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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Precast System


The concept of pre-cast construction include those buildings, where the majority of structural
components are standardized and produced in a plants in locations away from the building,
and then transported to the site for assembly. These components are manufactured by
industrial methods based on mass production in order to build a large number of buildings in
a short time at low cost.
The main features of this type of construction are as follow:
The division and specialization of the human workforce.
The use of tools, machinery and other equipment, usually automated, in the
production of standard, interchangeable parts and products.
ompared to site cast concrete, pre-cast concrete is easy to erect and less affected by
adverse weather conditions.
!lant casting allows increased efficiency, high quality control and greater control on
finishes.
This type of construction requires a restructuring of entire conventional construction process
to enable interaction between design phase and production planning in order to improve and
speed up construction.
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1.2. Types of Precast Systems
"epending upon the load bearing structures, pre-cast systems can be divided into the
following categories-
a# $arge-panel systems
b# %rame systems
c# &lab-column systems with walls
d# 'i(ed systems
1.2.1. Large panel systems: This type of systems appointed for the multi-story
structures composed of large walls and concrete slab panels connected in vertical
and horizontal directions so that the wall panels enclosed the appropriate spaces
for the rooms within a building. These panels form a bo( like structure. )oth
horizontal and vertical panels resist gravity loads. *all panels are usually one
story high. +orizontal floors and roof panels span either as one-way or two-way
slabs. *hen properly joined together this horizontal members act as a diaphragm
and transfer the lateral loads to the wall. "epending upon wall lay-out there are
three basic configurations of large panel building-
ross wall systems: - The main walls that resist gravity and lateral loads
are placed in the short direction of the building.
$ongitudinal wall systems: - The walls resisting gravity and lateral loads
are placed in the longitudinal direction, usually there is only one
longitudinal wall.
Two-way systems: - The walls are placed in both directions. Thickness of
wall panels ranges form -./mm for interior walls to 0//mm for e(terior
walls. %loor panel thickness is 1/mm. wall panel length is equal to the
room length, typically on the order of ..2m to 0.1m.
2
1.2.2. !rame Systems: - !recast frames can be constructed using either linear
elements or spatial beam column sub-assemblages. !recast beam-column sub-
assemblages have the advantage that the connecting faces between the sub-
assemblages can be placed away from the critical frame regions, however, linear
elements are generally preferred because of the difficulties associated with
forming, handling, and erecting spatial elements. The use of linear elements
generally means placing the connecting faces at the beam-column junctions. The
beams can be seated on corbels at the columns, for ease of construction and to
aid the shear transfer from the beam to the column. The beam-column joints
accomplished in this way are hinged. +owever, rigid beam-column connections
are used in some cases, when the continuity of longitudinal reinforcement
through the beam-column joint needs to be ensured.
1.2.". Sla#Col$mn systems %&th shear %alls: These systems rely on shear walls
to sustain lateral load effects, whereas the slab-column structure resists mainly
gravity loads. There are two main systems in this category:
$ift-slab system with walls: 3n the $ift-slab system, the load-bearing
structure consists of precast reinforced concrete columns and slabs.
!recast columns are usually two stories high. 4ll precast structural
elements are assembled by means of special joints. 5einforced concrete
slabs are poured on the ground in forms, one on top of the other. !recast
concrete floor slabs are lifted from the ground up to the final height by
lifting cranes. The slab panels are lifted to the top of the column and then
moved downwards to the final position. Temporary supports are used to
keep the slabs in the position until the connection with the columns has
been achieved.
!re-stressed &lab-olumn &ystem: - The pre-stressed slab-column system
uses horizontal prestressing in two orthogonal directions to achieve
continuity. The precast concrete column elements are - to 0 stories high.
The reinforced concrete floor slabs fit the clear span between columns.
4fter erecting the slabs and columns of a story, the columns and floor
slabs are prestressed by means of prestressing tendons that pass through
ducts in the columns at the floor level and along the gaps left between
adjacent slabs. 4fter prestressing, the gaps between the slabs are filled
with in situ concrete and the tendons then become bonded with the spans.
&eismic loads are resisted mainly by the shear walls 6precast or cast-in-
place# positioned between the columns at appropriate locations.
1.". Precast Concrete Str$ct$ral 'lements
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4 precast building is constructed by assembling and connecting various prefabricated
elements required in the building structure.
1.".1. Precast Sla#s: !recast slabs are cast in a factory environment and include
the following pre-stressed concrete options-
+ollow core units
"ouble-tee units
&olid concrete units
)eam and block floors
)ia(ial voided slabs



Figure 1.1: - Double-tee slab panel
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Figure 1.2: - Hollow core Slab
1.".2. Precast (eams: )eams are used for suspended flooring. )eams are typically
used as ledges for other forms of precast flooring to sit on, but can also be used
as a flooring option in their own right. They are generally manufactured to suit
each particular situation and profiles can include Tee-beams, $-beams,
5ectangular beams, etc. )eams can be either reinforced or prestressed.
Figure 1.3: - Precast Beams of various cross-sections
1.".". Precast col$mns: !recast concrete columns are modular in design in order
to be made into different heights. *idths are -.7, -87 and .97. olumns are not
structural, but can be used as such only after a structural engineering has adapted
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them to a building. +alf columns can also be used against a building which can
add variety to the architectural design. !recast columns can be produced as
either single storey core-bell columns or multi storey core-bell columns. &ize
and length of column can be design to suit to the architect design requirement.
olumns can either be rectangular or circular in section. !rojecting rebar can be
provided for tying in to in-situ floors. :ptions for foundation connections
include cast in base plates, dowel tubes or projections. )eam support is achieved
by flared head, corbels or bolt-on brackets.


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Figure 1.: - Precast columns wit! corbel !ea"s

1.".). Precast *alls: 4 wall system can be comprise of flat or curved panels,
window or mullion panels, ribbed panels, or a double tee. ;ach type of panel
will readily accommodate openings for doors and windows. 3n the interest of
both economy and functions, precast panels should be as large as possible, while
considering production efficiency and transportation and erection limitations. )y
making panels as large as possible, numerous economies are realized, the
number of panels needed is reduced, fewer joints, lower erection cost and fewer
connections are required. !anels may be design for used in either horizontal or
vertical positions.
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Figure 1.#: - Precast $all Panels
1.".+. Shear %all: 3n many structures, it is economical to take advantage of
inherent strength and in-plane rigidity of e(terior wall panels by designing them
to serve as the part of the lateral load resisting systems. *alls taking horizontal
loads form the effect of wind or earthquake are referred to as shear walls. &hear
walls are used as the most common and economical lateral force resisting system
and have been utilize widely in buildings up to 0/ stories. &hear wall system
effectiveness is dependent largely upon panel to panel connection design. 4
significant advantage of jointed construction is in the inherent ease of defining
load paths through connections. 4s such, it is relatively easy to separate a precast
concrete lateral force resisting system performance from that of the vertical load
bearing frame. &hear walls are vertical members, which transfer lateral forces, in
or parallel to the plane of the wall, from superstructure to foundation. Thus,
shear walls act as vertical cantilever beams. &hear walls are placed at appropriate
locations within and around the building perimeter according to the architectural
and functional design requirements.
1.".,. Precast foot&ngs: !recast footings are recent innovations. <o holes need to
be dog for footing, as the precast blocks are set on grade, and the posts, columns
or beams fit in pockets cast in the concrete block. !recast foundations are pre-
engineered systems manufactured in a controlled environment, therefore code
submissions are performance based.
!recast concrete foundations have following advantages:
minimize construction period
3nstalled quicker.
$ess weather dependency.
5educed coordination of trades.
are least resistance and have little to no cracking.
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are environmental friendly.
are the best material choice for residential and light commercial
foundations.
Figure 1.%: - Precast &solate" Footings
There are many other precast components like piles, stairs etc. which have their
own need in precast system design.
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Chapter 2 LIT'R-TUR' SUR.'/
(oo0s an1 Stan1ar1s
!recast concrete structures by =3'.&.;$$3:T presents a hapter 8: >oint ?
onnection and hapter @: )eam and olumn connection which give connection
design e(amples and different connection details.
(eam an1 Col$mn Connect&ons:
The design and construction of connections and joints is the most important
consideration in precast concrete structures. Their purpose is to transmit forces between
structural members andAor to provide stability and robustness. There may be several
different ways of achieving a satisfactory connection, e.g. bolting, welding, or grouting,
but whichever is used the method should be simple and must convey unambiguous
messages to the site operatives. The joints should not be designed to resist applied
serviceability and ultimate loads, which are relatively straightforward to predict and
calculate. )ut they should be adequate in case of abnormal loads due to fire, impact,
e(plosions, subsidence, etc. %ailure of the joints should not, under any circumstances,
lead to structural instability. 3t is therefore unfortunate to have to report that information
on the design of joints for abnormal loading conditions in precast concrete structures is
scarce-provisions to guard against this are only provided in form of continuous column
and floor ties, which in many cases bypass the joints.
*ithin a single connection there may be several load transmitting joints, and so it is
necessary to distinguish between a joint and a connection. 4 joint is the action of forces
6e.g. tension, shear, compression# that takes places at the interface between two 6or
more# structural elements in many instances there may be an intermediate medium, such
as rubber, steel, felt, cementitious mortar, epo(y mortar, etc. The design of the joints
will be greatly influenced by how much these materials differ from concrete.
The definition of a connection is the action of forces 6e.g. tension, shear, compression#
andAor moments 6bending, torsion# through an assembly comprising one 6or more#
interfaces. The design of the connection is therefore a function of both the structural
elements and of the joints between them. 3n addition to the actions of forces, connection
design must consider the hazards of fire, accidental damage, effects of temporary
construction and inaccurate workmanship, and durability.
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Types of (eamCol$mn Connect&ons:
There are various types of connections are used in precast concrete system. &ome of
basic connections are listed here-
a) Classifcation on basis of design and construction terms in
vertical or horizontal continuity directions-
Type -: - the vertical member is continuous 6both in design and construction terms#
and horizontal elements are connected to it:
+idden connection, for which there is an enormous range, some of which are
shown in figure.
Bisible connection, such as shallow and deep corbels or nibs, shown in figure.
Type .: - the vertical member is discontinuous 6only in construction terms# and the
horizontal elements are either structurally continuous or separate across the
junction:
The ends of beams are simply supported and dowelled at the column head.
ontinuous beams are supported and dowelled at the column head. 4 beam-
beam half joint is made some distance from the face of the column, or else the
beam forms a balcony cantilever.
b) Classifcation on basis of construction method adopted on
site-
"ry joints: - "ry joints are constructed by bolting or welding together steel
plates or other steel inserts cast into the ends of the precast panels for this
purpose. The force transfer in structures with dry joints is accomplished at
discrete points.
*et joints: - *et joints are constructed with cast-in situ place concrete poured
between the precast panels. To ensure structural continuity, protruding
reinforcing bars from the panels 6dowels# are welded, looped, or otherwise
connected in the joint region before the concrete is placed. *et joints more
closely appro(imate cast-in-place construction.
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Figure 2.1: - '(pes of beam-column connections
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c) Classification on basis of type of action for which it is designed to resist-
&hear joints: -&hear transfer is required at joints between precast wall elements
and between floor elements. 4t longitudinal joints between hollow core units
shear transfer is required horizontally as well as vertically. onnections
between precast beam elements or floor elements and a cast in situ topping
may require shear resistance to obtain an adequate behaviour in the final state.
Tension joints: -The ability to transfer tensile forces is normally secured by
means of various types of tie bars, anchor bars and other connecting devices of
steel. Tensile capacity is often required between wall elements used for
stabilization, between floor elements and between precast floors and their
supports. "epending on the position of the ties these connections can be more
or less capable of transferring bending moments, even if this was not intended
by the design. Cnintended tensile resistance can sometimes appear in
connections, for instance due to bond between the short end face of a floor
element and the joint concrete in the support joint nearby.
ompression joints: -Transfer of compressive forces is an important function of
connections at horizontal joints in precast walls, in connections between precast
column elements, and at support connections of precast beams.
%le(ure joints: -%le(ural resistance is required for instance when a precast column is
fi(ed at the base, or when continuity is needed at interior supports of beams or floors.
4lso for beam ? column connections in moment resisting frames, fle(ural resistance
may be required.
Torsion joints: - Torsional capacity is needed at support connections of simply
supported beams that are loaded eccentrically with respect to the sectional shear
centre. This may for instance be the case for one-sided ledge beams used for precast
floors.
The various type of beam-column connections are shown below-
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Figure 2.2: - Beam-to-column face connections. )s(mmetricall( loa"e" beams re*uire couple
connections to prevent beam twisting
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Figure 2.3: - Beam-to-column !ea" connections. ) bearing pa" + groute" "owels are also
present.
Figure 2.: - Beam-to-column connection wit! t!e use of corbel !ea"
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4ll connections must have adequate strength, stiffness and ductility. The requirements
for the mechanical behaviour of different types of connections depend on their
intended purpose, and may differ widely whilst being perfectly suited to their need.
%or all three t(pes of connections we will plot t!e curve of ,oa" -P. v/s Deformation
-0. as-
Figure #.1: - Sc!ematic representation of be!aviour of "ifferent t(pes of connections
3n connection 4, a large elastic stiffness may be required for cyclic loading, whilst the
ductility is not important because there is no danger of overload in connector. 3n ),
non-linear deformation may be satisfactory if the connection is concerned only with
strength. 3n , low stiffness with post-yield ductility may be required if e(cessive
deformations are acceptable.
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4ll connections must have a mechanical tensile force capacity, even compression and
especially shear connections. ontact bond and friction is not allowed. 4ll members
must therefore have embedded anchors. ;ven if tension is not present in the structure
model, tensile capacity is provided for the purposes of robustness under abnormal
conditions.
Figure #.2: - 1elations!ip between structural be!aviour of connections wit! respect
to t!e member to w!ic! it is attac!e"
onnection D is a suitable connection because its deformation capacity is greater than
that required by the connected member 6dashed line, known as the beam line# the
residual strength, rather than the actual ultimate strength, is often used in design. )ut
E is not a satisfactory connection because failure takes place in a brittle manner prior
to matching the requirements of the member.
"uctile capacity, F!AFy is achieved by increasing the strength of brittle parts of
connections. )rittle parts of the connections are well known such as dowels in shear,
short bolts in tension, welds, congested reinforcement zones and confined rebar
anchor lengths.
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!3 "esign +andbook 1- The precast concrete institute 6!3# +and book gives design
dimensions, capacity of different type of precast elements which is based on a design
guideline according to 43 0-8 code.
)ook by &yaiful chapter--: The fle(ure and shear design of corbel bracket give full
understanding of corbel design with appropriate diagram and design e(amples. The all
design aspects are shown in design of corbel.
>5 &cientific and !olicy report: "esign Guidelines for onnections of !recast
&tructures under &eismic 4ctions, hapter 0: )eam to olumn connection give
connections with "owels
The principal failure modes for longitudinal action are listed hereunder: -
breaking of the dowel connection due to combined shear, tension and fle(ure
on steel bar and bearing
stresses on concrete,
spalling of the concrete edge of the beam due to tensile stresses,
spalling of the concrete edge of the column due to tensile stresses.
The principal failure modes for transverse action are listed hereunder:
fle(ural failure of the bearing section due to the action of 2,
pull-out of the tensioned dowel under the action due to 2,
&liding shear failure under the action of 3.
;(perimental and 4nalytical study: - Bidjeapriya and >aya presented the e(perimental
investigation of one third scale precast concrete column connections subjected to
reverse cyclic loading. The !recast specimen and monolithic specimen were designed
for the same strength. %or the precast connection, the beam was connected to the
column with corbel using a cleat angle with a single stiffener and for the precast
connection, cleat angle with two stiffeners were used. Testing system as shown in %ig.
..-.The sub-assemblage specimens were subjected to cyclic displacement controlled
lateral loading, applied at the end of beam. The ultimate load carrying capacity, load
ratio, hysteretic behaviour, energy dissipation, equivalent viscous damping ratio,
ductility factor and strength degradation of both the precast and monolithic specimen
were measured and their performance was compared. The results showed that ultimate
load carrying capacity of the monolithic specimen was superior to both the precast
specimens. The precast specimens were found to e(hibit satisfactory behaviour when
compared to the monolithic specimen in terms of energy dissipation and ductility.
18
!revious years '.Tech paper for e(perimental setup and theory H-/'$-.,
-/'$-I, --'$/IJ.
Figure 2.#: - ,oa"ing assembl( use" to test beam-column 4unction
Chapter " ('-2 -ND COLU2N CONN'CTIONS IN PR'C-ST S/ST'2
".1. Des&gn of Connect&on for 34" storey hostel #$&l1&ng
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%or applying concept of connection design in precast system, 0-storey hostel building
is selected which was designed in cast in-situ manner by 6-/Kbcl )atch#. %or study
purpose, the beam column junction at ground storey for column - has been selected.
4ll designed loads and moments are taken as per the calculation of thesis. The
proposed plan and elevation of the hostel building is shown in figure 0.- below.
The specification of junction and reactions developed at the junction are as follows-
"etails:
'aterial used-
Grade of concrete: '.I
Grade of steel: %e9-I
"etails of elements to be connected-
olumn dimensions 6-#: 60//L0//# mm
)eam dimensions 6)0I#: 60//L0I/# mm
"esigned forces and moments on the connection
&hear force: 08 =<
)ending moment: 00.0@ =<Lm
%or connection at junction corbel type of connection has been chosen from the above
classification as the vertically continuous member 6in both aspects as construction and
design# and with both dry and wet joint.
".2. Des&gn of 5$nct&on 'lements
orbel or bracket is a reinforced concrete member is a short-haunched cantilever used
to support the reinforced concrete beam element. orbel is structural element to
support the pre-cast structural system such as pre-cast beam and pre-stressed beam.
The corbel is cast monolithic with the column element or wall element.
3n this chapter we are discussing about the design procedure of corbel or bracket
structure. &ince the load from pre-cast structural element is large then it is very
important that proper detailing for corbel should be done.
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".2.1. (eha6&o$r of cor#el
The behaviour of the reinforced concrete corbel in loading are described, as
follows-
The shear spanAdepth ratio is less than -./, it makes the corbel behave in
two-dimensional manner.
&hear deformation is significant in the corbel.
There is large horizontal force transmitted from the support beam result
from long-term shrinkage and creep deformation.
)earing failure due to large concentrated load.
The cracks are usually vertical or inclined for pure shear cracking.
The modes of failure of corbel are: yielding of the tension tie, failure of the
end anchorage of the tension tie, failure of concrete by compression or
shearing and bearing failure.

The following
figure shows
the mode of failure
of corbel-
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Figure 3.2: - 2o"es of failure of corbel
".2.2. Proce1$re for cor#el 1es&gn: 7-s per -CI co1e8
Shear 1es&gn
The following are the step by step procedure used in the shear design for
corbel, as follows:
alculate the ultimate shear force Bu.
heck the ultimate shear force for the following condition, if the
following condition is not achieved then enlarge the section.
( ) " Bw Fc 3u L L L . . /
( ) " Bw 3u L L I/ . I
alculate the area of shear friction reinforcement 4
vf
22
B;5T34$ &+;45 5;3<%:5;';<T
3n
)vf
L L F( )vf 3n = L A F( 3n )vf =
5
# L L A6 F( 3u )vf =

The design must be follows the basic design equation as follows:


3u 3n L
!le9$ral 1es&gn of cor#el
The following are the step by step procedure used in the fle(ural design for
corbel, as follows:
alculate ultimate fle(ure moment '
u
.
# 6 L L " D 6uc a 3u 2u + =
alculate the area of tension reinforcement 4
n
.
# L A6 F( 6uc )n =
alculate the area of fle(ural reinforcement 4
f
.
# L 8I . / L L A6 " F( 2u )f =
alculate the area of primary tension reinforcement 4
s
.
4&; )s !53'45E
5;3<%:5;';<T
$:&;" &T355C!
)! $:4T3:<
-
)n )vf )s + L # 0 A . 6 )n )vf )s + = L # 0 A . 6 )vf )! L # 0 A - 6 = " # 0 A . 6
23
3<$3<;" &+;45 %53T3:< 5;3<%:5;';<T
3n
)vf
# cos sin L 6 L L + = F( )vf 3n # cos sin L 6 A + = F( 3n )vf
# cos sin L 6 L A + = F( 3u )vf
.
)n )f )s + )n )f )s + = )f )s L # . A - 6 = " # 0 A . 6
heck the reinforcement for the minimum reinforcement.
# A 6 L /9 . / # L A6 F( Fc " b )s Pt =
# 6 L I . / )n )s )!
".2.". Des&gn of Cor#el
7orbel s!ear "esign:
*idth of corbelM width of column 60//mm#
'inimum depth:
N L # . . / 6 L AO
L L # . . / 6 L
Bw Fc 3u D
" Bw Fc 3u

P 08L6-/Q0# A O/.8I L 6/..L.I# L0//N


P .@.8mm
+ere depth calculated is too small to provide, so assume total depth of the
corbel to be provide is 9//mm.
" M 9//mm, and assuming cover to be provided is equal to 0/mm
" M 69//-0/# M 02/mm
4rea of shear reinforcement:
3n F( )vf = L L
= )vf
08L 6-/Q0# A 6/.8I L 9-I L-.9 L-#
M21.@91 mm
.
orbel fle(ural design:
Cltimate fle(ural moment
# 6 L L " D 6uc a 3u 2u + =
+ere, aM-./mm, "M9//mm, dM02/mm
<
u
M /.. L B
u
M2.1 =<
'
u
M 9.288 =<.m
24

4rea of tension reinforcement
4
n
M 6/.. L 08 L -/Q0# A 6/.8I L 9-I#
M .-.I9 mm
.
4rea of fle(ural reinforcement
4
f
M 69288L-/Q0# A 6/.8IL9-IL/.8IL02/#
M 90.-1 mm
.
!rimary tension reinforcement
4
s
P 6.A0#L 21.@91 R .-.I9
P2..89, mm
.
Or 4
s
P 90.-1R.-.I9 P 19.2 mm
.
So: 4
s
M2..89 mm
.
losed stirrups
4
h
M 6-A0# L 21.@91 M .I.1I mm
.
heck for minimum reinforcement
!
t
M 2..89 A 60//L02/# P /./9L 6.IA9-I#
M /.///1IS 0.0024%
ondition not satisfy, so provide !
t
M /.//.9S
&o, 4
s
M .11.9 mm
.
4
h 6min#
M /.I L 6.11.9-.-.I9#
M -...90 mmQ.
&o, provide 4
h
M -...90 mmQ.
%inal reinforcement details
4
s
M 3-12 diameter bar
M00@.-. mm
.
4
h
M 2-2 legged 8mm diameter stirrup
M.//.@1 mm
.
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".2.). Des&gn of Test Spec&mens:
%or design of junction elements in testing we scaled down the junction
element to half scaled elements. The scale is selected on the basis of
availability frame elements in the laboratory for testing.
Cor#el Des&gn:
orbel dimensions as per 6-A.# scale-
*idth M-9/ mm
Total "epth M.// mm
!rojection M-// mm
&hear 5einforcement
# - L 9 . - L 9-I L 8I . / A6 # 0 Q -/ L ./ 6 = )vf
OB
u
M ./ =<, 6scaled &hear %orce#N
M 9/.I/ mm
.

%le(ural "esign
# 6 L L . . / L " D 6uc a 3n 2u + =
+ere, aM1/ mm, dM-8/ mm, Oover assumedM./mmN
<
u
M
3u L . . /
M 9 =<
'
u
M-.8/ =<.mm
Tension 5einforcement
# 9-I L 8I . / A6 # 0 Q -/ L ./ L . . / 6 = )n
M --.09 mm
.
%le(ural 5einforcement
# -8/ L 8I . / L 9-I L 8I . / A6 # 0 Q -/ L -.8/ 6 = )f
M .0.2- mm
.
!rimary Tension 5einforcement
)n )vf )s + = L # 0 A . 6
M 08.09 mm
.
losed &tirrup
)vf )! L # 0 A - 6 =
M -0.I mmQ.
heck for minimum reinforcement
S //.9 . / S //-I . / # A 6 L /9 . / # L A6 = = F( Fc " b )s Pt
+ere condition is not satisfied.
&o, provide !
t
M /.//.9S,
4
s
M 1/.98 mm
.
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4
h
6min# M /.IL 61/.8---.09# M .9.20 mm
.

%inal reinforcement details
4
s
M 3-8mm diameter bars M-I/.2. mm
.
4
h
M 2 legged stirrup of 8mm diameter bars M .//.@1 mm
.
Col$mn Des&gn
olumn details of original building
&ize: 60//L0//# mm
4
st
M -.I1 mm
.
!
t
M -.0@S
olumn test specimen details
&ize: 6-9/L-9/# mm
+ere !
t
has to be same for test specimen to effectively represent the
original element.
-.0@S M 64
st
L-//# A 6-9/L-9/#
4
st
M .2..99 mmQ.
M 4-10mm diameter bars
onfining reinforcement
4
vf
M 2 legged 8mm stirrups at 120mm c/c.
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(eam Des&gn
Fle8ural reinforcement
+ere in test process, beam is act as cantilever and design for same.
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*idth of the beam 6b# M -9/mm
$ength of the beam specimen $ M -.. m
!oint load at the cantilever point of the beam ! M 1.I =<
&o, moment ' M 2.8 =<.m
# L L -08 . / A6 min b Fc9 2 " =
M -.2./8 mm
" M -.2./8 R concrete cover
M -.2./8R./ M -92./8 mm
-I/ mm
+ere
.
L L L -08 . / lim " b Fc9 2 =
M 8.-1 =<.m T '
+ence :=.
N L L A6 1 . 9 - - O L # A 6 L L L I . /
.
# 6
" b Fc9 2 F( Fc9 " b )
provi"e" st
=
M ./9.0I mm
.
M 3-10mm diameter bars
S!ear reinforcement
+ere for shear check,
%or !
t
M -..@S
T
c
M /.2.I1
" b 'c 3c L L = M -0.. =< T 1.I =<
+ence there is no need of shear reinforcement. &o, provide nominal
reinforcement as per 3&-9I1 specifications,
4
vf
M 2 legged stirrups of 8mm diameter at 100mm c/c.
The reinforcement detailing of junction elements are given below in-
29
Figure 3.3: - 1einforcement "etailing of set specimen for 2onolit!ic 4oint
30
31
Figure 3.: - 1einforcement "etailing of set specimen for "r( 4oint
32
Figure 3.: - 1einforcement "etailing of set specimen for wet 4oint
33
Chapter ) ';P'RI2'NT-L *OR<
The main objective of this ;(periment work is to investigate the progressive collapse
resistance of reinforced concrete beam column assembly with different reinforcement
detailing. %or that entire structure is analyzed and design without considering seismic
load. %or reinforcement detailing one specimen was casted as monolithic connection
and other two specimen were casted as precast wet connection and precast dry
connection respectively. %or reinforcement calculations 3& 9I1: .///, 3& 8//: .//2,
)& 8---/, 43 0-8 codes were used. To full fill above objective 0 specimens were
casted each one of one type. The specimen were casted having half scales specimens.
%or testing of specimen and to simulate actual condition of specimen part of test setup
was available in concrete lab. This chapter includes detail 'aterial properties,
3nstrumentation, omponent of Test setup, Test !rocedure, Test set-up and
:bservations.
).1. 2ater&al Propert&es
).1.1. Concrete Propert&es
"esign stipulation U
haracteristic strength required in the field at .8 days M .I '!a
'a(imum size of aggregate M ./ mm 6angular#
"egree of workability M /.8/
"egree of quality control M Good
Type of e(posure M 'ild
Test data of materials -
&pecific gravity of cement M 0.-I
&pecific gravity of coarse aggregate M ..2
&pecific gravity of fine aggregate M ..1
34
*ater absorption -
%ine aggregate M -S
oarse aggregate M -.IS
%ree moisture -
oarse aggregate M nil
%ine aggregate M /.IS
&ieve analysis 6coarse aggregate# -
able 4.1! "ie#e analysis for coarse aggregates
&ieve size 6mm# oarse aggregate
6S passing#
./ mm I-.1
-/ mm -.9
9.2I mm -
&ieve analysis 6fine aggregate# -
able 4.2! "ie#e analysis for fine aggregates
&ieve size %ine aggregate
6S passing#
9.2I mm @@.1IS
..01 mm 2@.2IS
-.-8 mm 22.00S
1// micron 1/.1S
0// micron .I.-1S
-I/ micron -
35
&teps for concrete mi(ing U
The target mean strength M .I R -.1IL9 M 0-.1 '!a
&election of water cement ratio
%rom the code the wAc ratio M /.9I
4nd for mild e(posure wAc ratio M /.II
Therefore adopt wAc ratio as /.9I
&election of water content
%or ./ mm size aggregate M ma(imum water content -81 kg
%or angular aggregate
5eduction in water content M -81--/ M -21 kg
&election of cement content
*A ratio M /.9I
*ater M -21 litre
ement M -21A/.9I M 0@-.-- kgAm
0
"etermination of coarse and fine aggregate content
'a(imum size of aggregate ./ mm
Bolume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete M /.1.
%ine aggregate M /.08
B M Ow R A&
c
R f
a
A! & f
a
N L -A-///
/.@8 M O-21 R 0@-.--A0.-I R -L%aA/.08L..1 N L -A-///
36
f
a
M 12-.28 kgAm
0

a
M --pAp L f
a
L &
ca
A&
fa
M --/.08A/.08 L 12-.28 L..2A..1M --08... kgAm
0
able 4.3! $roportions for concrete mi%ing
*ater ement %4 4
-21 0@-.-- 12-.28 --08...
/.9I - -.2-8 ..@-
%or I/ kg cement -
ement M I/ kg
&and M 8I.@ kg
oarse aggregate M -9I.I kg
*ater M ...I litre
;(tra quantity of water for absorption
M -.IS of -9I.I kg R -S of 8I.@ kgM 0./0 litre
Vuantity of water to be deducted for moisture
M /.IS of 8I.@ M/.9. litre
4ctual quantity of water M ...I R 0./0 U /.9. M .I.-- litre
4ctual quantity of sand M 8I.91 kg
4ctual quantity of 4 M -90.0. kg
'i( proportions
*ater ement %4 4
37
/.I/ - -.2/@ ..81
).1.2. 2&cro concrete
'icro concrete is a high strength precision repair material. 3t e(hibits the
following properties:
4chieves a ompressive &trength of about ./ <AmmW in .9 hours.
3ncreased bond strength.
5educed co-efficient of creep.
+igh tensile and fle(ural strength. +igh ;arly &trength: 5eaches the strength
of main structural member in .9 hours only.
<on &hrink: 3t does not produce shrinkage cracks along the line of old and
built-up concrete section.

Good )ond: 3t achieves an e(cellent bond with parent concrete when used
along with &kofbondT&4 '0I.

3mpermeable: The repaired part of structural member become impermeable to
water and protects the reinforcements from any further corrosion.
hemical &tructure: '35: :<5;T; does not require elaborate curing.
&prinkling of water for two days is enough, however water curing is advisable
for seven days.
).1.". 2ater&al Test&ng
The .8th day average cube compressive strength of the concrete 6fcu# was 0-
'!a. The cylinder compressive strength has been evaluated based on the
relationship, fcX M/.8 fcu and was observed as .9.8 '!a. The tensile strength
of the concrete has been observed as 0.-@ <Amm. by testing three cylinders of
-I/mm diameter and 0//mm height. Three beams of I/mm(I/mm(I//mm
were cast and tested for the fle(ural strength. The fle(ural strength of the
concrete was 2.@ <Amm..
38
%or micro concrete three different proportion of water, )4&% cement, grit 6I
mm# had been selected as shown in table 9.-.
able 4.4! "ample for micro concrete

The cube of -//L-//L-// mm was casted. The testing of compressive
strength for all cubes had been carried out as result are shown -
able 4.&! esting of micro concrete "ample
%rom the results of cube testing sample - found more suitable for precast wet
connection.
39
&ample *ater )4&% ement Grit 6I mm#
&ample - /.I.9 - -.080
&ample . /.I2I - -.980
&ample 0 /.92 - -..@0
&ample ompressive &trength
6'!a#
'ean
ompressive
&trength
6'!a#
ube - ube .
&ample - ./ -8.01 -@.-8
&ample . -...9 -9..8 -0..1
&ample 0 -...9 --... --.20
).2. Instr$mentat&on
"isplacement is measured at various critical locations at different load interval.
"ifferent instrument used to measure load and displacement are as follow.
+ydraulic >ack: +ydraulic jack of capacity .I/ k< is used to apply load at the end
point of cantilever beam. 54' diameter of jack is -//mm and least count of jack is -
k<.
"ial Gauge: "ial gauge is used to measure the vertical displacement of specimen.
apacity of available "ial gauge is, it can measure the vertical displacement up to
-.-mm only. $east count of dial gauge is /./-mm."ial gauge shown in %igure 9.-8.
'igure 4.1! (ial )auge
).". Component of Test set$p
40
:ne triangle frame is used to restrain vertical as well as lateral movement of column.
This frame is also helpful in transferring load from column to e(isting frame.
"imensions of the triangle frame are shown in %igure 9...
'igure 4.2! riangle frame
Total three aps were used, two caps are attached with triangle frame and one cap
was placed on hydraulic jack. aps are fabricated to maintain the position of column.
aps were fabricated using 3&4 I/mm K I/mm K Imm as shown in %igure 9.0.
'igure 4.3! Cap
41
).). Test Proce1$re
Testing of &pecimen is conducted in e(isting loading frame having capacity of
.///k<. :ne triangle frame is attached to the e(isting frame as shown in %igure
9.., to prevent vertical or lateral movement of specimen, which simulate the
actual loading scenario.
'igure 4.4! riangle 'rame and Cap
$oad is applied at the location of end point of cantilever beam with the help of
hydraulic jack. 3nitially some a(ial force is also applied to column with the help of
bottom jack to prevent vertical movement of column.
Three dial gauges are used to measure the vertical displacement. Bertical
displacement was measured at distance $A0, .$A0 and $ from the face of the column.
omplete instrumentation sketch showing specimen location in test setup and location
of dial gauges below beam is shown in figure 9.-.
42
).+. Test Set$p
%or testing the three types of junctions the loading frame are as shown-
'igure 4.&! *%perimental "etup
43
'igure 4.+! *%perimental "et up for the testing of monolithic Connection
44
).,. O#ser6at&ons
The data observed in testing are tabulated as-
able 4.+! ,bser#ation able for -onolithic Connection
'igure 4..! Crac/s in monolithic
connection
in bac/ side
45
LO-D
7&n 0N8
Deflect&ons 7&n cm8 Remar0s
L 2L=" L="
3
0 0 0
5 0.023 0.014 0.008
6 0.385 0.368 0.064
8 0.59 0.532 0.127
10 0.638 0.626 0.177
rack initiation at >unction
11 0.74 0.723 0.192
12 0.84 0.794 0.251
15 1.24 1.054 0.3145
18 1.81 1.459 0.578
rack at junction get widen
20 2.24 1.74 0.707
racks were observed at face
of column at >unction
22 2.83 2.208 1.001
olumn corner was cracked
at cap
23 3.15 2.733 1.41
%ailure of specimen was
observed
'igure 4.8! Crac/s in monolithic
connection in front side
able 4..! ,bser#ation able for $recast 0et Connection
LO-D
7&n 0N8
Deflect&ons 7&n cm8 Remar0s
L 2L=" L="
3
0 0 0
5 0.415 0.274 0.0985
7 0.7375 0.515 0.205
9 0.974 0.868 0.396
46
10 1.132 1.036 0.492
11 1.187 1.095 0.5265
12 1.511 1.299 0.6335
13 1.818 1.497 0.73
14 2.037 1.664 0.785
15 2.803 2.16 1.002
16 3.1825 2.36 1.1
&mall cracking was observed in
column
17 3.726 2.715 1.248
racks along the welding were found
18 4.28 3.1 1.408
19 4.965 3.569 1.703
*idening of cracks was observed at
the column face is observed
20 - - -
&udden falling in load reading was
observed from ./ k< to 2 k< with a
heavy sound of fail in weld without
any visible damage
22 - - -
*idening of crack near junction was
observed with crack initiation in
corbel
24 - - -
'icroconcrete get separated from
column face 6clear separation
between beam and column was
observed at top face#
25 - - -
%ailure of specimen was found at
junction
47
'igure 4.1! Crac/s in front side of precast wet connection
'igure 4.10! Crac/s in bac/ side of
precast wet connection
48
able 4.8! ,bser#ation able for $recast (ry Connection
LO-D
7&n 0N8
Deflect&ons 7&n cm8
L 2L=" L="
3
0 0 0
5 1.797 1.128 0.518
Gap of about -2 mm was observed at
junction between beam and column
6 2.327 1.484 0.635
7 3.225 2.09 0.885
8 3.733 2.5 1.063
9 5.448 3.571 1.518
10 6.703 4.422 1.82
rack initiation in beam along the
dowel bars
11 7.508 4.905 2.035
Gap got widen ? became 0/ mm
12 8.998 5.813 2.45
*idening of cracks was observed at
beam
'igure 4.11! *%cessi#e deflection obser#ed during precast dry connection
49
'igure 4.12! Crac/s in front side of
precast dry connection
'igure 4.13! Crac/s in bac/
side of precast dry connection
Chapter + D-T-
-N-L/SIS -ND R'SULTS
50
;(perimental results of tested specimens are presented in this chapter. Total three
specimens are tested to study the effect of reinforcement detailing in progressive
collapse resistance. &pecimens are designed by considering gravity loading, seismic
design with ductile detailing. ;ach precast specimen contains one beam span and one
column, with column corbels. The scale was considered as Y scale, to understand the
effect of scaling on test results. $oad is applied at the location of end point with the
help of hydraulic jack. 5esult in terms of vertical deflection along the span of beam
and ma(imum load are recorded and presented in this chapter.
+.1. Ult&mate Loa1 Capac&ty > 2a9. Deflect&on
The ultimate load carrying capacity of monolithic connection was found higher as
compared to both type of precast connections whereas in both type of precast
connection wet type of connection had higher load carrying capacity as compared to
dry type of connection.
Chart &.1! 2ltimate 3oad Capacity #/s ype of Connection
The ma(imum deflection at point of application of load was observed in dry type of
connection followed by wet type of connection. The minimum deflection was
observed in the monolithic type of connection.
51
Chart &.2! -a%imum (eflection #/s ype of Connection
+.2. Loa1 6=s Deflect&on C$r6e
The load vAs deflection curve for any connections gives the idea about adequate
strength, ductility and the stiffness of connections. The load vAs deflection curve for
all three type of connections at all three locations are shown below for comparison.
52

Chart &.3! 3oad #/s (eflection cur#e at 3/3 distance from the face of column
Chart &.4! 3oad #/s (eflection cur#e at 23/3 distance from the face of column
53
3n both type of precast connections wet weld type of connection is more
suitable than the dry dowelled type of connection because of higher ultimate
load carrying capacity less deflection.
Chart &.&! 3oad #/s (eflection cur#e at 3 distance from the face of column
54
3n monolithic connection, a large elastic stiffness may be required for cyclic
loading, whilst the ductility is not important because there is no danger of
overload in connector. 3n precast wet connection, non-linear deformation may
be satisfactory if the connection is concerned only with strength. 3n precast dry
connection, low stiffness with post-yield ductility may be required if e(cessive
deformations are acceptable.
+.". Deflecte1 Shape of #eam
The deflected shape of beam at various loads gives the idea about the fi(ity of
connection. The change in behaviour of curve shows the loose in fi(ity of connection
on increasing the applied load. The deflected shape for all three type of connections
are shown below-
55
Chart &.+! (eflected shape of beam at #arious loads for -onolithic Connection
The rate of loosening of fi(ity was constant upto -I k< load.
:n applying -8 k< onwards loading, the fi(ity of monolithic connection get
loosen continuously without a proper pattern.
Chart &..! (eflected shape of beam at #arious loads for $recast 0et Connection
56
The rate of loosening of fi(ity of connection was constant in from load of 0
k< to 2 k<.
:n applying @ k< load the deflected shape of beam changed the pattern and
the pattern remain constant up to load of -9 k<.
4fter applying -I k< load the deflected shape got changed the rate of
loosening of fi(ity was not constant.
Chart &.8! (eflected shape of beam at #arious loads for $recast (ry Connection
The rate of loosening of fi(ity of connection remain constant between the
loadings of 0 k< to 8 k<.
:n applying the @ k< load the deflected shape of beam got changed from the
pattern and the pattern was maintained constant up to -- k< load.
57
+.). Compar&son of Connect&ons
The comparison of analytical results with the theoretical results are compared in table
given below U
able &.1! Comparison of analytical capacity of connections
&r.
<o.
Type of
onnection
s
'a(imum
$oad 6k<#
S
3ncrease
in $oad
'a(imum
"eflection
6cm#
S 3ncrease
in
"eflection
-. 'onolithic
onnection
.0 - 0.-I -
.. !recast *et
onnection
-@ --2.0@S 9.@1I I2.1-S
0. !recast "ry
onnection
-. -92.8.S 8.@@8 -8I.1IS
58
R'!'R'NC'S:
>5 &cientific and !olicy report: "esign Guidelines for onnections of !recast &tructures
under &eismic 4ctions.
4&; journal ;(perimental and 4nalytical study: - Bidjeapriya and >aya presented the
e(perimental investigation of one third scale precast concrete column connections
subjected to reverse cyclic loading.
;$$3:T &. =3', Z!recast concrete structures7 based on )& 8--/.
!recast handbook 61
th
edition# based on 43 0-8 code.
3ndian &tandards 3& 9I1: .///, 3& 8//: .//2, &!: 09, )&: 8--/, 43: 0-8.
G. 'etelli and !. 5iva, Z)ehaviour of a )eam-olumn "ry >oint for !recast oncrete
;lements7, The -9
th
*orld onference on ;arthquake ;ngineering, :ctober -.--2, .//8,
)eijing, hina.
'anoj =. >oshi, .B.5. 'urty and '.!. >aisingh, Zyclic )ehaviour of !recast 5
onnections7, <ovember .//I-The 3ndian oncrete >ournal.
'ehta 4nand, Z4nalytical and ;(perimental &tudy on &teel %iber 5einforced oncrete
orbel7, <irma Cniversity, 4hmedabad-08. 98-, 3ndia.
5. Bidjepriya ? =.!. >aya, Z!erformance of ;(terior !recast )eam-olumn "owel
onnection under yclic $oading7. 4nna Cniversity, hennai-1///.I, 3ndia.
5. Bidjepriya ? =.!. >aya, Z;(perimental 3nvestigation of !recast oncrete )eam-
olumn *et onnection under yclic $oading7, 4nna university, hennai-1///.I, 3ndia.
&agar ". &hah, 'ansi >ain, 5ujuta 'ehta, Z4nalysis and "esign of !recast )uilding
&ystem7, <irma Cniversity, 4hmedabad-08. 98., 3ndia, ./-..
'ehta 4nand, Z4nalytical and ;(perimental &tudy on &teel %iber 5einforced oncrete
orbel7, <irma Cniversity, 4hmedabad-08. 98-, 3ndia.
59
60