. Eskiden belirli olaylar bunlar dikkate


DOQDUDN WDULKOHQGLULOL\RUGX 2Q NL +D\YDQO 7DNYLPLQGH \OED JHFH LOH JQG]Q
HLWROGXX0DUW1HYUX]JQLOHEDODUG\OPHYVLP\DGDKDIWDGDQ KHUELUL
 JQ  LEDUHWWL %X WDNYLPGH JHFH \DUV EDODG NDEXO HGLOHQ JQ  HLW oDD
E|OQPW+HUELUoDVDDWHNDUONJHOPHNWH\GL'ROD\V\ODELUJQGHVDDWLGL
+HU ELU oD LVH VHNL] NHKWHQ LEDUHWWL 2Q NL +D\YDQO 7DNYLPGH NXOODQODQ KD\YDQ
DGODQ YH EXQODUQ \O RODUDN VUDV $V\D WRSOXPODUQGD KHPHQ KHPHQ D\QGU 7UN

takviminde yer alan on

LNL KD\YDQQ DGODU |\OHGLU )DUH VU SDUV WDYDQ HMGHU

\ODQDWNR\XQPD\PXQWDYXNN|SHNGRPX]

188

. (Kara 2006: 332).

%L]FH 7UNOHULQ 2Q NL+D\YDQO 7DNYLPL NXOODQPDODU J|N ELOLPLLOH RODQ LOLNLOHULQLQ
HQDoNNDQWGU

EDUV\O

< T. bars : isim kk.

.DSODQ\O ,UN%LW 

%X V|]FN 7UNoHQLQ HQ HVNL \D]O ND\QDNODUQGD JHoPHNWHGLU %XQD UDPHQ NHOLPH
ED] DUDWUFODU WDUDIQGDQ )DUVoD N|NHQOL RODUDN J|VWHULOPLWLU .LPL HVHUOHUGH LVH

Trke olarak gsterilmiWLU6|]FQ.|NWUNG|QHPLQGHQEHULNXOODQO\RUROPDVEX


kelimenin TrkoH

N|NHQOL ROPD LKWLPDOLQL DUWWUPDNWDGU D\HW UDQ GLOOHULQGHQ

DOQPVDGDoRNHVNLG|QHPGHDOQPROPDOGU .DUDGRDQ 

pars, baris olarak geer

%D] PHWLQOHUGH

7XUDQ    %X \OGD KNPGDUODU

ELUELULQH SKHOL QD]DUOD EDNDUODU YH PDNDP NDYJDVQD JLULLUOHU +DON DUDVQGD
GPDQONROXXU'HQL]FLOHULQJHPLOHULEDWDU.NVDYHVRXNROXU%D]\HUOHUGH\HU
VDUVQWV ROXU %X \OQ LON oWH ELULQGH GRDQ oRFXN \LLW HUNHN YH J]HO oHKUHOL ROXU
LNLQFL oWH ELULQGH GRDQ ]HQJLQ YH KUVO ROXU oQF oWH ELULQGH GRDQ DNOV] ROXU

(Turan 2004: 102).


, ekinti ay, bir yigirmike Tay-gn-WDQ

EDUV \O

PDQVWDQWDN NLoLJ

GL>Q@WDU EXUXD JXUX HLG>LS@ LoLPL] LVLJ 6DQJXQ WDoXN oQ ELWLGLP
.DSODQ \O QGD  LNLQFL D\Q RQ EHLQGH 7D\JQWDQ PDQDVWUQGD
EHQ  JHQo GLQGDU PULW  PULW NDKLQGHQ LLWLS DDEH\LPL] D]L]
6DQJXQWDoXNLoLQ EXNLWDE \D]GP ,UN%LW 

ELoLQ\O

< Far. bzna Maymun \O 77HNLQ 

2UKRQ <D]WODUQGD YH8\JXU PHWLQOHULQGH


PHLQ HNLOOHUL GH YDUGU $QDGROXGD

biin HNOLQGH JHoHU piin, mein bazen de

maymun .D]DNODUGD YH .UJ]ODUGD maymal da

189

GHQLU 0RROFDV

meinGLU 9DPEHU\H J|UH 7UNoH\H 0RROFDGDQ JHoPLWLU 7XUDQ

2004: 114).
J. Halvy,

WDYDQ PD\PXQ

ve tavuk NHOLPHOHULQLQ N|NHQLQLQ %DW GLOOHUL ROGXXQX

V|\OHPHNWHGLU 2QD J|UH EX KD\YDQ DGODUQQ 7UNoH\H JHoPHVL GH 6U\DQv YH\D .SWv
PLV\RQHUOHUL LOH ROPDOGU
7DSNDQ

veya

rmicede

WDINDQ

Takagu veya taguk, Arapa degaga (deccce \ KDWUODWU

daki kan XQVXUX DWOGNWDQ VRQUD JHUL\H NDODQ WDI kk,

WDYDQ DQODPQD JHOHQ

tafza kelimesine denk gelir. Biin veya piin

GHQLOHQ PD\PXQXQ 7UNoH HWLPRORMLVL \RNWXU .SWv GLOLQGH EXQD

pi-en veya pie-jen

denir. Chavannes ise WDYNDQVoJDQVDNVDDQ\ODQ gibi Trke kk ve eklentilerle


\DSODQNHOLPHOHULQN|NHQLQLEDNDGLOOHUGHDUDPDQQO]XPVX]ROGXXQXV|\OHU

(Turan

2004: 72).

%X \O KD\UV]GU <DQNHVLFL YH KUV]ODU oRDOU $

t, deve gibi byk hayvanlarda

KDVWDON ROXU .ODU JD\HW NVD YH VRXN JHoHU %X \OGD PH\YHOHUH YH |]HOOLNOH ]PH
kIHWHULLU%X\OQLONLQGHGRDQN|WLOLN|WGQFHOLROXU2UWDVQGDGRDQ\DODQF
ROXU6RQXQGDGRDQYHIDV]ID\GDV]ROXU 7X

EDUNQ EHGL]LQ ELWLJ WD>Q@


DONG>P@]

biin

ran 2004: 104).


, yitin ay yiti otuzka kop

\OND

Trbesini, resimlerini-KH\NHOOHULQL

YH 

NLWDEH

WDQ

0D\PXQ \OQGD \HGLQFLD\Q \LUPL \HGLVLQGHKHSELWLUGLN 77HNLQ

1988: 24).

W\O
W\O aLW\O

(T.Tekin 1988: 137; EUTS 1993: 68).

< T. W+\O: isim kk + isim kk.

.|SHN\O 77HNLQ 

+(UHQEXV|]FQHWLPRORMLVL\OHLOJLOLRODUDN(VNL7UNoHGHQEDOD\DUDNNXOODQOU

Orta Trkede

olarak geer. Salarca, SaU 8\JXUFDJLELGL\DOHNWOHUGHJHoHQLW (~ W)

ELoLPOHULQGH J|UGP]

--OHU VRQUDGDQ WUHPLWLU %X GL\DOHNWOHUGH EXQD EHQ]HU

190

ikincil --OHU ELUoRN \HUGH J|]H oDUSDU (VNL YHULOHULQ WDQNOQD J|UH W biiminden
\ROD oNPDN JHUHNLU %X ELoLPLQ VRQUD
\DQQGDJHoHQ

kpekV|]GHELUoRNGL\DOHNWWHNXOODQOURUFD6DJD\FD.R\EDOFDJLEL

ELUNDoGL\DOHNWWHNXOODQODQ

adayELoLPLGQGUFGU5DGORIIXQadayit biimiyle

ELUOHWLUPHVL\DQOWUGHPH

WV|]F

dan itH oHYULOGLL DQODO\RU %XQD NDUON it

ktedir (Eren 1999: 196).

btn Trk lehelerinde mevcut olan bir kelimedir.

WEDUDNN|SHNHNLOOHUL

YDUGU 7XUDQ 

)LWQH NDUNON YH NDQ G|NFON DW YH NDWU |OP ROXU +UV]ODU \RO NHVLFLOHU
oRDOU .ODU JD\HW VRXN JHoHU oRN KDVWDON ROXU YHED YH |OP NRUNXVX DUWDU %X
\OQLOND\ODUQGDGRDQN|WWDELDWOKUVOYHREXUROXU2UWDVQGDGRDQDNOOELOJLOL
IDNDWLWLEDUV]ROXU6RQXQGDGRDQNDKUDPDQ\LLWYHIDOROXU 7XUDQ 

EXQoD ND]JDQSNDx>PN@DJDQ> W \ORQXQo D\DOWRWX]NDXoDEDUG


%X NDGDU oRN  ND]DQS EDEDP +DNDQ .|SHN \OQQ RQXQFX D\QQ
\LUPLDOWVQGDYHIDWHWWL 77HNLQ 

 
7.1.4. ko \O
zR\Qa~R\Qa

ko

< T. ko+\O: isim kk + isim kk.

.R\XQ\O

(T.Tekin 1988: 149).

+ (UHQ V|]OQGH EX V|]FNOH LOJLOL RODUDN XQODU ND\GHWPHNWHGLU (VNL 7UNoHGHQ

). Orta Trkede N\ RODUDN JHoHU .DJDUO

EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOGQ ELOL\RUX] N

Mahmuda gre, Argular NQ ELoLPLQL NXOODQOUODU .XPDQFDGD koy olarak geer. Eski
.SoDNoDGD LVH

koyun ELoLPL NXOODQOU 7UNoH koyun biiminin -(u)n kltme ekiyle

\DSOPELUWUHYROGXXDQODO\RUN

 + -(u)n. Eski Trke N biiminin sonundaki

- Trk diyalektlerinde -y\HoHYULOPLWLU (UHQ5).

191

(VNL 7UN NDYLPOHULQLQ E\N ELU oRXQOXXQXQ DUDVQGD PHYFXW RODQ EX NHOLPHQLQ
HVNL HNOLQLQ GDKD ]L\DGH

koy ROGXX J|]N\RU 'LYDQX /JDWLW-7UNWH DQODWOGQD

gre Argular yleri nye evirdiklerinden koyun yerine kun GHUOHUPL %XOJDUFDV
kuo0RROFDVkhoindir (Turan 2004: 114).

%X \OGD QLPHWOHU EROODU \DPXU oRN \DDU .ODU \XPXDN YH X]XQ JHoHU QVDQODU
GDKD L\L QL\HWOL ROXU JHUoL ILWQH YH NDUNON oNVD GD RUWDP oDEXN VDNLQOHLU %X \OQ
LON D\ODUQGD GRDQ J]HO \]O U]N ERO ROXU 2UWDVQGD GRDQ YHIDV] YH D] oRFXNOX
ROXU6RQXQGDGRDQNVD|PUOROXU 7XUDQ 

NR\ Q \O

aram ay on yaxN-D PlQ WDN WXU-ka bitig berr-mn

.R\XQ \O ELULQFL D\Q RQXQFX JQQGH EHQ 7DN 7XU\D VHQHW

etgin 2004: 182).

YHUHFHLP g]\

7.1.5. NVJ\O
< T. *ks-g +\O: fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk.

6oDQ \ODG 

(OTG 2003: 249).

%X \O DG ED] PHWLQOHUGH Vo~DQ \O HNOLQGH GH JHoPHNWHGLU &ODXVRQ NHOLPHQLQ

etimolojisiyle ilgili herhangi bLU H\ V|\OHPHPLWLU (ED: 750). Rsnen ise, kelimenin
WDULKv

OHKoHOHUGHNL

\DSPDP \DOQ]

GXUXPXQD

GHLQPL

N|NHQL\OH

LOJLOL

KHUKDQJL

ELU

DoNODPD

ksk V|]FQQ kstbk LOH LOLNLVLQH WHPDV HWPLWLU 5lVlQHQ

1969: 312). Doerfere gre bu szck ks-GDWPDNNDUWUPDNILLOLQGHQELUWUHWPH


olabilir (Hsan 1975: 79).

%X LVLP OHKoHOHULQ oRXQGD WUO HNLOOHUGH PHYFXWWXU 2UKRQ <D]WODUQGD EXQXQOD

ilgili tarih vesika yoktur. Uygur metinlerinde


WNDQ ooNDQ VMDQ

, Anadoluda

VoJDQ

ve

VoNDQ .D]DN YH .UJ]ODUGD

VoDQ ED] 8\JXU PHWLQOHULQH

ksk, Teletlerde

kske, Azerbaycanda kesegen7XQD %XOJDUODUQGD (se)verHNOLQGHJHoHU 7XUDQ 


113).

192

%X\OGDNDUNONNDUJDDONYHNDQG|NPHoRNROXUKUV]ODUYH\RONHVLFLOHUoRDOU
KDON \HUGHNL E|FHNOHUGHQ ]DUDU J|UU ED] \HUOHUGH UDKDWON YH KX]XU ERO ROXU
+NPGDU YH VXOWDQODU JDPO ROXU %X \OGD \DPXU RUWD KDOOL ROXU %X \OQ oWH ELUL
LONLQGHGRDQoRFXNH]L\HWYHULFLWDELDWWDROXULNLQFLoWHELULQGHGRDQELOJLQWHPNLQ

li

YHHGHSOLROXUVRQoWHELULQGHGRDQ\DODQFYHELOJLVL]ROXU 7XUDQ 

N>@VN \O ELU \ H J L UPLQo D\ DO>W \Dx@

P>VU@XJ LQo N D \ D PVU EDODS >RQOXN@ODU

-ka biz tolu k(a)y-a

-ka on xdn-in-d bz

krgk bol[up] )DUH \O RQ ELULQFL D\Q DOWQF JQQGH EL] 7ROX
.D\D 0VU 8OXJ Qo .D\D 0VU EDWD ROPDN ]HUH RQOXNODUD
|QFHGHQRQSDPXNOXNXPDJHUHNROXS g]\HWJLQ 

7.1.6. ODJ]Q\O
< ? ODJ]Q 'RPX] \ODG  77HNLQ 

%X\ODGED]HQWRxX]\O

olarak da gemektedir.

&ODXVRQ V|]FQ 7RKDUFD ELU DOQW ROGXX LKWLPDOL ]HULQGH GXUPDNWDGU

(ED: 764).

Hamilton ODJ]QV|]FQQPXKWHPHOHQWDGHYULG|QHPL$V\DGLOOHULQGHQDOQPELU
NHOLPH RODELOHFHLQL V|\OHPHNWHGLU +DPLOWRQ    +DVDQ (
N|NHQLQLQ DoNODQDPDGQ LIDGH HWPHNWHGLU

ren ise bu szn

(Eren 1999: 118). Ligetiye gre bu ad

ELUoRN E\N NROD D\UOG DQODODQ 3DOHRDV\D GLOOHULQGHQ NDOPD ELU DOQWGU 'RHUIHU

ise

ODJ]QQ +LXQJQXFDGDQ YH\D $YDUFDGDQ NDOPD ELU DOQW ROGXX RODVO ]HULQGH

GXUPDNWDGU (UHQ 

Tonguz

JHQHOOLNOH

7UN

NDYLPOHUL

DUDVQGD

NXOODQOU

2UKRQ

YH

0DQL

-Uygur

metinlerinde OD]Q veya DOJD]QRODUDNJHoHU%XOJDUFDVdochsdur (Turan 2004: 115).


%X \OGD NDU YH VRXN oRN ROXU .DUJDDONODU oNDU +NPGDUODU DUDVQGD PXKDOHIHW
ROXU 7HKOLNHOL KDVWDONODU oRDOU +UV] YH \RO NHVLFLOHU DUWDU '|UW D\DNOODUGD |OP
oRNROXU0H\YHOHUEROODU%XGD\oRNDUSDD]ROXU+DON\HUGHQ\HUHNRQDUYHJ|oHU
<OQ LON ]DPDQODUQGD GRDQ J]HO DKOkNO YH DNOO RUWDVQGD GRDQ \DODQF ROXU
6RQXQGDGRDQNDKUDPDQNDQG|NFYHQOROXU 7XUDQ 

193

WRxX] \O EHLQo D\ \HWL \DxND P l Q ElJL \|OlN Nl D\WS >ELWL@GLP
'RPX] \O EHLQFL D\Q \HGLQFL JQQGH EHQ %HJL <|OHNH VRUXS

ya]GP g]\HWJLQ 
7.1.7. OXX\O
luu al a ulu al alon aluo
< in. lung, Mo. lu, Tib. klu(MGHUKD\O .D\D<D] 

2UKRQ YH 8\JXU \D]ODUQGD

lu HNOLQGH JHoHQ EX V|]FN dLQFHGLU 'LYDQX /JDWLW-

Trkte neg EQL 0KHQQkGD YH EDND ED] \HUOHUGH EDON $]HUED\FDQGD )DUVoDV
neheng0RROFDVlodur (Turan 2004: 113).

7LPVDKQ VXGD \DDPDV GROD\V\OD EX \O oRN \DPXU \DDU YH EROOXN ROXU 6DYD YH
NDQ G|NFON oRN ROXU $USD YH EXGD\ L\L PDKVXO YHULU ON oWH ELULQGH GRDQ N|W
KX\OX ROXU KDOND D] NDUU NLQFL oWH ELULQGH GRDQ WHPL] V|\OH\HQ L\L LOH\HQ ROXU
6RQXQGDGRDQHULUYHKD\DV]ROXU 7XUDQ 

OX \O

trk buyla t(a)rq(a)n k /X \OQGD 7UN %X\OD 7DUNDQ

(KayaYaz 2000: 122).


7.1.8. WDNJX\O
< T. WDNJX+\O: isim kk + isim kk.

7DYXN\O g]\HWJLQ 

Rsnen,

WDNJX V|]FQQ WDULKv YH PRGHUQ OHKoHOHUGHNL HNLOOHULQL YHUPL V|]FQ

N|NHQL KDNNQGD KHUKDQJL ELU L]DK \DSPDPWU 5lVlQHQ    +DVDQ (UHQ LVH
V|]FQ N|NHQLQLQ ELOLQPHGLLQL \D]PWU

tavukX

0RROFD

takiya <

WDNLD

(Eren 1999: 398). Ramstedt, Trke

ELoLPL\OH

ELUOHWLUPLWLU

*RPERF]

0RROFD

takiyaQQ 7UNoH ELU DOQW ROGXXQX \D]PWU 5DPVWHGW LVH EX J|UH NDWOPD\DUDN
7UNoH YH 0RROFD ELoLPOHULQ HVNL ELW NOWU GLOLQGHQ NDOGQ GLOH JHWLUPLWLU $V\D

194

tavukun

J|oHEHOHULQLQ WDYXN \HWLWLUPHNOH XUDPDGNODUQ YXUJXOD\DQ 5DPVWHGW

Arapa degaga

YH\D dLQFHGHQ DOQGQ LOHUL VUPWU %URFNHOPDQQ WDYXXQ

oNDUGVHVWHQJHOGLLQLLIDGHHWPLWLU (UHQ 

6|]FN EWQ 7UN OHKoHOHULQGH ED] HNLO D\UONODU LOH WDNXN WDNJX WDNDJX WDXN

took, taxakui D\QGU%XOJDUFDVtochdur (Turan 2004: 114, 115).

<L\HFHNoRNROXUIDNDWEXKD\YDQQ\HUNHQ\L\HFHLQLNDUWUGQGDQNDUNONoNDU
+D\YDQODU oRN KXEXEDW D] ROXU .ODU X]XQ JHoHU %D] \HUOHUGH E\N VDYDODU ROXU
+DVWDON oRN ROXU ED] \HUOHUGH GHSUHPOHU WDKULEDW \DSDU .DGQ KDVWDONODU oRFXN
GUPH oRN ROXU <OQ LON ]DPDQODUQGD GRDQ oRFXN J]HO \]O YH DNOO ROXU
2UWDVQGD GRDQ N|W YH IHVDW ROXU 6RQXQGD GRDQ F|PHUW PLVDILUSHUYHU ROXU 7XUDQ

2004: 105).

WDNJX \O

ekini ay skiz y(e)g(i)rmi-k maa eli-Nl WDUJ WDU\X \HU

krgk bolup 7DYXN \O LNLQFL D\Q RQ VHNL]LQGH EDQD (OoL\H GDU
ekmek iin yer gerek olup (zyetgin 2004: 179).
7.1.9. tabNDQ\O
WDYNDQa WDENDQ

< T. WDE-kan +\O: fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk.

7DYDQ\O

(EUTS 1993: 150).

(VNL 7UNoHGHQ EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOU 2UWD 7UNoHGH WDYJ

an biimi geer. Eski


- ~

.SoDNoDGD WDZDQ RODUDN NXOODQOU <D\JQ ELU LQDQFD J|UH 7UNoH WDE

- ~

NRPDN DWODPDN VoUDPDN N|NQGHQ \DSOP ELU WUHYGLU WDE

WDY

- + -gan.

WDY

Eski ve yeni diyalektlerde WDYDQ\DQQGD koyan ( < kodan DGGDNXOODQOU (UHQ


397).

/HKoHOHULQ oRXQGD YDUGU WDYNDQ WDYDQ GDYDQ GXDQ HNLOOHULQGH EXOXQXU


.UJ]ODUGD

koyan, Bulgarca dvansHNOLQGHGLU 7XUDQ 

195

%X\OGDQLPHWYHIHUDJDWoRNROXU%D]\HUOHUGHELOKDVVDNDGQYHoRFXNODUGDKDVWDON
|OPoRNROXU+NPGDUODUDGDOHWOLYHLQVDIOGDYUDQUODU%DUX]XQVUHGHYDPHGHU
<DPXU oHPH YH UPDN VXODU ERO ROXU %X \OQ LON oWH ELULQGH GRDQ oRFXN WDOLKOL
\LLW YH oDONDQ ROXU IDNDW V|]QH LWLPDW HGLOPH] NLQFL oWH ELULQGH GRDQ X]DN
GQFHOL NVD J|UO D] KLPPHWOL ROXU hoQF oWH ELULQGH GRDQ JHYH]H YH

menfaatsiz olur (Turan 2004: 102, 103).

WDYNDQ\O

ekinti ay eki ouz-ka biz bg buk-a bay buk-D\XUxNSoDN

el buk-D PDOGD .GDQ \ D Q-a yr tmn kk t()mr 7DYDQ


\O LNLQFL D\Q \LUPL LNLVLQGH EL] %HJ %XND %D\ %XND <Ux
.SoDNO%XND0DOGD.GDQYH\LQH<Ux7PHQ.|N7HPU

(zyetgin 2004: 167).


Xr

7.1.10.

\O

< T. ud +\O: isim kk + isim kk.


6U\O(EUTS 1993: 165).
EVNL 7UN \D]WODUQGD 6DU 8\JXUODUGD YH GRX OHKoHOHULQGH ud olarak geen bu ad,
+D]DU

|WHVL

7UNPHQOHULQGH

%XOJDUODUQGDVJRU
0RROFDGDN

.DUDNUJ]ODUGD

, Divanu Lgatit-Trkte

VJU

uz, uj

HNOLQGH

, Anadoluda

GH

JHoHU

7XQD

VU \DSV\OD EXOXQXU

i ukerHNOLdXYDoDVQD\DNQGU 7XUDQ 

6UODUQ G|YNHQ ROPDVQGDQ EX \OGD VDYDODU oRDOU 'HUW YH ED DUODU oRDOU
NODUVRXNJHoHUPHYVLPNHQGLWDELDWQDD]X\DU0H\YHOHUHVRXNYXUXUQVDQODUGD

bey ve sultanlarda keder RDOU <OQ LONoWH ELULQGHGRDQoRFXNELOJLQX]D J|UHQ


YH DQOD\O ROXU NLQFL oWH ELULQGH GRDQ GDLPD JDPO NHGHUOL ROXU 6RQ oWH ELULQGH
GRDQD]DNOOROXU 7XUDQ 

XG \O

bir y(e)g(i)rmin ay y(e)g(i)rmi-k biz-i o{P

WRJU

l-ka

tkl-k yulak-ON >E|]@ N l UJlN EROXS 6U \O RQ ELULQFL D\Q

196

\LUPLVLQGH EL]H 2]P 7RJUO D YH  7NHOH NXOODQODFDN SDPXNOX


NXPDJHUHNROXS g]\HWJLQ 

7.1.11. \ODQ\O
< T. \O-an +\O: fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk.

<ODQ\O g]\HWJLQ 

- kaymak, srnmek

+DPLOWRQ EX V|]FNOH LOJLOL RODUDN XQODU ND\GHWPHNWHGLU <O


DQODPQGDNL ILLOGHQ
NDSODQ

VUWODQ

ROXWXUPXWXU

-an ILLOGHQ LVLP \DSPD HNL\OH WUHPL RODQ EX NHOLPH arslan,

EXODQ

gibi pek ok hayvan ismindeki -lan

HNLQLQ

ND\QDQ

(Hamilton 1998: 235). Clauson, kelimenin etimolojisiyle ilgili herhangi

ELUH\V|\OHPHPLWLU (' 

+HPHQKHPHQEWQOHKoHOHUGHEXHNOL\OHEXOXQDQ\ODQNHOLPHVLED]OHKoHOHULQGLO

zelliklerine gre MODQFODQROXU%XOJDUFDVGODPGU 7XUDQ 

%X \O PH\YH oRN D] ROXU <O NXUDN N VRXN YH X]XQ ROXU <HUGHNL E|FHNOHULQ
VD\VQGD DUW ROXU \ODQ IDUH YH NDUQFD ED] \HUOHUGH oRDOU +NPGDUODU EH\OHU
DUDVQGDKXVXPHWoNDU+DONDUDVQGDGDKLOHYHKDVHWOLNROXXU7UOKDVWDONODURUWD\D
oNDU ED] \HUOHUGH YHED ROXU <OQ LON ]DPDQODUQGD GRDQ POD\LP VDNLQ YH X]XQ
|PUO ROXU 2UWDVQGD GRDQ NLQFL N|WON LOH\LFL ROXU <OQ VRQXQGD GRDQ VHUW

kt huylu, hilekr ve ihmalkr olur (Turan 2004: 103).


-

\ODQ \O N NDODQ

-ka eli-Nl EHUPL-im tmr buk-a-ka bir bz yan-a

b[g] tmr buk-a-ka bir bz bedrim <ODQ \OQD DLW NDODQ YHUJLVL 
LoLQ HOoL\H YHUGLLP 7HPU %XND\D ELU SDPXNOX NXPD YHUGLP

(zyetgin 2004: 186).


7.1.12. \RQW\O
yunt a yont
< T. yont +\O: isim kk + isim kk.

197

$W\O

EUTS 1993: 196).

Bu sz Tibetede yun, Samoyed dilinde de atNDUOQGDyuntaRODUDNNXOODQOPDNWDYH


. Sinor bu kelimenin ne

NHOLPHQLQ EXUDGDQ 7UNoH\H JHoWLL YDUVD\OPDNWDGU $QFDN '

7UNoH QH GH $OWD\ N|NHQOL ROGXXQX LGGLD HWPHNWHGLU %X V|]FN DFDED 7RKDUFD
DQODPQGDNL

yuk

LOH LOLNLOL RODELOLU PL" $QDGROX D]ODUQGD

at

yund, yont ve yunt

WHOkIIX]ODUQQYDUROGXXELOLQPHNWHGLU +DPLOWRQ &ODXVRQGDEXV|]FQ


7UNoHROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLU (' 

Yont NHOLPHVL ED] \HUOHUGH yunt RODUDN RNXQPDNWDGU $WODU LoLQ HNLOHQ RWD yonca
(yondca) denilmesi, bu adla ilgili olsa gerektir. Bu yzden kelimenin de yont HNOLQGH
RNXQPDV JHUHNLU 7XUDQ 

114).

+DPLOWRQ LVH EX V|]F

yunt RODUDN RNXPDQQ

GDKDGRUXROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLU +DPLOWRQ 

(VNL 7UN kELGHOHUL 6DU 8\JXUODU .DJDUv 7VvGH ED]HQ

yond olarak geer.

Azerbaycan ve Anadoluda at .D]DN YH .UJ]ODUGD FON Bulgarcada morin HNOLQGH
JHoHU2UKRQ<D]WODUYH'LYDQX/JDWLW
VDKLS ROGXX KkOGH

-Trkte atNHOLPHVLGDKDJHQHOELUNXOODQPD

yont NHOLPHVL WDNYLP KDULFLQGH GDKD QDGLU ELU NXOODQPD VDKLSWLU

Dede Korkutta da at\DQQGDNXOODQOU


Trkistan, Rum ve Frenk tarafODUQGD KDON DUDVQGD ILWQH YH NDUNON oNDU .Q
LGGHWOL VRXN YH \D ROXU PH\YHOHUL VRXN YXUXU <OQ LON D\ODUQGD GRDQ ELOJLOL
DNOOROXU2UWDVQGDGRDQGRUXV|]OGRUXLOLROXU6RQXQGDGRDQLVHN|WKX\OX
N|WGQFHOLYHNLQFL

olur (Turan 2004: 104).

\XQW \O DOWQo D\ VlNL] \ H J L UPL

-k maxD PVU-ND \XU WDUJX \HU

krg[k bolu]p $W \O DOWQF D\Q RQ VHNL]LQGH EDQD 0VUD GDU
ekmek iin yer gerek olup (zyetgin 2004: 229).

198

$\<OYH=DPDQ

7.2.1. aram ay
aram aram aram a rm (ETG 2000: 261; EUTS 1993: 126).
< Hint. %LULQFLD\QDG ETG (876 8\JXUODUGD\OQLOND\QQ

DGGU$OWQ 2UGX\DUONODUQGDPXKDUUHPD\NDUOQGDNXOODQOPWU*|NWUNOHU

93: 12).

GHNXOODQPODUGU (876

Bu ay miladi takvime gre 20 Ocak- XEDW DUDVGU %X V|]FN (VNL 8\JXUFD
metinlerde vokal nsesiyle aram ELoLPLQGH GH EXOXQPDNWDGU =LHPH Ein uigurischer
Erntesegende aram ay DG ]HULQGH GXUPDNWD YH (VNL 8\JXU WDNYLPL\OH LOJLOL JHQL
bilgi vermektedir. Ziemeye gre ram ~ aram V|]F 6NU UDPEKD ile ilgili olabilir.
/ %D]LQ LVH /HV FDOHQGULHUV 7XUFV DQFLHQV HW PHGLHYDX[ V WH EX DG UDQL

ND\QDNOVD\PDNWDYH)DUVoDU PVHYLQoOLHQLOHELUOHWLUPHNWHGLU

Hsan 1975: 78).

kR\ Q \O aram ay on yaxN-D PlQ WDN WXU-ka bitig berr-mn


.R\XQ \O ELULQFL D\Q RQXQFX JQQGH EHQ 7DN 7XU\D VHQHW
YHUHFHLP g]\HWJLQ 

DUNQL]L

arkun

DUNQa

< T. DUNQ+ iz-i : isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKs iyelik eki.


-

*HOHFHN\O|EU\O '/7 '=1 

&ODXVRQ JHOHFHN \O DQODPQGDNL EX V|]FQ HWLPRORMLVL\OH LOJLOL KHUKDQJL ELU H\
V|\OHPHPLWLU (' %L]GHDUNQV|]FQGDKDJHUL\HJ|WUHPHGLN

DUNQL]L

= gelecek sene, br sene (DLT I, 89).

7.2.3. ay
< T. ay : isim kk.

199

Ay, otuz gn (T.Tekin 1988: 122).


Bir zaman dilimi olan ay LOH LOJLOL GLHU V|]FNOHU LVH XQODUGU
'=1    D\QJD

D\ON $\ON .%

Aylarca, her ay (EUTS 1993: 18), D\N $\ON ELU D\ON

(EUTS 1993: 18).


bir y(e)g(i)rmin ay DOW \Dx>ND@ HOoL NlOLS 2Q ELULQFL D\Q DOWQF
gnnde eli gelip (zyetgin 2004: 172-177).

EDUPD\O

< T. bar-ma + \O : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki) + isim kk.

*HoHQ\O

ETG 2000: 266).

EOGU

< T. ELU\O-GU : isim kk + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVELOGLUPHHNL


-

%OGUJHoHQ\O '/7 '=1 

7LHW]H EX V|]FQ JHoHQ VHQH ELU \O |QFH DQODPQ YHUGLNWHQ VRQUD V|]FQ
\OGU

bir

ifadesinin bir kVDOWPDVROGXXQXV|\OHPHNWHGLUEOGU<ELU\OGU. (Tietze 2002:

332).

EOGUJHoHQ\OELU\OGU

(DLT I, 456).

7.2.6. bou
< in. bou <O YH JQOHULQ EHOLUOHQPHVLQGH NXOODQODQ RQ N|NWHQ EHLQFLVL Hsan
1975: 131).
in ay bou ksk kn-Nl[DQVDPWVD DoDU-qa

WHS\ D UO  EROW VlNL]

GL\H

EX\UXN YHULOGL VHNL]LQFL D\ ERX VoDQ JQQGH LPSDUDWRU

Tripitaka stada .. (Hsan Tsang s.13/53).

200

7.2.7. a

j

aj aoDN (8762X]. 
< T. aj: isim kk.

dD]DPDQ (876

38).

6|]FQ 7UNoH ELU |JH ROGXX \ROXQGDNL LQDQo \D\JQGU $QFDN HVNL \D]WODUGD
JHoPHGLLQH WDQN ROX\RUX] 8\JXUFDGD LVH0RRO oDQGDQ EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOU (VNL

Trkede vakit, zaman olarak d sz geer. Bu szn Trkede birok trevi


NDOPWU |OH |YQ JLEL 0RROFDGD

aj HVNL HVHUOHUGH VN VN JHoHU dDGD 0RRO

GL\DOHNWOHULQGH GH \D\JQ RODUDN NXOODQOU %XQD J|UH 7UNoH\H 0RROFDGDQ JHoWLL
DQODO\RU

(UHQ



YXUJXODPDNWDGU ('

 

&ODXVRQ

GD

V|]FQ

\DQVPD

ELU

DG

ROGXXQX

: 403).

dang irde akda kildi7DQDDUUNHQ\LQHJHOGL 2X]. 

~

7.2.8. a DSXW
a~DSXWaoDKDSXG (876AY 1994: 455).
< Skr.

, < Sogd. izSDG %LU D\Q DGGU 8OX %H\ WDNYLPLQGH  D\GU

oN SDGD

(EUTS 1993: 39).

%X D\ DG \DEDQF N|NHQOL ELU D\ DGGU YH RUXo D\ RODUDN J|VWHULOPHNWHGLU *HUoHNWHQ

de Maniheistlerde II. Knun-XEDW DUDVQD GHQ EX D\GD RUXo WXWXOXUGX Huastuanift,
KHU \O dDNDSXW D\QGD ELU

D\

RUXo EX\XUXU .HOLPHQLQ N|NHQL %XGL]P

YH

Maniheizmde On emir ve\D 2Q QHK\ PDQDVQD JHOHQ dNDSDGDdan gelmektedir


(Turan 2004: 40).

DQ oQ WNHO ELOJH W H QJUL W H QJULVL EXUNDQ EL oDKDS X G

karmap(a)t-lar iinte bo zlglerig lrmek-ke


XUX\ D UONDG

(AY 21/10,12).

201

on

oDKDS X GJ EDGD

oDKDSXGOJ

< SkroDKDSXGT. -OJ: isim kk - isimden isim yapma eki.


(AY 1994: 455).

W|]Q EXUVDQJ NXYUDJODUWQ o QDJ DOP o D KDS X GOJ


WXUP

sanvarta

(AY 169/4).

oDKDSXGPDQJJDO

< Skr. LNmSDGDPDQJDOD (AY 1994: 455).


bo trtn tegzin nom erdinig irin

o D KDS X GPDQJJDO WR\Q

DYJQDNVPQ "  UDWQDY D oU LNHJQQJ |WJLQJH VLQ WDNJX NQ WROX
EROW

(AY 343/18).

7.2.9. er
< T. er : isim kk.
-

9DNLW 2X]FD  '/7 '=1 

7.2.9.1. erlik
< T. er-lik : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.
-

9DNLW 2X]FD  '/7 '=1 

bu erlikde kel = bu vakitte gel. (DLT I, 323).


7.2.10. hinki
< in. hsien-king in imparatoru Kao-WVXQJXQ VDOWDQDWQD UDVWOD\DQ - \OODU
DUDVQGDNLVUH\LJ|VWHUPHNLoLQNXOODQODQUHPL]

202

Hsan 1975: 140).

trp hinki DWO  \O-QQJ EHLQo \OQWD \D] UDP D\ ELU \DQJ-qa
taypaaki aqtar -  \DO EDODW geirip, Hsien-FKLQJ DGO G|QHPLQ
EHLQFL

0DK SUDM

\OQGD

SUDPLW

LONEDKDUGD

ELULQFL

D\Q

ELULQFL

JQ

VWUD\  oHYLUPH\H EDODG +VDQ 7VDQJ

s.18/56).


7.2.11. ikindi
ikindi aekinti (KB-'=1,UN%LW 
< T. ekki + Toh. -nti : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

NLQGL

(KB-'=1 LNLQFL ,UN%LW 

7RKDUFDGDVUDVD\ODU

-nt/-nci ve -nteLOHROXWXUXOPDNWDGU7RKDUFD ikante yirminci

DQODPQGDGU +DPLOWRQ    NLQGL V|]FQGHNL

-ndi HNL GH 7RKDUFD ELU DOQW

ROPDOGU NLQGL VUD VD\ DQODPQGDQ VOkPL\HW VRQUDV V\UOS |OH LOH DNDP
DUDVQGDNL QDPD] YDNWLQLQ DG ROPXWXU 'ROD\V\OD EX NHOLPH *QHLQ NRQXPXQD
J|UHD\DUODQDQELU]DPDQDGGU

n ~OVQHUDWELUikindi bile
yava ~OPDPLQLVHYLQoLPWLOH (KB / 5851).

7.2.12. kalp, klp


< Skr. kalpa, < Toh. A kalp " 'HYLUG|QHPoD ETG 2000: 275; AY II 1991: 96).
tegmek-lerin yz ming tmen kalp d-lerke tegi nom-lap sz-lep
tketinsiz titir

XODPDODUQ \] ELQ WPHQ NDOSD oDODUD GHLQ

DQODWSV|\OH\HUHNELWLUHPH]OHU

~

AY II 165/3).



7.2.13. olu

< T. ~olu : isim kk.

203

Zaman, vakit, dnHPoD(AY II 1991: 100).

&ODXVRQV|]FQ]DPDQODLOJLOLELU NDYUDPROGXXQXLIDGHHWPLN|NHQLKDNNQGDELU
DoNODPD\DSPDPWU (' 

~
r
bu rde olu- a tkel-OLJ NLL HW|]-in bulup D\Q ]DPDQGD oDGD
eksiksiz insan vcudunu bulup (AY II 176/3).
~

j

7.2.13.1. olulu

< T. ~olu-luj : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

gOoOVD\OYDNLWOL]DPDQO

(AY II 1991: 100).

~
j
sa~-Ojlg-lg olu-lu titir (AY II 156/15).
~

7.2.13.2. olusuz

< T. ~olu-suz : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

gOoV]VD\V]oRNYDNLWVL]]DPDQV](AY II 1991: 100).

~
sa~-V]lgsz olusuz titir (AY II 156/20).
~

7.2.14.
< T.

~ r 

XOX

-lu~  |rL : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki + isim kk-nc teklik

~X

DKVL\HOLNHNL

.XOXNYDNWL

AtaKuran 2004: 503).

.XOXN JQQ VDEDKOD |OH DUDVQGDNL E|OPGU 6|]FQ 7UNoH NX

kknden

JHOGLL \ROXQGDNL LQDQo ELOLPVHO \D\QODUGD VN VN GLOH JHWLULOPLWLU &ODXVRQ GD
NXOXN

un

NXWDQ JHOGLLQL \D]PWU 7UNoH NXOXN

204

ile zbeke

WXOLN |OH \HPHL

ELoLPL DUDVQGD LON EDNWD E\N ELU EHQ]HUOLN J|]H oDUSDU g]EHNoH WXOLN

sz

WX

|OH N|NQGHQ JHOLU 2UWD 7UNoHGH W |GL NXOXN YDNWL DQODPQD JHOLU \DOQ]

Trke NXOXN ile zbeke WXOLNDUDVQGDEDODQWNXUXODPD] (UHQ .




sizi vadeiz id kni turur kim tirilse borun gr

~ r
inde

XOX

(AtaKuran 2004: 503).


7.2.15. likzir
likzir alikir a OLNLU(ETG 2000: 286; EUTS 1993: 84; TekinMaitr 1976: 427).
< in. li-ji < liek-(iet Takvim (ETG 2000: 286).

LQDVL 7HNLQ EX V|]FQ

biti- \D]PDN LOH ELUOLNWH NXOODQOPDVQQ |]HO ELU DQODPD

JHOLSJHOPHGLLQLVRUJXODPDNWDGU 7HNLQ0DLWU 

utluj vaptsun

PHQ \Dx ERj

OLNLU

bitiy tegintim <HQL |UHQHQ EHQ

9DSWVXQOLNMLUWDNYLPLQLKUPHWOH\D]GP

(TekinMaitr 46/ilve).

7.2.16. lintih
< in. lin teh in imparatoru Kao-WVXQJXQ VDOWDQDWQD UDVWOD\DQ - \OODU
DUDVQGDNLVUH\LJ|VWHUPHNLoLQNXOODQODQUHPL]

Hsan 1975: 157).

ODU WHS \ D UOTDG ER VDY-  lintih DWO  \O UDP D\ VlNL] \DQJqa
szldi deyip buyurdu. Bu sz Lin-WHKDGOG|QHPLQ ELULQFL\OQGD 
ELULQFLD\QVHNL]LQGHV|\OHGL +VDQ7VDQJV 

7.2.17. OQJXT
< in.

OXQJ XR

in imparatoru Kao-WVXQJXQ VDOWDQDWQD UDVWOD\DQ - \OODU

DUDVQGDNLG|QHPLJ|VWHUPHNLoLQNXOODQODQUHPL]

Hsan 1975: 158).

aqtaru OQJXTDWO \O -QQJoQo \OQWDTRQXQoD\o otuzqa


aqtaru tkrti oHYLUHUHN /XQJ XR DGO G|QHPLQ oQF \OQGD

205

NQ RQXQFX D\Q \LUPL oQGH oHYLUHUHN ELWLUGL +VDQ 7VDQJ V

26/61).
7.2.18. muhurta
< Skr. muhurta=DPDQYDNLWWD\LQL|OoVJQQELUNVP(EUTS 1993: 89).
rau dhpre muhurttug SDVODS EH RWR] \HWWU DWL WD WDUW RO \DQL
WDUWPL

7.2.19. o ur

(TT VIII L 26).

ujur aoXU h 1998: 193; A.Le Coq 1936: 40).


< T. ojur : isim kk.

=DPDQ IUVDW YHVLOH YDVWD ]LKQv DNWLYLWH \RORXU h

1998: 193; A.Le Coq 1936:

40).
ilentk erksintk RJXUQWD yme emti bozlun (A.Le Coq 1936: 21).
7.2.19.1. \DWJDNR

j
XU

< T. yat-ga---k + ojur- : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki-isimden fiil yapma eki\DUGPFVHV

-fiilden isim yapma eki + isim kk-oQFWHNOLNDKVL\HOLNHNL

<DWV\DWPD]DPDQ

(DLT-'=1 

\DWJDXNRU

. (DLT III, 55).

\DWV\DWPD]DPDQ

7.2.20. d
d ad (T.Tekin 1988: 163; AY II 1991: 120).
< T. d : isim kk.

=DPDQ 77HNLQ YDNLWoDGHYLUG|QHP

206

(AY II 1991: 120).

r
bu de ~olu-ra tkel-OLJ NLL HW|]-in bulup D\Q ]DPDQGD oDGD
eksiksiz insan vcudunu bulup (AY II 176/3).
7.2.20.1. dleg
< T. d-le-g : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki.
Zaman, felek (KB-'=1 

&ODXVRQGDV|]F

*d-le-HNOLQGHYHUPLWLU (' 

DQDVQGDWRjVDDWDQVDDW

r
msafir bolup mindi lekDW (KB / 1388).
~

7.2.20.2. d olu

< T. d + ~olu : isim kk + isim kk.

Zaman, devir (EUTS 1993: 97).

LVLJ|]PLQWLWJONGDODJXOXN

d kolu soka kelti (AY 612/22).

7.2.20.3. dn
dn adn (EUTS 1993: 98; AY II 1991: 120).
< T. d--n : isim kk-\DUGPFVHV-isimden isim yapma eki.
Zaman, vakit (EUTS 1993: 98).
tr ol dn t(e)ngri

an- ~ormuz-ta t(e)ngri kamaj t(e)ngri-ler

uvraj (AY II 131/4).

207

7.2.20.4. |G
< T. d--: isim kk-\DUGPFVHV-isimden isim yapma eki.
Tam gn, 24 saat (T.Tekin 1988: 163).
tnli knli yiti

|GNH

subsuz kedim Geceli gndzl yedi vakitte

susuz (araziyi) getim. (T.Tekin 1988: 52).


7.2.21. purvantak(a)lp
< Skr. purvantaklp :HOWSHULRGHQ'Q\D]DPDQ Daakar 2005: 98, 107).
bo yertin yer suv trgli .. purvantak(a)lp dtin br tgr
bknki knktgi . (Daakar 262/07).
7.2.22. ruzgar
< Far. Zaman (AH 1992: LIII).
seni UX]JDUx bu kle ~OQ (AH/414).

7.2.23. seher
< Ar. Seher vakti (AtaKuran 2004: 609).

y
se erlerdeRODU\DUO~atu ~olarlar (AtaKuran 2004: 609).

7.2.24. sin
< in.

VL Q <O YH JQOHULQ EHOLUOHQPHVLQGH NXOODQODQ RQ N|NWHQ VHNL]LQFLVL

1975: 171).
-

WHS ELWLGL  P l Q KXLQWVD DOW RWX] \DP GD LU XG \OQ lQlWNlN
EDUSLNLlOLJ\DP

-k

-da sin\ODQ\OQLNLOl\\DQDWDYD-qa kltim

deyLS \D]G %HQ +VDQ 7VDQJ \LUPL

208

DOW \DPGD LU VU \OQGD

Hsan

+LQGLVWDQD JLGLS NUN LNL \DPGD VLQ \ODQ \OQGD

tekrar dnerek

ine geldim (Hsan Tsang s. 34/66).


~DQ
~DQ

7.2.25. LS
< in.

VK

-kan < (ip-kan 2Q N|N WDNYLPGH NXOODQODQ RQ NVPO Eir devre (ETG

2000: 296).
7.2.26. tsirki, sirki
< in. tsi - ki < tsiet kjei<OQNVP(ETG 2000: 302).
7.2.27. rke
< T. rke : isim kk.
Zaman (TekinMaitr 1976: 496).
mein yirtin meisin rke grnlg ermeki bolzun dnyev
saGHWOHUOHKHU]DPDQQHHOLYHEDKWL\DUROVXQ 7HNLQ0DLWU 
~ 

7.2.28. va t

< Ar. Vakit, zaman (AtaKuran 2004: 732).

~
kim ol ara~Q WXUjan tn va tlerinde secde

~OjO

(AtaKuran 2004:

732).
7.2.29. yam
< Skr. \PD Gnn sekizde biri, saatlik sre, gecenin saatlik blmleri (Hsan
1975: 192).
-T DUWXQT NHQNL yam-da zk-sz nam sz-OlGloL lUGL RO DoDU WQ
-

ED LQWDT 

krdi

yam -da Vo  GL lUWPL-d ken v(i)var tgzinr rkn

RUWD YH VRQ JHFH E|OPOHULQGH DUDONV] GLQv PHWLQ RNX\DQ EL

NLL  LGL 2 VWDW JHFHQLQ LON E|OPQGH  ]DPDQ JHoWLNWHQ VRQUD

209

PDQDVWU oHYUHVLQGH   GRODQU LNHQ XQX  J|UG +VDQ 7VDQJ V

43/71).
7.2.30. \Dx
< T. \Dx : isim kk.

*Q 3DUD D\Q LONRQ JQQQEHOLUWLOPHVL LoLQNXOODQODQNVDOWPD \DQJ

ay yerine) (Hsan 1975: 193).


-

RO THWLJVLPlN ELUOl|WUSKLQNLDWO \O QQJ EHLQo\OQWD\D]

ram ay bir

\DQJ

-qa taypaaki aqtar-DO EDODW 2 N KD]UON YH


-

DUDWUPD LOH JHoLULS +VLHQ FKLQJ DGO G|QHPLQ EHLQFL \OQGD

iONEDKDUGD ELULQFL D\Q ELULQFL JQ 0DKSUDMSUDPLW VWUD\ 


oHYLUPH\HEDODG +VDQ7VDQJV 

7.2.31. \O
< T. \O: isim kk.

<OVHQH

(ETY 1987: 893).

elig

\O LLJ NoLJ ELUPL (OOL \O LOHULQL JoOHULQL YHUPLOHU

(ETY

32).
7.2.31.1. \OODPDN
< T. \O-la-mak : isim kk-isimden fiil yapma eki-fiilden isim yapma eki (mastar eki).

<OJHoLUPHN

(OTG 2003: 259).

7.2.31.2. \OON
< T. \O-ON : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki.

<OON

(OTG 2003: 259).

210

bin

\OON

tmen NQOLN ELWLJLPLQ EHOJPLQ DQGD \DV WDND \DUDWWGP

%LQ \OON RQ ELQ JQON NLWDEHPL DOkPHWLPL RUDGD G] WDD
\DSWUWWP (7< 

7.2.31.3. QHN\O
< Skr. QJD + < T. \O : isim kk + isim kk.

7LPVDK\O

(DLT-'=1 

QHN\OWLPVDK\O

(DLT I, 346).

7.2.31.4. WLL\O
< T. WLL + \O : isim kk + isim kk.

'LL NDGQ \O

(EUTS 1993: 157).


biimi geer.

'LL V|]F (VNL 7UNoHGHQ EDOD\DUDN NXOODQOU 2UWD 7UNoHGH W


(VNL .SoDNoDGD WLL

alarak eski

(ve

WL

) olarak kuOODQOU 'RHUIHU HVNL YH \HQL YHULOHUL J|] |QQH


(?

W  ELoLPLQGHQ \ROD oNPWU &ODXVRQ RULMLQDO ELoLP RODUDN WL 

)yi

YHUPLWLU 5lVlQHQ EX \ROGD ELU J|U ELOGLUPHPLWLU 6HYRUW\DQ &ODXVRQXQ

--O

biimini saymakla

ELoLPOHUL EHQLPVHGLLQL EHOLUWWLNWHQ VRQUD 'RHUIHULQ YHUGLL W

nin yerini

\HWLQPLWLU dDGD GL\DOHNWOHULQ ELU E|OPQGH GLL

XUJDo ELoLPL DOPWU

(Eren 1999: 115).


WDTXW

mir tz-lg kidin [] WLL\O rr (TT VII 17/18).

7.2.31.5. irklN\O
< T. irk-()k : isim kk-isimden isim yapma eki (kltme eki).

(UNHN\O 779,, 

211

sa[q-OD@QX LW WRSUDT Wz-OJ \O \>L   NL "` LUNlN \O rr (TT VII
17/4).
7.2.32. ]DPQ
$U=DPDQPKOHWELULLoLQYHULOHQVUH

AtaKuran 2004: 798).

~
biUDQoDWHJHUVL]OHUDWDQPzaman a tegi. (AtaKuran 2004: 798).

212

*|NOHOJLOLQDQODU
8.1. Tri
8.1.1. ay tri
< T. ay + t-i-r-i : isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden fiil yapma eki
(ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim yapma eki.

$\WDQUV (7 

7DQU RODUDN $\ +XQODUGD YH .|NWUNOHUGH J|UOPHPHNWHGLU dQN EX G|QHPOHUGH
$\ GD \DUDWDQ ELU 8OX 7DQU DQOD\ YDUGU $QFDN 8\JXU 7UNOHUL ]DPDQQD
JHOLQGLLQGHLVH0DQLKDL]PYH%XGL]PGLQOHULQLQHWNLVL\OH
EDODQPWU $VOQGD EX V|]

kk teri GH\LLQLQ VRQUDNL ELU SDUDOHOL ROVD JHUHNWLU (VNL

8\JXU \D]ODUQGD +D]UHWL VD LoLQ GH

teri

GH\LLQLQ

N|NOHULQL

ay teriDQOD\J|UOPH\H

yaruk ay teri LIDGHVL JHoPHNWHGLU $\  ay

ROXWXUPDNWDGU

dQN

$\



0DQL

GLQLQLQ

DQD

prensiplerindendir (gel 2002: 202,203).


krgme kn tengri, siz bizni kzeding krngme ay teri siz bizni
urtjDUQJ *|UHQ *QH WDQU VL] EL]L NRUX\XQ *|UQHQ $\ WDQU

VL]EL]LNXUWDUQ (7 

Yaruk ay terike DONVWD |xUHNL DEURDQ PDQDVWDU JLU]D Parlak ay


WDQU\D GXDGD |QGHNL WHQYLU JQDKODUP GDQ  PXDI NO 7R\RN 

ETY 1987: 368).


8.1.2. kk tri
< T. *k-k + t-i-r-i : fiil kk-fiilden isim yapma eki + fiil kk-\DUGPFVHV-fiilden
fiil yapma eki (ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim yapma eki.

*|N7DQUPDYLVHPD

(ETY 1987: 861).

213

Trkler Teriye, Yir-6XE L\HOHULQH \D] \LU L\HOHULQH kk teri iyelerine ve ata
DUYDNODUQD NXUEDQ NHVHUHN GLQL W|UHQOHU WHUWLS HGHUOHUGL 7DQU VDGHFH \HUL J|

ve

\HU\]QGH \DD\DQ FDQOODU LQVDQODU \DUDWPDNOD LNWLID HWPH] \DUDWW \HU\]QGH

,GXN gWNHQ < ,GXN <LU 6XE VDKLSVL] NDOPDVQ 7UN ERGXQX \RN ROPDVQ GL\H GH
NDDQVHoLSJ|QGHUPH\DUGPHWPHYDVIODUQDGDVDKLSWL7UNOHU\DUDWFJFHYDUOD
NDU VODPL\HW |QFHVLQGH YH VRQUDVQGD SHN IDUNO LQDQFD VDKLS ROPDPODU VHPDYL
GLQOHUGH ROGXX JLEL 7UNOHU NDDQODUQ \HU\]QGH 7DQUQQ HOoLVL UHVXO J|OJHVL
HNOLQGH WDVDYYXU HWPHNWHGLU 7DQUQQ \XNDUGD J|N\]QGH ROPDV LQDQF 7UNOH

DUDVQGDEXJQGHPHYFXWWXU *|NGD 

(VNL 7UNOHUGH J|Q YH \HULQ \DOQ]FD ELU WDQH NOFV \DUDWFV ROGXX LIDGH

-10. yy.larda

HGLOL\RU DQFDN EXQXQ DG YHULOPL\RUGX %D] DUDWUPDODUD GD\DQDUDN 

7UNOHULQ PDGGHGHQ \DOWOP ELU LOkK NDYUDPQD XODWNODU VDQOPDNWDGU %LU EDND
J|UH J|UH LVH

teri

NDYUDP

inlilerinkine tamamen benzemekteydi. Buna gre Tao

GLQLQLQ NkLQDWQ EWQ UXKXQDYHUGLLSDQWHLVWDQODPYHELUVD\VQQVLPJHVLJ|NYH\D

Tai-chi (ilk tek birlik) ROPDVLOHDoNODQDELOLU

g]HOOLNOHHVNL7UNGQFHVLQGHJ|NLOH7DQUDUDVQGDNHVLQELUD\UON
JoWU gJHO    7UNOHU WDQU LoLQ
NXOODQPODU

kk

gstermek ok

kk teri ya da teri kelimelerini

NHOLPHVLQL WHN EDQD WHxUL LoLQ NXOODQPDPODUGU

(Barutcu znder

1998: 171- .|NWUNOHUNDDQODUQJ|NVHOKNPGDUODURODUDNQLWHOHQGLUL\RUODUG


(VLQ    dLQGH YH 7UNOHUGH J|Q NXWEX VDQODQ .XWXS\OG] 7UNoH DG\OD

Altun (veya Temr)-kazguk in astrolojisinde gk

KNPGDU GHQHQ J|NVHO WDQUQQ

VDUD\ VDQO\RUGX (VLQ   .|NWUN YH 8\JXU NDDQODU EX G|QHP PHWLQOHUL
GLNNDWH DOQGQGD oRN L\L L]DK HGLOHPH\HFHN ELU ELoLPGH GH ROVD J|H DLWWLUOHU .DDQ
VR\XQGDQ RODQODUQ UXKXQXQ J|H YH\D <LWLNHQ \OG] WDNPQD \DQL J|N WDQUVQQ
PHNDQ RODQ .XWXS\OG] \|QQH XoWXX VDQO\RUGX %|\OHFH 7UNOHUGH GH KNPGDU
DWDODUQQ J|NVHO UXKODU DUDVQGD \HU DOG DQODOPDNWDGU $\UFD dLQGH ROGXX JLEL
.|NWUN\D]WODUQGDGDJ|NWDQUVELUKNPGDURODUDNGQOS

teri-kan WDQUKDQ 

denmekteydi (Esin 2001: 59) (Bilgin 2005: 190). kk teri WHULPLQLQ VOkPL\HWWHQVRQUD
GDLODKYH$OODKNDUOQGDNXOODQOGQJ|UPHNWH\L] %LOJLQ 

214

'PDQODUQODJXUGXP
'RVWODUPQPHQNOGUGP

Kk terige men dedim


Senlerge bire men yurdum

'PDQODUEHQDODWWP
'RVWODUPEHQJOGUGP
*|N7DQU\DEHQ|GHGLP

Size veriyorum yurdum (Tekin 1986: 103).


8.1.3. kn tri
< T. kn + t-i-r-i : isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden fiil yapma eki
(ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim yapma eki.

%LULODKJQHWDQUV

(EUTS 1993: 82).

NHolNL \XOWX] WQOlNL D\ W l QJUL  XODWDo lUU  NHGLQ EDWP

t()ri

\ D UXTQ

o

N|O

-lr toquz gz-lr ngtnki taluy-X

bdttisi tetir  $NDPNL


JHFHNL

kn

DNDPOH\LQ J|UQHQ  \OG] ODU 

JHFHOH\LQ J|UQHQ  $\ 7DQU VUGUHQ OHU GLU EDWGD EDWP

*Q 7DQUQQ Q o J|O YH GRNX] UPDN GRXGDNL RN\DQXVX

byten(ler)dir .. (Hsan Tsang s. 51/76).


8.1.3.1. kn ay tri
< T. kn + ay + t-i-r-i : isim kk + isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden fiil
yapma eki (ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim yapma eki.

*QHD\WDQUV

(EUTS 1993: 82).

tri yaru~ klg bilgeke yalvarar biz tnr biz kn ay trike


7DQU QXUOX NXGUHWOL ELOJH\H \DOYDUU] JQH YH D\ WDQUODUD ULFD

ederiz. (7 

215

8.1.4. ta tri
< T. ta + t-i-r-i : isim kk + fiil kk-\DUGPF VHV-fiilden fiil yapma eki
(ettirgenlik eki)-fiilden isim yapma eki.

7DQWDQU (7 

ta tri kelti ta tri zi kelti  7DQ WDQU JHOGL 7DQ WDQU NHQGLVL
geldi (7 

*|NdDOJFODU

8.2.1. aita
< Skr. ajita

6HPDYv P]NDF J|NVHO oDOJF (876    LOkKv P]NDF

(TekinMaitr 1976: 343).


8.2.2. itrasini
< ? 6HPDYvP]NDF(TekinMaitr 1976: 379).

WLPEXUL SDQoDLNL

itrasini nata aita XODW WHQJULGHP R\QoODU ELUOH

YLYDNUPLWHQJULGHXODWWHQJULGHPX]X]DjXWODUELUOHWUWUDWULYLUXWDNL

viru- -SDNLYD\DUYDQLGHXODW\LUVXYN]HGWHoLWHQJULGHPWHQJULOHU
iligleri birle tegriklep tkel bLOJHPD\WUEXU~an tapa kelir.. Timburi,
3DQoDVLNL LWUDVLQL 1DWD $oLWD

YH

GLHU

LOkKv

P]NDFODU LOH

9LYDNUDPL WDQUGDQ EDND VHPkYv XVWDODU LOH 7U \ VWULPV K 9LUXWDNL

9LUXS NmD 9DLUDYDQD YH |WHNL \HUL YH VX\X \DQL GQ\D\  NRUX\DQ

(= skr. lokapala  LOkKv WDQU KNPGDUODU LOH oHYULOL ROGXX KkOGH


mkemmel hikmetli (bilge = skr. prajna 

0D\WU EXUNDQD GRUX

gelirler. (TekinMaitr 89/3,4).


8.2.3. gantarvi
< Skr. gandharva*|NP]NDFODU 7HNLQ0DLWU 

216

,QGUDQQ J]HO NRNXODU VDoDQ P]NDFODU YH WDELDW VW YDUONODUGDQ ELULGLU J

antarvi

D\UFD \HQLGHQ GRPDN ]HUH |OHQ ELU FDQO\ \HQL GRXD J|WUHQ ELU YDUON RODUDN GD

tasavvur edilir (TekinMaitr 1976: 291).


ta~

\LPH JDQWDUL

GandhUD

gantarviler teridem kvrglerig tltrti Ve

YH *DQGKDUYDODU LOkKv GDYXOODU oDOGODU 7HNLQ0DLWU

18/39).

SDQoDLNL

< Skr. SDQFDLNKD*|NWHELUP]NDF(TekinMaitr 1976: 450).


8.2.5. tamburi
tamburi ~ timburi
< Skr. tumburu0]NDF(TekinMaitr 1976: 466).
8.2.6. nata
< Skr. nataOkKvP]NDF(TekinMaitr 1976: 433).
uluj klg teriler birle timburi

SDQoDLNL

itrasini nata DoLWD XODW

WHQJULGHP R\QoODU ELUOH YLYDNUPL WHQJULGH XODW WHQJULGHP X]

uzajXWODU ELUOH WUWUDWUL YLUXWDNL YLUX- -SDNL  YD\DUYDQLGH XODW \Lr
suv kzedtei tengridem tengriler iligleri birle tegriklep tkel bilge
PD\WU EXU~

an tapa kelir..

%\N NXGUHWOL WDQUODU LOH 7LPEXUL

3DQoDVLNL LWUDVLQL 1DWD $oLWD

YH

GLHU

LOkKv

P]NDFODU LOH

9LYDNUDPL WDQUGDQ EDND VHPkYv XVWDODU LOH 7U \ VWULPV K 9LUXWDNL

9LUXS NmD 9DLUDYDQD YH |WHNL \HUL YH VX\X \DQL GQ\D\  NRUX\DQ

(= skr. lokapala  LOkKv WDQU KNPGDUODU LOH oHYULOL ROGXX KkOGH


mkemmel hikmetli (bilge = skr. prajna 
gelirler. (TekinMaitr 89/3,4).

217

0D\WU EXUNDQD GRUX

SONU
(OGHNL EX DUDWUPDGD WDULKv 7UN \D] GLOLQL ROXWXUDQ .|NWUN 8\JXU YH
.DUDKDQO oHYUHOHUH DLW HVHUOHUGH JHoHQ 7UNoH J|N ELOLPL DVWURQRPL  WHULPOHUL WHVSLW
HGLOHUHN EX WHULPOHULQ GLO PHUNH]OL ELU LQFHOHPHVL \DSOPWU $UDWUPDGD (VNL 7UNoH

gk bilimi (astronomi) terimleri,


1. Gk
2. Gezegenler
*QH

4. Ay
<OG]ODU

6. Burlar
7. Zaman
*|NOHOJLOLQDQODU

NRQX EDONODU DOWQGD D\U D\U PDGGHOHU KkOLQGH HOH DOQPWU 0DGGH ED
RODUDN HOH DOQDQ WHULPOHU VHV ELOJLVL DQODP ELOJLVL YH N|NHQ ELOJLVL EDNPODUQGDQ GD
LQFHOHQPH\HoDOOPWU

$UDWUPDGD WRSODP  J|N ELOLPL WHULPL WHVSLW HGLOPL YH LQFHOHQPLWLU
QFHOHQHQ EX WHULPOHULQ X 7UNoH N|NHQOLGLU 'LHU WHULPOHULQ GLOOHUH J|UH GDOP
LVHXHNLOGHGLU7HULPOHULQL6DQVNULWoHXdLQFHX$UDSoDV6RJGFDV

Farsa, 3 Toharca, 1i Hinte, 1i Farsa ve Trkeden, 1i de Sanskrite ve


7UNoHGHQ ROXPX ELUOHLN V|]FN HNOLQGHGLU 7HULPOHUGHQ  WDQHVLQLQ LVH N|NHQL
WHVSLWHGLOHPHPLWLU

Bu istaWLVWLNv YHULOHUH \]GH RODUDN EDNWP]GD LVH 7UNoH J|N ELOLPL WHULPL
NXOODQPDRUDQ6DQVNULWoHdLQFH'LHUOHULGHHNOLQGHGLU

218

%X oDOPD J|VWHUL\RU NL 7UNOHUGH NR]PRORML 7UN \DDP WDU]QQ ELU SDUoDV
RODJHOPLWLU +DWWD NR]PRORML 7UN GHVWDQODUQGD GD \HU DOPDNWDGU 2X] .DDQ
GHVWDQQGD 2X] .DDQQ oRFXNODUQQ DGODUQQ GD

Kn, Ay ve

<OG] ROPDV

7UNOHULQJ|N\]QHLOJLOHULQLQROGXXQXQEDNDELUJ|VWHUJHVLGLU

&ODXVRQ (DUO\ 7XUNLVK $VWURQRPLFDO 7HUPV EDONO \D]VQGD 7UNOHUGH


NXOODQODQ DVWURQRPL WHULPOHULQLQ ELUoRXQXQ 7UNOHULQ JQON KD\DW\OD LOJLOL GLHU

objelerden -NDUDNX

DN DGJU

gibi-

EHQ]HWPH \ROX\OD WUHWLOPL LVLPOHU ROGXXQX

vurgular. Buradan hareketle biz de Trklerde kozmoloji bilgisi ve


LoH

JHoWLLQL

7UN

NOWU

WDULKLQGH

GHVWDQODUGD

2X]

JQGHOLN KD\DWQ Lo

.DDQ

'HVWDQ

JLEL 

VRPXWODWQ V|\OH\HELOLUL] 7UNOHUGH NR]PRORML YH DVWURQRPL VLVWHPDWLN ELU ELOLP


GDO ROPDNWDQ oRN 7UNOHULQ JQON KD\DWQ J|Q YH PHYVLPOHULQ KDUHNHWOH

rine gre

G]HQOHPHVLQHYHNROD\ODWUPDVQD\DUDPDNWDGU

VOkP |QFHVL 7UN HYUHQ WHOkNNLVLQGH ELOKDVVD *|N\] *QH YH $\D YXUJX
\DSOGPXKDNNDNWU%XQXQODELUOLNWH7UNOHULQELUWDNP\OG]ODUGDQKDEHUGDUROGXX
VRQXFXQDYDUODELOLU)DNDWJHUHNJ|NJHUHNVHGHJ|NFLVLPOHULKDNNQGDNLEXWHOkNNLOHU
ELU NVPGLQvYHPLWRORMLNWDVDYYXUODUODNDUPYD]L\HWWHGLU%XQHGHQOHVOkP|QFHVL
7UN HYUHQ WHOkNNLVLQGH J|N\]QQ YH J|NVHO FLVLPOHULQ |QHPOL ROGXX DQFDN

bunlarla ilgili bilgilerin yeteriQFHVLVWHPDWLNROPDGVRQXFXoNDUODELOLU

%XUDGDQ KDUHNHWOH |]HOOLNOH \OG] YH JH]HJHQ LVLPOHUL WUHWLOLUNHQ 7UN


]LKQL\HWLQGH EHOLUOL SDUDOHOOLNOHUGHQ \ROD oNOG V|\OHQHELOLU gUQHLQ

krd-sevit,

erentir-sekentir, yaruk-\DXNNXoN-\DOoN gibi (Toprak 2005: 26).

%X DUDWUPD LOH RUWD\D NRQXODQ WHULPOHULQ GLOELOLPFLOHU J|N ELOLPL DVWURQRPL 
DUDWUPDFODU YH 7UN NOWU WDULKL DUDWUPDFODU WDUDIQGDQ GD GDKD LOHQPHVL

gerekmektedir. Trk kltr tarihinin bir boyutu olan Eski Trk gk

ELOLPLQLQ GRUX

RODUDN\D]ODELOPHVLQHEXDUDWUPDGDRUWD\DNRQXODQWHULPOHULQGHND\QDNONHGHFHLQL
GQ\RUX]

219

%%/<2*5$)<$

$%(+DVDQ$WD  

Trk Kavimleri TarihiD-WR7UNL\DW<D\VWDQEXO

$'$0 9RONHU /$87 -HQV 3HWHU XQG :(66

Andreas (2000), Bibliographie

alttrkischer Studien, Wiesbaden.


$5$75HLG5DKPHWL  

Zur Heilkunde der Uiguren I, Berlin.

$5$75HLG5DKPHWL  

Zur Heilkunde der Uiguren II, Berlin.

$5$7 5HLG 5DKPHWL  

Trkische Turfan-Texte VII. Von Dr. G. R. Rachmati.

Mit sinologischen Anmerkungen von Dr. W. Eberhard, Berlin.


, TTK Yay., Ankara.

$5$75HLG5DKPHWL  (VNL7UNLLUL

$5$7 5HLG 5DKPHWL  

Makaleler, (Haz. Osman Fikri Sertkaya), TKAE Yay.,

Ankara.
$5$75HLG5DKPHWL

[Haz.] (1992), Atebetl-+DND\N, TTK Yay., Ankara.

$5$75HLG5DKPHWL  

Kutadgu Bilig I: Metin, TDK Yay., Ankara.

$5$75HLG5DKPHWL  

Kutadgu Bilig II-Tercme, TTK Yay., Ankara.


, (Haz.: Kemal Eraslan, Osman

$5$7 5HLG 5DKPHWL   .XWDGJX %LOLJ ,,, QGH[

Fikri Sertkaya, Nuri Yce), TKAE Yay., Ankara.


ATA, Aysu (2004), 7UNoHON.XUDQ7HUFPHVL 5\ODQGV1VKDV .DUDKDQO7UNoHVL
*LUL

-Metin-Notlar-Dizin), TDK Yay., Ankara.

ATALAY, Besim (Haz.) (1999), Divan Lgat-it-Trk, I-II-III, TDK Yay., Ankara.
ATALAY, Besim (Haz.) (1999), Divan Lgat-it-Trk Dizini Endeks IV, TDK Yay.,
Ankara.
BANG, Willi (1931), Manichische Erzhler, Le Muson, 44, 1931: 1-36.
%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

Trkische Turfan-Texte I, Berlin.

%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

Trkische Turfan-Texte II, Berlin.

%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

Trkische Turfan-Texte III, Berlin.

220

%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

Trkische Turfan-Texte IV, Berlin.

BANG, WilliXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  Trkische Turfan-Texte V, Berlin.


%$1* :LOOL XQG *$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ  

Analytischer Index zu den fnf

ersten stcken der Trkischen Turfan Texte, Berlin.


%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQXQG5$&+0$7*5

(1934), Trkische

Turfan-Texte VI. Das buddhistische Stra Skiz Ykmk, Berlin.


%$1*:LOOLXQG*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  8LJXULVFKH6WXGLHQ

Ungarische

Jahrbcher, 10, 1930: 193-210.


%$1* :LOOL XQG *$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ   (LQ XLJXULVFKHV )

ragment ber

den manichischen Windgott, Ungarische Jahrbcher, 8, 1928: 248256.


%$1* :LOOL XQG 5$&+0$7 * 5   /LHGHU DXV $OW

-Turfan, Asia major, 9,

1933: 129-140.
%$1*:5$&+0$7*5  2X].DDQ'HVWDQVWDQEXO

BARAT, Kahar (1992), The Uighur Xuanzang Biography Volume III, Journal of
7XUNLVK6WXGLHV7UNON%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

Vol. 16, 1992: 5-65.

%/*1$]PL  *|N7DQUV7HULPLh]HULQH0RGHUQ7UNON$UDWUPDODU

Dergisi&6$UDON-197.
&$)(52/8 $KPHW   7UN 2QRPDVWLLQGH $\ YH *QH 8QVXUODU
'LOLYH(GHEL\DW'HUJLVL

&$)(52/8 $KPHW  

Trk

C. XIII. VWDQEXO-28.
, Enderun Kitabevi,

(VNL 8\JXU 7UNoHVL 6|]O

Ankara.
CLARK, Larry Varnon (1975), Introduction to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East
Turkestan (13th-14th cc.), Dissertation of Indiana University, Ph. D.,
Bloomington.
CLARK, Larry Varnon (1982), The Manichean Turkic Pothi-Book, AOH, IX, 1982:
145-218.

221

CLAUSON, Sir Gerard (1964), Early Turkish Astronomical Terms, UAJb, 35, 1964:
350-368.
&/$8621 6LU *HUDUG   $ /DWH 8\XU )DPLO\ $UFKLYH & ( %RVZRUW

Iran

and Islam, In memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburg,


1971:167-196.
CLAUSON, Sir Gerard (1972), An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-thirteenth-Century
Turkish, Oxford.
d(d(1$QO  

Trk DevletleriQNOkS.LWDEHYL$QNDUD

'2$1 VPDLO   <DEDQF hONHOHUGH <D\QODQP 7UNRORML\OH OJLOL 0DNDOHOHU


%LEOL\RJUDI\DV$NoD<D\$QNDUD

EBERHARD W. (1995), in Tarihi, TTK Yay., Ankara.


EHLERS, Gerhard (1982), Ein alttrkisches Fragment zur Erzhlung wom Tpfer,
UAJb, NF 2, 1982: 175-185.
EHLERS, Gerhard (1998), Zum Topos der Vollzhligkeit,

%DK gJGLVL  'RXP

<O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV 5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ


0HKPHWgOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO

, (Haz. Jens Peter Laut-

-82.

(5&/$681 $KPHW YG   .DUODWUPDO 7UN /HKoHOHUL 6|]O , ,,

, Kltr

Bak. Yay., Ankara.


ERDAL, Marcel (1991), Old Turkic word formation, A functional approach to the
lexicon, Bd. 1-2, Wiesbaden.
EREN, Hasan (1999), 7UN'LOLQ(WLPRORMLN6|]O, Ankara.
(61(PHO  7UN.R]PRORMLVLQH*LUL.DEDOF<D\QHYLVWDQEXO

(<8%2/8 VPHW =HNL   7UN 'LOLQLQ (WLPRORML 6|]O 6RV\DO <D\QODU
VWDQEXO

*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ 

), Die uigurische bersetzung der Biographie Hen-

tsangs, I. Bruchstcke des 5. Kapitels, Berlin.


*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ  

Briefe der uigurischen Hen-tsang-Biographie,

Berlin.

222

*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

Trkische Turfan-Texte VIII. Texte in Brahmischrift,

Berlin.
*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ XQG :17(5 :HUQHU  

Trkische Turfan-Texte IX.

Ein Hymnus an den Vater Mani auf Tocharisch B mit alttrkischer


bersetzung, Berlin.
*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

DYDND

Trkische Turfan-Texte X. Das Avadana des Dmons

%HDUEHLWHW

YRQ

7DGHXV] .RZDOVNL

$XV

GHP

1DFKOD 

herausgegeben, Berlin.
*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ  

Maitrisimit. Faksimile der alttrkischen Version

eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhsika-Schule. (I). In Faksimile


hrsg. Annemarie v. Gabain. Mit einer Einleitung von Helmuth Scheel,
Wiesbaden.
*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ D 

Maitrisimit. Faksimile der alttrkischen Version

eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhsika-Schule. (II). In Faksimile


hrsg. Annemarie v. Gabain mit einem Geleitwort von Richard
Hartmann, Wiesbaden.
*$%$1 $QQHPDULH YRQ E 

Das Uigurische Knigreich von Chotscho 850-

1250, Akademie Verlag, Berlin.


*$%$1$QQHPDULHYRQ  

*$%$1

Die Drucke der Turfan-Sammlung, Berlin.

Annemarie von (2000), Eski Trkenin Grameri dHY 0HKPHW $NDOQ 


TDK Yay., Ankara.
-Fragmente,

*(66/(5 ) XQG =(0( 3HWHU   8LJXULVFKH 3DxFDWDQWUD

Turcica, 2, 1970: 32-70.


GOLDEN, Peter B. (2002),

, (ev. Osman Karatay),

7UN +DONODU 7DULKLQH *LUL

.DUDP<D\QODU$QNDUD

*g.'$%LOJHKDQ$WV]  'RX.DUDGHQL]%|OJHVLQGH(VNL7UNQDQoODUQQ


]OHUL 8OXVODU $UDV $QDGROX QDQoODU .RQJUHVL %LOGLULOHUL

Yay., Ankara, 2001: 279-290.

223

, Evrak

GL, Blent (2004),

(VNL 7UN 7DUP 7HULPOHUL

, Hacettepe niversitesi, Sosyal

Bilimler (QVWLWV$QNDUD <D\PODQPDP'RNWRUD7H]L 


GYARMATI, Imre (2003), An Enigmatic Turkic Planet Name, AOH, Vol.56, 2003:
81-86.
, TDK Yay.,

+$&,(012/8 1HFPHWWLQ   .DUDKDQO 7UNoHVL *UDPHUL

Ankara.
+$0/721 -DPHV

Russell (1971), Manuscrits ouJRXUV GH 7RXHQ-Houang. Le Conte

ERXGGKLTXHGXERQHWGXPDXYDLVSULQFHHQYHUVLRQRXJRXUH

, Paris.

, (ev.: Vedat Kken),

+$0/721 -DPHV 5XVVHOO   \L YH .|W 3UHQV g\NV

TDK Yay., Ankara.


+$=$ *HRUJ XQG =(0( 3HWHU  

Fragmente der uigurischen Version des

Jingangjing mit den Gths des Meister Fu. Nebst einem Anhang
von T. Inokuchi, Berlin. (Berliner Turfan-Texte I).
+$=$ *HRUJ\   (LQ EXGGKLVWLVFKHV *HGLFKW DXV GHU %HUOLQHU 7XUIDQ

Sammlung, AOH, 23, 1970: 1-21.


+$=$

*HRUJ\

1975), Fragmente eines uigurischen Blockdruck-Faltbuches,

Altorientalische Forschungen, III, 1975: 91-108.


JINGWEI, Li (1994), Tu Lu Fan Hui Gu Wen She Hui Jin Ji Wen Shu Yan Jiu,
;LQMLDQJ5HQ0LQFKX%DQ6KH:XOXPXThUPoL

.$)(62/8EUDKLP 

), Trk Mill KltrgWNHQ<D\VWDQEXO

.$5$ *HRUJ XQG =(0( 3HWHU  

Fragmente tantrischer Werke in uigurischer

bersetzung, Akademie Verlag Berlin. (Berliner Turfan-Texte VII).


.$5$ *HRUJ XQG =(0( 3HWHU  

Guruyogas

Tiefer

Weg.

Die uigurischen bersetzungen des


von

Sa-VN\D

3DQLWD

XQG

GHU

MaMXQPDVDPJWL, Akademie Verlag Berlin. (Berliner TurfanTexte VIII).


.$5$*HRUJXQG=(0(3HWHU  'LHXLJXULVFKHhEHUVHW]XQJGHVDSRNU\SKHQ
6WUDV)RGLQJ[LQGDWXROXRQ

1986: 318-376.

224

Altorientalische Forschungen, 13,

KARA, Mehmet (2006), $V\D7RSOXPODUQGD2UWDN%LU.OWUgHVL2QNL+D\YDQO


Takvim, 2nd International Conference of the Asian Philosophical
Association, Busan/Gney Kore, Proceedings of the Second
International Conference of Asian Philosophical Association, Oct.
2006: 331-341.
KARA, Mehmet (2004),

$\U'P.HOLPHOHUdDODU<D\$QNDUD

.$5$'2$1 $KPHW   $QDGROX\X 7UNOHWLUHQOHULQ VLPOHUL .UNNDOH


hQLYHUVLWHVL 6RV\DO %LOLPOHU (QVWLWV .UNNDOH <D\PODQPDP

Yksek Lisans Tezi).


KAYA, Ceval (1994), 8\JXUFD$OWXQ<DUXN*LUL0HWLQYH'L]LQ, TDK Yay., Ankara.
KIZILIRMAK, Abdullah (1969), *|NELOLP7HULPOHUL6|]O, TDK Yay., Ankara.
KO, Saadettin (2002), 7UN0LWRORMLVLQGH.UJ]ODU $\YH*QH0RWLIOHULQLQ.UJ]
Kltrndeki Yeri),

, S.22, Yaz

+DF %HNWD 9HOL $UDWUPD 'HUJLVL

2002: 79-88.
KUDARA,

Kgi

(1981),

Fragment

of

an

Uigur

version

of

the

Abhidharmakosakrik, Journal Asiatique, 269, 1981: 325-346.


KUDARA, Kgi und RHRBORN, Klaus (1982), Zwei verirrte Bltter des
uigurischen Goldglanz-Stras im Etnografiska Museum, Stockholm,
ZDMG, 132, 1982: 336-347.
KUDARA,

Kgi

(1988),

Uigurische

Fragmente

eines

Kommentars

zum

Saddharmapundarika-Stra, Jens Peter Laut und Klaus Rhrborn


(ed.): Der trkische Buddhismus in der japanischen Forschung,
Wiesbaden, 1988: 34-55; 102-106.
KURAT, Akdes Nimet (2002), IV-;9,,,

<]\OODUGD .DUDGHQL] .X]H\LQGHNL 7UN

Kavimleri ve Devletleri0XUDW.LWDEHYL<D\QODU$QNDUD
LAUT, Jens Peter (1983), Ein Bruchstck einer alttrkischen Buddhabiographie,
UAJb, NF 3, 1983: 88-101.
LAUT, Jens Peter (1983), Bemerkungen zur sptuigurischen Handschrift Mainz 713 T
II Y 58, ZDMG, 133, 1983: 263-272.

225

LAUT, Jens Peter (1984), Zwei Fragmente eines Hllenkapitels der uigurischen

UAJb, NF 4, 1984: 118-133.

'D DNDUPDSDWK YDG QDP O 

LAUT, Jens Peter (1989), Die unerschtterliche

Versenkung, ein Fragment der

alttrkischen buddhistischen Erzhlliteratur, Ewald Wagner und


Klaus Rhrborn:

.DNO

)HVWVFKULI

t zum 25. Jahrestag der

Wiederbegrndung des Instituts fr Orientalistik an der Justus-LiebigUniversitt Giessen, Wiesbaden, 1989: 38-51.
/$87-HQV3HWHUXQG=(0(3HWHU  (LQ]ZHLVSUDFKLJHU/RESUHLVDXIGHQ%lJ

von Koco und seine Gemahlin, Jens Peter Laut und Klaus Rhrborn:
Buddhistische Erzhlliteratur und Hagiographie in trkischer
berlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1990: 15-36.
LE COQ, Albert von (1908), Ein manichisch-uigurisches Fragment aus Idiqutschahri, SKPAW, 1908, 19, s. 398-414.
LE COQ, Albert von (1911), Chuastuanift, ein Sndenbekenntnis der manichischen
Auditores. Gefunden in Turfan (Chinesisch-Turkistan), Berlin.
LE COQ, Albert von (1912), Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho I, Berlin.
LE COQ, Albert von (1919), Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho II, Berlin.
LE COQ, Albert von (1922), Trkische Manichaica aus Chotscho III, Berlin.
LE COQ, Albert von (1936),

, (ev.: Fuat

7UNoH 0DQL (O <D]ODU 0DQLFKDLND  & ,

.|VHDULI 7'.<D\VWDQEXO

LE COQ, Albert von (1941), Huastuanift, (ev.: S. Himran), TDK Yay., Ankara.
MAUE, Dieter (1985), Sanskrit-uigurische Fragmente des tntikastra und des
tntihrdaya, UAJb, NF 5, 1985: 98-122.
MAUE, Dieter (1996), Alttrkische Handschriften Teil 1: Dokumente in Brahmi und
tibetischer Schrift, Stuttgart.
MAUE, Dieter, RHRBORN, Klaus (1976), Ein zweisprachiges Fragment aus
Turfan, CAJ, 20, 1976: 208-221.
MAUE, Dieter, RHRBORN, Klaus (1979), Ein Caityastotra aus dem alttrkischen
Goldglanz-6WUDZDMG, 129, 1979: 282-320.
226

MAUE, Dieter, RHRBORN, Klaus (1980), Zur alttrkischen version des


Saddharmapundarika-VWUDCAJ, 24, 1980: 251-273.
MAUE, Dieter und RHRBORN, Klaus (1984), Ein buddhistischer Katechismus in
alttrkischer Sprache und tibetischer Schrift Teil I, ZDMG, 134,
1984: 286-313; Teil II, ZDMG, 135, 1985: 68-91.
MORAVCSIK, Gyula (1958), Byzantinoturcica, I-II, Akademia Verlag, Berlin.
MLLER, F. W. Karl (1915), Zwei Pfahlinschriften aus den Turfanfunden1. Die
uigurische Inschrift auf dem Pfahle I B 4672. 2. Die chinesische
Pfahlinschrift, Berlin.
MLLER, F. W. Karl (1908), Uigurica 1. Die Anbetung der Magier, ein christliches
Bruchstck. 2. Die Reste des buddistischen Goldglanz-Sutra. Ein
vorlufiger Bericht, Berlin.
MLLER, F. W. Karl (1911), Uigurica II., Berlin.
MLLER, F. W. Karl (1922), Uigurica III. Uigurische Avadna-Bruchstcke (I-VIII),
Berlin.
MLLER, F. W. Karl (1931), Uigurica IV, Hrsg. A. von Gabain, Berlin.
, (ev.: S. Himran),

0h//(5):.*$%$1$YRQ  dDWDQL%H\+LND\HVL

TDK Yay., Ankara.


MLLE5):.*$%$1$YRQ  Uygurca Hikye Uigurica IV-B, C, D,
(ev.: S. Himran), TDK Yay., Ankara.
1$'(/<$(9901$6/29'07(1(9(5d(5%$.$0  

Drevnetyurkskiy Slovari, Leningrad.


1$1<$1 6HYDQ  

Szlerin So\DDF dDGD 7UNoHQLQ (WLPRORMLN 6|]O,

$GDP<D\QODUVWDQEXO

2'$ -XWHQ   (VNL 8\JXUFD ELU YHVLNDQQ %XGL]POH LOJLOL NoN ELU SDUoDV

TM, C. 19, 1977-1979: 183-205.


ODA, Juten (1983), New fragments of the Buddhist Uighur text Skiz ykmk
yaruq, Altorientalische Forschungen, 10, 1983: 125-142.

227

ODA, Juten (1998), A Fragment of the Commentary on the Skiz ykmk yaruq

6 WUD %DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV 5|KUERUQ

, (Haz. Jens Peter Laut-Mehmet lmez), Simurg VWDQEXO

$UPDDQ

1998: 231-234.
25.81+VH\LQ1DPN  (VNL7UN<D]WODU

, TDK Yay., Ankara.

GEL, Bahaeddin (1981), %\N+XQPSDUDWRUOXX7DULKL,-II.%<D\QODU$QNDUD


GEL, Bahaeddin (2002), Trk Mitolojisi, II. Cilt, TTK Yay., Ankara.
LMEZ, Mehmet (1991), Altun Yaruk III. Kitap (=5. Blm), Ankara.
LMEZ, Mehmet (1993), Ein weiteres alttrkisches Pacatantra-Fragment, UAJb,
NF. 12, 1993: 179-191.
LMEZ, Mehmet / LAUT, Jens Peter (1998), %DKgJGLVL'RXP<O'ROD\V\OD
Klaus RhrboUQ$UPDDQ6LPXUJ<D\VWDQEXO
LMEZ, Mehmet (1998), Tibet Budizmine Ait Eski Uygurca

%DK gJGLVL

gJGLVL  'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV 5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ

%DK

, (Haz.

Jens Peter Laut-0HKPHWgOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO-293.


ZKAN, Fatma   <OGUP <OG] $OHY $OD]<DOD] ,Q YH ,N .HOLPHOHUL
Nereden

Geliyor?,

bilig,

7UN

'Q\DV

6RV\DO

%LOLPOHU

Dergisi/Journal of Social Sciences of the Turkish World 6D\ 


Ankara, Gz 2003: 157-179.
ZNDER BARUTCU, F. Sema (1998), Yenisey Kitabeleri ve Yer-Sular., Journal
of Turkish Studies,

7UNON %LOJLVL $UDWUPDODU

Vol. 22, 1998: 171-

184.
ZNDER BARUTU, F. Sema (1998), hoWLJVL]OHU, TDK Yay., Ankara.
g=g1'(5 %$587d8 ) 6HPD   (VNL 7UN dD .D\D <D]WODU , gUN

Ya]W,,+DQJLGD\<D]W,,,$UKDQDQ<D]W.|N$UDWUPDODU, C
II, S I, Ankara, Bahar 2000: 121-133.
g=<(7*10HOHN  

Eski Trk Vergi Terimleri, Kksav, Ankara.


, TDK

3(//27 3DXO   8\JXU <D]V\OD <D]OP 8X] +DQ 'HVWDQ h]HULQH

Yay., Ankara.
228

RADLOFF, Wilhelm (1911), Kuan-si-im Pusar, Eine trkische bersetzung des XXV.
Kaqpitels der chinesischen Ausgabe des Sadharma-pundarka,
St.Petersbourg.
RADLOFF, Wilhelm (1928), Uigurische Sprachdenkmler, Materialien, nach dem
Tode des Verfassers mit Erganzungen von S. Malov herausgegeben,
Leningrad.
5$6&+0$116LPRQHXQG=(0(3HWHU  (LQ%RGKLFDU\kYDWkUk

-Kommentar

in alttrkischer berlieferung, Altorientalische Forschungen, 12,


1985: 309-318.
RASCHMANN, Simone (1987), Das Gelbnis des Buyan Klmis, Altorientalische
Forschungen, 14, 1987: 160-174.
RASCHMANN, Simone (1992), Zum Stand der Erforschung der Uigurischen
Dokumente, TDAY-B 1987, 1992: 257-263.
RASCHMANN, Simone-Christiane (1995), Baumwolle im trkischen Zentralasien.
Philologische und wirtschaftshistorische Untersuchungen anhand der
vorislamischen uigurischen Texte, Wiesbaden.
RASCHMANN, Simone-Christiane (1998), Aus den Vorarbeiten F.W.K. Mllers zum
Altun Yaruk Sudur,
5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ
VWDQEXO

%DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODX

, (Haz. Jens Peter Laut-Mehmet lmez), Simurg,

-304.

RASCHMANN, Simone-Christiane (2000), Bruchstck eines Kommentars zur


Beschreibung der zehn bhmis,

7UN 'LOOHUL $UDWUPDODU

10, 2000:

17-24.
RSNEN,

Martti (1969),

Versuch eines

etymologischen Wrterbuchs

der

Trksprachen, Helsinki.
ROUX, Jean-Paul (2002), 7UNOHULQYH0RROODUQ(VNL'LQL dHY$\NXW.D]DQFJLO 
.DEDOF<D\QHYLVWDQEXO

RHRBORN, Klaus (1971), Eine uigurische Totenmesse, Text, bersetzung,


Kommentar, Berlin. (Berliner Turfan-Texte II).

229

RHRBORN, Klaus (1976), Fragmente der uigurischen Version des Dhran-Stras


der grossen Barmherzigkeit, ZDMG, 126, 1976: 87-100.
RHRBORN, Klaus (1977 vs.) Uigurische Wrterbuch, 1-4, Wiesbaden, 1: 1977,
Y   
Y

-148; 3: 1981, 149-224; 4:1988, v+225-298; 5:

-372; 6: 1998, v+373-446.

RHRBORN, Klaus (1996), Die alttrkische Xuanzang-Biographie VIII, Harrassowitz


Verlag, Wiesbaden.
RHRBORN, Klaus, LMEZ, Mehmet (2001), Die alttrkische Xuanzang-Biographie
III, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.

5g+5%251 .ODXV   0DLWUH\D XQG $PLW EKD LP XLJXULVFKHQ %XGGKLVPXV

UAJb, NF. 19, 2005: 122-130.


6&+$5/33 :ROIJDQJ   )UDJPHQWH HLQHV XLJXULVFKHQ .RPPHQWDUV ]XU

Trimsikavijaptimtratsiddhi des Vasubandhu, UAJb, NF 6, 1986:


122-136, (8 Tafeln).
SERTKAYA, Osman Fikri (1975),

8\JXU +DUIOHUL\OH <D]OP %D] 0DQ]XP 3DUoDODU

IIVWDQEXOhQLYHUVLWHVL(GHEL\DW)DNOWHVL<D\VWDQEXO
SERTKAYA, Osman Fikri und RHRBORN, Klaus (1984), Bruchstcke der
alttrkischen Amitbha-Literatur aus Istanbul, UAJb, NF. 4, 1984:
97-117.
SERTKAYA, Osman Fikri (1989), Ein Fragment eines alttrkischen Lobpreises auf
Tmr Qagan, Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 189-192, (1
Tafel)
SERTKAYA, Osman Fikri (1993), Eski Uygur Trklerinden hukuk belgeleri
rnekleri,

7DULK ER\XQFD 7UNOHUGH LQVDQL GHHUOHUYH LQVDQ KDNODU

EDODQJFQGDQ2VPDQOG|QHPLQHNDGDUVWDQEXO

6(57.$<$ 2VPDQ )LNUL 

$/029 5\VEHN

 

Eski Trklerde Para

*|NWUNOHUGH8\JXUODUGDYH7UJLOHUGH gWNHQVWDQEXO

230

-148.

6+01 *HQJ   4DGPJ X\JXUFD LSWLGD\L GUDPD SL\HVDV 0DLWULVLPLW +DPL

1XVKDV QQJ   3lUGlVL KlTTGNL 7lWTTDW


6WXGLHV7UNON%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

Journal of Turkish

, Vol. 4, 1980: 101-156.

6+01 *HQJ   $ 6WXG\ RI RQH QHZO\ GLVFRYHUHG IROLR RI WKH 8LJKXU

Abhidharmakosa-sastra, CAJ, 33, 1989: 36-45.


6+01 *HQJ XQG ./0.(7 +DQV

-Joachim (1985), Das 16. Kapitel der Hami-

Version der Maitrisimit, Journal of Turkish studies, Trklk Bilgisi


, 9, 1985: 71-132.

$UDWUPDODU

6+01 *HQJ XQG ./0.(7 +DQV

-Joachim (1988), Das Zusammentreffen mit

Maitreya. Die ersten fnf Kapitel der Hami-Version der Maitrisimit.


In Zusammenarbeit mit Helmut Eimer und Jens Peter Laut
herausgegeben, bersetzt und kommentiert, Bd.1-2, Wiesbaden.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3 D  'HU +HUDEVWLHJ GHV

Bodhisattve Maitreya vom Tusita-Gtterland zur Erde. Das 10.


Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit, Altorientalische
Forschungen, 14, 1987: 350-376.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3 E  0DQLV :HWWNDPSI PLW

dem Prinzen. Ein neues manichisch-trkisches Fragment aus


Turfan, ZDMG, 137, 1987: 44-58.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3

1988), Das Erscheinen des

Bodhisattva. Das 11. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,


Altorientalische Forschungen, 15, 1988: 315-366.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3   'LH *HVFKLFKWH GHU 'UHL

Prinzen. Weitere neue manichisch-trkische Fragmente aus Turfan,


ZDMG, 139, 1989: 328-345.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3   'LH :HOWIOXFKW GHV

Bodhisattva. Das 13. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,


Altorientalische Forschungen, 18, 1991: 264-296.

231

S+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3    'HU *DQJ ]XP %RGKLBaum. Das 14. Kapitel der Hami-Handschrift der Maitrisimit,
Materialia Turcica, 16, 1992: 25-47.
6+01 *HQJ ./0.(7 + - XQG /$87 - 3   'DV (UODQJHQ GHU

unvergleichlichen Buddhawrde. Das 15. Kapitel der HamiHandschrift der Maitrisimit, Altorientalische Forschungen, 20, 1993:
182-234 (13 Tafeln).
6+01 *HQJ XQG /$87 -HQV 3HWHU   $XV GHU (LQOHLWXQJ GHU XLJXULVFKHQ

'D DNDUPDSDWK YDG QDP O  DXV +DPL

TrN 'LOOHUL $UDWUPDODU

10, 2000: 5-15.


6+01 *HQJ /$87 -HQV 3HWHU :/.(16 -HQV  

uigurischen

'DDNDUPDSDWKYDGQDPO

)UDJPHQWH GHU

aus Hami, UAJb, NF 19,

2005: 72-121.

*$72 0DVDKLUR   'UHL ]XP $YDORNLWHVYDUD-VWUD SDVVHQGH $YDGnas,

6+

Der trkische Buddhismus in der japanischen Forschung, (ed. J. P.


Laut-Klaus Rhrborn), Wiesbaden, 1988: 56-99.

*$720DVDKLUR  7KUHH)UDJPHQWVRI8LJKXUJDPD%DKgJGLVL

6+

'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD .ODXV 5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ

, (Haz. Jens Peter

Laut-0HKPHWgOPH] 6LPXUJVWDQEXO-378.
7$1 1DLO   7UN )RONORUXQGD $\ 7XWXOPDV

Trk Kltr, S. 146, Ankara,

1974: 81-85.
7$$,/ $KPHW   dLQ .D\QDNODUQD *|UH (VNL 7UN %R\ODU

, TTK Yay.,

Ankara.
TDK (1939), AstronoPL 7HULPOHUL ON YH 2UWD gUHWLP oLQ, Maarif Vekleti Yay.,
VWDQEXO

TDK (1951), ONYH2UWDgUHWLP$VWURQRPL7HULPOHUL, TDK Yay., Ankara.


TDK (1998), Trke Szlk I,II, TDK Yay., Ankara.
7(.1 LQDVL   8\JXU ELOJLQL 6LQJNX 6HOL 7XWXQJXQ ELO

evirisi zerine, TDAY-B, 1965 (1966): 29-233.

232

inmeyen yeni bir

7(.1LQDVL  8\JXUFD0HWLQOHU,.XDQLLP3XVDU VHVLLWHQLOkK 9DSKXDNL


DWOQRPoHoHNLVXGXU 6DGGKDUPDSXQGDUvND

7(.1 LQDVL  

-stra), Erzurum.

Uygurca Metinler II. Ma\WUVLPLW

%XUNDQFODUQ 0HKGvVL

, Atatrk niversitesi

0DLWUH\DLOH%XOXPD8\JXUFDSWLGDv%LU'UDP
<D\QODU6HYLQo0DWEDDV$QNDUD

7(.1LQDVL  

Buddhistische Uigurica der Yan Zeit, Wiesbaden.

7(.1 LQDVL   $OWXQ <DUXNXQ  %|OP OLJOHU TDQODUQQJ N|QL W|UVLQ

aymaq (=Rjasstra), Journal of Turkish Studies, Trklk Bilgisi


$UDWUPDODU

11, 1987: 133-199.

7(.1 7DOkW   7UN 'LOL 7UN LLUL g]HO 6D\V , (VNL 7UN LLUL

, Cilt LI, S.

409, TDK Yay., Ankara.


7(.17D

lt (1988), 2UKRQ<D]WODU, TDK Yay., Ankara.

7(.17DOkW  2UKRQ<D]WODU6LPXUJ<D\VWDQEXO

7(.17DOkW  

Orhon Trkesi GrameriVWDQEXO


-

7(.1 7DODW   NLQFL %D\ %XOXQ

 (   <D]W 7UN 'LOOHUL $UDWUPDODU

10, 2000: 81-90.


, [Editr: Nurettin Demir-Emine

7(.17DODW   ,UN%LWLJ(VNL8\JXUFD)DO.LWDE


<OPD]@gQF.LWDS$QNDUD

7(1(9 (5  

Sralnitelno-VWRULFHVND\D

*UDPPDWLND 7\XUVNLK <D]\NRY

Leksika, Moskova.
7(=&$1 6HPLK XQG =(0( 3HWHU 

, Uigurische Brieffragmente, L. Ligeti

(ed.): Studia Turcica, Budapest, 1971: 451-460.


TEZCAN, Semih (1974), Das uigurische Insadi-Sutra, Berlin. (Berliner Turfan-Texte
III).
TEZCAN, Semih (1975), Eski Uygurca Hsan Tsang Biyografisi X. Blm, Ankara.
TE=&$1

6HPLK XQG =(0( 3HWHU   $QWLLVODPLVFKH 3ROHPLN LQ HLQHP

alttrkischen buddhistischen Gedicht aus Turfan, Altorientalische


Forschungen, 17, 1990: 146-151, (2 Tafeln).

233

, Birinci Cilt A-

7(7=($QGUHDV  7DULKLYH(WLPRORMLN7UNL\H7UNoHVL/XJDW


(6LPXUJ<D\QODUVWDQEXO

TOGAN, A. Zeki Velid (1981),

, Enderun Kitabevi,

8PXPL 7UN 7DULKLQH *LUL

VWDQEXO

TOGAN, A. Zeki Velid (1982),

2X] 'HVWDQ 5HLGHGGLQ 2X]QkPHVL 7HUFPH YH

Tahlili(QGHUXQ.LWDEHYLVWDQEXO
TOK, Gkhan (2001), Tarih ncesi Orta Asya., Bilim ve Teknik, Eyll 2001:92-96.
TOPRAK, Funda (2005),

7UNOHUGH .R]PRORML %LOJLVL YH VODP 6RQUDV 0HWLQOHUGH

*HoHQ <OG]

-Gezegen VLPOHULQLQ (WLPRORMLVL

 0D\V

-4 Haziran

2005, I.Trkoloji Sempozyumu.UP8NUD\QD.


TURAN, Osman (2004), 2QLNL+D\YDQO7UN7DNYLPL, gWNHQ<D\VWDQEXO
7h5.0(1)LNUHW  7UN+DON+LNk\HOHULQGH*|N\]LOHOJLOL $OHJRULOHU
8OXVODUDUDV 7UN )RONORU 6HPLQHUL %LOGLULOHUL

I.

, Ankara, 1973: 159-

163.
TRKMEN, Seyfullah (2006),

(VNL $QDGROX 7UNoHVLQGH 7S 7HULPOHUL .UNNDOH

hQLYHUVLWHVL 6RV\DO %LOLPOHU (QVWLWV .UNNDOH <D\PODQPDP

Doktora Tezi).
81$7

<DYX]

 

(VNL

$VWURQRPL

0HWLQOHULQGH

7HULPOHULQH OLNLQ %LU 6|]ON 'HQHPHVL

.DUODODQ

$VWURQRPL

OTAM, 11, Ankara, 2000:

633-697.
UNAT, Yavuz (2003a), Astronomi, Felsefe Ansiklopedisi, (Editr: Ahmet Cevizci),
&LOW(WLN<D\QODUVWDQEXO.DVP

-639.

UNAT, Yavuz (2003b), Astronomi Tarihi, Felsefe Ansiklopedisi, (Editr: Ahmet


Cevizci), Cilt(WLN<D\QODUVWDQEXO.DVP-649.
UNAT, Yavuz (2004), Trk Astronomi Tarihi Literatr (1923-2004), Trkiye
$UDWUPDODU/LWHUDWU'HUJLVL

, C.2, S.4, 2004: 103-133.

UNAT, Yavuz (2005), Trklerde Astronomi, Bilim ve topya$XVWRs 2005: 922.

234

:$51.( ,QJULG   )UDJPHQWH GHV  8QG  .DSLWHOV GHV .DQWL TOJXOXT

nom bitig, Altorientalische Forschungen, 10, 1983: 243-268.


<$0$'$ 1REXR D  8\JXU 6DW 0XNDYHOHVL %HOJHOHULQLQ HNLOOHUL dHY

Emine Grsoy-Naskali), TUN 'LOL YH (GHEL\DW 'HUJLVL C. XXVI,


1993: 195-230.
YAMADA, Nobuo (1993b), Sammlung uigurischer Kontrakte I-II-III, Herausgegeben
von Juten Oda, Peter Zieme, Hiroshi Umemura, Takao Moriyasu,
Osaka University Pres.
=(0( 3HWHU   %HLWUlJH ]X

r Erforschung des Xvstvnft, Mitteilungen

des Instituts fr Orientforschung, 12/2, 1966-1967: 351-378.


=(0(3HWHU D (LQPDQLFKlLVFK

-trkisches Gedicht, TDAY-B, 1968: 39-51.

=(0(3HWHU E 'LHWUNLVFKHQ<RVSDV

-Fragmente, Mitteilungen des Instituts

fr Orientforschung, 14, 1968:45-67.


=(0(3HWHU  (LQXLJXULVFKHV6QGHQEHNHQQWQLV

=(0(3HWHU  (LQPDQLFKlLVFK

AOH, 22, 1969: 107-121.

-trkisches Fragment in manichischer Schrift,

AOH, 23, 1970: 157-165.


=(0(

3HWHU

(1974a),

Ein

uigurischer Landverkaufsvertrag aus

Murtuq,

Altorientalische Forschungen I, Berlin, 1974: 295-308.


=(0( 3HWHU E  (LQ XLJXULVFKHV 7XUIDQIUDJPHQW GHU (U]lKOXQJ YRP JXWHQ XQG

vom bsen Prinzen, AOH, 28, 1974: 263-268.


=(0(3HWHU D .DJDULYH 7UNoH7XUIDQ 0HWLQOHUL

Bilimsel Bildiriler 1972,

TDK Yay., Ankara.


=(0(3HWHU E 

Manichisch-trkische Texte, Berlin. (Berliner Turfan-Texte V).

=(0( 3HWHU F  =XU EXGGKLVWLVFKHQ 6WDEUHLPGLFKWXQJ GHU DOWHQ 8LJXUHQ

AOH, 29, 1975: 187-211.


=(0(3HWHU G (LQXLJXULVFKHU7H[WEHUGLH:LUWVFKDIWPDQLFKlLVFKHU.O|VWHU

im uigurischen Reich, Louis, Ligeti (ed.): Researches in Altaic


languages. Papers read at the 14th meeting of the Permanent

235

International Altaisctic Conference held in Szeged, August 22-28,


1971, Budapest, 1975: 331-338.
=(0(3HWHU H (LQXLJXULVFKHU(UQWHVHJHQ

Altorientalische Forschungen, III,

Berlin, 1975: 109-143 (Tafeln 19-120).


=(0( 3HWHU   =X GHQ /HJHQGHQ LP XLJXULVFKHQ *ROG
7XUNLVK6WXGLHV7UNON%LOJLVL$UDWUPDODU

glanzstra, Journal of

, 1, 1977: 149-156.

=(0( 3HWHU   0DWHULDOLHQ ]XP XLJXULVFKHQ 2QRPDVWLFRP ,,

TDAY-B 1978-

79: 81-94.
=(0( 3HWHU D  (LQ XLJXULVFKHU /HLKNRQWUDNW EHU :HL]HQ

Altorientalische

Forschungen, 7, 1980: 273-275.


=(0(3HWHU E 8LJXULVFKH3DFKWGRNXPHQWH

Altorientalische Forschungen, 7,

1980: 197-245.
=(0(

3HWHU

 

8LJXULVFKH

6WHXHUEHIUHLXQJVXUNXQGHQ

IU

EXGGKLVWLVFKH

Klster, Altorientalische Forschungen, 8, 1981: 237-263.


=(0( 3HWHU   (LQ XLJXULVFKHV )DPLOLHQUHJLVWHU DXV 7XUIDQ

Altorientalische

Forschungen, 9, 1982: 263-267.


=(0( 3HWHU  

Die Stabreimtexte der Uiguren von Turfan und Dunhuang.

Studien zur alttrkischen Dichtung. Dissertation zur Erlangung des


akademischen Grades Doktor der Wissenschaften, eingereicht bei der
Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin.
=(0(

3HWHU

D 

Buddhistische Stabreimdichtungen der Uiguren, Berlin.

(Berliner Turfan-Texte XIII).

-Fragmente, Altorientalische

=(0( 3HWHU E  8LJXULVFKH 6XNK YDW Y\ KD

Forschungen, 12, 1985: 129-149.


=(0( 3HWHU   0lQJL EXO]XQ

Ein weiteres Neujahrssegen, Trk Kltr

, 24, 1986: 131-139.

$UDWUPDODU

=(0(3HWHU D 0DWHULDOLDQ]XPXLJXULVFKHQ

1987: 267-283.

236

Onomasticon III, TDAY-B 1984,

=(0( 3HWHU E 

(LQ DOWWUNLVFKHV $YDORNLWH YDUDVWDYD

Altorientalische

Forschungen, 14, 1987: 221-223.


-Fragmente,

=(0( 3HWHU D  =ZHL QHXH DOWWUNLVFKH 6DGGKDUPDSXQGDULND

Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 370-379, (3 Tafeln).


=(0(

3HWHU

E 

=XU

DOWWUNLVFKHQ

%KDLDM\DJXUXVWUD

-bersetzung,

Altorientalische Forschungen,16, 1989: 198-200.


=(0( 3HWHU F  'LH 9RUUHGH ]XP DOWWUNLVFKHQ *ROGJODQ]

-Stra von 1022,

Journal of TuUNLVK VWXGLHV 7UNON %LOJLVL $UDWUPDODU 13, 1989:


237-243.
=(0( 3HWHU XQG 02/1$5 $GDP   (LQ ZHLWHUHU XLJXULVFKHU (UQWVHJHQ

Altorientalische Forschungen, 16, 1989: 140-152.


=(0( 3HWHU D  ;XDQ]DQJV %LRJUDSKLH XQG GDV ;L\XML LQ DOWW

rkischer

berlieferung, Jens Peter-Laut und Klaus Rhrborn (edd.):


Buddhistische Erzhlliteratur und Hagiographie in trkischer
berlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1990: 75-107.
=(0( 3HWHU E  (LQ DOWWUNLVFKHV )UDJPHQW GHV .LWLJDUEKD

-Stras aus

Bzklik, Altorientalische Forschungen, 17, 1990: 379-384, (2


Tafeln).
=(0( 3HWHU   3UREOHPH DOWWUNLVFKHU 9DMUDFFKHGLND

-bersetzungen, Alfredo

Cadonna (ed.): Turfan and Tun-huang, the text. Encounter of


civilisations on the Silk Route, Firenze, 1992: 21-42.
=(0( 3HWHU   (LQH (ORJH

DXI HLQHQ XLJXULVFKHQ %lJ

Trk Dilleri

, 3, 1993: 271-284.

$UDWUPDODU

=(0( 3HWHU   $XV HLQHP DOWWUNLVFKHQ .RPPHQWDU ]XP *ROGJODQ]VWUD

Arpad Berta, Bernd Brendemoen und Claus Schnig: Symbolae


Turcologicae. Studies in honour of Lars Johanson on hin sixtieth
birthday, 8 March 1996, Uppsala, 1996: 231-238.

237

ZIEME, Peter (1997,1998), Das nestorianische Glaubensbekenntnis in einem


DOWWUNLVFKHQ )UDJPHQW DXV %XOD\T

UAJb, Band 15, 1997/1998, s.

173-180.
=(0( 3HWHU   'HU :HWWNDPSI

alttrkischen Version,

ULSXWUDV PLW GHQ +lUHWLNHUQ QDFK HLQHU

%DK gJGLVL  'RXP <O 'ROD\V\OD

.ODXV 5|KUERUQ $UPDDQ

, (Haz. Jens Peter Laut-Mehmet lmez),

6LPXUJVWDQEXO

=(0( 3HWHU  

-447.

Verse des Candratra nach chinesisch-uigurischen Bilinguen,

7UN'LOOHUL$UDWUPDODU

10, 2000: 65-80.

=h/).$5 +DP]D   7HULP 6RUXQODU YH 7HULP <DSPD <ROODU

Ankara.
http://de.geocities.com/alpra7/TURK_MITOLOJISI1.HTM
http://kangar.org/kultur/0009.htm

238

, TDK Yay.,

g=*(d0

Osman

KABADAYI,

12.06.1981

ON|UHQLPLQL .UNNDOH $WDWUN

tarihinde

Ankarada

dnyaya

ON|UHWLP 2N OXQGD RUWD|UHQLPLQL

geldi.

.UNNDOH

/LVHVLQGH \DSW $G JHoHQ OLVHGHQ  WDULKLQGH PH]XQ ROGX  \OQGD

.UNNDOHhQLYHUVLWHVL)HQ (GHEL\DW)DNOWHVL7UN'LOLYH(GHEL\DWE|OPQND]D

nG

ve 15.09.1999 tarihinde bu niversiteye kaydoldu. 2003 Bahar dneminde, lisans son


VQIWD\NHQ .UNNDOH hQLYHUVLWHVL 6RV\DO %LOLPOHU (QVWLWVQGH |]HO |UHQFL RODUDN
7UN 'LOL DQDELOLP GDOQGDQ  NUHGLOLN GHUV DOG YH OLVDQVOD ELUOLNWH \NVHN OLVDQV

derslerini de takip etti. 2002-HLtim-|UHWLP \OQGDEXQLYHUVLWHGHQPH]XQROGX


$\Q\O|]HOELUGHUVKDQHGH7UNoH|UHWPHQLRODUDNJ|UHYHEDODG

22.09.2003 tarihinde Erciyes niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Orta


gUHWLP 6RV\DO $ODQODU (LWLPL 7UN 'LOL YH (GHEL\DW gUHWPHQOLL 7H]VL] <NVHN
/LVDQV SURJUDPQ ND]DQG YH EX HQVWLW\H ND\GROGX  WDULKLQGH (UFL\HV

niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitsnden mezun oldu ve tezsiz yksek lisans


GHUHFHVLDOG

 WDULKLQGH .UNNDOH hQLYHUVLWHVL 6RV\DO %LOLPOH

r Enstits Trk Dili

DQDELOLP GDO WH]OL \NVHN OLVDQV SURJUDPQD ND\GROGX X DQGD .UNNDOHGH |]HO ELU
GHUVKDQHGH7UN'LOLYH(GHEL\DW|UHWPHQLRODUDNJ|UHY\DSPDNWDGU

239