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pH-Meter is capable of giving pH values of an acidic as well as alkaline samples. pH is a
unit of measure which describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity (basic) of a solution.It is
measured on a scale of 0 to !."he formal definition of pH is the negative logarithm of the
hydrogen ion activity.
pH # -log$H%&
'n acid can be defined as a proton donor( a chemical that increases the concentration of
hydrogen ions in solution.' base can be defined as a proton acceptor( a chemical that reduces the
concentration of hydrogen ions in solution.' voltmeter in the probe measures the difference
between the voltages of the two electrodes."he meter then translates the voltage difference into
pH and displays it on the screen.
If two solution are separated by pH sensitive glass and electrical potential will develop
across the membrane if the solution inside the bulb contains hydrogen ion concentration the
membrane potential will change as the hydrogen ion concentration of the other solution varies if
electrical connection are made to the solution inside the glass bulb by the pH electrode internal
element and outside the glass by a reference electrode the membrane potential can be measure by
a voltmeter. "he convenient scale for the reporting of hydrogen ion concentration is derived from
pH = log
"he pH meter has two electrodes in one tube( glass and reference electrode. ' saturated
)*+ and H*+ solution is contained in a tube which is inside of an outer tube that will have
contact with the solution to be measured. "his outer tube has a double glass bulb with ,'
which makes an ion specific electrode. -hen measuring the pH of a solution( a salt bridge
forms. "he ,'
ion( not H
( crosses the glass membrane of the pH electrode and allows for a
change in free energy which is measured by the pH meter as the concentration of H
."he value
of the unknown solutions may be presented directly in pH units ore milli-volts.
Operational procedure:
pH Measurement
*onnect the combination pH electrode to the input socket and calibrate.
*onnect the '"* probe to the knob and insert in the testing solution
.et the selector switch to the pH positions. -ash the electrodes with distilled
water and dip the combined electrode in the solution under test. "he display
shows the pH value of the solution directly in pH units.
/etween measurements( leave the electrode immersed in distilled water and
function selector switch to 0standby1 position.
mV Measurements
.et the function selector and .witch to m2 position.3ip the combined electrode
in solution under test.
"he display will show m2 value of the solution under test
Calibration of Electrode
*onnect the combination pH electrode to the input socket( wash it with distilled
water and switch on the instrument.
3ip the electrode in 4 pH buffer solution
.et the temperature control to the the buffer solution temperature.
.te the function selectror switch to pH position and ad5ust with calibrate control
till the digital display shows the precise pH valure of the buffer solution.
,ow move the function selector switch to stand by
6emove the electrode from the buffer solution and wash ift with distilled or
deionised water
3ip the combined electrode into another buffer solution
.et the temperature control to the temperature of the selected buffer solution.
.et the function selector switch to pH position. 'd5ust the slope correction control
at the front panel until the display shows the pH value of the selected buffer
solution check the correct readings are obtained with both the buffer solutions.
Cleaning and storage of the electrode
7lectrode can be cleaned by distilled water and wiped with the tissue paper gently
and stored in the 8M potassium chloride solution.

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