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CHAPTER I
Introduction
Conflict is an essential & unavoidable human phenomenon because there is human
interaction there is a likelihood of personal like & dislike. School like other organization are
prone to one or other type of problem It can be internal (within oneself) or external (between
two or more individuals).Conflict can arise between members of the same group, known
as intragroup conflict, or it can occur between members of two or more groups, it known
as intergroup conflict. Interpersonal conflict represents such a struggle between two or more
people, while internal conflict is a mental struggle. Possible sources of conflict are poor
communication, competition for common resources, differences in values, goals, individual
differences, difference in activities. Prevention is best solution for handling conflict (Robbin ,
2001).
A conflict is a disagreement between two or more parties concerning the activities
used to achieve certain goals (Berger, 2003).
Conflict is incompatible behavior between parties whose interests differ (Brown, 1983,
p. 4).
Management is a specific type of work in education which comprises those regulative
tasks or actions executed by a person or body in a position of authority in a specific field or area
of regulation so as to allow formative education to place (Vander, 1991).
Management is a specific type of work, which is goal orientated and consists of a
process involving people (Randall, 1975, p.38).
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Conflict management involves doing things to limit the negative aspects of conflict & to
increase the positive aspect of conflict. It is reduction, elimination and termination of all types of
conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning & group outcomes, including,
effectiveness or performance in organization setting (Gray, 1984).
According to Moran (2001) Conflict management is a philosophy and a set of skills that
assist individuals and groups in better understanding and dealing with conflict as it arises in all
aspects of their lives.
Conflict management is the process of removing cognitive barriers to agreement (Mondy,
1986. p. 50).
Teachers as well as administrators face the perennial challenge of maintaining an orderly
classroom and schools. They must make sure students are "on task" and learning. They must find
ways to keep behavior problems to a minimum. And they must decide how to deal with those
discipline problems that inevitably arise. Conflict Management Strategies playing a important
role in this task. Due to its a teacher can create positive class environment, safety, more teaching
time, motivate one to work more efficient, and can build healthy mutually respectful
relationships among student.School Administrators improve the entire school environment to
create a safe community whose members embrace nonviolence and multicultural appreciation by
the help of Controlling, Compromising, Negotiation, and Mediation Strategies (Ainscow , 2000)
Conflict management strategies refer to the internal mechanism used by the various
authorities in resolving conflict. Conflict management strategies include avoidance,
collaboration, competition, compromise and accommodation. Accommodating refer when you
cooperate to a high-degree, and it may be at your own expense, and actually work against your
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own goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. Avoiding this is when you simply avoid the issue.
Collaborating this is where you partner or pair up with the other party to achieve both of your
goals. Competing this is the win-lose approach Compromising this is the lose-lose
scenario where neither party really achieves what they want. The most important management
strategies are mediation, negotiation, avoidance & collaborative (Luthans,1985).
School administration is define as a social process concern with identifying ,
maintaining, stimulating controlling & unifying formally & informally organized human &
material energies within and integrate system designed to accomplished predetermine
objectives. In any administration process, there may a lot of barriers in the way of smooth &
effective administration, such barriers unexpected & sudden load of work create restlessness
disturbance .This situation lead to frustration & this increase frustration causes conflict situation
conflict management use to finish this frustration. In education institution teachers use conflict
management strategies & approaches to reduce frustration ,tension & conflict situation in the
institute for the achievement of goals in the field of education teacher is just like a spinal cord
who play a vital role in behaviour modification and academic progress of student. Teachers are
an extremely important facet of any society for a multitude of reasons. Teachers are the people
who educate the youth of society who in turn become the leaders of the next generation of
people. In performing their duties they come across many problems manage their responsibility
and problem. The result of such situation causes conflict for teachers (Scott, 2005).
After having literature review it was found that a little research has been conducted on
this topic. So I decided this topic for research purpose.


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Statement of Problem
The research aims to identify Conflict Management Strategies used by Administrators and
Teachers at Secondary Level.
Significance of Study
This problem is abundantly present in our institution, so it is need of the time that this
problem must be solved. To run and institution in proper way both administrator and teacher
important without cooperation of administration there will be no progress.
This study helps to know the types of management strategies and the effectiveness
of each strategy in conflict management in schools.
This will enable teachers and administrators to develop a suitable policy for dealing with
each type of conflict in order to prevent destructive conflicts in school .
It will help to determine the causes of conflict and their resolvement for administration
and teachers.
This study produced evidence that could help the management and teachers of the
schools at the local level, the district education offices, provincial education offices as
well as other stakeholders in education.
Students, teachers, head teachers, general readers, educators and researchers in the field
of conflict management strategies which used at secondary level should find the study
useful as an authoritative piece of references.
Objectives of the Study.
The objectives of the Study were:
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To find out the types of conflicts management strategies used by teachers &
administrators in secondary schools of Lahore city.
To bring forth similarities in conflict management strategies used by teachers and
administrators of government and private school.
Research Questions of the Study
Research Questions of the Study were:
Which are the strategies used by teachers & administrators to manage conflict at secondary
level in Lahore city.
What are the similarities in conflict management strategies used by teachers and
administrators at Secondary Level.
Delimitations
The study was delimited to:
10
th
class
Lahore city




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Chapter ll
Review of Related Literature
Concept of Conflict
A state of mind in which a person experiences a clash of opposing feelings or needs .A
serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interest. However, conflict
in academic settings is a daily occurrence because a consensus of opinion concerning rules
governing the school seldom exists among the participants administrators, teachers, students,
and parents. These parties particularly administrators and students see one another as adversaries
not as those working toward a common goal as is generally the case in other organizations. In
particular secondary school principals and teachers are expected to deal with conflict situations
not only on a daily basis but frequently on an hourly basis. These administrators are primarily
responsible for the management of discipline there is potential for conflict in practically every
decision which the administrator must make. Schools frequently appear to be centers of tension
on occasion they are perhaps a manifestation of problems in the community. It is obviously
necessary for administrators and teachers to be able to recognize conflict to view its constructive
as well as destructive potential, to learn how to manage conflict and to apply conflict
management strategies in a practical way (Bloomfield, 1997, p.37).
Definition of conflict
Conflict is incompatible behavior between parties whose interests differ (Brown, 1983,
p. 4)
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Hocker and Wilmot (1985) define Conflict expressed as struggle between at least two
interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from
the other party in achieving their goals (p.32)
Nature of conflict
A conflict is an interaction between adversaries who have different opinions or want
different outcomes to some situation. An argument is a verbal conflict. A fistfight is a physical
conflict. An election campaign is a political conflict. A courtroom trial is a legal conflict. A war
is an armed military conflict. There can even be an internal conflict in the mind of a single
person, when he's debating whether to kill himself (Lyle, 1996).
Sources of Conflict
The possible sources of conflict are poor communication, competition for common but
scarce resources, incompatible goals. Fisher (1997) notesBoth individuals and groups have
undeniable needs for identity, dignity, security, equity, participation in decisions that affect them.
Frustration of these basic needs becomes a source of social conflict (p.83)
According to Plunkett and Attner (1989), the sources of conflict include shared resources,
differences in goals, difference in perceptions and values, disagreements in the role
requirements, nature of work activities, individual approaches, and the stage of organizational
development. Gray and Stark (1984) suggested that there are six sources of conflict. These are
1) Limited resources 2) Interdependent work activities 3) Differentiation of activities 4)
Communication problems 5) Differences in perceptions 6) The environment of the organization.

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Positive and Negative aspects of conflict
Hocker and Wilmot (1985) have assumed that conflict have negative effects in the
organization, which are listed as follow,
A conflict gives positive effects if it is handled constructively. It brings
Positive change in the society
Opportunity for newer possibilities
Renewal in relationships
Increase in productivity of all sectors
These effects of conflict will bring positive change that will aid in the development of
the society.
A conflict gives negative effects if it is not handled properly.
It has been proved that harmony is normal and any problem situation is abnormal.
Whether in organization or individual capacity conflicts and disagreements is always
one and the same phenomena.
For descalation of the adverse effects of conflict proper measures must be initiated.
One main reason of conflicts is a clash of personality.
Difference exists between emotions and a true conflict



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Types of Conflict
According to (Seals, 2002) there are four main types of conflict
Interpersonal Conflict
Refers to a conflict between two individuals. This occurs typically due to how people are
different from one another we have varied personalities which usually results to incompatible
choices and opinions. However, when interpersonal conflict gets too destructive calling in
a mediator would help so as to have it resolved.
Intrapersonal Conflict
Occurs within an individual. The experience takes place in the persons mind. Hence, it is
a type of conflict that is psychological involving the individuals thoughts, values, principles and
emotions. It leads to restlessness and uneasiness or can even cause depression. In such occasions
it would be best to seek a way to let go of the anxiety through communicating with other people.
Intragroup Conflict
Is a type of conflict that happens among individuals within a team. The incompatibilities
and misunderstandings among these individuals lead to an intragroup conflict. It is arises from
interpersonal disagreements (e.g. team members have different personalities which may lead to
tension) or differences in views and ideas (e.g. in a presentation, members of the team might find
the notions presented by the one presiding to be erroneous due to their differences in opinion).
However if the degree of conflict disrupts harmony among the members, then some serious
guidance from a different party will be needed for it to be settled.
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Intergroup Conflict
Takes place when a misunderstanding arises among different teams within an
organization. Competition also contributes for intergroup conflict to arise. Conflict may seem to
be a problem to some but this isnt how conflict should be perceived. On the other hand it is an
opportunity for growth and can be an effective means of opening up among groups or
individuals. However when conflict begins to draws back productivity and gives way to more
conflicts then conflict management would be needed to come up with a resolution.
Substantive Conflict
Appears when a basic disagreement arises between the two organizations at a
fundamental level. As an example here conflict between Ethical Treatment of Animals
organization and an organization that carries on experiments on laboratory animals.
Emotional Conflict
Takes place when people from different organizations react on an emotional level out of
fear, jealousy, envy or stubbornness.
Cultural Conflict
Is based on cultural needs and desires. These conflicts are often the result of
misunderstanding and stereotyping.
Process of Conflict
According to (Chandan , 1987) the process of conflict consist on five stages which are following.
Stage 1 :Potential opposition or incompatibility
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The first step in the conflict process is the presence on conditions that create
opportunities for conflict to rise. These cause or create opportunities for conflict to rise. These
causes or sources of conflict have been condenses into three general categories
(1) Communications (2) Structure (3) Personal Variables.
Communications
The term communication consists of different words connotations and jargon. Insufficient
exchange of information and noise in communication channel can be the reasons for
conflict. Thus, either too much or too little communication can be the foundation for
conflict
Structure
The term structure is used in this context to include variables such as size, degree of
specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, members/
goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence
between groups.The size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger
the group and the more specialized its activities the greater the likelihood of conflict.
Tenure and conflict have been found to be inversely related. The potential for conflicts
tends to be greatest when group members are younger and when turnover is high. The
greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibility for action lies the greater the
potential for conflict to emerge. Such Jurisdictional ambiguity increases inter group
fighting for control or resources and territory.
Personal Variables
Certain personality types for example individuals who are highly authoritarian and
dogmatic lead to potential conflict. Another reason for conflict is difference in value
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systems. Value differences are the best explanations of diverse issues such as prejudice
disagreements over ones contribution to the group and rewards one deserves.
Stage 2: Cognition and personalization:
In this step conflict issues should be defined. Parties decide what the conflict is about and
emotions play a major role in creating perceptions.
Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue.
If no one is aware of a conflict then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. Because conflict
is perceives does not mean that is personalized. For e.g. A may be aware that B and A are in
serious disagreements but it may not make A tense or nations and it may have no effect
whatsoever on As affection towards B It is the felt level when individuals become emotionally
involved that parties experience anxiety , tension or hostility.
Stage 3: Intentions
Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between peoples
perception and emotions and their overt behavior.
Using two dimensions cooperativeness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the
other partys concerns) and assertiveness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or
her own concerns) . Five conflict handling intentions can be identified.
Competing
When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the
other parties to the conflic, he is competing.



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Collaborating
A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all
the parties. In collaborating the intention o the parties are to solve the problem by clarifying
differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.
Avoiding
A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress
it. Avoiding included trying to just ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you
disagree.
Accommodating
The willingness of one party in conflict to place the opponents interest above his or her
own.
Compromising
A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. They define each partys
purpose. Yet people intention is not fixed. During the course of conflict they might change
because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other
party.
Stage 4 : Behavior
This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stage includes the
statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are
usually overt attempt to implement each partys intentions.


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Stage 5: Outcomes
The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result in consequences.
These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the groups
performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.
Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions simulates creativity and
innovations encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium
through which problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self
evaluation and change.
Conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve
common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the more undesirable
consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness and
subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members.

Methods to resolve conflict
Focus on Your Child's Needs - Tell the Teacher Your Concerns
When disagreements cross the line and become conflicts parents and teachers are usually
both frustrated. Parents understand that conflicts are not just unpleasant. Conflicts can also affect
the child involved. To get through the conflict issues. Focus on your child's needs and not the
emotional tone of the conflict.
When You and the School Disagree on What Your Child Needs
Disagreements are typically rooted in conflicting opinions, emotions, and
communication. Listen carefully to others' arguments to try understanding their point of view.
Ask questions with the intention of understanding.
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Handling Disagreements Related to Conflicting Perceptions and Opinions
If teachers perceptions are inaccurate inform them without being critical. Allow each
person to express opinions without interruption. Ask questions to clarify points. Be mindful of
your body language and comments. The more poised and professional you are, the more your
position will be respected.
4. Control Your Anger and Frustration - Emotions Stall the Resolution Process
To prevent emotions and stress from derailing resolution recognize and understand
educators' emotions as well as your own. Get to the root cause of the problem by talking about
your feelings. It can be helpful to state your concerns in a form that focuses on the problem and
not the person.
5. If There is No Communication, There is No Conflict Resolution
Improve understanding and reduce conflict by
Being a good listener. Ask questions for clarification and reflect the message back to the
speaker. Ask if your understanding is correct.
Speak clearly and efficiently. Make brief notes to remind you of the points you want to
discuss. Ask questions to ensure your points were understood. Try not to wander off topic.
Speak for yourself and your child. Tell how the problem affects your child what you have
done to correct it, and what help you need from the school to address the problem more
effectively.
Be open to other opinions on what may help. Be willing to try other options when possible
The first rule of course is not to fight.
Dont engage people in battle unless you know for sure that you are going to win
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Dont attack walled cities
If you really must fight then move rapidly
Build a strong position.

Concept of Conflict Management
Secondary schools play an important role in providing knowledge for further education as
well as contributing to the county by providing work force to the community. Conflict has been
viewed differently by different, according to them it connotes negative impact as is viewed in
war destruction, aggression, violence, and competition. Human beings interact with each other
for their mutual give and take and as such come in conflict with another. The idea of any type of
conflict and its management strategies in not only limited to the education institutions only but it
can always and often be found in other disciplines as well.
Therefore it is mandatory that while conflict management strategies are developed field
experiences should be taken into consideration ( Aanthon , 1988).
Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while
increasing the positive aspects of conflict. Conflict management is an effective catalyst or
motivating force for bringing change in the institution. That is the main reason for the teachers or
administrator which approach is best for bringing a positive change in the organization and
amicable change in the behaviors of the students (Mohiyuddin, 1956, p.58).


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Definitions of Conflict Management
It is a process of cooperative confrontation. (Thomas, 1971, p. 1) Conflict management
involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution, self-awareness about conflict modes,
conflict communication skills and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your
environment. Conflict management helps to find middle way an alternative to any problem and
successful implementation of the idea. It is very important because it is always wise to prevent a
fight at the first place rather than facing its negative consequences
The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes including
effectiveness or performance in organizational setting (Gray, 1984, p. 209).
Conflict Management Strategies
Conflict management strategies are fundamental to peaceful coexistence in any
organization. Strategies referred as long-term management of conflicts. Since conflict is
seemingly unavoidable particularly in a scholarly setting it is obviously necessary for
administrators and teachers to be able to recognize conflict to view its constructive as well as
destructive potential to learn how to manage conflict, and to apply conflict management
strategies in a practical way. It influences individual wellbeing group performance and
organizational effectiveness in positive way. It provides a solution that is satisfactory for all. The
management strategies commonly used in the secondary schools in the municipality is
avoidance, collaboration, competition, compromise, and accommodation (Thomas,1976).


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Conflict management Strategies Used by Teachers
Schools are one of the first places where kids behavior and future educational success is
shape. Teachers are carriers of either positive or negative behavior toward students. Teachers
must love their career in order for them to pass enthusiasm to assists and to provide a warm
environment to the students. Teacher is someone who becomes through many years of training
and experiences in the field. A teacher carries a big responsibility in her classroom. One reason is
that all students depend on her/him. Everything the teacher says will have an impact on the
students. If the teacher feels joy of feels anger it will be spread among children because the
attitudes of the teacher gets contagious. If something goes wrong the only responsible is the
teacher even if it was not their foul. The teacher must create a warm and protective environment
but at the same time professional. If students feel secure in the classroom the result will be
shown in the academic progress.
Whenever student incivility occurs in the classroom it needs to be addressed. Conflicts
always exist in a working environment its total elimination from the class cant be thought of.
Its therefore required of that these must be properly managed. It depends on the situation as
well as the teacher personal preference which styles they want to adopt to deal with conflict. The
teacher should adopt the style which best suit them and the situation which is in need of ending
the conflict. It is the duty of teacher to acknowledge it or take any action to stifle it. This can
often lead to the behavior being repeated in the future. This will not only poison the classroom
atmosphere but can also affect the morale of the instructor. These Strategies used by teacher
whenever conflict accour in classroom (Robert,1998).
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Its include 1) Integration 2) Negotiation 3) Problem Solving 4) Authoritative Command
5) Role Playing 6) Mediation. .
Integration
It is the most effective technique in cases when different goals or ideals are being sought.
Integration is achieved through face-to-face dialogue and brainstorming in order to understand
the conflict and evaluate the worth of suggestions. This technique is useful for example when
two department heads are at odds over the use of the facilities that one has jurisdiction over.
Negotiation
Occurs when two disputing parties work together unassisted, to resolve their dispute.
Negotiation is a process whereby two persons or groups strive to reach agreement on issues or
courses of action where there is some degree of difference in interest, goals, values or beliefs.
The job of the negotiator is to build credibility with the other side, find some common
ground (shared interests), learn the opposing position and share information that will persuade
the other side to agree to an outcome.
Problem Solving
This also known as confrontation. It seeks resolution of disagreements through face-to-
face confrontation of the conflicting parties. Rather than accommodating various points of view
this approach aims at solving the problem. It does not determine who is right who is wrong, who
wins, or who loses. Conflict stemming from semantic misunderstanding can be quickly and
effectively alleviated in this manner.
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Accommodating
This is when you cooperate to a high degree and it may be at your own expense and
actually work against your own goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. This approach is
effective when the other party is the expert or has a better solution. It can also be effective for
preserving future relations with the other party. Accommodating maintains relationships
Role Playing
Role playing can bring a level of levity to conflict resolution. When students are placed
in opposing roles than what they may play in a real life situation it teaches them empathy and
forces them to look at actions from another point of view.
Role playing may also provide insights into just where the conflicts are arising from. Rather than
having conflicts rise with statements like well, how would you like it if I did this to you?
Conflicts can be looked at from more objective, role playing standpoints. If you are looking for
effective conflict resolutions ideas for your classroom consider the power of role playing.
Avoiding
This is when you simply avoid the issue. You arent helping the other party reach their
goals, and you arent assertively pursuing your own. This works when the issue is trivial or
when you have no chance of winning. It can also be effective when the issue would be very
costly. Its also very effective when the atmosphere is emotionally charged and you need to
create some space. Sometimes issues will resolve themselves but hope is not a strategy and in
general avoiding is not a good long term strategy.
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Mediation
Occurs when two disputing parties work together assisted by a neutral third party called
the mediator to resolve their dispute. Mediation do not make decisions but rather work towards a
win-win resolution for both sides in order to avoid further trouble. School-based programs
instructing youth in mediating peer conflicts give youth participants the communication, anger
management, leadership, and decision-making skills that help them to remain resilient against
crime, violence and substance abuse.
Collaborating
This is where you partner or pair up with the other party to achieve both of your goals.
This is how you break free of the win-lose paradigm and seek the win-win. This can be
effective for complex scenarios where you need to find a novel solution. This can also mean re-
framing the challenge to create a bigger space and room for everybodys ideas.
Compromising
This is the lose-lose scenario where neither party really achieves what they want. This
requires a moderate level of assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate for scenarios
where you need a temporary solution or where both sides have equally important goals. The
trap is to fall into compromising as an easy way out when collaborating would produce a better
solution. Possible advantages of compromise:
If time is one of the most important conditions Compromising can be very useful as it
provides faster way of conflict resolution.
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Compromising decreases the levels of tension and stress which can be consequences of
conflict.
Disadvantages of using compromise strategy
As a result of using Compromising both parties may not be satisfied with the outcome
(A lose-lose situation).
Conflict management Used by Administrators
The ability to successfully minimize and resolve conflict is an important skill for school
administrators to develop. A major reason for this is that administrators are faced with the
classic confrontation between individual needs and organizational needs, requiring them to spend
a major part of their time attempting conflict mediation. The appropriate management strategy
in a given situation requires accurate identification of both the conflict origin and participants
and their relationships in order to apply the most effective resolution technique. First of all the
school administrator should be aware of the timely recognition of conflicts and that he should
promptly respond to the misunderstandings among his subordinates educators and the students
too (Malek , 1985).
Secondly he should utilize collective judgment in order to overcome his personal biases.
Third and most importantly when one understands that conflicts are going to become out of
control then the best and most suitable way is to judge his resources see his enemys strength and
to handle the conflict what plan of action needs to be adopted how the decision would be
implemented and how to prepare oneself for the possible attack. And at the final stage the school
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administrator should be clear and very realistic about his merits and or demerits for managing
conflict (Anthon , 1988).
. Since conflict is inevitable in schools administrators must be prepared to deal with it
not necessarily from the point of view of elimination, but rather to derive the greatest possible
benefits there from. Consequently, conflict anticipation and detection should always constitute
the first two phases of good conflict management. That is proration rather than reaction should
be the motto. An important point must be borne in mind when attempting to deal effectively
with organizational conflict namely that any one method will not apply to all situations or all
personalities. There are five important strategies witch help administrators to resolve conflict
(Rouldsepp , 2002)
Accommodating
This is when you cooperate to a high degree and it may be at your own expense and
actually work against your own goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. This approach is
effective when the other party is the expert or has a better solution. It can also be effective for
preserving future relations with the other party. Accommodating maintains relationships.
Possible advantages of accommodating style:
In some cases accommodating can help to resolve more important issues while giving
up on some less important ones. Gives an opportunity to assess the situation from
another point of view.
Disadvantages of accommodating style:
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An opponent may constantly take advantage of Smoothing/Accommodating style thus
it is a danger to be abused.
The confidence in the ability to respond to an aggressive response can be decreased. It
makes it more difficult to apply the same conflict management style in the future.
Some of the supporters may not like the application of accommodating style.
Avoiding
This is when you simply avoid the issue. You arent helping the other party reach their
goals and you arent assertively pursuing your own. This works when the issue is trivial or when
you have no chance of winning. It can also be effective when the issue would be very costly.
Its also very effective when the atmosphere is emotionally charged and you need to create some
space. Sometimes issues will resolve themselves, but hope is not a strategy, and, in general,
avoiding is not a good long term strategy.
Possible advantages of avoidance conflict style:
When a partner is forcing aggression, a person may choose to postpone a response until
he/she will be in a more favorable position to push back.
Conflict avoidance is a low stress style; in this situation the conflict is short.
Allows preparation time before acting.
Disadvantages of conflict avoidance approach
A person can lose his/her position.
If there is no any action it can be interpreted as an agreement.
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Avoidance of a conflict may negatively effect on relationships with a party that expects
some actions (Conflict Management Techniques, 2012).
Collaborating
This is where you partner or pair up with the other party to achieve both of your goals. This
is how you break free of the win-lose paradigm and seek the win-win. This can be effective for
complex scenarios where you need to find a novel solution. This can also mean re-framing the
challenge to create a bigger space and room for everybodys ideas. The downside is that it
requires a high-degree of trust and reaching a consensus can require a lot of time and effort to get
everybody on board and to synthesize all the ideas. Possible advantages of collaborating
Collaborating style helps to reach a win-win outcome.
Increases trust and respect.
Can lead to the effective collaboration in the future.
Gives a chance to the parties to share risks and responsibility of the outcome.
Some disadvantages of collaborating
Requires a contribution of all parties to find a mutually acceptable solution.
It can take a lot of time and efforts than other. A win-win solution may not worth the
efforts that were spent.
It can be not practical approach the time is an important factor.
If the trust is lost relationships can be spoiled and an individual should choose other
method of conflict resolution (Dayton , 2006)
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Competing
This is the win-lose approach. You act in a very assertive way to achieve your goals
without seeking to cooperate with the other party and it may be at the expense of the other
party. This approach may be appropriate for emergencies when time is of the essence or when
you need quick, decisive action, and people are aware of and support the approach. Situations
where competing style may be appropriate. In the case when less forceful methods dont work
or are not effective. When a person needs to fight for his/her own rights.
Possible advantages of competing style.
May help to resolve conflict in a quick way.
The actions of the organization were a response to an aggression. In this situation self-
esteem of the company is increasing.
Disadvantages of competing style.
May negatively affect relationships with the opponent in the long term.
The opponent can react in the same way, even if he used to be forceful originally.
This approach takes a lot of energy, thus it can be exhausting to some individuals
Compromising
This is the lose-lose scenario where neither party really achieves what they want. This
requires a moderate level of assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate for scenarios
where you need a temporary solution or where both sides have equally important goals. The
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trap is to fall into compromising as an easy way out when collaborating would produce a better
solution. Possible advantages of compromise:
If time is one of the most important conditions Compromising can be very useful as it
provides faster way of conflict resolution.
Compromising decreases the levels of tension and stress which can be consequences of
conflict.
Disadvantages of using compromise:
As a result of using Compromising both parties may not be satisfied with the outcome (a
lose-lose situation).
This approach doesnt contribute to building trust in the long term.
May be required close monitoring and control when parties want to be sure that their
agreements are met (Thomas , 1976)






28

Chapter
Methodology and Procedure of the Study
This chapter deal with the nature of research, population, sample and detail procedure. It also
provides detail about construction of instrument, procedure of data collection and data analysis.
The nature of research was descriptive and survey method was used for it.
Population of Study
Population of study was comprised of all the teacher and administrators of government
and private secondary school of Lahore city.
Sample of Study
Research adopted random method of sampling to select government and private schools,
administrators and teachers of these schools were also selected by using random method of
sampling. Total sample size was consisted of 100 teachers and 20 administrators of government
and private secondary school.
Tool of Research
Questionnaires were prepared as a tool of research for data collection. Questionnaire for
teacher was consisted of 25 statements. Questionnaire for administrators was also consisted of 25
statements Five point likert type scale was used for data collection it ranging from strongly agree
to strongly disagree.


29

Data Collection
Researcher personally distributed the copies of questionnaire among the respondents.
These were returned back after 15 days and rate of return was 100%.
Data Analysis
After data collection the data was analyzed by using mean response value, co. relation, t,
statistics and percentage method, and its result represent into tabular method in chapter iv. Result
were drown on the basis of data











30

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation. Data were collected
for 100 teachers and 20 administrators of government and private school of
Lahore city. Data obtained from the teacher have been presented in table
number 4.1 to 4.10, and data obtained from administrators have been
presented 4.1 to 4.6. Data was analyzed by using co-relation , percentage, t
,statistics and mean response value method. Graphical representation was also
presented at the end of each table.












31


Table4.1: Responses of Teachers about Compromising Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr#
Compromising strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I try to see conflicts from sides, what I need and what the other
person needs.
21 70 5 2 1
2 I prefer to compromise when solving problems and just move on. 0 68 3 2 26
3 I always willing to listen to other opinion, but me also want to
give them mine.
26 69 3 1 0
4 I am a decision maker but I make a point of listening to other
to find the best solution.
29 70 0 0 0

Analysis of table show that
Seventy 70% percent teachers were agreed, 21% strongly agreed who see conflict from both side
what their need and what the other person wants. And the remaining 15 percent teachers were
disagreed by this statement.
68 percent teachers were agreed who compromise during problem situation and the remaining
31 percent teachers disagree by this statement.
69% teachers were agreed, 26%strongly agreed who always willing to listen the opinion of
others during conflict, and the remaining 4% teachers were disagreed from this statement.
70% teachers were agreed, 29% strongly agreed who make point of listening of other for best
solution .Nobody disagreed by this statement.


32


Table 4.2: Responses of Teachers about Avoiding Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr #
Avoiding strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I usually say very little and leave as soon as possible, when I
find myself in an argument
15 73 4 7 0
2 I avoid hard feelings by keeping my disagreements with others. 11 77 10 1 0
3 Avoiding is best strategy for handling conflict. 6 10 54 27 2

Analysis of table show that
73% teachers were agreed, 15% strongly agreed who leaves any conflict situation as soon as
possible. 4% teachers were undecided and the remaining 7% teachers disagreed by this
statement.
77 percent teachers were agreed, 11% strongly agreed who avoid hard feelings of other during
conflict.10% teachers were undecided 1% teachers are disagreed by this statement.
According to 16% teachers avoiding is best strategy for handling conflict.54% teachers were
undecided, 27% disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed from this statement.







33


Table 4.3: Responses of Teachers about Collaborating Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr#
Collaborating strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I get as much information as I can, and keep communication open,
when theres disagreement,
20 76 2 1 0
2 I am willing to meet people halfway, To break any deadlocks. 14 69 15 1 0
3 I spend time cultivating a professional relationship with my
students.
19 75 2 3 0

Analysis of table show that
76% teachers were agreed, 20% strongly agreed who collect much information and keep
communication open during conflict.2% teachers were undecided and 1% teachers are disagreed
.69% teachers were agreed, 14 % strongly agreed who want to meet people expectation.15%
teachers were undecided and 1% teachers were disagreed by this statement.
76% teachers were agreed,19% strongly agreed who spend time in cultivating a professional
relationship with students, 2% teachers were undecided and 3% teachers were disagreed by this
statement.








34


Table 4.4: Responses of Teachers about Controlling Strategy for Handling Conflict

Sr#
Controlling strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
11 I attempt to resolve the situation in the best possible way. 31 68 0 0 0

Analysis of table show that
68 % teachers were agreed, 31 % teachers strongly agreed who resolve the conflict situation in
the best possible way. Nobody disagreed by this statement.
35

Table 4.5: Responses of Teachers about Competing Strategy for Handling Conflict

Sr #
Competing strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD


1 I argue on my own case and insist on the merits of my own point
of view.
15 51 16 17 0

Analysis of table show that
51% teachers were agreed, 15% teachers strongly agreed who argue on their own case and insist
on the merits of their own point of view.16% teachers are undecided and 17% teachers were
disagreed by this statement.








36


Table 4.6: Responses of Teachers about Accommodating Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr#
Accommodating strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD


1 I look at issues with others to find solutions that meet the needs of
everyone.
20 78 1 0 0
2 I try to meet the expectations of others. 19 77 3 0 0
3 I try to accommodate the wishes of my students and colleges. 29 68 2 0 0
4 I usually stand my student, when conflict arises. 21 68 8 1 1
5 I want to seek advice from fellow faculty members. 30 68 1 0 0
6 I accept the suggestions of teachers, peers and coworkers. 33 65 1 0 0

Analysis of table show that
78% teachers were agreed, 20% teachers strongly agreed who find such a solution of problem
which meet the need of everyone. Only 1% teacher were undecided, nobody disagreed by this
statement.
77% teachers were agreed, 19% teachers strongly agreed who meet the expectation of everyone.
Only 3% teacher were undecided by this statement.
68% teachers were agreed, 29% teachers strongly agreed who accommodate the wishes of their
students and colleges. And 2% teachers were undecided by this statement.
68% teachers were agreed, 21% teachers strongly agreed who stand their student, when conflict
arises in class, 8% teacher were undecided 2%% teachers strongly disagreed by this statement.
68% teachers were agreed, 30% strongly teachers agreed, who want to take advice from their
faculty members only 1% teacher were undecided by this statement.
37

65% teachers were agreed, 33% teachers strongly agreed who accept the suggestions of
teachers, peers and coworkers. Only 1% teacher were undecided by this statement. Nobody
disagreed by this statement.

Table 4.7: Responses of Teachers about Negotiating Strategy for Handling Conflict

Sr #
Negotiating strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD


1 I try to negotiate approach to problem situations. 9 53 32 5 0
2 My model appropriate in-class and out-of-class behavior to
my students at all times.
24 71 3 0 1
3

I prefer negotiating strategy for handling conflict for students. 3 0 38 6 19
4 I can figure out what needs to be done and I usually right. 11 77 7 4 0

Analysis of table show that
53% teachers were agreed, 9% teachers strongly agreed who let the student to resolve their
conflict by themselves. 32% teacher were undecided, 5 %disagreed by this statement.
71% teachers were agreed, 24% teachers strongly agreed whose model appropriate in-class and
out-of-class behavior to their students at all times 3% teacher were undecided, 5 %disagreed by
this statement.
0% teachers were agreed, 9% teachers strongly agreed who let the student to handle their
conflict by themselves. 38% teacher were undecided, 19 %disagreed by this statement.
77% teachers were agreed, 11% teachers strongly agreed who know what needs to be done and
they usually right.7% teacher were undecided, 4 %disagreed by this statement.
38

Table 4.8: Responses of Teachers about Role Playing Strategy for Handling Conflict


Role playing strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD


1 I allow the students to practice using the skill through role-play
situations.
26 71 2 0 0

Analysis of table show that
71% teachers were agreed, 26% teachers strongly agreed who allow the students to practice
using the skill through role-play situations for handling conflict.2% teacher were undecided,
nobody disagreed by this statement.









39

Table 4.9: Responses of Teachers about Give and Take Strategy for Handling Conflict

Sr#
Give and take strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I try to adopt a give and take approach to problem situation. 65 0 7 3 1

Analysis of table show that
0% teachers were agreed, 65% teachers strongly agreed who use give and take approach to
problem situation 7% teacher were undecided, 1% teachers were disagreed by this statement.

Table 4.10: Responses of Teachers about Mediation strategy for handling conflict
Sr#
Mediation strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD


1 I dont ignore conflict, when accord in class. 0 78 0 2 19

Analysis of table show that
78%teachers were agreed, 0% teachers strongly agreed who dont ignore conflict, when accord
in class 2% teacher is undecided, and 19% teachers were disagreed by this statement


40

Table no 4.1: Responses of Administrators about Compromising Strategy for Handling
Conflict
Sr no Statements SA A U D SD

Compromising strategy for handling Conflict
1. I relieve the tension with humor. 1 18 0 1 0
2. I give in a little on my idea when the other person also gives in. 2 10 3 5 0
3. I frequently give in a little if the other person will meet me half
way
1 15 3 1 0
4. I try to find some compromise, during a conflict 5 14 1 0
5. I dont like to dispute so I cooperate with others and accept
instructions easily
6 13 1 0 0

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 90 administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who relieve the
tension with humor. 5% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
50% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who give their idea when
the other person also gives in. 15% administrators were undecided, and 25% administrators were
disagreed by this statement.
75% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who frequently give in a
little if the other person will meet them half way. 15% administrators were undecided, 5%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
70% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who compromise during
conflict.5 % administrators were disagreed by this statement.
65% administrators were agreed 30% administrators were strongly agreed, who cooperate with
others and accept instructions easily 5% administrators were undecided by this statement.
41

Table4.2: Responses of Administrators about Avoiding Strategy for Handling Conflict

Sr# Avoiding strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD

1 I shy away from topic that is sources of dispute 7 6 4 3
0
2 I like to stay away from conflict 4 7 4 5
0
3 I side step disagreement when conflict arise 2 2 2 14
0
4 I try to smooth over disagreement by making them appear
unimportant.
2 5 2 11
0
5 I withdraw when someone bend me about a controversial issue 1 7 6 6
0

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 30% administrators were agreed, 35% administrators strongly agreed who away from
topic that is sources of dispute. 20% administrators were undecided, and 15% administrators
were disagreed by this statement.
35% administrators were agreed, 20% administrators strongly agreed who like to stay away from
conflict. 20% administrators were undecided, and 20% administrators were disagreed by this
statement.
10% administrators were agreed, 50% administrators strongly agreed who take side step when
conflict arise. 10% administrators were undecided, and 70% administrators were disagreed by
this statement.
25% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who try to smooth over
disagreement by making them unimportant. 10% administrators are undecided, and 55%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
42

35% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who withdraw when
someone bend me controversial issue 30% administrators were undecided, and 30%
administrators were disagreed by this statement

Table4.3: Responses of Administrators about Collaborating Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr# Collaborating strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD

1 I suggestion solution that combines a variety of view points 8 12 0 0
0
2 I offer creative solution in discussion of disagreement 5 13 0 2
0
3 I try to use everyone idea to generate solution disagreement 5 15 0 0 0
4 I reduce disagreement by saying that they are insignificant 3 13 1 3 0
5 I ease conflict by claiming that a different is trivial 3 12 3 2 0

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 60% administrators were agreed, 40% administrators strongly agreed who take
solution that combines a variety of viewpoints, nobody disagreed by this statements .
Most of the 65% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who, offer
creative solution in discussion of disagreement 10%disagreed by this statements.
75% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who use everyone idea to
generate solution. Nobody disagreed by this statements.
65% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who, reduce disagreement
by saying that they were insignificant. 5 % administrators undecided, 15%disagreed by this
statements.
43

60% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who take conflict easy,
25%disagreed by this statement.
Table4.4: Responses of Administrators about Controlling Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr# Controlling strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD

1 I insist that my position be accepted during a conflict 7 5 4 4 0
2 I assert my opinion forcefully 0 4 2 14 0
3 I dominate argument until the other person understand my
position
0 7 8 5 0
4 I argue insistently for my point of view 2 5 6 6 1

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 25% administrators were agreed, 35% administrators strongly agreed who insist that
their position be accepted during conflict 20% administrators were undecided, and 20%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
20% administrators were agreed, who assert their opinion forcefully 10% administrators were
undecided, and 70% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
35% administrators were agreed, who gives argument until the other person understand their
position during conflict, 40% administrators were undecided ,and 25% administrators were
disagreed by this statement.
25% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who argue insistently for
their point of view 30% administrators were undecided, and 5% administrators were disagreed
by this statement


44

Table4.5: Responses of Administrators about Competing Strategy for Handling Conflict
Sr# Competing strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD

1 I strive for a win-win situation in conflict management 1 14 2 3 0
2 Soft words win hard hearts 16 4 0 0 0
3 I assert my opinion forcefully 1 2 7 10 0
4 I insist that my position be accepted during a conflict. 3 6 1 9 1

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 70% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who strive for a
win-win situation in conflict 10% administrators were undecided, and 15% administrators were
disagreed by this statement.
20% administrators were agreed, 80% administrators strongly agreed whose opinion soft words
win hard hearts. Nobody disagreed by this statement.
10% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who assert their opinion
forcefully. 35% administrators were undecided.50 %disagreed by this statement.
30% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who insist that their
position be accepted during a conflict. 35% administrators were undecided.50 %disagreed by this
statement.






45

Table4.6: Responses of Administrators about Accommodating Strategy for Handling
Conflict
Sr # Accommodating strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I attempting to play down differences during conflict 12 8 0 0 0
2 I emphasizing commonalities to satisfy the concern of
others
13 7 0 0 0

Analysis of table show that
Most of the 40% administrators were agreed, 60% administrators strongly agreed who attempt to
play down differences during conflict, nobody disagreed by this statement. 35% administrators
were agreed, 65% administrators strongly agreed who, emphasizing commonalities to satisfy the
concern of others .Nobody disagreed by this statement.










46

Table 4.1: Comparison of Government and Private Administrators
Government Private t P
Mean SD Mean SD
Compromising 3.95 0.19 3.91 0.34 0.21 0.84
Avoiding 2.60 0.33 3.35 0.79 -2.93 0.01*
Collaborating 3.90 0.20 4.10 0.55 -0.71 0.49
Controlling 2.94 0.31 3.14 0.59 -0.65 0.52
competing 3.25 0.20 3.63 0.54 -2.22 0.04*
accommodating 4.88 0.25 4.56 0.48 1.25 0.23

Table 4.1 shows Comparison of Government and Private Administrators. Independent t-test was
conducted to compare Conflict management strategies of Government and Private
Administrators. The result of independent test shows that there is no significant difference in
government and private administrators regarding compromising, controlling, collaborating and
accommodating strategy. The results of independent test shows that there is significant
difference in government and private administrators regarding avoiding and competing strategy








47

Table 4.2: Comparison of B.Ed and M.Ed administrators
B.Ed M.ED t P
Mean SD Mean SD
Compromising 4.00 0.30 3.85 0.32 1.03 0.32
Avoiding 3.13 0.66 3.25 0.89 -0.34 0.74
Collaborating 4.16 0.56 3.98 0.45 0.77 0.45
Controlling 2.97 0.46 3.20 0.61 -0.94 0.36
competing 3.53 0.51 3.57 0.54 -0.17 0.87
accommodating 4.61 0.49 4.64 0.45 -0.12 0.91

Table 4.2 shows Comparison of B.Ed and M.Ed administrators. Independent t-test was conducted to
compare Conflict management strategies of B.Ed and M.Ed administrators. The result of
independent test shows that there is no significant difference in B.Ed and M.Ed administrators
regarding compromising, Avoiding, controlling, Collaborating, competence accommodating
strategy.








48

Table 4.3: Relationship between Age, Experience and Conflict management strategies of
administrators
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1.age 1
2.job.exp .928
3.Compromising -.070 -.001
4.avoiding .516* .562* .035
5.Collaborating -.068 -.031 .234 -.125
6.Controlling .162 .232 .172 .118 .102 1
7.Competence .075 .006 .223 .027 .287 .748 1
8.accommodating -.144 -.125 .479 -.283 -.174 -.397 -.311 1
*P<0.05
Table 4.3 shows relationship between Age, Experience and Conflict management strategies of
administrators. There is significant relationship between age and avoiding conflict management
strategies, job experience and avoiding strategies. . There is no significant relation between age
and all strategies except avoiding.. There is no significant relation between job experience and all
strategies except avoiding.





49

Table 4.1: Summary statistics of Conflict management of administrators

N Min Max. Mean SD
Compromising 20 3 5 3.92 .314
Avoiding 20 2 4 3.20 .776
Collaborating 20 3 5 4.06 .499
Controlling 20 2 4 3.10 .547
competing 20 2 5 3.55 .510
accommodating 20 4 5 4.63 .455


Table 4.1 shows Summary statistics of Conflict management of administrators. The table shows
that accommodating strategy (Mean=4.63, SD=.455) is used more than any other strategy by
administrators at secondary level. Collaborating strategy ((Mean=4.06, (Mean=4.63, SD=.455
SD=.499)is second one which is used more than any other strategy. Then compromising (Mean
3.99, SD=.314 is on third number .The competing strategy (Mean 3.55, SD=.510) is on fourth
number .Avoiding strategy (Mean3.20, SD=.314) is fifth one. And controlling strategy (Mean
3.10, SD=.547) is at last which is used by administrators at secondary level.


50








V




4.625
4.06
3.92
3.55
3.2
3.1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
M
e
a
n

s
c
o
r
e
s


Conflict management strategies of Administrators
51

Table 4.2 : Comparison of government and private teachers in use of conflict management strategy
Government Private T p
Mean SD Mean SD
Compromising 3.90 0.36 3.96 0.40 -0.51 0.61
Avoiding 3.90 0.36 3.96 0.40 -0.51 0.61
Collaborating 4.32 0.40 4.12 0.33 2.13 0.04
Controlling 4.10 0.30 3.96 0.62 0.96 0.34
Competing 4.00 0.55 4.11 0.48 -0.81 0.42
Accommodating 4.20 0.30 4.15 0.31 0.57 0.57
Negotiating 3.83 0.44 3.78 0.43 0.45 0.65
Role Playing 4.00 0.45 4.26 0.57 -1.82 0.07
Give and take 4.14 0.36 4.32 0.47 -1.53 0.13
Mediation 4.14 0.36 4.38 0.49 -2.01 0.05


Table 4.2 shows Comparison of government and private teachers in use of conflict management strategy
.the table shows that there is no significant difference between government and private teachers conflict
management strategie.

52

Table 4.1: Summary statistics of Conflict management of Teachers

N Min Max Mean SD
Compromising
100
3 5 3.92 0.40
Avoiding
100
3 5 3.92 0.40
Collaborating
100
3 6 4.22 0.45
Controlling
100
2 5 3.97 0.59
Competing
100
2 5 3.97 0.58
Accommodating
100
3 5 4.14 0.33
Negotiating
100
3 5 3.79 0.43
Role Playing
100
2 5 4.21 0.54
Give and take
100
4 5 4.3 0.46
Mediation
100
3 5 4.32 0.49

Table 4.1 shows Summary statistics of Conflict management of Teachers .The table shows that
Mediation strategy (Mean=4.32, SD=.049) is used more than any other strategy by teachers at
secondary level. Give and take strategy ((Mean=4.3, SD=0.46) is second one which is used more
than any other strategy. Then collaborating strategy (Mean 4.22, SD=.0.45)is on third number
.The role playing strategy (Mean4.21, SD=.0.54) is on fourth number .Accommodating
strategy(Mean4.14, SD=.314) is fifth one. And controlling strategy (Mean 3.97, SD=0.59) is at
six number. Competing strategy (Mean 3.97, SD=0.58) is on seven number. Compromising
strategy (Mean3.92, SD=0.40) is on eighth number. Avoiding strategy ( Mean 3.92, SD=0.40) is
on ninth number. Negotiating strategy (Mean 3.97, SD=0.43) is on last strategy which is used by
teachers


53












4.32
4.3
4.22
4.21
4.14
3.97 3.97
3.92 3.92
3.79
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
M
e
a
n

s
c
o
r
e
s

Conflict Management Strategies of Teachers
54

Chapter 5
Summary, Findings, Conclusion, and Recommendations
Summary
This study helps to know the types of management strategies and the effectiveness of
each strategy in conflict management in schools. This will enable teachers and administrators to
develop a suitable policy for dealing with each type of conflict in order to prevent destructive
conflicts in school. It will help to determine the causes of conflict and their resolvement for
administration and teachers. Conflict management involves doing things to limit the negative
aspects of conflict & to increase the positive aspect of conflict. Conflict management strategies
refer to the internal mechanism used by the various authorities in resolving conflict. Conflict
management strategies include avoidance, collaboration, competition, compromise and
accommodation. Research was descriptive in nature and survey type. Population of study was
comprised of all the teacher and administrators of government and private school. Researcher
prepared questionnaires for data collection from respondents. Five point Likert type scale was
used for data collection it ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. . Data was analyzed
by using t-statistics , co- relation ,mean response value and percentage method. Data findings,
recommendation, conclusion are prepared in chapter v.



55

Findings
Findings based on Data analysis related to Conflict management Strategies of Teachers
Seventy 70% percent teachers were agreed, 21% teachers were strongly agreed who
see conflict from both side what their need and what the other person wants. And the
remaining 15 percent teachers were disagreed by this statement.
68 percent teachers were agreed who compromise during problem situation and the
remaining 31 percent teachers disagree by this statement.
69% teachers were agreed, 26% teachers were strongly agreed who always willing to
listen the opinion of others during conflict, and the remaining 4%disagrred from this
statement.
70% teachers agreed, 29% teachers were strongly agreed who make point of listening
of other for best solution .Nobody disagreed by this statement.
73% teachers were agreed, 15% strongly agreed who leaves any conflict situation as
soon as possible. 4% teachers were undecided and the remaining 7% teachers
disagreed by this statement.
77 percent teachers were agreed, 11% strongly agreed who avoid hard feelings of
other during conflict.10% teachers are undecided 1% teachers were disagreed by this
statement.
According to 16% teachers avoiding is best strategy for handling conflict.54%
teachers were undecided, 27% disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed from this statement.
56

76% teachers were agreed, 20% strongly agreed who collect much information and
keep communication open during conflict.2% teachers were undecided and 1%
teachers were disagreed
.69% teachers were agreed, 14 % strongly agreed who want to meet people
expectation.15% teachers were undecided and 1% teachers were disagreed by this
statement.
76% teachers were agreed, 19% strongly agreed who spend time in cultivating a
professional relationship with students, 2% teachers were undecided and 3% teachers
were disagreed by this statement.
68 % teachers were agreed, 31 % teachers strongly agreed who resolve the conflict
situation in the best possible way. Nobody disagreed by this statement.
51% teachers were agreed, 15% teachers strongly agreed who argue on their own case
and insist on the merits of their own point of view.16% teachers were undecided and
17% teachers were disagreed by this statement.
78% teachers were agreed, 20% teachers strongly agreed who find such a solution of
problem which meet the need of everyone. Only 1% teacher were undecided, nobody
disagreed by this statement.
77% teachers were agreed, 19% teachers strongly agreed who meet the expectation of
everyone. Only 3% teacher were undecided by this statement.
68% teachers were agreed, 29% teachers strongly agreed who accommodate the
wishes of their students and colleges. And 2% teachers were undecided by this
statement.
57

68% teachers were agreed, 21% teachers strongly agreed who stand their student,
when conflict arises in class, 8% teacher were undecided 2%% teachers strongly
disagreed by this statement.
68% teachers were agreed, 30% strongly teachers agreed, who want to take advice
from their faculty members only 1% teacher were undecided by this statement.
65% teachers were agreed, 33% teachers strongly agreed who accept the suggestions
of teachers, peers and coworkers. Only 1% teacher were undecided by this statement.
Nobody disagreed by this statement.
53% teachers were agreed, 9% teachers strongly agreed who let the student to resolve
their conflict by themselves. 32% teacher were undecided, 5 %disagreed by this
statement.
71% teachers were agreed, 24% teachers strongly agreed whose model appropriate
in-class and out-of-class behavior to their students at all times 3% teacher were
undecided, 5 %disagreed by this statement.
0% teachers were agreed, 9% teachers strongly agreed who let the student to handle
their conflict by themselves. 38% teacher were undecided, 19 %disagreed by this
statement.
77% teachers were agreed, 11% teachers strongly agreed who know what needs to be
done and they usually right.7% teacher were undecided, 4 %disagreed by this
statement.
71% teachers were agreed, 26% teachers strongly agreed who allow the students to
practice using the skill through role-play situations for handling conflict.2% teacher
were undecided, nobody disagreed by this statement.
58

0% teachers were agreed, 65% teachers strongly agreed who use give and take
approach to problem situation 7% teacher were undecided, 1% teachers were
disagreed by this statement.
78%teachers were agreed, 0% teachers strongly agreed who dont ignore conflict,
when accord in class 2% teacher is undecided, and 19% teachers were disagreed by
this statement.
Findings based on Data analysis related to Conflict management Strategies of Administrators
Most of the 90% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who
relieve the tension with humor. 5% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
50% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who give their idea
when the other person also gives in. 15% administrators were undecided, and 25%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
75% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who frequently give
in a little if the other person will meet them half way. 15% administrators were
undecided, 5% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
70% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who compromise
during conflict.5 % administrators were disagreed by this statement.
65% administrators were agreed 30% administrators were strongly agreed, 5%
administrators were undecided by this statement.
Most of the 30% administrators were agreed, 35% administrators strongly agreed who
away from topic that is sources of dispute. 20% administrators were undecided, and 15%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
59

35% administrators were agreed, 20% administrators strongly agreed who like to stay
away from conflict. 20% administrators were undecided, and 20% administrators were
disagreed by this statement.
10% administrators were agreed, 50% administrators strongly agreed who take side step
when conflict arise. 10% administrators were undecided, and 70% administrators were
disagreed by this statement.
25% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who try to smooth
over disagreement by making them unimportant. 10% administrators are undecided, and
55% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
35% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who withdraw when
someone bend me controversial issue 30% administrators were undecided, and 30%
administrators were disagreed by this statement
Most of the 60% administrators were agreed, 40% administrators strongly agreed who
take solution that combines a variety of viewpoints, nobody disagreed by this
statements .
Most of the 65% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who,
offer creative solution in discussion of disagreement 10%disagreed by this statements.
75% administrators were agreed, 25% administrators strongly agreed who use everyone
idea to generate solution. Nobody disagreed by this statements.
65% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who, reduce
disagreement by saying that they were insignificant. 5 % administrators undecided,
15%disagreed by this statements.
60

60% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who take conflict
easy, 25%disagreed by this statement.
Most of the 25% administrators were agreed, 35% administrators strongly agreed who
insist that their position be accepted during conflict 20% administrators were
undecided, and 20% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
20% administrators were agreed, who assert their opinion forcefully 10% administrators
were undecided, and 70% administrators were disagreed by this statement.
35% administrators were agreed, who gives argument until the other person understand
their position during conflict, 40% administrators were undecided ,and 25%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
25% administrators were agreed, 10% administrators strongly agreed who argue
insistently for their point of view 30% administrators were undecided, and 5%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
Most of the 70% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who
strive for a win-win situation in conflict 10% administrators were undecided, and 15%
administrators were disagreed by this statement.
20% administrators were agreed, 80% administrators strongly agreed whose opinion soft
words win hard hearts. Nobody disagreed by this statement.
10% administrators were agreed, 5% administrators strongly agreed who assert their
opinion forcefully. 35% administrators were undecided.50 %disagreed by this statement.
30% administrators were agreed, 15% administrators strongly agreed who insist that
their position be accepted during a conflict. 35% administrators were undecided.50
%disagreed by this statement.
61

Most of the 40% administrators were agreed, 60% administrators strongly agreed who
attempt to play down differences during conflict, nobody disagreed by this statement.
35% administrators were agreed, 65% administrators strongly agreed who, emphasizing
commonalities to satisfy the concern of others .Nobody disagreed by this statement















62

Conclusion
Findings based on Data analysis related to Conflict management Strategies of Teachers
Majority of teachers were agreed that who see conflict from both side what their need and
what the other person wants.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who compromise during problem situation.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who always willing to listen the opinion of others
during conflict.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who make point of listening of other for best
solution.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who leaves any conflict situation as soon as
possible..
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who avoid hard feelings of other during conflict.
Majority of teachers avoiding is best strategy for handling conflict.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who collect much information and keep
communication open during conflict.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who want to meet people expectation.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who spend time in cultivating a professional
relationship with students.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who resolve the conflict situation in the best
possible way.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who argue on their own case and insist on the
merits of their own point of view
63

Majority of teachers were agreed, that who find such a solution of problem which meet
the need of everyone.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who meet the expectation of everyone.
Majority of teachers were agreed, who accommodate the wishes of their students and
colleges.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who stand their student, when conflict arises in
class.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who want to take advice from their faculty
members.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who accept the suggestions of teachers, peers and
coworkers.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who let the student to resolve their conflict by
themselves.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that whose model appropriate in-class and out-of-class
behavior to their students at all times.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who know what needs to be done and they usually
right.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who allow the students to practice using the skill
through role-play situations for handling conflict.
Majority of teachers were agreed, that who dont ignore conflict, when accord in class.


64


Conclusions
Findings based on Data analysis related to Conflict management Strategies of Administrators
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who relieve the tension with humor.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who frequently give in a little if the other
person will meet them half way..
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who compromise during conflict.
Majority of administrators were agreed, cooperate with others and accept instructions
easily.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who away from topic that is sources of
dispute.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who like to stay away from conflict.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who take side step when conflict arise. .
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who take solution that combines a variety
of viewpoints,.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who offer creative solution in discussion of
disagreement.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who use everyone idea to generate solution.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who reduce disagreement by saying that
they were insignificant.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who take conflict easy.
65

Majority of 70% administrators were agreed, that who strive for a win-win situation in
conflict situation.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that whose opinion soft words win hard hearts.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who attempt to play down differences
during conflict.
Majority of administrators were agreed, that who, emphasizing commonalities to satisfy
the concern of others.












66


Recommendation for Teachers
Teacher should not ignore conflict when raised in class
Teachers should avoiding hard feelings of other during conflict.
Teachers should collect much information and keep communication open during conflict.
Teachers should resolve the conflict situation in the best possible way.
Teachers should accommodate the wishes of their students and colleagues.
Recommendation for Administrators
Administrators should be compromise during conflict.
Administrators should be cooperate with others and accept instructions easily.
Administrators should be take solution that combines a variety of viewpoints
Soft words win hard hearts.
Administrators should be attempt to play down differences during conflict





67

References
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Beach ,Don M , et al. (1989). Supervision . New York : Harper & Raw.
Brown,S.(1983).Conflict Management Style & Strategies. New York: Harder & Bross
Company
Cambell , Roald Fay. (1985) Administrative Behaviour in Education and Research. Vol. XV.
Chandan , J.S (1987) Management Theory & Practice. Management (2
nd
Ed .) London :
British House.
Ch . Muhammad Ashraf . (1992) Conflict Management Bulietin of Education and
Research . Vol . XV.
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Gray , L.J & Strake , A.F.(1984) . Organization Behavior . (Third Edition).
Columbus a Charles E. Merril
James ,C. (200). Effective change in School. New York : St. Martins Press.
Lambert ,J. & Myers ,S.(1999). 50 Activities For Conflict Resolution. Amert , MA:HR
Development Press.
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London : British Publishers .
Luthans , F. (1985). Organizational Behaviour . ( Fourth Edition) , New York : Mc Graw
Hill.
Mohiyuddin , Sultan M . (1956). School Organization & Management. Lahore.
Mondy , R.W. & Others . (1986) . Management Conflict & Practice . Bostan :Inc .
Randall, C. (1975). Conflict Socialogy . New York : Acadamic Press.
Richardson , Elizabeth (1972) . The Teachers the School & the Task of Management .
London : British Publishers.
Robert , Owens G.(1998). Organization Behavior in Education . (6
th
Ed) . New York :
68

Mc Graw Hill.
Roland , F.C, Hocker ,Wilmot(1985) . Secondary School Administrators. New York : Harder
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th
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Robbins , S.P. (2001) . Organizational Behavior . (9
th
Ed). England : Prentice Hall Inc .
Thomas , K.(1976). Conflict & Conflict Management .Chicago: Mc Nally & Company
Vander ,W.(1991). Conflict & its Resolution. Boston: Inc.










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Web References
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http: // www.cgi-bin/getmsg/managingconflict.htm?
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http://w.w.w msu.edu/user/anthon 38 for resolution education htm.
Berger , B. (2003) Managing conflict School,of Pharmacy, Aukurn Universty.
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http://eticpurduce.edu/kyw/brouchures/manag conflict/.html.
Macdonold , J. (1988). Conflict in Education . Retrived From http://w.w.w
Associated content . Com/ article /1444/Personalized-conflict in education, html.
Malek,C. (1985) School Mediation Programmas. Retrived From:
http://www org/peer medication-jsp.
Rouldsepp , E.(2002) Understanding Conflict & Conflict Management, Available on
the World Wide Web. Retrived December 16, 2006 From:
http://www.foundation.eoalition,org/my/20021224 raudsepp.html.
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Dayton, Ohio , Retrived October 29,2006. From:
70

http://www.wright-edu/scott.will/ams/leader letter/conflict.htm.
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http://w.w.w.ed/sec/Husis/narratives conflict. html.
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71

Appendix-A

Respected Madam
I am student of M.Ed (morning) working on my thesis about Conflict
Management Strategies used by Teachers and Administrators at Secondary Level, under the
kind supervision of Miss Samreen Jalal, University of Education, Band Road, Lahore. I request
you to kindly spare sometime for me and fill the questionnaire about Conflict Management
Strategies used by Teachers and Administrators at Secondary Level. I assure that information
provided will be used only the research purpose.
Thank you

Researcher

Tasleem Amanat
Roll No 1102
M.Ed 2012-2013
University of Education
Band Road, Lahore
72

Appendix-B
Questionnaires for Teachers
Teachers Name: ____________________Age: ____________________________
Academic Qualification: _____________ Professional Qualification:___________
Teaching Class: _____________________Single/Married:____________________
Job Experience:__________School:_______________________________________


Compromising strategy for handling conflict SA A U D SD
1 I try to see conflicts from sides, what I need and
what the other person needs.

2 I prefer to compromise when solving problems and
just move on.

3 I always willing to listen to other opinion, but me
also want to give them mine.

4 I am a decision maker but I make a point of
listening to other to find the best solution.


Avoiding strategy for handling conflict

5 I usually say very little and leave as soon as
possible, when I find myself in an argument

6 I avoid hard feelings by keeping my disagreements

73

with others to myself.
7 Avoiding is best strategy for handling conflict.
Collaborating strategy for handling conflict

8 I get as much information as I can, and keep
communication open, when theres disagreement,


9 I am willing to meet people halfway, To break
any deadlocks.

10 I spend time cultivating a professional relationship
with my students.

Controlling strategy for handling conflict

11 I attempt to resolve the situation in the best
possible way.


Competing strategy for handling conflict

12 I argue on my own case and insist on the merits of
my own point of view.

Accommodating strategy for handling conflict

13 I look at issues with others to find solutions that
meet the needs of everyone.

14 I try to meet the expectations of others.

15 I try to accommodate the wishes of my students
and colleges.

16 I usually stand my student, when conflict arises.
74

17 I want to seek advice from fellow faculty
members.


18 I accept the suggestions of teachers, peers and
coworkers.

Negotiating strategy for handling conflict

19 I try to negotiate approach to problem situations.

20 My model appropriate in-class and out-of-class
behavior to my students at all times.

21 I prefer negotiating strategy for handling conflict
for students.

22 I can figure out what needs to be done and I
usually right.

Role playing strategy for handling conflict
23 I allow the students to practice using the skill
through role-play situations.

Give and take strategy for handling conflict
24 I try to adopt a give and take approach to problem
situation.

Mediation strategy for handling conflict
25 I dont ignore conflict, when accord in class.



75


Questionnaires for Administrators
Name: ______________________________________Age:__________________
Academic Qualification: ______________Professional Qualification: ________
Job Experience: _____________________Single/Married: _________________
School: ___________________________________________________________

Compromising strategy for handling conflict
Sr.No Statements SA A U D SD
1. I relieve the tension with humor.

2. I give in a little on my idea when the other
person also gives in.

3. I frequently give in a little if the other person
will meet me half way

4. I try to find some compromise, during a
conflict

5. I dont like to dispute so I cooperate with
others and accept instructions easily


Avoiding strategy for handling conflict
76

Sr .No Statements SA A U D SD
6 I shy away from topic that is sources of
dispute

7 I like to stay away from conflict

8 I side step disagreement when conflict arise

9 I try to smooth over disagreement by making
them appear unimportant.

10 I withdraw when someone bend me about a
controversial issue

Collaborating strategy for handling conflict
Sr .No Statements SA A U D SD
11 I suggestion solution that combines a variety
of view points

12 I offer creative solution in discussion of
disagreement

13 I try to use everyone idea to generate solution
disagreement

14 I reduce disagreement by saying that they are
insignificant

15 I ease conflict by claiming that a different is
trivial

77


Controlling strategy for handling conflict
Sr. No Statements SA A U D SD
16 I insist that my position be accepted during a
conflict

17 I assert my opinion forcefully

18 I dominate argument until the other person
understand my position

19 I argue insistently for my point of view


Competing strategy for handling conflict
Sr .No Statements SA A U D SD
20 I strive for a win-win situation in conflict
management

21 Soft words win hard hearts

22 I assert my opinion forcefully

23 I insist that my position be accepted during a
conflict.

Accommodating strategy for handling conflict
Sr .No Statements SA A U D SD
24 I attempting to play down differences during

78

conflict
25 I emphasizing commonalities to satisfy the
concern of others















79

Appendix-C
Farooqi Girls High School, Karim Park, Lahore.
Shining Girls High School, Ameen Park, Lahore.
Rakan Grammar High School, Karim Park, Lahore.
Al-Fatah Grammar High School Karim Park, Lahore.
M.Q Foundation High School Shah Jamal Road, Lahore.
Sir Saeed High School, Qazafi Chowk, Lahore.
Shama Parachas High School, Qazafi Chowk, Lahore
Star Light High School, Ameen Park, Lahore
Kausar Public High School, Karim Park, Lahore
Moon Public High School,Qila lukshmun Singh, Lahore.
Government MU High School, Samna bad, Lahore.
CDG Girls High School, Momin Pura, Lahore.
Government M.P.E Higher Secondary School, Lahore.
Government Boys High School Shadara, Lahore
Government CD Girls High Factory Area Shada
Government CD Boys School Momin Pura, Karim Park, Lahore.
80

Government Girls High Secondary School Mohni Road Lahore.
Government Muslim Model High School, Lahore













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