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ates uniformly for 25 s. (a) If the fnal velocity is 45 m/s, what is

the acceleration? (b) How far does the object travel during this

time?

12. A hockey puck has an initial velocity of 50 m/s and a fnal

velocity of 35 m/s. (a) If it travels 35 m during this time, what is

the acceleration? (b) If the mass of the puck is 0.11 kg, what is

the horizontal force on the puck?

13. An elevator is moving at 1.2 m/s as it approaches its destina-

tion foor from below. When the elevator is a distance h from

its destination, it accelerates with a 0.50 m/s

2

, where the

negative sign indicates a downward vertical direction. (Up is

positive.) Find h.

14. An airplane must reach a speed of 200 mi/h to take off. If

the runway is 500 m long, what is the minimum value of the

acceleration that will allow the airplane to take off successfully?

15. A drag racer is able to complete the 0.25-mi course in 6.1 s.

(a) If her acceleration is constant, what is a? (b) What is her

speed when she is halfway to the fnish line?

16. Consider a sprinter who starts at rest, accelerates to a maxi-

mum speed v

max

, and then slows to a stop after crossing the fn-

ish line. Draw qualitative plots of the acceleration, velocity, and

position as functions of time. Indicate the location of the fnish

line on the xt plot.

17. Draw a qualitative plot of the total force acting on the ball

in Figure 3.14 as a function of time. Begin your plot while the

ball is still in the throwers hand and end it after the ball comes

to rest back on the ground.

18. A barge on a still lake is moving toward a bridge at

10.0 m/s. When the bridge is 40.0 m away, the pilot slows the

boat with a constant acceleration of 0.73 m/s

2

. (a) Use Equa-

tion 3.3 to fnd the time it takes the barge to reach the bridge.

Note that you will obtain two answers! Do both calculated

times correspond to possible physical situations? (b) Find the

fnal velocity for each time using Equation 3.1. (c) For each

set of answers for t and v, sketch plots of velocity versus time

and position versus time, and use them to describe the two

situations.

19. To measure the height of a tree, you throw a rock directly

upward, with a speed just fast enough that the rock brushes

against the uppermost leaves and then falls back to the ground.

If the rock is in the air for 3.6 s, how tall is the tree?

20. Your car is initially traveling at a speed of 25 m/s. As you

approach an intersection, you spot a dog in the road 30 m ahead

and immediately apply your brakes. (a) If you stop the instant

before you reach the dog, what was the magnitude of your accel-

eration? (b) If your velocity is positive while you are slowing to

a stop, is your acceleration positive or negative?

21. A car is traveling at 25 m/s when the driver spots a large

pothole in the road a distance 30 m ahead. She immediately

applies her brakes. If her acceleration

is 27 m/s

2

, does she manage to stop

before reaching the pothole?

22. A bullet is fred upward with a

speed v

0

from the edge of a cliff of

height h (Fig. P3.22). (a) What is the

speed of the bullet when it passes by

the cliff on its way down? (b) What

is the speed of the bullet just before it

strikes the ground? (c) If the bullet is

instead fred downward with the same

initial speed v

0

, what is its speed just

before it strikes the ground? Express

your answers in terms of v

0

, h, and

g. Ignore air drag. Assume the bullet

is fred straight up in (a) and (b) and

straight down in (c).

23. SSM A ball is thrown upward

with a speed of 35 m/s from the

edge of a cliff of height h 15 m (Fig. P3.22). (a) What is the

speed of the ball when it passes by the cliff on its way down to

the ground? (b) What is the speed of the ball when it hits the

ground? Ignore air drag. Assume the ball is thrown straight up.

24. A rock is dropped from a tree of height 25 m into a lake

(depth 5.0 m) below. After entering the water, the rock then

foats gently down through the water at a speed of 1.5 m/s to

the bottom of the lake. What is the total elapsed time?

25. You are a passenger (m 110 kg) in an airplane that is

accelerating on the runway, beginning to take off. The force

between your back and your seat is 400 N. Starting from rest,

how far does the plane travel as it accelerates to a takeoff speed

of 130 m/s?

26. A motivated mule can accelerate an empty cart of mass

m 180 kg from rest to 5.0 m/s in 10 s. If the cart is loaded

with 540 kg of wood, how long will it take the mule to get the

cart to 5.0 m/s? Assume a constant acceleration and that the

mule exerts the same force as when the cart is empty.

3.2 NORMAL FORCES AND WEI GHT

27. A person has a weight of 500 N. What is her mass?

28. A book of mass 3.0 kg sits at rest on a horizontal table. What is

the normal force exerted by the table on the book?

29. Under siege. Twenty soldiers hold a long beam of heavy wood

against a fortifed castle door and attempt to push it open. If

each soldier is able to supply a forward force on the beam of

80 N, what normal force does the castle door exert on the beam

if the door does not open?

30. Two books of mass m

1

8.0 kg and m

2

5.5 kg are

stacked on a table as shown in Figure Q3.16. Find the normal

force acting between the table and the bottom book.

31. The table in Figure Q3.16 is now sitting in an elevator, with

m

1

9.5 kg and m

2

2.5 kg. The normal force between the

foor and the bottom book is 70 N. Find the magnitude and

direction of the elevators acceleration.

32. A grand piano with three legs has a mass of 350 kg and is at

rest on a level foor. (a) Draw a free-body diagram for the piano.

Show the force of the foor on each leg as a separate force in

your diagram. (b) What is the total force of the piano on the

foor?

33. Your friends car is broken and you volunteer to push it to

the nearest repair shop which is 2.0 km away. You carefully

move your car so that the bumpers of the two cars are in contact

and then slowly accelerate to a speed of 2.5 m/s over the course

of 1 min. (a) If the mass of your friends car is 1200 kg, what

is the normal force between the two bumpers? (b) If you then

maintain a speed of 2.5 m/s, how long does it take you to reach

the repair shop?

34. SSM A tall strongman of mass m

95 kg stands upon a scale while at the

same time pushing on the ceiling in a small

room. Draw a free-body diagram of the

strongman (Fig. P3.34) and indicate all

normal forces acting on him. If the scale

reads 1100 N (about 240 lb), what is the

magnitude of the normal force that the

ceiling exerts on the strongman?

35. A bodybuilder confgures a leg-

press apparatus (Fig. P3.35) to a resistance

of 230 lb (approximately 1000 N). She pushes the weight to her

full extension and comes to rest. (a) What is the normal force on

each of her feet? (b) Assume she is able to move the push-plate

of the leg-press machine at an acceleration of 0.50 m/s

2

for the

frst half of the displacement. What is the normal force on each

foot during this period of acceleration? Assume the resistive

force is due to a weight of 230 lb hanging from the end of the

cable.

Figure P3.22

Problems 22 and 23.

v

0

Figure P3.34

| PROBLEMS 87

45. Jeff Gordon (a race-car driver) discovers that he can acceler-

ate at 4.0 m/s

2

without spinning his tires, but if he tries to

accelerate more rapidly, he always burns rubber. (a) Find the

coeffcient of friction between his tires and the road. Assume

the force from the engine is applied to only the two rear tires.

(b) Have you calculated the coeffcient of static friction or

kinetic friction?

46. Antilock brakes. A car travels at 65 mi/h when the brakes

are suddenly applied. Consider how the tires of a moving car

come in contact with the road. When the car goes into a skid

(with wheels locked up), the rubber of the tire is moving with

respect to the road; otherwise, when the tires roll, normally the

point where the tire contacts the road is stationary. Compare

the distance required to bring the car to a full stop when (a) the

car is skidding and (b) when the wheels are not locked up. Use

the coeffcients of kinetic and static friction from Table 3.2

and assume the tires are rubber and the road is dry concrete.

(c) How much farther does the car go if the wheels lock into a

skidding stop? Give your answer as a distance in meters and

as a percent of the nonskid stopping distance. (d) Can antilock

brakes make a big difference in emergency stops? Explain.

47. A hockey puck slides along a rough, icy surface. It has an

initial velocity of 35 m/s and slides to a stop after traveling a

distance of 95 m. Find the coeffcient of kinetic friction between

the puck and the ice.

3.4 F REE FALL

48. A rock is dropped from a very tall tower. If it takes 4.5 s for the

rock to reach the ground, what is the height of the tower?

49. A baseball is hit directly upward with an initial speed of 45 m/s.

Find the velocity of the ball when it is at a height of 40 m. Is

there one correct answer for v or two? Explain why.

50. A squirrel is resting in a tall tree when it slips from a branch

that is 50 m above the ground. It is a very agile squirrel and

manages to land safely on another branch after only 0.50 s.

What is the height of the branch it lands on?

51. Basketball on the Moon. If LeBron James can jump 1.5 m

high on Earth, how high could he jump on the Moon (assume

an indoor court), where g 1.6 m/s

2

?

52. An apple falls from a branch near the top of a tall tree. If the

branch is 12 m above the ground, what is the apples speed just

before it hits the ground?

53. SSM A ball is thrown directly upward with an initial veloc-

ity of 15 m/s. If the ball starts at an initial height of 3.5 m, how

long is the ball in the air? Ignore air drag.

54. Two children are playing on a 150-m-tall bridge. One child

drops a rock (initial velocity zero) at t 0. The other waits 1.0 s

and then throws a rock downward with an initial speed v

0

. If

the two rocks hit the ground at the same time, what is v

0

?

55. A rock is dropped from a tall bridge into the water below. If

the rock begins with a speed of zero and has a speed of 12 m/s

just before it hits the water, what is the height of the bridge?

56. A roofng tile falls from rest off the roof of a building. An

observer from across the street notices that it takes 0.43 s for

the tile to pass between two windowsills that are 2.5 m apart.

How far is the sill of the upper window from the roof of the

building?

57. You are standing at the top of a deep, vertical cave and want

to determine the depth of the cave. Unfortunately, all you have

is a rock and a stopwatch. You drop the rock into the cave and

measure the time that passes until you hear the rock hitting

the foor of the cave far below. If the elapsed time is 8.0 s, how

deep is the cave? Hints: (1) Sound travels at a constant speed of

340 m/s. (2) Consider two separate time periods. During the

frst period, the rock undergoes free fall and lands at the bottom

of the cave. During the second period, sound travels at

a constant velocity back up the cave.

36. Three blocks rest on a frictionless,

horizontal table (Fig. P3.36), with

m

1

10 kg and m

3

15 kg. A horizon-

tal force F 110 N is applied to block 1,

and the acceleration of all three blocks

is found to be 3.3 m/s

2

. (a) Find m

2

.

(b) What is the normal force between

blocks 2 and 3?

3. 3 ADDI NG F RI CTI ON TO THE MI X

37. A car is moving with a velocity of 20 m/s when the brakes

are applied and the wheels lock (stop spinning). The car then

slides to a stop in 40 m. Find the coeffcient of kinetic friction

between the tires and the road.

38. A hockey puck slides with an initial speed of 50 m/s on a large

frozen lake. If the coeffcient of kinetic friction between the

puck and the ice is 0.030, what is the speed of the puck after

10 s?

39. Your moving company runs

out of rope and hand trucks,

so you are forced to push two

crates along the foor as shown

in Figure P3.39. The crates are

moving at constant velocity,

their masses are m

1

45 kg and

m

2

22 kg, and the coeffcients

of kinetic friction between both

crates and the foor are 0.35.

Find the normal force between the two crates.

40. You are given the job of moving a refrigerator of mass 100 kg

across a horizontal foor. The coeffcient of static friction

between the refrigerator and the foor is 0.25. What is the

minimum force that is required to just set the refrigerator into

motion?

41. SSM The coeffcient of kinetic friction between a refrigera-

tor (mass 100 kg) and the foor is 0.20, and the coeffcient of

static friction is 0.25. If you apply the minimum force needed to

get the refrigerator to move, what will the acceleration then be?

42. After struggling to move the refrigerator in the Problem

41, you fnally apply enough force to get it moving. What is

the minimum force required to keep it moving with a constant

velocity? Assume m

K

0.20.

43. You are trying to slide a refrigerator across a horizontal

foor. The mass of the refrigerator is 200 kg, and you need to

exert a force of 350 N to make it just begin to move. (a) What

is the coeffcient of static friction between the foor and the

refrigerator? (b) After it starts moving, the refrigerator reaches

a speed of 2.0 m/s after 5.0 s. What is the coeffcient of kinetic

friction between the refrigerator and the foor?

44. A driver makes an emergency stop and inadvertently locks

up the brakes of the car, which skids to a stop on dry concrete.

Consider the effect of rain on this scenario. Using the values in

Table 3.2, how much farther would the car skid (expressed in

percentage of the dry-weather skid) if the concrete were instead

wet?

Figure P3.36

m

1

m

2

m

3

F

S

Figure P3.39

Problems 39 and 94.

m

1

m

2

v

S

Figure P3.35

C

o

r

b

i

s

R

F

/

A

l

a

m

y

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