Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

2.1 An introduction to IPTV
Ever wondered how TV over IP works? As AT&T continues to build out its fiber network, IPTV will become an alternative to traditional cable and satellite delivery methods. Here's your chance to learn how it works and what's in the big fiber rollout for you. IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with Video on Demand and may be bundled with Internet services such as Web access and VoIP. The commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is referred to as "Triple Play" service (when these three are offered with mobility, the service is referred to as "Quadruple Play"). IPTV is typically supplied by a service provider using a closed network infrastructure. This closed network approach is in competition with the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, called Internet Television. In businesses, IPTV may be used to deliver television content over corporate LANs.

2.2 Television is changing
Over the last decade, the growth of satellite service, the rise of

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

digital cable, and the birth of HDTV have all left their mark on the television landscape. Now, a new delivery method threatens to shake things up even more powerfully. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has arrived, and backed by the deep pockets of the telecommunications industry, it's poised to offer more interactivity and bring a hefty dose of competition to the business of selling TV. IPTV describes a system capable of receiving and displaying a video stream encoded as a series of Internet Protocol packets. If you've ever watched a video clip on your computer, you've used an IPTV system in its broadest sense. When most people discuss IPTV, though, they're talking about watching traditional channels on your television, where people demand a smooth, high-resolution, lag-free picture, and it's the telcos that are jumping headfirst into this market. Once known only as phone companies, the telcos now want to turn a "triple play" of voice, data, and video that will retire the side and put them securely in the batter's box. In this primer, we'll explain how IPTV works and what the future holds for the technology. Though IP can (and will) be used to deliver video over all sorts of networks, including cable systems, we'll focus in this article on the telcos, which are the most aggressive players in the game. They're pumping billions into new fiber rollouts and backend infrastructure (AT&T alone inked a US$400 million deal for Microsoft's IPTV Edition software last year, for instance, and a US$1.7 billion deal with hardware maker Alcatel). Why the sudden enthusiasm for the TV business? Because the telcos see that the stakes are far higher than just some television: companies that offer the triple play want to become your household's sole communications link, and IPTV is a major part of that strategy.

2.3 History of IPTV

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

IPTV is a system used to deliver digital television services to the consumers who are registered subscribers for this system. This delivery of digital television is made possible by using Internet Protocol over a broadband connection, usually in a managed network rather than the public Internet to preserve quality of service guarantees. Often, this service is provided together with Video facility on demand. In addition to this, there is provision to include Internet services such as web access and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). In cases when Internet service is also provided, then it is known as Triple Play. IPTV uses a Internet Protocol over broadband connection and very often this service has been provided in parallel with the Internet connection of the subscriber, supplied by an operator dealing with broadband. This is done by using the same infrastructure but apparently over a dedicated bandwidth allocation. Hence, it can be described as a system in which a digital television service is provided to subscribing consumers over a broadband connection using the Internet Protocol. The history of IPTV states that, IPTV is basically a fusion of voice, video, and data service. It is not a new idea or, rather, development, but it is a result of high bandwidth and high speed Internet access. In earlier days, the speed of the Internet did not suit the concept and, as a result, it affected the voice and video services. In recent times, the speed of Internet and bandwidth has increased considerably, making IPTV prevail and become reasonably successful. Also, first generation Set Top Boxes were prohibitively expensive. The technology costs now permit a viable business model. According to the history of IPTV, the year 1994, ABC's World News was the first television show to be broadcasted over the Internet, using the

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

CU-See Me videoconferencing software. The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept designed and built an Internet video product named "IPTV". It was an MBONE compatible Windows and Unix based application that moved single and multi-source audio or video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast RTP/RTCP. The software was written primarily by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, and Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was overtaken by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the "IPTV" trademark. Internet radio company Audio Net started the first continuous live web casts with content from WFAA-TV in January, 1998 and KCTU-LP on January 10, 1998.Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in UK, launched KIT that is Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over DSL broadband interactive TV service in September 1999 after conducting various TV and VoD trials. The operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with Yes TV, a provider VoD content. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VOD over ADSL as stated by the history of IPTV. India's state-owned communications services provider, Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL) will reportedly offer Internet Protocol TV services (IPTV) under the Tri-Band name, with trial services to soon start pilot runs in New Delhi and Mumbai. India currently has no policy for IPTV services, though the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has floated a consultation paper and proposed an amendment to the country's Cable TV Act to govern it. If not today, then sometime soon, as per the history of IPTV, it will become a big business. The incumbent telecom operators worldwide are investing heavily in IPTV business. Infonetics Research, a Campbell, California based research firm forecasts that there will be 68.9 million IPTV

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

subscribers by 2009.Countries like India and China, which have little or poor cable infrastructure are embracing IPTV, and so are European Union members. So far, the big growth in subscribers and revenues is coming overseas, especially in Europe.

2.4 IPTV Regulation
Historically Broadcast TV has been regulated differently than Telecom and Internet. As IPTV allows TV and VOD to be transmitted over IP networks new regulatory issues arise. Professor Eli M. Noam, highlights in his report " TV or Not TV: Three Screens, One Regulation?" some of the key challanges with sector specific regulation that is becomming obsolate due to convergence in this field. To find out more about the issues go to the Canadian Regulator and check out the report.

2.5 Definition
It is important to note that historically there have been many different definitions of "IPTV" including elementary streams over IP networks, transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. Although (in Mid 2007) it is premature to say that there is a full consensus of exactly what IPTV should mean, there is no doubt that the most widely used definition today is for single or multiple program transport streams (MPTS) which are sourced by the same network operator that owns or directly controls the "Final Mile" to the consumer's premises. This control over delivery enables a guaranteed quality of service, and also allows the service provider to offer an enhanced user experience such as

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV better program guide, interactive services etc. The follows: "IPTV is defined as multimedia official definition approved by

An Introduction to IPTV

the

International

Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG IPTV) is as

services delivered

such over

as IP

television/video/audio/text/graphics/data

based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and reliability."

2.6 Markets
While all major western countries and most developed economies have IPTV deployments, the world's leading markets for IPTV for now are France (led by Free, then Orange, then Neuf Cegetel; total of over 4 million subscriptions), South Korea (1.8 million subscriptions), Hong Kong, Japan, Italy, Spain, Belgium, China, Switzerland and Portugal. Services have also launched in Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Scandinavia and, with two competing players, Iceland. The United Kingdom launched IPTV early but has been slow to grow. IPTV is just beginning to grow in Central and Eastern Europe,now it is growing in South Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Pakistan and especially India.[8] but significant plans exist in countries such as Poland and Russia. The first IPTV service to launch on the Chinese mainland sells under the "BesTV" brand and is currently available in the cities of Shanghai and Harbin.

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

2.7 IPTV and Internet TV
A telco IPTV service is usually delivered over a complex and investment heavy walled garden network, which is carefully engineered to ensure bandwidth efficient delivery of vast amounts of multicast video traffic. The higher network quality also enables easy delivery of high quality SD or HD TV content to subscribers’ homes. This makes IPTV by default the preferred delivery platform for premium content. However the investment for a telco to build an end-to-end IPTV service can be substantial. By contrast "Internet TV" generally refers to transport streams sent over IP networks (normally the Internet) from outside the network that connects to the users premises. An Internet TV provider has no control over the final delivery and so broadcasts on a "best effort" basis. Elementary streams over IP networks and proprietary variants as used by websites such as YouTube are now rarely considered to be IPTV services. Compared to telco IPTV, Internet TV is a quick-to-market and relatively low investment service. Internet TV rides on existing infrastructure including broadband, ADSL, Wi-Fi, cable and satellite which makes it a valuable tool for a wide variety of service providers and content owners looking for new revenue streams. However, due to the fact that IPTV is always delivered over low cost IP STBs, which have limited computing power, the capability for IPTV operators to provide diverse multimedia services is limited. This is where Internet TV has an advantage as it is delivered to a subscriber's (generally) powerful PC.

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

The relative ease of establishing an Internet TV service seems at first a threat to telco IPTV operators’ multimillion dollar investment, but both services do not necessarily compete for the same customers and there are some synergies between the two such as a common technology platform in the form of web-based technologies for content storage and delivery. Broadcast IPTV has two major architecture forms: free and fee based. As of June 2006, there are over 1,300 free IPTV sources available. This sector is growing rapidly and major television broadcasters worldwide are transmitting their broadcast signal over the Internet. These free IPTV sources require only an Internet connection and an Internet enabled device such as a personal computer, HDTV connected to a computer or even a 3G cell/mobile phone to watch the IPTV content. Various Web portals offer access to these free IPTV sources. Some cite the ad-sponsored availability of TV series such as Lost as indicators that IPTV will become more prevalent. Because IPTV uses standard networking protocols, it promises lower costs for operators and lower prices for users. Using set-top boxes with broadband Internet connections, video can be streamed to households more efficiently than current coaxial cable. ISPs are upgrading their networks to bring higher speeds and to allow multiple High Definition TV channels. IPTV uses a two-way digital broadcast signal sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection and a set-top box programmed with software (much like a cable or DSS box) that can handle viewer requests to access to many available media sources. Local IPTV, as used by businesses for Audio Visual AV distribution

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

on their company networks is typically based on a mixture of: a) Conventional TV reception equipment and IPTV encoders b) IPTV Gateways that take broadcast MPEG channels and IP wrap them to create multicast streams.

2.8 How it works
First things first: the venerable set-top box, on its way out in the cable world, will make resurgence in IPTV systems. The box will connect to the home DSL line and is responsible for reassembling the packets into a coherent video stream and then decoding the contents. Your computer could do the same job, but most people still don't have an always-on PC sitting beside the TV, so the box will make a comeback. Where will the box pull its picture from? To answer that question, let's start at the source. Most video enters the system at the telco's national headend, where network feeds are pulled from satellites and encoded if necessary (often in MPEG-2, though H.264 and Windows Media are also possibilities). The video stream is broken up into IP packets and dumped into the telco's core network, which is a massive IP network that handles all sorts of other traffic (data, voice, etc.) in addition to the video. Here the advantages of owning the entire network from stem to stern (as the telcos do) really come into play, since quality of service (QoS) tools can prioritize the video traffic to prevent delay or fragmentation of the signal. Without control of the network, this would be dicey, since QoS requests are not often recognized between operators. With end-to-end control, the telcos can guarantee enough bandwidth for their signal at all times, which is key to providing the "just works" reliability consumers have come to expect from their television sets.

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

The video streams are received by a local office, which has the job of getting them out to the folks on the couch. This office is the place that local content (such as TV stations, advertising, and video on demand) is added to the mix, but it's also the spot where the IPTV middleware is housed. This software stack handles user authentication, channel change requests, billing, VoD requests, etc.—basically, all of the boring but necessary infrastructure. All the channels in the lineup are multicast from the national headend to local offices at the same time, but at the local office, a bottleneck becomes apparent. That bottleneck is the local DSL loop, which has nowhere near the capacity to stream all of the channels at once. Cable systems can do this, since their bandwidth can be in the neighborhood of 4.5Gbps, but even the newest ADSL2+ technology tops out at around 25Mbps (and this speed drops quickly as distance from the DSLAM [DSL Access Multiplier] grows). So how do you send hundreds of channels out to an IPTV subscriber with a DSL line? Simple: you only send a few at a time. When a user changes the channel on their set-top box, the box does not "tune" a channel like a cable system. (There is in fact no such thing as "tuning" anymore—the box is simply an IP receiver.) What happens instead is that the box switches channels by using the IP Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) v2 to join a new multicast group. When the local office receives this request, it checks to make sure that the user is authorized to view the new channel, then directs the routers in the local office to add that particular user to the channel's distribution list. In this way, only signals that are currently being watched are actually being sent from the local office to the DSLAM and on to the user. No matter how well-designed a network may be or how rigorous its

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

QoS controls are, there is always the possibility of errors creeping into the video stream. For unicast streams, this is less of an issue; the set-top box can simply request that the server resend lost or corrupted packets. With multicast streams, it is much more important to ensure that the network is well-engineered from beginning to end, as the user's set-top box only subscribes to the stream—it can make no requests for additional information. To overcome this problem, multicast streams incorporate a variety of error correction measures such as forward error correction (FEC), in which redundant packets are transmitted as part of the stream. Again, this is a case where owning the entire network is important since it allows a company to do everything in its power to guarantee the safe delivery of streams from one end of the network to the other without relying on third parties or the public Internet. Though multicast technology provides the answer to the problem of pumping the same content out to millions of subscribers at the same time, it does not help with features such as video on demand, which require a unique stream to the user's home. To support VoD and other services, the local office can also generate a unicast stream that targets a particular home and draws from the content on the local VoD server. This stream is typically controlled by the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), which enables DVD-style control over a multimedia stream and allows users to play, pause, and stop the program they are watching. The actual number of simultaneous video streams sent from the local office to the consumer varies by network, but is rarely more than four. The reason is bandwidth. A Windows Media-encoded stream, for instance, takes up 1.0 to 1.5Mbps for SDTV, which is no problem; ten channels could be sent at once with bandwidth left over for voice and data. But when HDTV enters the picture, it's a different story, and the 20-25Mbps capacity of the line gets eaten up fast. At 1080i, HDTV bit rates using Windows

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

Media are in the 7 to 8 Mbps range (rates for H.264 are similar). A quick calculation tells you that a couple of channels are all that can be supported. The bandwidth situation is even worse when you consider MPEG-2, which has lower compression ratios. MPEG-2 streams will require almost twice the space (3.5 Mbps for SDTV, 18-20 Mbps for HDTV), and the increased compression found in the newer codecs is one reason that AT&T will not use MPEG-2 in the rollout of its IPTV service dubbed "Uverse." Simultaneous delivery of channels is necessary to keep IPTV competitive with cable. Obviously, multiple streams are needed to support picture-in-picture, but they're also needed by DVRs, which can record one show while a user is watching another. For IPTV to become a viable wholehouse solution, it will also need to support enough simultaneous channels to allow televisions in different rooms to display different content, and juggling resulting bandwidth issues is one of the trickiest parts of implementing an IPTV network that will be attractive to consumers.

2.9 Time for a triple play
How big will the IPTV market be? Multimedia Research Group estimates that IPTV subscribers will balloon from 3.7 million in 2005 to 36.9 million by 2009 (worldwide), with Europe leading the market. The industry's revenues could reach nearly US$10 billion by that time—no small chunk of change. Still, the battle is for more than just your television; it's a struggle for the single entry point into your home. The so-called "triple play" of voice, video, and data is currently a

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

holy grail for the telcos, who need to compete with the cable companies, which already offer all three services. With both telcos and cable providers offering the triple play, it's likely that consumers will soon need only a single data pipe flowing into their home (and bundle discounts will ensure that this is the cheapest way to do things). Whichever pipe that turns out to be—cable or telephone line—will mean big money for the company that owns it. IPTV provides the missing piece that the telcos need, but the cable companies, for their part, are talking tough. "AT&T is spending years and billions of dollars to imitate a network that Comcast has already built," said spokesman Andrew Johnson. "We've seen nothing... that we can't exceed." Despite the posturing, both industries see this as an important transition time during which they need to sell customers on the merits of one-stop shopping for their communication and entertainment needs. Hopefully, the battle of words will soon give way to the price war that satellite could not fully spark, in which case IPTV, if it does nothing else, will have succeeded.

2.10 Protocols
IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video on Demand VOD). The playback of IPTV requires either a personal computer or a set-top box connected to a TV. Video content is typically compressed using either a MPEG-2 or a MPEG-4 codec and then sent in an MPEG transport stream delivered via IP Multicast in case of live TV or via IP Unicast in case of Video on Demand. IP Multicast is a method in which information can be sent to multiple computers at the same time. The newly released (MPEG-4) H.264 codec is increasingly used to replace the

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV older MPEG-2 codec.

An Introduction to IPTV

In standards-based IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used are: Live TV uses IGMP version 2 or IGMP version 3 for IPv4 for

connecting to a multicast stream (TV channel) and for changing from one multicast stream to another (TV channel change).   VOD is using the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). N-PVR (Network-based Personal Video Recorder) is also

using the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). Network Personal Video Recording is a consumer service where real-time broadcast television is captured in the network on a server allowing the end user to access the recorded programs on the schedule of their choice, rather than being tied to the broadcast schedule. The NPVR system provides time-shifted viewing of broadcast programs, allowing subscribers to record and watch programs at their convenience, without the requirement of a truly personal PVR device. It could be compared as a "PVR that is built into the network" -- however that would be slightly misleading unless the word "Personal" is, of course, changed to "Public" for this context. Subscribers can choose from the programmes available in the network-based library, when they want, without needing yet another device or remote control. However, many people would still prefer to have their own PVR device, as it would allow them to choose exactly what they want to record. This bypasses the strict copyright and licensing regulations, as well as other limitations, that often prevent the network itself from providing "on demand" access to certain programmes (see Heroes, below).

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

In Greece, On Telecoms offers an NPVR service to all subscribers in their basic package with all the programming of all major national Greek TV channels for the last 72 hours. The user has to sign in their contract that they agree that the company will record national programming of the last 72 hours FOR them so that they can come around any legal implications (like the ones mentioned here) as this service would work like a personal PVR. Currently, the only alternatives to IPTV are traditional TV distribution technologies such as terrestrial, satellite and cable. However, cable can be upgraded to two-way capability and can thus also carry IPTV.

2.11 Advantages
The IP-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP. A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the “pipe” flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer’s home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer’s choice is less restricted by the size of the “pipe” into the home. This also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with traditional

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to hack into, or at least disrupt (see Denial of Service) the private network.

Interactivity
An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalized. The supplier may, for example, include an interactive program guide that allows viewers to search for content by title or actor’s name, or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to “channel surf” without leaving the program they’re watching. Viewers may be able to look up a player’s stats while watching a sports game, or control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television, use a wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favorite show, or even adjust parental controls so their child can watch a documentary for a school report, while they’re away from home. Note that this is all possible, to some degree, with existing digital terrestrial, satellite and cable networks in tandem with modern set top boxes. In order that there can take place an interaction between the receiver and the transmitter a feedback channel is needed. Due to this terrestrial, satellite and cable networks for television does not allow interactivity. However, interactivity with those networks can be possible in the combination with different networks like internet or a mobile communication network.

VoD
VoD stands for Video on Demand. VoD permits a customer to browse an online programme or film catalogue, to watch trailers and to

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

then select a selected recording for playback. The playout of the selected movie starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV or PC. Technically, when the customer selects the movie, a point-to-point unicast connection is set up between the customer's decoder (SetTopBox or PC) and the delivering streaming server. The signalling for the trick play functionality (pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) is assured by RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol). The most common codecs used for VoD are MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and VC-1. In an attempt to avoid content piracy, the VoD content is usually encrypted. Whilst encryption of satellite and cable TV broadcasts is an old practice, with IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of as a form of Digital Rights Management. A film that is chosen, for example, may be playable for 24 hours following payment, after which time it becomes unavailable.

IPTV based Converged Services
Another advantage of an IP-based network is the opportunity for integration and convergence. This opportunity is amplified when using IMSbased solutions. Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a seamless manner to create new value added services. One good example is On-Screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID on your TV and the ability to handle it (send it to voice mail, etc). IP-based services will help to enable efforts to provide consumers anytime-anywhere access to content over their televisions, PCs and cell phones (for and example to see http://www.ericsson.com/campaign/televisionary/), integrate

services and content to tie them together. Within businesses and

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV deliver live and stored video services.

An Introduction to IPTV

institutions, IPTV eliminates the need to run a parallel infrastructure to

2.12 Limitations
IPTV is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the streamed data is unreliable. IPTV has strict minimum speed requirements in order to facilitate the right number of frames per second to deliver moving pictures. This means that the limited connection speed/bandwidth available for a large IPTV customer base can reduce the service quality delivered. Although a few countries have very high speed broadband-enabled populations, such as South Korea with 6 million homes benefiting from a minimum connection speed of 100Mbps, in other countries (such as the UK) legacy networks struggle to provide 3-5Mbps and so simultaneous provision to the home of TV channels, VOIP and Internet access may not be viable. The last mile delivery for IPTV usually has a bandwidth restriction that only allows a small number of TV channels – typically from one to three – to be delivered. The same problem has also proved troublesome when attempting to stream IPTV across wireless links within the home. Improvements in wireless technology are now starting to provide equipment to solve the problem.

Latency
The latency inherent in the use of satellite internet is often held up as reason why satellites cannot be successfully used for IPTV, but in

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV

An Introduction to IPTV

practice latency is not an important factor for IPTV. An IPTV service does not require real-time transmission, as is the case with telephony or videoconferencing services. It is the latency of response to requests to change channel, display an EPG, etc that most affects customers’ perceived quality of service, and these problems affect satellite IPTV no more than terrestrial IPTV. Indeed, command latency problems, faced by terrestrial IPTV networks with insufficient bandwidth as their customer base grows, may be solved by the high capacity of satellite distribution. Satellite distribution does suffer from latency – the time for the signal to travel up from the hub to the satellite and back down to the user is around 0.25 seconds, and cannot be reduced. However, the effects of this delay are mitigated in real-life systems using data compression, TCPacceleration, and HTTP pre-fetching. Satellite latency can be detrimental to especially time-sensitive applications such as on-line gaming (although it only seriously affects the likes of first-person shooters while many MMOGs can operate well over satellite internet), but IPTV is typically a simplex operation (one-way transmission) and latency is not a critical factor for video transmission. Existing video transmission systems of both analogue and digital formats already introduce known quantifiable delays. Indeed, existing DVB TV channels that simulcast by both terrestrial and satellite transmissions, experience the same 0.25s delay difference between the two services with no detrimental effect, and it goes unnoticed by viewers.

Privacy implications

Development of IPTV PTCL Smart TV being watched.

An Introduction to IPTV

AS IPTv is a two way protocol the ISP knows which program is

2.13 Vendors
A small number of companies supply most current IPTV systems. Some, such as Imagenio, were formed by telecoms operators themselves, to minimise external costs, a tactic also used by PCCW of Hong Kong. Some major telecoms vendors are also active in this space, notably Huawei of China (IPTV Solution) Alcatel-Lucent (sometimes working with Imagenio), Ericsson (notably since acquiring Tandberg Television), NEC, Thomson, Logic Innovations, and ZTE, as are some IT houses, led by Microsoft. California-based UTStarcom, Inc., Tennessee-based Worley Consulting and Tokyo-based The New Media Group also offer end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV-based services, and Hong Kong-based BNS Ltd. provides turnkey open platform IPTV technology solutions. Global sales of IPTV systems exceeded 2 billion USD in 2007. Many of these IPTV solution vendors participated in the biennial Global MSF Interoperability 2008 (GMI) event which was coordinated by the MultiService Forum (MSF) at five sites worldwide from 20- to 31October 2008. Test equipment vendors including Empirix, Ixia, Mu Dynamics and Spirent joined solution vendors such as the companies listed above in one of the largest IPTV proving grounds ever deployed.

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