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Table of Contents

Title Page
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Activities
Preparation for Market
Drawing of Queens Colleges Agricultural Plot
Sketches of !uipment used
Schedule of "perations
Pro#ected $udget
Actual $udget
Anal%sis
&eneral Comments
Conclusion
'ecommendations
Appendi(
Acknowledgements
The researcher would like to e(press heartfelt gratitude to)
Mr* +%ndon ,ector- who provided guidance and assistance in
the e(ecution of the activities*
The researchers parents for their support*
The researchers peers who assisted in the e(ecution and
e(cellent management of the activities in the agricultural
plot*
Introduction
.ame of Pro#ect
This pro#ect involves the cultivation- management and
harvesting of a /ed of $ora plants* It includes all the activities in
crop hus/andr%*
+ocation
The plants were cultivated in the Queens College Agricultural
Plot located on Camp and Thomas 'oads* The plot is situated
on the south east side of the school* The plot has /een
previousl% used to cultivate sweet pepper- tomatoes and "chro
and to rear /roilers and ra//its*
Duration
The $ora seeds were sown on the 01
th
April- 0232 and
harvested four weeks later on the01th Ma%- 0232*
Activities
The following activities were carried out in the cultivation-
management and harvesting of $ora*
Land Preparation
The /ed was cleared of all weeds and unwanted material- and
then forked* It was forked to a depth roughl% e!uivalent to the
height or length of the forks 4head* 5orking allowed for greater
aeration and the killing roots of weeds* Drains were dug around
the /ed with the use of a shovel and fork* The depth of the
drains was e!uivalent to the depth or height of the /ed* (cess
soil o/tained from digging drains was added to the /ed to
increase depth*
.e(t- the soil on the /ed was /roken down to a fine tilt suita/le
for sowing the seeds of this crop* This was done using a cutlass*
A !uantit% of cow manure was incorporated into the soil using
the aforementioned tool* The surface of the /ed was leveled off
using a rake*
Planting and Spacing
The $ora seeds were planted in two rows on the /ed in holes
spaced 62 cm apart* The sowing holes were made /% use of a
hand trowel and were appro(imatel% 0*7 cm deep* There was an
inter8row spacing of a/out 72 cm*
Watering
Since $ora is a leaf% crop with a shallow root s%stem- it re!uires
much water for proper growth* The plants were watered twice
dail%- once in the morning and again late in the afternoons when
the weather was favora/le* This practice fluctuated on rain%
da%s*
Weed Control
9eeds were managed manuall%* ,and pulling was emplo%ed
throughout the four week process*
Staking
9hen the plants were a/out three weeks old- staking was done*
This was done using tall /am/oo stakes* This practice ena/les a
plant to ma(imi:e its use of sunlight*
Fertilizer Application
At the age of two weeks- the nitrogenous fertili:er- urea- was
applied in solution to the roots of each plant* A nitrogenous
fertili:er was used /ecause $ora is a leaf% crop and foliage
growth is essential*
Aeration of Soil
The soil was aerated weekl% using small garden forks and
cutlasses* Aeration is essential for proper growth of a plant*
Pest Control
In the third week of cultivation- rainfall was continuous* This
weather resulted in a great num/er of aphids on the leaves of the
plants* These pests made holes in the leaves in order to suck its
sap* The leaves therefore started to 4%ellow*
This pro/lem was addressed /% spra%ing the plants with
Malathion to eliminate these and other pests* It was diluted in a
few litres of water and applied using a knapsack spra%er*
Harvesting
This was done four weeks after planting- when the $ora was
still immature- prior to the full development of the seeds and
pod* The pods were harvested /% pinching the stem with ones
thum/nail pressed against the inde( finger* This was done to
ensure that onl% a small section of the stem will /e attached to
the pod* The pods were handled carefull% to avoid an% damage*
Preparation for Market
Since $ora is a ver% perisha/le crop- market preparation was
done on the da% of harvesting* The preparation was done /%)
Cleaning
&rading;Sorting
Packaging
Cleaning
The /ulk of pods harvested were placed on a ta/le for cleaning*
+eaves- stems- /roken pods- insect damaged pods and deca%ing
pods were removed* Dirt was removed /% using a dr% cloth*
9ashing of the produce was avoided /ecause this would have
caused the spread of Deca%ing organisms*
Sorting; &rading
The produce was then graded /ased on their length and e(ternal
appearance* $lemished pods were discarded*
Packaging
The Produce was packaged in /undles tied using ru//er /ands* The
/undles were of two si:es< one of ten pods and another of 07 pods*
The $ora was now read% for marketing*
Schedule of Operations
Activity Duration
+and Preparation 3=
th
April-0232803
st
April-0232
Sowing 01
th
April- 022>
Application of 5ertili:ers 33
th
Ma%- 0232
Pest Control 37
th
Ma%- 0232
Staking 3?
th
Ma%-0232
,arvesting 01
th
Ma%- 0232
Marketing 07
th
and 0@
th
Ma%- 0232
9eed Control ver%da%
Watering ver%da%
Projected Budget
Projected Ependiture
Item Cost uantity Total!"#
$ora Seeds A6@2*22 0 A=02*22
Manure A722*22 3 A722*22
5ertili:er) Brea A772*22 3 A772*22
Pesticide)
Tri:ophos 12ec
A3?67*22 3 A3?67*22
9ater
Consumption
A3722*22 A3722*22
Plastic $ags A7*22 @2 A7*22
Miscellaneous A0222*22 A0222*22
Total A=127
Projected Ependiture!"#$%&'%%
Projected (nco)e
.um/er of Plants C3@ plants
Appro(imate num/er of pods per plant C07 pods
Total .um/er of pods harvested C07 ( 3@
C 122 pods
Selling Price of a small parcel of $ora C A3@2*22
.um/er of parcels to /e sold C37 parcels
Total sale of small parcels CA3@2*22 ( 37
CA0122*22
Selling price for a large /undle CA012
.um/er of parcels to /e sold C 07 parcels
Total sale of large parcels CA012*22 ( 07
CA@222*22
Pro#ected Income C Total sale of +arge Parcels
D Total Sale of Small Parcels
CA0122*22 D A@222*22
CA?122*22
Projected inco)e ! "*$%%'%%
Projected Surplus+,eficit
Pro#ected Surplus C Pro#ected Income E Pro#ected (penditure
CA?122*228 A=127*22
C A >>7*22
Projected surplus! " --&'%%
Actual Budget
Actual Ependiture
Item Cost Quantit% TotalFAG
$ora Seeds A6@2*22 0 A=02*22
Manure A722*22 3 A722*22
5ertili:er) Brea A772*22 3 A772*22
Pesticide)
Tri:ophos 12ec
A3?67*22 3 A3?67*22
9ater
Consumption
A3722*22 A3722*22
Miscellaneous A0222*22 A722*22
Total A7@27*22
Actual (penditure C A7@27
Actual Income
.o* of $ora Plants C 3@ plants
Appro(imate .o* of pods per plant C 12 pods
Total no* of pods C 3@ ( 12
C@12 pods
Selling price per small parcel C A3@2
.o* of small parcels to /e sold C 62
Total sale of small parcels C A3@2 ( 62
CA1?22
Selling price per large parcel C A012
.o* of parcels to /e sold C 33
Total sale of large parcels C A012*22 ( 33
C A 0@12*22
Selling Price on Independence Da% C A0?2
.o* of parcels sold on Independence Da% C @ parcels
Total sale on Independence Da% CA3@?2
Actual Income C Total Selling Price of +arge Parcels
D Total Selling Price of Small Parcels
D Total sale on Independence Da%
C A1?22*22 DA0@12*22 DA3@?2*22
CA>032*22
Actual Income C A>302*22
Actual Surplus C Actual Income8 Actual (penditure
C A>302*228 A7@27*22
CA6737*22
Actual Surplus C A6737*22
Percentage surplus C FSurplus; Actual (penditureG ( 322H
C FA6737*22;A7@27*22G I 322H
C@0*= H
Percentage surplusC @0*= H
Anal.sis
Co)parison of projected and Actual (nco)e
/
Pro#ected Income CA?122
Actual Income CA>302
The o/#ective of an Actual Income which e(ceeds the Pro#ected
Income was achieved* This was primaril% possi/le /ecause the
!uantit% of pods from the small parcels e(ceeded the e(pected
num/er- there/% increasing the sale of the product* Another
contri/uting factor to the surplus was that a .ational ,olida% was
within the sale period* This caused for a sale of an additional si(
parcels of $ora at a higher price*
Co)parison of projected and Actual Ependiture
Pro#ected (penditure C A=127
Actual (penditure CA>302
The final e(penditure was reduced /% A3-?22 owing to the fact that
no plastic /ags were needed and the e(penses on miscellaneous
items were fifteen hundred dollars FA3722G less than e(pected*
These were the onl% factors influencing the change in actual
e(penditure- which was a convenient alteration in the plans*
The ta/le /elow shows the unnecessar% miscellaneous
e(penditure- given the farm was properl% managed*
Item Pro#ected Actual Savings
Fpro#ected8
actualG
Plastic $ags A622*22 JJJJJJJJJJJJ A622*22
Miscellaneous A0-222*22 H722*22 A3722*22
Total Savings A3?22*22
Co)parison of projected and actual surplus+ deficit
Pro#ected surplus C A>>7*22
Actual surplus CA6737*22
There was a vast difference /etween the actual surplus and the
pro#ected surplus) a difference of A0702*22* The actual income of
A>302*22 accounts primaril% for this spike in surplus* The savings
of A3?22 in the e(penses also made a reasona/le impact on this
figure*
0eneral Co))ents
The $ora %ields were higher than e(pected owing to efficient land
preparation- regular maintenance /% watering- weed control-
fertili:er application and pesticide application* Correct methods in
harvesting and marketing ensured that there was no great loss via
damaged produce* The spike in selling price on the .ational
holida% accounted for the spike in surplus*
Conclusion
The pro#ect ma% /e deemed ver% successful* A @0*= H profit was
made* This was achieved /% efficient management practices
including thorough land preparation- regular maintenance
Fwatering- weedingG- fertili:er and pesticide application and
e(cellent harvesting and post harvesting techni!ues*
Critical planning and pro#ection of these activities reduced
e(penditure and increased %ields* An increase in market price for
the crop also contri/uted positivel% to the income and surplus* This
therefore proves that management techni!ues and demand for the
crop are highl% influential in the success or failure of a farming
enterprise*
1eco))endations
3G It is recommended that eco8friendl% pesticides are used to
repel pests* &arlic Solution is an e(ample of such a solution*
It is prepares /% crushing or grinding garlic and then adding
it to water* The mi(ture is spra%ed onto the plants using a
spra%8/ottle* This is /oth effective and cost efficient*
0G "rganic manure is also recommended for this crop* 9aste
from /roilers or cows can /e incorporated into the soil to
increase nutrient content and thence fertilit%* This is again-
effective- eco8friendl% and cost effective*