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86 CHAPTER 3 | FORCES AND MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION

11. SSM An object with an initial velocity of 12 m/s acceler-


ates uniformly for 25 s. (a) If the fnal velocity is 45 m/s, what is
the acceleration? (b) How far does the object travel during this
time?
12. A hockey puck has an initial velocity of 50 m/s and a fnal
velocity of 35 m/s. (a) If it travels 35 m during this time, what is
the acceleration? (b) If the mass of the puck is 0.11 kg, what is
the horizontal force on the puck?
13. An elevator is moving at 1.2 m/s as it approaches its destina-
tion foor from below. When the elevator is a distance h from
its destination, it accelerates with a 0.50 m/s
2
, where the
negative sign indicates a downward vertical direction. (Up is
positive.) Find h.
14. An airplane must reach a speed of 200 mi/h to take off. If
the runway is 500 m long, what is the minimum value of the
acceleration that will allow the airplane to take off successfully?
15. A drag racer is able to complete the 0.25-mi course in 6.1 s.
(a) If her acceleration is constant, what is a? (b) What is her
speed when she is halfway to the fnish line?
16. Consider a sprinter who starts at rest, accelerates to a maxi-
mum speed v
max
, and then slows to a stop after crossing the fn-
ish line. Draw qualitative plots of the acceleration, velocity, and
position as functions of time. Indicate the location of the fnish
line on the xt plot.
17. Draw a qualitative plot of the total force acting on the ball
in Figure 3.14 as a function of time. Begin your plot while the
ball is still in the throwers hand and end it after the ball comes
to rest back on the ground.
18. A barge on a still lake is moving toward a bridge at
10.0 m/s. When the bridge is 40.0 m away, the pilot slows the
boat with a constant acceleration of 0.73 m/s
2
. (a) Use Equa-
tion 3.3 to fnd the time it takes the barge to reach the bridge.
Note that you will obtain two answers! Do both calculated
times correspond to possible physical situations? (b) Find the
fnal velocity for each time using Equation 3.1. (c) For each
set of answers for t and v, sketch plots of velocity versus time
and position versus time, and use them to describe the two
situations.
19. To measure the height of a tree, you throw a rock directly
upward, with a speed just fast enough that the rock brushes
against the uppermost leaves and then falls back to the ground.
If the rock is in the air for 3.6 s, how tall is the tree?
20. Your car is initially traveling at a speed of 25 m/s. As you
approach an intersection, you spot a dog in the road 30 m ahead
and immediately apply your brakes. (a) If you stop the instant
before you reach the dog, what was the magnitude of your accel-
eration? (b) If your velocity is positive while you are slowing to
a stop, is your acceleration positive or negative?
21. A car is traveling at 25 m/s when the driver spots a large
pothole in the road a distance 30 m ahead. She immediately
applies her brakes. If her acceleration
is 27 m/s
2
, does she manage to stop
before reaching the pothole?
22. A bullet is fred upward with a
speed v
0
from the edge of a cliff of
height h (Fig. P3.22). (a) What is the
speed of the bullet when it passes by
the cliff on its way down? (b) What
is the speed of the bullet just before it
strikes the ground? (c) If the bullet is
instead fred downward with the same
initial speed v
0
, what is its speed just
before it strikes the ground? Express
your answers in terms of v
0
, h, and
g. Ignore air drag. Assume the bullet
is fred straight up in (a) and (b) and
straight down in (c).
23. SSM A ball is thrown upward
with a speed of 35 m/s from the
edge of a cliff of height h 15 m (Fig. P3.22). (a) What is the
speed of the ball when it passes by the cliff on its way down to
the ground? (b) What is the speed of the ball when it hits the
ground? Ignore air drag. Assume the ball is thrown straight up.
24. A rock is dropped from a tree of height 25 m into a lake
(depth 5.0 m) below. After entering the water, the rock then
foats gently down through the water at a speed of 1.5 m/s to
the bottom of the lake. What is the total elapsed time?
25. You are a passenger (m 110 kg) in an airplane that is
accelerating on the runway, beginning to take off. The force
between your back and your seat is 400 N. Starting from rest,
how far does the plane travel as it accelerates to a takeoff speed
of 130 m/s?
26. A motivated mule can accelerate an empty cart of mass
m 180 kg from rest to 5.0 m/s in 10 s. If the cart is loaded
with 540 kg of wood, how long will it take the mule to get the
cart to 5.0 m/s? Assume a constant acceleration and that the
mule exerts the same force as when the cart is empty.
3.2 NORMAL FORCES AND WEI GHT
27. A person has a weight of 500 N. What is her mass?
28. A book of mass 3.0 kg sits at rest on a horizontal table. What is
the normal force exerted by the table on the book?
29. Under siege. Twenty soldiers hold a long beam of heavy wood
against a fortifed castle door and attempt to push it open. If
each soldier is able to supply a forward force on the beam of
80 N, what normal force does the castle door exert on the beam
if the door does not open?
30. Two books of mass m
1
8.0 kg and m
2
5.5 kg are
stacked on a table as shown in Figure Q3.16. Find the normal
force acting between the table and the bottom book.
31. The table in Figure Q3.16 is now sitting in an elevator, with
m
1
9.5 kg and m
2
2.5 kg. The normal force between the
foor and the bottom book is 70 N. Find the magnitude and
direction of the elevators acceleration.
32. A grand piano with three legs has a mass of 350 kg and is at
rest on a level foor. (a) Draw a free-body diagram for the piano.
Show the force of the foor on each leg as a separate force in
your diagram. (b) What is the total force of the piano on the
foor?
33. Your friends car is broken and you volunteer to push it to
the nearest repair shop which is 2.0 km away. You carefully
move your car so that the bumpers of the two cars are in contact
and then slowly accelerate to a speed of 2.5 m/s over the course
of 1 min. (a) If the mass of your friends car is 1200 kg, what
is the normal force between the two bumpers? (b) If you then
maintain a speed of 2.5 m/s, how long does it take you to reach
the repair shop?
34. SSM A tall strongman of mass m
95 kg stands upon a scale while at the
same time pushing on the ceiling in a small
room. Draw a free-body diagram of the
strongman (Fig. P3.34) and indicate all
normal forces acting on him. If the scale
reads 1100 N (about 240 lb), what is the
magnitude of the normal force that the
ceiling exerts on the strongman?
35. A bodybuilder confgures a leg-
press apparatus (Fig. P3.35) to a resistance
of 230 lb (approximately 1000 N). She pushes the weight to her
full extension and comes to rest. (a) What is the normal force on
each of her feet? (b) Assume she is able to move the push-plate
of the leg-press machine at an acceleration of 0.50 m/s
2
for the
frst half of the displacement. What is the normal force on each
foot during this period of acceleration? Assume the resistive
force is due to a weight of 230 lb hanging from the end of the
cable.
Figure P3.22
Problems 22 and 23.
v
0
Figure P3.34
| PROBLEMS 87
45. Jeff Gordon (a race-car driver) discovers that he can acceler-
ate at 4.0 m/s
2
without spinning his tires, but if he tries to
accelerate more rapidly, he always burns rubber. (a) Find the
coeffcient of friction between his tires and the road. Assume
the force from the engine is applied to only the two rear tires.
(b) Have you calculated the coeffcient of static friction or
kinetic friction?
46. Antilock brakes. A car travels at 65 mi/h when the brakes
are suddenly applied. Consider how the tires of a moving car
come in contact with the road. When the car goes into a skid
(with wheels locked up), the rubber of the tire is moving with
respect to the road; otherwise, when the tires roll, normally the
point where the tire contacts the road is stationary. Compare
the distance required to bring the car to a full stop when (a) the
car is skidding and (b) when the wheels are not locked up. Use
the coeffcients of kinetic and static friction from Table 3.2
and assume the tires are rubber and the road is dry concrete.
(c) How much farther does the car go if the wheels lock into a
skidding stop? Give your answer as a distance in meters and
as a percent of the nonskid stopping distance. (d) Can antilock
brakes make a big difference in emergency stops? Explain.
47. A hockey puck slides along a rough, icy surface. It has an
initial velocity of 35 m/s and slides to a stop after traveling a
distance of 95 m. Find the coeffcient of kinetic friction between
the puck and the ice.
3.4 F REE FALL
48. A rock is dropped from a very tall tower. If it takes 4.5 s for the
rock to reach the ground, what is the height of the tower?
49. A baseball is hit directly upward with an initial speed of 45 m/s.
Find the velocity of the ball when it is at a height of 40 m. Is
there one correct answer for v or two? Explain why.
50. A squirrel is resting in a tall tree when it slips from a branch
that is 50 m above the ground. It is a very agile squirrel and
manages to land safely on another branch after only 0.50 s.
What is the height of the branch it lands on?
51. Basketball on the Moon. If LeBron James can jump 1.5 m
high on Earth, how high could he jump on the Moon (assume
an indoor court), where g 1.6 m/s
2
?
52. An apple falls from a branch near the top of a tall tree. If the
branch is 12 m above the ground, what is the apples speed just
before it hits the ground?
53. SSM A ball is thrown directly upward with an initial veloc-
ity of 15 m/s. If the ball starts at an initial height of 3.5 m, how
long is the ball in the air? Ignore air drag.
54. Two children are playing on a 150-m-tall bridge. One child
drops a rock (initial velocity zero) at t 0. The other waits 1.0 s
and then throws a rock downward with an initial speed v
0
. If
the two rocks hit the ground at the same time, what is v
0
?
55. A rock is dropped from a tall bridge into the water below. If
the rock begins with a speed of zero and has a speed of 12 m/s
just before it hits the water, what is the height of the bridge?
56. A roofng tile falls from rest off the roof of a building. An
observer from across the street notices that it takes 0.43 s for
the tile to pass between two windowsills that are 2.5 m apart.
How far is the sill of the upper window from the roof of the
building?
57. You are standing at the top of a deep, vertical cave and want
to determine the depth of the cave. Unfortunately, all you have
is a rock and a stopwatch. You drop the rock into the cave and
measure the time that passes until you hear the rock hitting
the foor of the cave far below. If the elapsed time is 8.0 s, how
deep is the cave? Hints: (1) Sound travels at a constant speed of
340 m/s. (2) Consider two separate time periods. During the
frst period, the rock undergoes free fall and lands at the bottom
of the cave. During the second period, sound travels at
a constant velocity back up the cave.
36. Three blocks rest on a frictionless,
horizontal table (Fig. P3.36), with
m
1
10 kg and m
3
15 kg. A horizon-
tal force F 110 N is applied to block 1,
and the acceleration of all three blocks
is found to be 3.3 m/s
2
. (a) Find m
2
.
(b) What is the normal force between
blocks 2 and 3?
3. 3 ADDI NG F RI CTI ON TO THE MI X
37. A car is moving with a velocity of 20 m/s when the brakes
are applied and the wheels lock (stop spinning). The car then
slides to a stop in 40 m. Find the coeffcient of kinetic friction
between the tires and the road.
38. A hockey puck slides with an initial speed of 50 m/s on a large
frozen lake. If the coeffcient of kinetic friction between the
puck and the ice is 0.030, what is the speed of the puck after
10 s?
39. Your moving company runs
out of rope and hand trucks,
so you are forced to push two
crates along the foor as shown
in Figure P3.39. The crates are
moving at constant velocity,
their masses are m
1
45 kg and
m
2
22 kg, and the coeffcients
of kinetic friction between both
crates and the foor are 0.35.
Find the normal force between the two crates.
40. You are given the job of moving a refrigerator of mass 100 kg
across a horizontal foor. The coeffcient of static friction
between the refrigerator and the foor is 0.25. What is the
minimum force that is required to just set the refrigerator into
motion?
41. SSM The coeffcient of kinetic friction between a refrigera-
tor (mass 100 kg) and the foor is 0.20, and the coeffcient of
static friction is 0.25. If you apply the minimum force needed to
get the refrigerator to move, what will the acceleration then be?
42. After struggling to move the refrigerator in the Problem
41, you fnally apply enough force to get it moving. What is
the minimum force required to keep it moving with a constant
velocity? Assume m
K
0.20.
43. You are trying to slide a refrigerator across a horizontal
foor. The mass of the refrigerator is 200 kg, and you need to
exert a force of 350 N to make it just begin to move. (a) What
is the coeffcient of static friction between the foor and the
refrigerator? (b) After it starts moving, the refrigerator reaches
a speed of 2.0 m/s after 5.0 s. What is the coeffcient of kinetic
friction between the refrigerator and the foor?
44. A driver makes an emergency stop and inadvertently locks
up the brakes of the car, which skids to a stop on dry concrete.
Consider the effect of rain on this scenario. Using the values in
Table 3.2, how much farther would the car skid (expressed in
percentage of the dry-weather skid) if the concrete were instead
wet?
Figure P3.36
m
1
m
2
m
3
F
S
Figure P3.39
Problems 39 and 94.
m
1
m
2
v
S
Figure P3.35


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