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Jul 23, 2014

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Mathematics with Matlab

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Mathematics with Matlab

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CHAPTER 2

MATLAB BASICS

You input commands to MATLAB in the MATLAB Command Window. MATLAB returns

output in two ways: Typically, text or numerical output is returned in the same Command

Window, but graphical output appears in a separate graphics window.

2.1 ARITHMATIC

As we have just seen, you can use MATLAB to do arithmetic as you would a calculator. You

can use + to add, - to subtract, * to multiply, / or \to divide, and to

exponentiate. For example,

>> 4^2-(5+2)/3+5*3

ans =

28.6667

MATLAB prints the answer and assigns the value to a variable called ans. If you want to

perform further calculations with the answer, you can use the variable ans rather than retype

the answer. For example, you can compute the sum of the square and the square root of the

previous answer as follows:

>> ans^2+sqrt(ans)

ans =

827.1319

Observe that MATLAB assigns a new value to ans with each calculation. To do more

complex calculations, you can assign computed values to variables of your choosing. For

example,

>> a=sin(5)

a =

-0.9589

>> b=cos(15)

b =

-0.7597

>> a^2+b^3

ans =

0.4811

MATLAB uses double-precision floating point arithmetic, which is accurate to

approximately 15 digits; however, MATLABdisplays only 5 digits by default. To display

more digits, type format long. Then all subsequent numerical output will have 15 digits

displayed. Type format short to return to 5-digit display.

MATLAB 6 CHAPTER 2

MATLAB has two division operators / - the right division and \ - the left division. They do

not produce the same results. For Example,

>> rd=46/3

rd =

15.3333

>> ld=46\3

ld =

0.0652

Note that 46\3 is equivalent to 3/46.

Some of the elementary mathematical functions are given below:

sqrt: square root function (MATLAB operates both with real and complex numbers

universally)

sin, cos, tan: trigonometric functions

sind, cosd, tand: trigonometric functions when angle is in degree

asin, acos, atan: inverse trigonometric functions

sinh, cosh, tanh: hyperbolic functions

asinh, acosh, atanh: inverse hyperbolic functions

exp, log, log10: exponential functions

real, imag, conj: real, imaginary parts of a complex number, and the complex

conjugate number

abs, angle: absolute value of a complex number, and the phase angle of a complex

number

round: rounding to the nearest integer

floor: rounding to the smallest integer

ceil: rounding to the largest integer

fix: rounding to the smallest integer if positive and to the largest integer if negative

sign: 1 if positive, 0 if zero, and 1, if negative

mod, rem: remainders upon division

factorial: factorial of an integer number

factor: factorize an integer number into prime numbers

isprime: 1 if a number is a prime number and 0 if not

2.2 ALGEBRA

Using MATLABs Symbolic Math Toolbox, you can carry out algebraic or symbolic

calculations such as factoring polynomials or solving algebraic equations.

To perform symbolic computations, you must use syms to declare the variables you plan to

use to be symbolic variables. Consider the following series of commands:

>> syms x y

>> (x+2*y)*(x-3*y)

ans =

(x+2*y)*(x-3*y)

MATLAB 7 CHAPTER 2

>> expand(ans)

ans =

x^2-x*y-6*y^2

>> factor(ans)

ans =

(x+2*y)*(x-3*y)

Notice that symbolic output is left-justified, while numeric output is indented. This feature is

often useful in distinguishing symbolic output from numerical output.

MATLAB has a command called simplify, which you can sometimes use to express a

formula as simply as possible. For example,

>> simplify((x^4-y^4)/(x-y))

ans =

x^3+y*x^2+y^2*x+y^3

MATLAB has a more robust command, called simple, that sometimes does a better job than

simplify.

2.2.1 Symbolic Expressions, Variable Precision, and Exact Arithmetic

MATLAB uses floating point arithmetic for its calculations. Using the Symbolic Math

Toolbox, you can also do exact arithmetic with symbolic expressions. Consider the following

example:

>> sin(pi)

ans =

1.224646799147353e-016

The answer is written in floating point format and means 1.22464679914735310

-16

. However,

we know that sin() is really equal to 0. The inaccuracy is due to the fact that typing pi in

MATLAB gives an approximation to accurate to about 15 digits, not its exact value. To

compute an exact answer, instead of an approximate answer, we must create an exact

symbolic representation of /2 by typing sym(pi). Now lets take the sine of the symbolic

representation of :

>> sin(sym(pi))

ans =

0

This is the expected answer.

The commands sym and syms are closely related. In fact, syms x is equivalent to x =

sym(x). The command syms has a lasting effect on its argument (it declares it to be

MATLAB 8 CHAPTER 2

symbolic from now on), while sym has only a temporary effect unless you assign the output

to a variable, as in x = sym(x).

Here is how to add 1/2 and 1/3 symbolically:

>> sym(1/2) + sym(1/3)

ans =

5/6

2.3 VARIABLES AND ASSIGNMENTS

In MATLAB, you use the equal sign to assign values to a variable. For instance,

>> x=5

x =

5

will give the variable x the value 5 from now on. Henceforth, whenever MATLAB sees the

letter x, it will substitute the value 5. For example, if y has been defined as a symbolic

variable, then

>> syms y

>> x^3-3*x^2*y+3*x*y^2-y^3

ans =

125-75*y+15*y^2-y^3

To clear the value of the variable x, type clear x. You can make very general assignments for

symbolic variables and then manipulate them. For example,

>> clear x; syms x y

>> z=x^2-2*x*y+y

z =

x^2-2*x*y+y

>> 4*x^2*y^2*z

ans =

4*x^2*y^2*(x^2-2*x*y+y)

A variable name or function name can be any string of letters, digits, and underscores,

provided it begins with a letter (punctuation marks are not allowed). MATLAB distinguishes

between uppercase and lowercase letters. You should choose distinctive names that are easy

for you to remember, generally using lowercase letters.

A common source of puzzling errors is the inadvertent reuse of previously defined variables.

MATLAB never forgets your definitions unless instructed to do so. You can check on the

current value of a variable by simply typing its name.

2.4 SOLVING EQUATIONS

You can solve equations involving variables with solve or fzero. For example, to find the

solutions of the quadratic equation x

2

3x + 1 = 0, type

MATLAB 9 CHAPTER 2

>> solve('x^2-3*x+1=0')

ans =

3/2+1/2*5^(1/2)

3/2-1/2*5^(1/2)

Note that the equation to be solved is specified as a string; that is, it is surrounded by single

quotes. The answer consists of the exact (symbolic) solutions (3 5)/2. To get numerical

solutions, type double(ans), or vpa(ans) to display more digits.

>> double(ans)

ans =

2.6180

0.3820

The command solve can solve higher-degree polynomial equations, as well as many other

types of equations. For example,

solve('x^3-3*x+4=0')

ans =

-(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)-1/(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)

1/2*(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/2/(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/2*i*3^(1/2)*(-2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3))

1/2*(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/2/(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)-1/2*i*3^(1/2)*(-(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/(2+3^(1/2))^(1/3))

>> vpa(ans)

ans =

-2.1958233454456471528327992055497

1.0979116727228235764163996027749-.78500326324359021841045513589225*i

1.0979116727228235764163996027749+.78500326324359021841045513589225*i

It can also solve equations involving more than one variable. If there are fewer equations than

variables, you should specify (as strings) which variable(s) to solve for. For example, type

solve(2*x - log(y) = 1, y) to solve 2x log y = 1 for y in terms of x.

>> solve('2*x-log(y)=1','y')

ans =

exp(2*x-1)

You can specify more than one equation as well. For example,

>> [x,y]=solve('x^2-y=2','y-2*x=5')

x =

1+2*2^(1/2)

1-2*2^(1/2)

y =

7+4*2^(1/2)

7-4*2^(1/2)

MATLAB 10 CHAPTER 2

This system of equations has two solutions. MATLAB reports the solution by giving the two

x values and the two y values for those solutions. Thus the first solution consists of the first

value of x together with the first value of y. You can extract these values by typing x(1) and

y(1):

>> x(1)

ans =

1+2*2^(1/2)

>> y(1)

ans =

7+4*2^(1/2)

The second solution can be extracted with x(2) and y(2).

Note that in the preceding solve command, we assigned the output to the vector [x, y]. If you

use solve on a system of equations without assigning the output to a vector, then MATLAB

does not automatically display the values of the solution:

>> sol=solve('x^2-y=2','y-2*x=5')

ans =

x: [2x1 sym]

y: [2x1 sym]

To see the vectors of x and y values of the solution, type sol.x and sol.y.

>> sol.x

ans =

1+2*2^(1/2)

1-2*2^(1/2)

>> sol.y

ans =

7+4*2^(1/2)

7-4*2^(1/2)

To see the individual values, type sol.x(1), sol.y(1), etc.

Sometimes equations cannot be solved symbolically, and in these cases solve tries to find a

numerical answer. For example,

>> solve('sin(x)=2-x')

ans =

1.1060601577062719106167372970301

Sometimes there is more than one solution, and you may not get what you expected. For

example,

>> solve('exp(-x)=sin(x)')

MATLAB 11 CHAPTER 2

ans =

-2.0127756629315111633360706990971+2.7030745115909622139316148044265*i

The answer is a complex number; the i at the end of the answer stands for the number 1.

Though it is a valid solution of the equation, there are also real number solutions. In fact, the

graphs of exp(x) and sin(x) are shown in Figure 2.1; each intersection of the two curves

represents a solution of the equation e

x

= sin(x).

Figure 2.1: Plots of e

-x

and sin(x)

You can numerically find the solutions shown on the graph with fzero, which looks for a zero

of a given function near a specified value of x. A solution of the equation e

x

= sin(x) is a zero

of the function e

x

sin(x), so to find the solution near x = 0.5 type

>> fzero('exp(-x)-sin(x)',0.5)

ans =

0.5885

2.5 VECTORS AND MATRICES

MATLAB was written originally to allow mathematicians, scientists, and engineers to handle

the mechanics of linear algebra, i.e., vectors and matrices, as effortlessly as possible.

2.5.1 Vectors

A vector is an ordered list of numbers. You can enter a vector of any length in MATLAB by

typing a list of numbers, separated by commas or spaces, inside square brackets. For

example,

MATLAB 12 CHAPTER 2

>> x=[2 3 4]

x =

2 3 4

>> y=[4 -3 2 3]

y =

4 -3 2 3

Suppose you want to create a vector of values running from 1 to 9. Heres how to do it

without typing each number:

>> z=[1:9]

z =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The notation 1:9 is used to represent a vector of numbers running from 1 to 9 in increments

of 1. The increment can be specified as the second of three arguments:

>> X=[0:5:20]

X =

0 5 10 15 20

The elements of the vector X can be extracted as X(1), X(2), etc. For example,

>> X(4)

ans =

15

To change the vector X from a row vector to a column vector, put a prime () after X:

>> X'

ans =

0

5

10

15

20

You can perform mathematical operations on vectors. For example, to square the elements of

the vector X, type

>> X.^2

ans =

0 25 100 225 400

The period in this expression is very important; it says that the numbers in X should be

squared individually, or element-by-element. Typing X2 would tell MATLAB to use matrix

multiplication to multiply X by itself and would produce an error message in this case.

MATLAB 13 CHAPTER 2

Similarly, you must type .* or ./ if you want to multiply or divide vectors element-by-

element. For example, to multiply the elements of the vector X by the corresponding

elements of the vector Y,

>> Y=[5 -3 2 4 6]

Y =

5 -3 2 4 6

>> X.*Y

ans =

0 -15 20 60 120

2.5.2 Matrices

A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. Row and column vectors, which we discussed

above, are examples of matrices. Consider the 3 3 matrix

A =

It can be entered in MATLAB with the command

>> A=[1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9]

A =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

or,

>> A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]

A =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Note that the matrix elements in any row are separated by commas, and the rows are

separated by semicolons. The elements in a row can also be separated by spaces.

Special Matrix

Some of the special matrices are given below:

eye(3) implies an identity matrix of order 3.

>>A=eye(3)

A =

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

MATLAB 14 CHAPTER 2

ones(3) implies a square matrix of order 3 with all elements equal to one.

>> ones(3)

ans =

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

zeros(2,3) implies a 2 3 matrix with all elements equal to zero.

>> zeros(2,3)

ans =

0 0 0

0 0 0

Matrix Operations

If two matrices A and B are the same size, their (element-by-element) sum is obtained by

typing A + B. You can also add a scalar (a single number) to a matrix; A + c adds c to each

element in A. Likewise, A - B represents the difference of A and B, and A - c subtracts the

number c from each element of A. If A and B are multiplicatively compatible (that is, if A is

nm and B is m l), then their product A*B is n l.

Linear Algebraic Equations

A set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations [A] {x} = {b} can be solved using

MATLAB in two different ways. Use {x} = [A]

-1

{b} or {x} = [A}\{b}.

>> A=[4 -3 2;2 3 1;5 4 7]

A =

4 -3 2

2 3 1

5 4 7

>> b=[16;-1;18]

b =

16

-1

18

>> x=inv(A)*b

x =

1.0000

-2.0000

3.0000

>> x=A\b

x =

1.0000

-2.0000

3.0000

MATLAB 15 CHAPTER 2

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

The use of command eig(A) gives the Eigenvalues of the matrix [A] as column vector. The

use of command [V,D] = eig(A) gives the Eigenvalues as diagonal elements of the matrix [D]

and eigenvectors as corresponding columns of the matrix [V]. The following examples

illustrate the procedure:

>> A=[2 -2 0;-2 4 -2;0 -2 2]

A =

2 -2 0

-2 4 -2

0 -2 2

>> eig(A)

ans =

0.0000

2.0000

6.0000

>> [V,D]=eig(A)

V =

-0.5774 -0.7071 0.4082

-0.5774 0.0000 -0.8165

-0.5774 0.7071 0.4082

D =

0.0000 0 0

0 2.0000 0

0 0 6.0000

2.6 FUNCTIONS

In MATLAB you will use both built-in functions as well as functions that you create

yourself.

2.6.1 Built in Functions

MATLAB has many built-in functions. These include sqrt, cos, sin, tan, log, exp, and atan

(for arctan) as well as more specialized mathematical functions such as gamma, erf, and

besselj. MATLAB also has several built-in constants, including pi (the number ), i (the

complex number i = 1), and Inf ().

2.6.2 User-Defined Functions

You can use inline to define your own functions. Heres how to define the polynomial

function f (x) = x

2

+ x + 1:

>> f=inline('x^2+x+1','x')

f =

Inline function:

f(x) = x^2+x+1

MATLAB 16 CHAPTER 2

The first argument to inline is a string containing the expression defining the function. The

second argument is a string specifying the independent variable.

Once the function is defined, you can evaluate it:

>> f(2.5)

ans =

9.7500

MATLAB functions can operate on vectors as well as scalars. To make an inline function that

can act on vectors, we use MATLABs vectorize function. Here is the vectorized version of f

(x) = x

2

+ x + 1:

>> g=inline(vectorize('x^2+x+1'),'x')

g =

Inline function:

g(x) = x.^2+x+1

Note that ^ has been replaced by .^. Now you can evaluate g on a vector:

>> g(1:4)

ans =

3 7 13 21

2.7 GRAPHICS

In this section, we introduce MATLABs basic plotting commands and show how to use

them.

2.7.1 Graphing with ezplot

The simplest way to graph a function of one variable is with ezplot, which expects a string or

a symbolic expression representing the function to be plotted. For example, to graph x

3

+ x

on the interval 2 to 2 (using the string form of ezplot), type

>> ezplot('x^3+x',[-2,2])

The plot will appear as shown in Figure 2.2 on the screen in a new window labeled Figure

1.

We mentioned that ezplot accepts either a string argument or a symbolic expression. Using a

symbolic expression, you can produce the plot in Figure 2.2 with the following input:

>> syms x

>> ezplot(x^3+x,[-2,2])

Graphs can be misleading if you do not pay attention to the axes. For example, the input

ezplot(x3 + x + 2, [-2 2]) produces a graph that looks identical to the previous one, except

that the vertical axis has different tick marks (and MATLAB assigns the graph a different

title).

MATLAB 17 CHAPTER 2

Figure 2.2

2.7.2 Modifying Graphs

You can modify a graph in a number of ways. You can change the title above the graph in

Figure 2.2 by typing (in the Command Window, not the figure window)

>> title Cubic Equation

You can add a label on the horizontal axis with xlabel or change the label on the vertical axis

with ylabel. Also, you can change the horizontal and vertical ranges of the graph with axis.

For example, to confine the vertical range to the interval from 1 to 4, type

>> axis([-2 2 1 4])

The first two numbers are the range of the horizontal axis; both ranges must be included,

even if only one is changed.

To close the graphics window select File : Close from its menu bar, type close in the

Command Window, or kill the window the way you would close any other window on your

computer screen.

2.7.3 Graphing with plot

The command plot works on vectors of numerical data. The basic syntax is plot(x, y) where

x and y are vectors of the same length. For example,

>> x=[1 4 6 9];

>> y=[8 6 4 8];

>> plot(x,y)

MATLAB 18 CHAPTER 2

Figure 2.3

The command plot(x, y) considers the vectors x and y to be lists of the x and y coordinates of

successive points on a graph and joins the points with line segments. So, in Figure 2-5,

MATLAB connects (1, 8) to (4, 6) to (6, 4) to (9,8).

To plot x

2

+ x + 1 on the interval from 2 to 2 we first make a list x of x values, and then type

plot(x, x.2 + x + 1). We need to use enough x values to ensure that the resulting graph drawn

by connecting the dots looks smooth. Well use an increment of 0.1. Thus a recipe for

graphing the parabola as shown in Figure 2.4 is

>> x=-2:0.1:2;

>> plot(x,x.^2+x+1)

Figure 2.4

MATLAB 19 CHAPTER 2

2.7.4 Plotting Multiple Curves

Each time you execute a plotting command, MATLAB erases the old plot and draws a new

one. If you want to overlay two or more plots, type hold on. This command instructs

MATLAB to retain the old graphics and draw any new graphics on top of the old. It remains

in effect until you type hold off. Heres an example using ezplot:

>> ezplot(exp(-x), [0 10])

>> hold on

>> ezplot(sin(x), [0 10])

>> hold off

>> title exp(-x) and sin(x)

The result is shown in Figure 2.5 earlier in this chapter. The commands hold on and hold off

work with all graphics commands.

Figure 2.5

With plot, you can plot multiple curves directly. For example,

>> x = 0:0.1:10;

>> plot(x, exp(-x), x, sin(x))

Note that the vector of x coordinates must be specified once for each function being plotted.

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