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43/14

Archi ves of Foundry,


Year 2004, Volume 4, 14
Archi wum Odlewnictwa,
Rok 2004, Rocznik 4, Nr 14
PAN Katowi ce PL ISSN 1642-5308


CRYSTALLIZATION OF Al-Si ALLOYS IN THE COURSE OF
HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING


I. NOV
1
, J. EXNER
2
, Z. HOEK
3
, I. NOVKOV
4
Department of Engineering Technology, Technical University of Liberec,
Hlkova 6, 46117 Liberec 1, Czech Republic


SUMMARY

The article deals with the study of crystallization processes of die-casting
applied especially for the AlSi9Cu3 alloy. The crystallization of the studied casting was
performed by using of the microscope VEGA TS 5130. The structure was observed for
thin (3mm) and in thick (11 mm) casting. There is a crystalline fine-grained structure of
the die-casting. There is not a dendritic structure in the die-casting.

Key words: die-casting, crystallization, microstructure, fine-grained structure.

1. INTODUCTION

The pressure die casting is one of the most versatile casting, offering the
possibility of making shape castings of high dimensional accuracy and casting quality.
The high cost of the die construction makes it imperative and so the that high
production rates is achieved together with long die life.
The temperature distributions in the die-castings and dies is extensively
influence on the quality of die-casting dies, as well as on the production rate.
Distribution of the temperature influence the crystallization and structure of die-casting.
The die-castings from aluminium alloys, moulds and trimming instrument are
widely used at automotive, electrotechnical and consumer industry.

1
Prof. Ing. PhD., iva.nova@vslib.cz
2
Prof. Ing. PhD., jaroslav.exner@vslib.cz
3
Ing. student PhD., z.hosek@email.cz
4
Ing. student PhD., iva.novakova@vslib.cz









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In the Department of Engineering Technology at the Technical University of
Liberec is solved crystallization for die casting processes. In this paper, the
microstructures of the die-casting from the AlSi9Cu3 alloy of the experimental part is
presented.

2. HIGH PRESSURE OF DIE CASTING

The most common process to employ an injection technique is high pressure
die casting. The usual design of cold chamber machines has a horizontal stroke
injection, fig. 1
However it is regrettable that the optimally controlled filling has proved
elusive into this particular mode of injection. In fact, in the past, most high-pressure die
casting machines have used injection strokes, which cause much damage to the integrity
of the finished casting.
An injection system can, in principle, be programmed to fill the mould in a
series of stages, each of that can be optimized separately, as can be seen for instance in
fig. 2 (time 0 air ejection from shot sleeve; time 1 metal ejection into die; time 2
pressurization during freezing; time 3 ejection of casting).



Fig. 1 Injection of liquid into a horizontal shot sleeve of cold
chamber die casting machine: a) comparing,
b) uncontrolled first stages of injection
Rys. 1. Wprowadzanie cieczy w komorze toczenia w maszynie
z poziom zimn komor; a) wzorcowe, b) niekontrolowany
pierwszy etap toczenia










327


Stage 1 air ejection from shot sleeve
Stage 2 metal injection into die
Stage 3 pressurizatioon during solidification
Stage 4 ejection of casting
Fig. 2. Typical injection cycle during pressure die-casting
Rys. 2. Typowy cykl toczenia w odlewaniu cinieniowym

The structure and soundness, being dependent upon the mechanism of
solidification, are influenced by many factors, including the constitution and physical
properties of the alloy.
The crystallisation of a metal melt involves the successive stages of nucleation and
growth. The location and relative rates of these two phenomena within the liuqid
determine the final structure of the solid and establish the extent to which solidification
is direction or occurs in a discrete manner throughout the liquid.
For the crystallisation the nucleation is very important. The growth of the
nucleation centres in the liquid further atoms can be deposited for the growth of solid
crystals. Such nucleid can be produced in two ways (homogeneous and heterogenous
nucleation, the homogeneous nucleation is only theoretical. In heterogeneous nucleation
the initial growth interface is provided by a foreign particle included or formed in the
melt. For a second phase to act as a nucleus in this way it must be capable of being
wetted by the metal, forming a low contact angle, and must possess some structural
affinity with the crystalline solid.
During of the die-casting two factors influence the growth of in the nucleus
of the crystal.
a) pressure on the melt;
b) accumulative capacity of the cast mould.
General nucleation theory explains in terms of the change in free energy resulting
from the precipitation of a particle. This change is compounded of changes in both
volume and interfacial free energies. The formation of solid from liquid results in a
negative free energy change directly proportional to volume trans formed .










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L S Z Z Z Z
S G V G

. . (1)

where: V
Z
- volume of crystal nucleus;
G
z
- Gibbs free energy;
S
Z
- interface of crystal nucleus;

s l
- surface tension

The partial derivation of free (Gibbs) energy according to r is:
krit
Z
r
r
G


0 (2)
T
k r
l s
krit


sin .
. (3)
where: r
krit
- critical size particle;
k - constant;

l s
- surface tension;
sin - sin of angle soaking;
T - subcooling.

The sum of the respective free energy changes is found to be positive for very
small values of r but becomes negative at higher

Dimension of nuklid
F
r
e
e

e
n
e
r
g
y

c
h
a
n
g
e
s
r
K1
p
2
p
1
r
K2
p
1
>p
2

p - pressure
Fig. 3 Free energy changes in heterogeneous nucleation
Rys. 3. Zmiany energii swobodnej w czasie zarodkowania heterogenicznego












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3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS

The experiments were made using a CLH 630.05 on a cold chamber high
pressure die casting HPCD (high pressure die-casting) machine. The cast of the cover
engine were aluminium casting alloy was AlSi9Cu3. Chemical composition (wt. %)
of the cast alloy is given in Table 1.

Table 1. Chemical composition (wt. %) of the AlSi9Cu3 alloy according to the EN 1706 AC
Tabela 1. Skad chemiczny stopu AlSi9Cu3 wg normy EN 1706 AC
Chemical composition (wt. %)
Si Cu Mg Mn Fe Zn Ni Sn
8,5-10 2-3,5 0,1-0,5 0,1-0,4 0,6-09 max. 1,0 max. 0,3 Max. 0,1

Melt temperature in the holding furnace was maintanded at 680 [C]. The
casting produced using dies, (Figure 4). The following process parameters were
constant in all experiments in the table 2.

Table 2. The parameters for die-casting
Tabela 2. Parametry odlewania cinieniowego
Casting cover of the motor AlSi9Cu3 (DIN 226)
The die-casting machine CLH 630.05
Diameter of pressure camera [mm] 70
Specific pressure on the metal [MPa] 110
Injection piston velocity in the 1
st
stage:
[m.s
-1
] 2
st
stage:
0,25
3
Pressure and solidification 16
Cycle time [s] 60
Temperature pouring melt [C] 680
Material of the die-mould Special steel Cr-Mo-Si-V
SN 19552
Temperature of the mould [C] 220
Coating of the face mould DELTAGAST 636B
Coating of the piston LETOLUBE, KP-G/2, GC20
Numer of casting in mould 1

The alluminium alloy was melted in the gas furnace and degassed with the
nitrogen. The melting tempetature of the pouring was 680 [C].









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Monitoring of the crystal structure was realized by the scanning electron
microscope VEGA TS 5130. In the figure 5 and 6 there is a there is a structure die-
casting.

Fig. 4. The casting with the gating
Rys. 4. Odlew z ukadem wlewowym



Fig. 5 Structure of the cover motor, die-casting (AlSi9Cu3) (in the wall
thickness 3 mm)
Rys. 5. Struktura pokrywy silnika odlew cinieniowy (AlSi9Cu3, scianka
gruboci 3 mm)










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Fig. 6 Structure of the cover motor, die-casting (AlSi9Cu3) (in the wall
thickness 10 mm)
Rys. 6. Struktura pokrywy silnika odlew cinieniowy (AlSi9Cu3, scianka
gruboci 10 mm)

5. CONCLUSION

The application of high pressure at procesing die-casting influences the
dimensions and morfology crystallization. The result of the crystallization during high
pressure die-casting of cover in the course of pressure 110 [MPa] causes finegrain
crystallization. This crystallization structure has very good mechanical quantities but
involves very slight porous. There isnt a dendritic structure in the walls of this casting.

REFERENCES

[1] NOV, I., EXNER, J., HOEK, Z.: Filling and crystallization processes of die
casting. Archives of foundry Polish Academy of Sciences Department Katowice
Foundry Commision. PAN Katowice Yer 2003, vol. 3, No 10, p. 68-73 PL
ISSN 1642-5308.
[2] CHEN, Z.W.: Skin solidification during high presurre die casting of Al-11Si-
2Cu 1Fe alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A, Volume.348., Issues. 1-2,
p. 145-153.
[3] NOVKOV, I.: Crystallization of the die-cast aluminium alloys. [Thesis
doctoral degree] TU-FS, KSP Liberec, 2004.










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The article was prepared within the scope of support the Grant Agentury
project: 106/02/0352

KRYSTALIZACJA STOPW Al Si W TRAKCIE ODLEWANIA POD
WYSOKIM CINIENIEM

STRESZCZENIE

Artyku dotyczy bada procesw krystalizacji odleww cinieniowych w
szczeglnoci stopu AlSi9Cu3. Badania procesu krystalizacji testowanego odlewu
zrealizowano na mikroskopie VEGA TS 5130. Analizowano struktur odlewu w
ciankach o gruboci 3 mm 11 mm. Zaobserwowano w odlewie cinieniowym
drobnoziarnist struktur krystaliczn. Struktura dendrytyczna nie wystpowaa w
badanym odlewie.


Recenzowa Prof. Stanisaw Pietrowski