October 05, 2002 Page 1

Prepared for the international conference “Power Systems and Communications Infrastructures for the future”
Beijing, September 2002
Karlheinz Schwarz
SCC, Karlsruhe, Germany
1 Introduction
Automation systems in the area of power systems are widely
accepted today. They are mostly based on many proprietary
solutions or (de facto) standards not specifically designed for
substations. To meet today’s and future requirements a new
standard with an advanced approach has been requested a few
years ago. As a result of international projects the standard
IEC 61850 (Communication networks and systems in substa-
tions) is under final preparation in 2002. It will be used in the
all over the globe.
It is not sufficient to develop systems that only produce,
transmit, or distribute electric power. Fully automated –
remotely supervised – systems that require little or no human
intervention seem to be ideal. Technologies bundled into the
power system, therefore, has to include protection and control
equipment, as well as interfaces to supervisory control and
data acquisition (SCADA) of control centers. The standard
covers a wide range of substation applications. At the process
level the IEC 61850-9-1 standard defines a unidirectional se-
rial communication interface connecting current (CT) and
voltage transducers (VT) with digital output to electrical me-
tering and protection devices. This allows the exchange of
synchronized phasor measurements using GPS signals for
synchronization. Another real-time requirement is met by the
GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented System Event) that defines
the transmission of high priority information like trip com-
mands or interlocking information
Additional applications that are necessary for a complete sys-
tem may include: metering, protection and control, remote
monitoring and fault diagnosis, automated dispatch and con-
trol, data retrieval, site optimization of electrical/thermal out-
puts, asset management, as well as condition monitoring and
The standard IEC 61850 will be used for many other applica-
tion domains outside substations, too. One of the biggest suc-
cess stories in power systems is the deployment of wind
power – now the world's fastest-growing energy source. Since
1993, the market for new turbines to generate clean power
from wind has grown at over 40 % per year. Already over
25,000 turbines (some 10,000 in Germany) are producing
electricity world-wide at the end of 2001.
Globally, utility deregulation is expanding and requiring de-
mands to integrate, consolidate and disseminate real-time in-
formation quickly and accurately within all kinds of utility
automation systems – from power plants to customer inter-
faces. Utilities and vendors spend an ever-increasing amount
for real-time information exchange; costs for data integra-
tion and maintenance are exploding. Vendors of power sys-
tems have – because of the fast growing market or market de-
regulation – very limited resources to implement and apply
hundreds of proprietary communication systems. In re-
sponse to this situation, the IEC (International Electrotechni-
cal Commission) and IEEE have developed and published a
suite of (draft) international communication standards and
a technical report.
The future electricity systems will – thanks to a seamless real-
time communication system – be smart at the top but smarter
at the bottom, self-regulated by millions of communicating
devices connected to form feedback loops, and permanently
aware of the world around them.
This paper gives an overview on utility's crucial integration
requirements, the IEC standardization and the IEEE UCA
(Utility Communications Architecture™) solution, and the
global market acceptance of this new technology.
2 The challenge
Imagine if you didn't have common electric outlets and plugs
in your house, and every time you bought a new appliance,
choose a new power provider, or installed a new micro-power
system like a fuel-cell, you had to wire up the appliance to the
wires in your wall. And everybody's wires in everybody's
walls were different. And everybody's appliance wiring was
different. That's really the way it works today trying to inte-
grate device data into applications and these devices into
October 05, 2002 Page 2
power automation systems. Examples for device data are
status, diagnostic information, measurements, metering data,
configuration, description, and control information. This
situation forces developers of application software and de-
vices to write new drivers daily – implementing just new
Imagine your department has to implement the countless
number of proprietary solutions! If you think it’s not hard to
do – think again.
Today’s power networks in various regions may realistically
be considered to be the largest machines in the world since
their transmission lines connect all the electric generation,
distribution, and appliances on a continent or part of it. The
electric industry is unique in its critical real-time coordi-
nated requirements.
Many utilities are already faced the problem of islands of in-
formation based on proprietary technologies today, each of
which literally speaks its own language. The challenge is to
integrate all those existing and new information islands of
current and new applications into a functioning utility
automation system (Figure 1). Control center for example
need to know the overall operating conditions (gross load,
plant activity, etc.) but the corporate culture is often resistant
to telephone and fax communication, thus, information flow
between facilities is limited. Utilities use the standards as a
bridge between power plants, substations, and the control
center, and to communicate within substations. They now
have a broader perspective with more information on overall
operating conditions such as change of loads, power produc-
tion schedules, and other plant information.
Figure 1 – Islands of information
An answer to the challenge has been found in standards-based
communication systems. To show just how important stan-
dards-based communication systems are, consider the exam-
ple of a large electric utility. At present, this utility has more
than 200 different protocols running on intelligent devices
within its distribution network! A well known vendor is proud
of supporting more than 100 different RTU protocols!
Utilities spend an ever-increasing amount for real-time infor-
mation exchange; costs for data integration and maintenance
are exploding. Industry experts say: US $82 billion was spent
on application integration in 1998 (= 40% of corporate IT
budgets; still growing) – Forrester, 1999. Any 1 per cent of
the Dollars spent for the integration of devices into applica-
tions costs some US $800.000.000 per year. How many per
cent this integration costs is not known. The costs of integra-
tion are not well documented. Many companies do not keep
specific records of the cost of integration. The total ongoing
costs for system integration and maintenance for European
utilities (some 220 Million US$) will be 50% higher than
projected for 1999 (Source: Datamonitor).
The cost is not limited to installing new applications, custom-
ers explain. The larger expense in time and money comes
from the overwhelming task of maintaining the API’s to ex-
isting in-house applications. Many customers tell they believe
that savings in maintenance alone is the biggest opportunity
for saving time and money for an enterprise. To reduce the
risk of getting even worse in the future, the integration of –
more and more intelligent – devices into the enterprise appli-
cations (SCADA, real-time asset, machine diagnostics, ...) is
a real challenge for programmers and engineers.
One of the most interesting development in the field of real-
time monitoring of power systems, is the possibility of IEC
61850 to support synchronized phasor measurements using
GPS satellite for synchronization. Standard compliant meas-
urement units could provide real-time measurements of volt-
ages and currents at substation and send these measurements
to many devices in real-time.
To summarize, the driving force behind the standardization is
to effectively and efficiently perform seamless device data
integration and sharing information based on a rich, fine-
grained data-stream about the state of the “power world” in
any given instant. Every node in the network would have to be
awake, responsive, flexible, and – most important – intercon-
nected with everything else: A distributed energy web.
3 Power systems become decentralized
According to ABB’s power experts more than 750 million
homes around the world do not have access to electricity, and
small-scale power generation could change this situation.
Power supplies in the coming decades is therefore likely to
take on a decentralized structure. In developing and newly in-
dustrializing countries, decentralized power supply systems
will serve mainly to meet demand in rural areas, out of exist-
ing primary sources, e.g. wind, hydro, solar etc., in an opti-
mized mixture.
In industrialized countries, existing generation centers will be
gradually supplemented by decentralized and communicating
units. Intelligent energy management, allowing generation
How to ...?
? ?
? ?
October 05, 2002 Page 3
management, load management, billing management and in-
teractive communication on the part of consumers, will be in-
tegrated in the network.
Starting with a forecast, generation management monitors op-
timized use of resources. The task of load management is
control and optimization of the load, including balancing
against generation capacity and costs. Loads that scarcely af-
fect supply security can be connected and disconnected ac-
cording to generation process efficiency criteria. This enables
an optimum to be attained in terms of economizing on re-
sources, protecting the environment and keeping costs down.
New generation possibilities to be applied will mainly be:
Wind mills: A new generation of wind power technology that
significantly reduces the cost of power generated by large
wind farms. The technology also allows wind farms to be
built offshore.
Microturbines: These small, efficient and low-emission gas
turbines provide electricity for homes, commercial buildings,
hospitals, and small factories. Their compact size and high re-
liability make them suitable for small combined heat and
power installations.
Fuel Cell Systems: Similar to batteries, fuel cells generate
electricity through a chemical reaction, and produce very low
emissions. They are small enough for residential and small
commercial applications, making them ideal for use in areas
without connections to existing power grids.
Solar systems: Providing power by solar pannels.
Microgrids: A microgrid is created by connecting a local
group of small power generators using advanced sensoring,
supervising, and control relaying on open communication
All these systems and micro-systems have to be connected to
the power grid – and to the underlying decentralized “infor-
mation grid”.
4 Objectives of the IEC TC 57 standardization
IEC and IEEE provide standards to dramatically improve de-
vice data integration into the information and automation
technology, reducing engineering, commissioning, opera-
tion, monitoring, diagnostics, and maintenance costs and
increasing the agility of the whole life cycle of utility automa-
tion systems. These standards differs from most previous util-
ity protocols in its use of object models that model – most
common – real devices and device components. These models
define common data formats, identifiers, behavior, and con-
trols, e.g., for substation and feeder devices such as switches,
voltage regulators, and relays.
The standards selected, e.g., Ethernet, TCP/IP, and MMS
(ISO 9506), make use of advanced IT solutions, the reduced
bandwidth costs and increased processor capabilities in the
end devices to define and carry metadata: more than 3,000
standardized names and type information which can be (re-
)used by applications for on-line verification of the integra-
tion and configuration of databases throughout the utility.
This self-description significantly reduces the cost of data
management, and reduces system down times due to configu-
ration errors.
Examples for measurement metadata are "unit", "offset",
"scale", "dead band for reporting", and description. This fea-
ture significantly reduces the cost of data integration, data
management, and reduces down time due to configuration er-
The standard information models of real-world devices (e.g.
switches, disconnectors, transformer, measurement unit, ...)
can be (re-)used by applications for self-description and on-
line verification. The standards improve device data integra-
tion into the information and automation technology, reduce
engineering, commissioning, operation, monitoring, diagnos-
tics, and maintenance costs.
The objective of IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-6-TASE2 is to
provide for seamless information integration across the
utility enterprise using off-the-shelf international standards to
reduce costs in several phases of a system life cycle (Figure
2). These standardized models allow for multivendor
interoperability and ease of integration.
UCA has been incorporated into the draft standard series IEC
61850 (Communication networks and systems in substations)
published by IEC TC 57 in March 2001. The first parts of IEC
61850 have been published as international standards end of

Figure 2 – Seamless information integration based on
IEC 61850/UCA
The object models are defined in terms of standardized types
and services. These services (such as reporting by exception
and select before operate controls) are defined in abstract
IEC 61850
IEC 61850
IEC 60870-6 TASE2
IEC 60870-6 TASE2
October 05, 2002 Page 4
terms, then mapped to messages in the underlying application
layer protocol (ISO 9506 – Manufacturing Message Specifi-
cation, MMS). The use of the standardized service definitions
above MMS allow for “future-proofing”, in that new innova-
tions in application layer protocols can be incorporated in the
future without disturbing the object model definitions.
The MMS protocol, developed by the manufacturing commu-
nity, supports real-time control and data acquisition. MMS de-
fines a message structure supporting access to data, programs,
journals, events, and other constructs common to real-time
devices. These messages may be transported using many dif-
ferent underlying protocol stacks.
The Standard IEC 61850/UCA is developed in an interna-
tional co-operation with broad vendor and utility participation.
The primary target is the electrical substation automation
(switchyards and transformers in the medium and high voltage
transport and distribu-
tion). Most major utili-
ties (e.g. AEP, EdF,
E.ON, ENEL, RWE, ...
) and system suppliers
(ABB, Alstom, General
Electric, SAT, Siemens,
... ) contribute to the
development of the
IEC 61850 is defined so that it fulfils the special requirements
of substation automation but the "specialties" are to a large
extent isolated, making the better part of the standard generic.
The "specialties", e.g. the modeling of a high voltage breaker,
are defined separately.
The general definitions of IEC 61850 can be applied in all ar-
eas where there is a need to exchange any structured process
information in real-time. The general exchange methods, like
direct access (read and write), reporting (spontaneous and cy-
clic; with change detection), sequence of events (SOE), device
event archives, control, and upload of the self-description of
the device, are implemented in the general and commonly
known ways.
The communication networks, that are independent of the in-
formation and exchange models, are separated as well. This
provides for the use of independent communication networks
(e.g. TCP/IP, Ethernet ... ) or simple point-to-point connec-
IEC 61850 is, due to its modular structure, its generic basic
information for process control, and due to its general func-
tionality, almost predestined for the use in (almost) all areas
of industrial automation to achieve unified definition and ex-
change of any process information.
The gas and water industry in the USA has decided to pro-
mote and introduce the IEC 61850. The IEC TC 88 (Wind
turbine generator systems) specifies currently a standard for
communication systems (IEC 61400-25); IEC 61850 is used
as a basis in the first official working draft.
5 Primary application of the standard IEC 61850
Figure 3 shows a typical example of a substation automation
system with its common three levels. At process level there
are the process interfaces hard-wired in the past and serially
linked by the process bus in the future. Protection and control
at bay level may reside commonly in one device or in dedi-
cated ones. These devices are connected in between and with
the station level by the interbay/station bus. At station level,
there is very often a station computer with HMI (human ma-
chine interface) and a gateway to the control at the higher
network level. There exist a lot of variations of this example
but all substation automation systems have to provide all or at
least a subset of the following functions with some domain
specific performance, heterogeneity and life-time conditions.
Figure 3 – Seamless information integration based on
Important function groups and functions are:
System management
- Self-supervision, communication management, time syn-
Operation and control
— Access security management
— Switchgear operation
— Measurement (rms, power, etc.)
— Event and alarm handling
— Data/disturbance records retrieval
— Logging and archiving
The general definitions
of IEC 61850 can be ap-
plied in all areas where
there is a need to ex-
change any structured
process information in
Bay Level
Protection Control
Station Level
Function A Function B
Bay Level
Protection Control
other Services (e.g. SS
to CC commuication)
October 05, 2002 Page 5
Local and distributed automation
— Protection and busbar protection (remote phasors)
— Protection adaptation
— Interlocking
— Local/distributed synchrocheck and synchronised
— Sequences
— Voltage control
— Load shedding
The 10 Parts of the standard IEC 61850 are as listed in the
following tables.
The following parts define how the IED behaves:
Among these models, two are dedicated to the transmission of
information with high priority:
GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented System Event) is used to
model the transmission of high priority information like trip
commands or interlocking information. The model is based on
cyclic and high-priority transmission of status information. In-
formation like a trip command is transmitted spontaneously
and then cyclically at increasing intervals.
SMV (Sampled Measured Value) is used to model the ex-
change of the sampled measured values from current and volt-
age transducers to any IED that need the samples. The model
is based on an unconfirmed transmission of a set of sampled
values. A counter is added to time correlate samples from dif-
ferent sources and to detect the loss of a set of samples.
GOOSE and SMV service models are defined in IEC 61850-
7-2. The mapping of the SMV model to a concrete communi-
cation system is specified in IEC 61850-9-1.
IEC 61850-9-1 defines a unidirectional serial communication
interface connecting current/voltage transducers with digital
output to electrical metering and protection devices. The goal
of the standard is to support interoperability between such de-
vices from different manufacturers. With devices supporting
this standard, the customer has the possibility to select a cur-
rent/voltage transducer of one manufacturer and connect it to
a protection device or a meter of another manufacturer. Being
convinced that this is a real benefit for the customer, ABB and
SIEMENS decided to support this standard. In order to dem-
onstrate the feasibility, the real time exchange of sampled
measured values between ABB and SIEMENS devices was
shown at the UCA user group and utility initiative meeting in
Dana Point, CA (USA) in January 2002.
Both ABB and SIEMENS developed each a device called
Merging Unit converting their own proprietary signals from
the current/voltage transducers (CT/VT) to messages accord-
ing to IEC 61850-9-1 transmitted over Ethernet. Each mes-
sage contains sampled values of currents and voltages for the
three phases and neutral.
On the data sink side, ABB and SIEMENS developed each a
distance protection relay, supporting the IEC 61850-9-1 mes-
sages as input signals. In addition SIEMENS developed a
meter with the same interface.
An overview of the five devices is given in Figure 4.
Part 10: Conformance Testing
Part 6: Configuration Language
for electrical Substation
System Aspects
Part 1: Introduction and
Part 2: Glossary
Part 3: General Requirements
Part 4: System and Project
Part 5: Comm Requirements for
Functions and Device
Mapping to real Comm. Networks (SCSM)
Part 8-1: Mapping to MMS
Part 9-1: Sampled values over serial unidirectional
multidrop point to point link
Part 9-2: Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802-3
Data Models Basic Communication Structure for
Substations and Feeder Equipment
Part 7-4: Compatible Logical Node Classes and Data
Part 7-3: Common Data Classes
Abstract Communication
S i Basic Communication Structure for
Substations and Feeder Equipment
Part 7-2: Abstract Communication Services (ACSI)
Part 7-1: Principles and Models
October 05, 2002 Page 6
Figure 4 – Devices with IEC 61850-9-1 interfaces
Each merging unit transmits synchronized samples with a
transmission rate of 1000 messages/sec. Two sample rates -
1000 samples/sec and 4000 samples/sec - are supported. In the
case of 4000 samples/sec, four sets of samples are transmitted
in one message.
6 The new IEC standard 61400-25 for distributed (wind
power) generation
The IEC Technical Committee 88 has set up a new project to
develop a communication standard for distributed generation
(primary scope per TC 88: wind power plants) in 2001:
IEC 61400 Part 25:
Communications for monitoring and control of wind power
The first official working draft can be downloaded from:
This standard defines like IEC 61850 several levels:
— information,
— information description methods,
— substation configuration method,
— information exchange for monitoring and control sys-
tems for wind power plants, and
— communications profiles.
The information defined in this standard comprises mainly
wind power plant specific information like status, counters,
measurands, and control information of various parts of a
wind power plant, e.g., turbine, generator, gear, rotor, and
The object oriented information description methods allow
precise and complete specification of the information.
The information exchange provides:
— real-time data access and retrieval,
— controlling devices,
— event/alarm reporting and logging,
— self-description of devices,
— data typing and discovery of data types, and
— file transfer
The SCL (substation configuration language) describes all
information exchanged in a substation communication net-
Communication profiles as can be found in the IT world are
applied. Especially the security solutions available in the IT
world (e.g., SSL and STL) can be used as provided off-the-
7 Re-usability and device modeling
Describing device functionality by specifying the data (syntax
and semantic) and the dynamic behavior (state machines) of
devices (as seem from remote) is one of the fundamental
challenges in the standardization. Many standardization
groups have started defining different views of domain-
specific device types. The views are e.g.:
— Engineering (in the context of a plant),
— Commissioning,
— Configuration,
— Operation,
— Asset management,
— Maintenance,
— De-commissioning
Hardware and software, as well as communication networks
are subject to frequent innovation. Therefore, it is worth-while
to standardize independent (abstract) interfaces for communi-
cation networks and the access to the application objects.
The abstract objects (objects define the semantic of the device
functions) will continuously be used (with minor changes
only). The object definitions will be enhanced in the future to
meet additional requirements, i.e. re-using the definitions
specified in the past (see Figure 5).
Protection relays
Merging units
Point-to-point link
according to
IEC 61850-9-1
to instrumental transformers
October 05, 2002 Page 7
Figure 5 – What is important to be standardised?
The most important objective of the device description is to
define re-usable parts to be used for specifying the data mod-
els and behavior of various types of industrial devices. Re-
usability has two aspects. First, re-use of a given functionality
in many devices throughout an application domain (we may
call this: horizontal re-use). Second, re-use of a given function
in the definition of an enhanced or specialized function (we
may call this: vertical re-use). The re-usability is a crucial
factor in reducing the costs of the overall system design, engi-
neering, operation, and maintenance. Support of re-usability is
the key issue in the standardization!
The re-usable parts describe for example how a substation can
be configured using part 6 (SCL – substation configuration
language. A diagram as shown in Figure 6 maps to a XML
file representing the use of the classes defined in part IEC
61850-7-4 (see ).
Figure 6 – Application diagram
The application of the SCL allows to
Figure 7 – Application of SCL (excerpt)
The real benefit of device modeling is the re-use of (common)
definitions made in the past. This is our daily practice! We are
using common terms at work (key board, laser printer, office,
..) or at home (kitchen, chair, wheel char, bath room, ...). Just
misunderstandings are the result if terms are not understood
uniquely on both sides (sender and receiver). It is not only a
matter to define something completely – more important is, to
understand it uniquely. All technical specifications in the area
of distributed systems have to follow distinct rules for defin-
ing, exchanging, and unique interpreting exchanged informa-
Interpretation is quite easy if we can re-use common terms
learned in the past. In our daily life we re-use (instantiate) the
term “laser printer” (more precise we re-use the class defini-
tion that is associated with term “laser printer”) for a laser
printer next to you “laser printer in room 23” or we may re-
use the term for a special type of a laser printer: A4 laser
printer (“A4 laser printer in room 23”).
Distributed systems should operate in the way they have been
told to do. If they do not? This may have many reasons. A
major issue is, that independently developed devices may
follow the specification of their implementers but the
implementers may have different interpretations of the speci-
fication that describes the co-operation of the devices!
Devices will not operate in the way they should do, if the hu-
man beings (the implementers) do not understand each other!
Device models are collections of terms with associated se-
mantics and a description of the dynamical behavior.
Usually models are abstract in the sense that they do describe
only those aspects that are visible to the remote user of a de-
vice. It is sufficient to know the external visible data and be-
havior of the device (the WHAT). The concrete realization of
the device, its internal interfaces and programming language
or operating system (the HOW) are not of interest for the
view from outside. To understand the concept of a virtual
system, the following saying may help:
If it's there and you can see it It's REAL
If it's there and you can't see it It's TRANSPARENT
If it's not there and you can see it It's VIRTUAL
If it's not there and you can't see it It's GONE
Roy Wills
IEC 61400-25 re-uses IEC 61850 instead of developing the
standard from scratch.
8 Resume
Deregulation will place greater demands for information on
utilities than they have experienced before. IEC 61850, IEC
61400-25, and IEEE’s UCA provide a timely, cost-effective,
"(Abstract) Application Objects"
Methods, Languages, Interfaces
for the description and access to application Objects
Life Cycle of System < 15 years
Innovation of HW and SW
no base for
good base for
QA1 QB1 L1
<Substation Ref="">
<VoltageLevel Ref="E1">
<Bay Ref="Q1">
<Device Ref="QA1" Type="CBR">
<LNode Ref="1" LNClass="XCBR"/>
<Connection TNodeRef="L1"/>
<Device Ref="QB1" Type="DIS">
<LNode Ref="2" LNClass="XSWI"/>
<Connection TNodeRef="L1"/>
October 05, 2002 Page 8
and standardized solution to allow advanced IED functions
and distributed systems to form the foundation for “next gen-
eration” electric utility systems.
The benefactors of the results of open device data integration
span the entire industry and include all of the stake-holders in
this industry. With the standard IEC 61850 intelligent protec-
tion relays and other real-time devices are becoming more
common. Utilities could take advantage of these new devel-
opments, and make the power systems safer than before –
taking into account that all critical information (status and
measurements) is available (at any time and any where) when
making control decisions.
The customers are in a position to save large sums of money
and time. The vendors who provide solutions that meet or ex-
ceed expectations will become very successful. This is an ex-
citing time in the industry with an inexorable move toward
practical software components.
The most important issues are the models of the real device
data and the rules (service interface) how to access these data.
On the other side it is obvious that an appropriate transport
mechanism (communication profiles), e.g., the TCP/IP or a
point-to-point link, must be used to exchange the messages
between devices.
By providing a common communications protocol stack, IEC
61850, IEC 61400-25, and IEEE’s UCA TR 1550 allow an
utility and other industries to “plug and play” equipment from
different vendors. The specification of the uniquely tagged
semantic of the most important device model data leads to a
tremendous cost reduction during engineering, commission-
ing, operation, asset management, and maintenance. The so-
lution provides plant and enterprise wide seamless integration.
IEC 61850 is based mainly on UCA. The UCA 2.0 specifica-
tion will be harmonized with the final IEC 61850 standard.
An evaluation CD ROM is available that includes original
software of several vendors and documentation helping to get
started applying the IEC 61850, IEC 61400-25, UCA, and
MMS approach (includes also the IEEE TR 1550). For details
A comprehensive free Demo Software and Tutorial for IEC
61850 / IEC 61400-25 / UCA™ / MMS (with Web/XML
support) executable on PCs (Win 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP) could
be downloaded from the following URL:
9 References
- Christoph Brunner (ABB) and Holger Schubert,
interoperability projects, (January 2002)
- IEEE Technical Report 1550 (1999): Utility Communi-
cations Architecture, UCA;
- IEC 60870-6-TASE.2: Telecontrol application service
element 2
- Standards and committee drafts IEC 61850: Communica-
tion networks and systems in substations;
- Working Draft IEC 61400-25: Communications for
monitoring and control of wind power plants;
- Becker, Gerhard; Gärtner, W.; Kimpel, T.; Link, V.;
März, W.; Schmitz, W.; Schwarz, K.: Open Communica-
tion Platforms for Telecontrol Applications – Benefits
from the New Standard IEC 60870-6 TASE.2 (ICCP),
etz-Report 32, VDE-Verlag Berlin, 1999
- Comparison of IEC 60870-5-101 (-103, 104), DNP3, IEC
60870-6-TASE.2 with the new standard IEC 61850
"UCA" is a Trademark of EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, USA

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