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Viscously Damped

Systems; Frequency Response Characteristics and Phase Lag; Systems with Base Excitation;

Transmissibility and Vibration Isolation; Whirling of Shafts and Critical Speed.

Lecture 22 : Phase and Phasor representation

Objectives

In this lecture you will learn the following

Phase between excitation and response.

Phasor analysis of resonance behaviour.

So far we focussed our attention on the amplitude of vibration and let us now look at the phase as given

below:

(9.2.1)

Fig 9.2.1 Variation of Phase angle with frequency ratio

The variation of the phase with the frequency of excitation is shown in Fig. 9.2.1

For an undamped system, as seen in the figure,

Phase = 0 degree for <

Phase = 90 degree for =

Phase = 180 degree for >

even if there is damping in the system, the phase will be 90 degree for = . This condition is

therefore often used to identify the occurrence of resonance in an experiment.

Let us now discuss and understand the physical meaning of phase between the excitation and the response.

The excitation and response of undamped system have zero phase difference for all values of forcing

frequency less than the natural frequency of the system i.e., response is said to be in phase with the

excitation. When the forcing frequency is greater than the natural frequency of the system, the phase

difference becomes exactly 180 degree i.e., the response is in phase-opposition to the excitation. In a phasor

diagram, the excitation and response can be plotted as shown in Fig. 9.2.2. In an undamped system as we

are discussing here, there are essentially three forces viz., externally applied excitation force, force

representing spring resistance, inertia force. These three force vectors are also plotted in this figure for all

the cases. Of particular interest is the case of resonance. At resonance( = ), if (Sin t) then

the acceleration =- Sin t. Hence the spring resistance force and the inertia force magnitudes are

given by:

Spring force (9.2.2)

Interia force (9.2.3)

Fig 9.2.2 Phasor representation of forces in an undamped system

Since the natural frequency of the system is given by

= k/m, we see that the spring and inertia forces are

exactly equal and opposite as indicated in the figure. In

view of the 90 degree phase difference between the

excitation and response, the excitation goes unbalanced

and keeps pumping energy into the system in each cycle

thus leading to a build-up of the amplitudes .Fig. 9.2.1

shows the variation of the phase with respect to the

forcing frequency. Due to the presence of viscous

damping, the response always lags the excitation.

Irrespective of the value of damping, the phase is always

90 degree when = i.e., = 1. This is in fact used

to identify the occurrence of resonance condition in an

experiment. Fig. 9.2.3 (similar to Fig. 9.2.2) shows the

phasor representation of spring resistance force, viscous

damping force, inertia force and the externally applied

excitation force for the cases when < 1, = 1 and >

1. It is observed that at resonance the spring force and

inertia force match each other exactly (like in the case of

undamped system) while the damping force balances the

external excitation force. This is another way of

interpreting how the damping limits the vibratory

response at resonance, while the vibration amplitudes

build-up to infinitely large values for undamped systems.

In the case of a damped system, we observe that the

viscous damping force (being proportional to velocity

and hence 90 degree phase to the displacement

response) balances the external disturbance force and

limits the displacement to a finite value.

A pertinent question to ask at this stage is as follows

what happens if the system is excited at resonance, will

the amplitude immediately shoot up to infinity and the

system fails? Fortunately the answer is no in all

practical systems, there is damping present (however

small) and hence the response will not immediately

shoot up to infinity. Secondly, it can be readily shown

that at resonance the amplitude of vibration keeps

building up with time approximately in a linear fashion

i.e., it surely increases with time but it does take finite

time to build up to a dangerously huge value. So what

does this mean it implies that when operating a

machine, if a resonance condition needs to be crossed,

we should rush through the critical speed without

letting the system build up enough vibration. This is

followed in many practical system e.g., steam turbines

where the operating rotational speeds are beyond the

fundamental critical speed of the shaft.

Fig 9.2.3 Phasor representation of

forces in a viscously damped system

Practical Implication

Spring and Mass (Inertia) control the value of the natural frequency but have no role to play in

deciding the amplitude of vibration near resonance. Design of the damper critically affects the

dynamics of the system near resonance and could potentially determine whether or not the system

fails.

As the mass is subjected to the excitation

force and undergoes vibratory motion, some

of the force is transmitted to the ground

through the spring and the damper. This force

can be represented in a graphical manner as

shown in Fig. 11.2.4 and the magnitude can

be readily computed as follows:

Fig 11.2.4 Force transmitted to foundation

(11.2.4)

While mounting many machines, we wish to ensure that F

T

is as small as possible.

Recap

In this lecture you have learnt the following

Relation between phase angle and frequency ratio

Phasor representation of vibration systems in damping.

Role of damping in supressing the vibrations.

Concept of force transmissibility.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 2 To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page.

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