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FROM CHAOS
TO COHERENCE
FROM CHAOS
TO COHERENCE
HEARTMATH

SYSTEM
PL ANETARY
A DI VI S I ON OF HEARTMATH LLC
www. hear t mat h. com
Business Management/Personal Development $16.00
DOC CHILDRE BRUCE CRYER
FROM
CHAOS
TO
COHERENCE
FOREWORD BY ROBERT K. COOPER, PH.D.
(the power to change performance)
FCTC Cover.ID 1/7/04, 12:53 PM 1
What people are saying about From Chaos to Coherence . . .
advances the future by putting inner leadership at the forefront, where it
should be.
Robert Cooper, Ph.D.
author, Executive EQand The Other 90%
highly practical a potent combination of biomedical and research valida-
tion a must-read.
Ken Blanchard, co-author, The One-Minute Manager and Gung Ho
[Childre and Cryer have] found the way everyone in an organization, from
the boardroom to the mail room, can transform themselves and the company
into a coherent, super-productive entity.
Charles Inlander, President, People's Medical Society
Ideal and sim ple tools for the internal trans for ma tion within our people. The re sults
speak for them selves. Our air line, Cathay Pacifc, now prides itself on de liv er ing an
individual style of ser vice, straight from the heart. This has resulted in con sis tent ly
being rated as having the best infight service in the world.
Peter Buecking, Director, Sales and Marketing
Cathay Pacifc Airways Ltd., Hong Kong
HeartMath is making signifcant progress in de vel op ing the research un der -
pin nings that ex plain the powerful benefts of IQM for the per son and the orga-
nization.
Tim Stone, CEO, Provizio
Being at the vortex of the high-tech industry is very stressful. Using the techniques
outlined in this book has literally added ten years to my life!
Patricia B. Seybold, CEO, the Patricia Seybold Group, and author,
Customers.com: How to Create a Proftable Business Strategy
for the Internet and Beyond
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A manual for anyone who wants to enhance their competitive edge through
in tu i tive intelligence . . . and to adapt to more challenging times with ef fec -
tive ness and ease.
Vivian Wright, Strategic Change Services
Hewlett-Packard
. . . Brings irrefutable scientifc underpinning to what our hearts have al ways told us
about leadership and organizational development: intuition, sup port for in di vid u als,
clarity, balance, and management of the emotional en vi ron ment all add up to or ga -
ni za tions that are productive . . . and to lives that are ful flled.
James A. Autry, author
Real Power: Business Lessons from the Tao Te Ching
Speaks equally well to the leaders of large or ga ni za tions as it does to people in all
walks of life, encouraging them to use in nate heart in tel li gence in dealing with the
rapid pace of change during a very hec tic time in our his to ry.
Colonel Susan Goodrich, United States Air Force
The back ground physiology and the scientifc underpinning of this technique are
ab so lute ly sound.
Graham Bridgewood, MD, Chief Medical Offcer
Shell International, United Kingdom
There are two notable breakthroughs for Childre and Cryer in this book. They take
the com plex and make it simple, and the abstract and make it real. A must read for
anyone who wants to lead, support, or be a part of a high-performance team.
W. R. Max Carey, Jr., Chairman and CEO
Corporate Resource Development
. . . HeartMaths core approach and its related programs . . . yields remarkable re-
sults.
Lucius C. Tripp, MD, MPH, Division Head, Occupational Medicine,
Henry Ford Health Systems; former Regional Medical Director,
General Motors; and Principal, Wellness Group, Inc.
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HeartMath takes the mystery out of boosting organizational performance. Expect to
elevate not only your business but your own personal existence as well. This book will
profoundly and signifcantly change your life.
Debbie Reichenbach, Manager, Employee Development
Tellabs
. . . A wonderful, effective path to serenity for crazy, busy executives. The program
not only works as a problem fxer, but more importantly it enriches ones life. . . .
Equips you to cope not only with all the stress in life, but then goes way beyond in
in tro duc ing pos i tive, lasting changes.
Bob Morgan, President
Council of Growing Companies
Challenging, insightful, provocative, practical, inspiring . . . a new and exciting per-
spec tive on how to improve . . . performance.
Warner Woodley, Senior Vice President
Right Management Consultants, Canada
. . . Exciting and life-changing . . . this book is a must for survival.
Fred Verhey, Vice President of Sales, Western Region
Decker Communications, Inc.
From Chaos to Coherence offers powerful tools, research, and case studies [for] in di -
vid u als and organizations seeking to make better decisions, create cohesive teams,
and achieve sus tain able results.
Kristine Dale, President
CEOProductions.com
. . . Essential ingredients for business success.
Nancy Katz, President and CEO
Calypte Biomedical
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. . . Masterfully weaves patterns of recent breakthroughs and chaos and com plex i ty
re search, heart sciences, and organizational change work, into a rich tapestry of in-
for ma tion, insights, and inspiration.
George Por, Founder and Senior Consultant
Community Intelligence Labs
. . . A book of profound operating intelligence.
Allan Cox, author
Straight Talk for Monday Morning, Redefning Corporate Soul
From Cha os to Co her ence is clear ly designed to help an organization excel rather From Cha os to Co her ence From Cha os to Co her ence
than fall apart under these pressures.
Susan Mandl, President and CEO
Newcourt Communications Finance
A most pow er ful method for enhancing or ga ni za tion al learn ing.
Nick Zeniuk, former executive at Ford,
President, Interactive Learning Labs Inc. and
Trustee-steward for The So ci ety for Or ga ni za tion al Learn ing (SoL)
In all the books, texts and papers that I have read con cern ing effective man-
age ment none has had the positive im pact on me that this book has had.
Jack H. Holland, Ph.D., DSD, Emeritus Pro fes sor of Management
San Jose State University
. . . Begin[s] with coping with chaos and stress but ultimately it leads us to a uni ver sal
source of inner peace and clarity.
James E. Warren, Jr., CFP, President
Warren Financial Review, Inc.
The book reveals sophisticated medical research about heart intelligence that is
un der stood by nonmedical minds. . . . [It] provides meaningful data and in for ma tion
mar i nat ed with prac ti cal tools on how to simplify solutions to lifes chal leng es.
Tim McGarvey, President and CEO
Eclipse 2000, Inc.
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From Chaos to Coherence
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 5
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 6
From Chaos to Co her ence
[the power to change performance]
Doc Childre and Bruce Cryer
Revised Edition
Planetary
A Division of HeartMath LLC
Boulder Creek, California
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 7
Copyright 2004 by HeartMath LLC
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a re triev al system, or trans mit ted in any form or by any means, elec-
tron ic, me chan i cal, photocopying, re cord ing, or otherwise, without the
pri or written permission of the publisher.
HeartMath

, Freeze-Frame

, Inner Quality Management

(IQM), Heart
Lock-In

and Heart Mapping

are registered trademarks of the Institute of


HeartMath. The steps of the Freeze-Frame technique are copyrighted.
Foreword to the Revised Edition Copyright 2000 by Robert Cooper, Ph.D.
The publisher offers special discounts on bulk orders of this book.
For information, please contact:
Manager of Special Sales
HeartMath LLC
14700 W. Park Avenue
Boulder Creek, CA 95006
Tel: 831-338-8700
Fax: 831-338-9861
www.heartmath.com
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Childre, Doc Lew, 1945
From chaos to coherence : the power to change performance / Doc
Childre and Bruce Cryer.
p. cm.
Originally published: Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, c1999
Sub-title differs from 1999 edition.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Organizational behavior. 2. Psychology, Industrial. 3. Work
Psychological aspects. 4. Quality of work life. I. Cryer, Bruce. II. Title.
HD58.7.C486 2000
158dc21 00-033656
10 9 8 7 6 5 4
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 8
[ ix ] [ ix [ ix
Contents
Foreword to Revised Edition by Robert Cooper...................................xi
Foreword by Scott Schuster.................................................................xiii
Introduction to the Revised Edition ................................................xvi
Chapter 1 Business at the Speed of Balance.....................1

Chapter 2 The Coherence Imperative ..............................9

DYNAMIC 1 Internal Self-Management ..................... 25
Chapter 3 A New Model of Human Intelligence ............27
Chapter 4 Growing Up in the Hudson River:
Overcoming Adaptation.................................56
Chapter 5 Freeze-Frame

: One-Minute
Self-Management ............................................68
Chapter 6 Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its
Diffcult to Manage.........................................83
DYNAMIC 2 Coherent Communication........................99
Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Authentic Communication: Its Time for
Some Serious Consideration .......................101
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[ x ] [ x [ x From Chaos to Coherence

Chapter 8 Technology, Inner Technology, and the
Measure of Human Capital ............................. 121
DYNAMIC 3 Boosting the Organizational
Climate..................................................141
Chapter 9 Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob........... 143
Chapter 10 Core Values: The Foundation of
Sustainability ................................................165
DYNAMIC 4 Strategic Processes of Renewal ............. 185
Chapter 11 Leading from Chaos to Coherence..............187
Chapter 12 Creating a Quantum Future .......................217

References ..................................................................230
Glossary .....................................................................239
Selected Reading .......................................................251
Index...........................................................................255
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 10
[ xi ]
Foreword to
the Revised Edi tion
Robert K. Cooper, Ph.D.
Chair, Advanced Ex cel lence Sys tems
Chair of the Board, Q-Metrics
Fellow, Silicon Val ley World Internet Center
International best-sell ing author of The Per for mance Edge
and Executive EQ: Emo tion al In tel li gence in Lead er ship & Or ga ni za tions
THIS BOOK IS A GIFT TO EV ERY INDIVIDUAL AND
or ga ni za tion striv ing to make a dif fer ence, not just a liv ing, in
to day's pres sure-flled society. As you will learn in the pages
ahead, re cent discoveries in neu ro science have turned much
con ven tion al wis dom about success upside down.
Over the years I have come to believe that each of us is
born with a unique po ten tial that defnes a destiny in life and
at work. Few of us ever glimpse this hidden, one-of-a-kind po-
ten tial, much less liberate and explore it.
Among the main reasons for this is our over-dependence
on the intelligence that exists in the brain in the head and our
un der-uti li za tion of intelligence from the newly discovered sec-
ond brain in the hu man heart and third brain in the hu man
gut. By design, this complex and integrated three-part in tel -
li gence system is meant to be bril liant ly utilized and dis trib ut ed
throughout every aspect of human and or ga ni za tion al life. To
date, however, it rarely is. This book in vites you to change that.
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[ xii ] From Chaos to Coherence
In a compelling call to action, Doc Childre and Bruce Cryer
draw upon leading edge research and years of practical ex pe -
ri ence to chal lenge each reader and or ga ni za tion to ad vance in
meaningful and mea sur able ways. Their approach is de signed
to help streamline your efforts instead of making them more
com pli cat ed. It turns out that an ounce of positive emo tion can
be worth a ton of repetition.
I have found that when people successfully face challenges
and do the best work of their lives, its largely because they have
found their own distinctive ways to gen er ate exceptional lev-
els of energy, passion, inner strength, and commitment. From
Cha os to Coherence is a valuable contribution to the literature Cha os to Coherence Cha os to Coherence
on this subject.
This book advances the future by putting inner leader-
ship at the forefront, where it should be. This is vital reading
for man ag ers and professionals at every or ga ni za tion al level.
The next steps are up to you.
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 12
Foreword [ xiii ]
Foreword
Scott Shuster
Founding Director, Executive Programs, Business
Week
THE WORLD IS AN INTERNALLY CREATED PHENOMENON.
We take the in puts re ceived through our senses and process
that sensory data through our men tal i ty and emo tions to create
what each of us experiences as the world.
Every persons world is necessarily different from everyone
elses.
The quality of your individual world depends on your skill
in man ag ing and using the data that pours into you: The better
you are at operating your bodys data processing systems, the
more accurate your understanding of the world. And the more
accurate your im pres sions of the world around and within you,
the better chance you have of re spond ing to the world in the
man ner most effective for you and those with whom you as so -
ci ate.
But what are your internal systems? How do they work?
Where are the levers of con trol within us and how do we reach
those levers? Such mys ter ies of human design and response
have been the work of Doc Childre for over 30 years. In the early
1970s, Doc discovered that the human heart, an organ that ap-
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 13
[ xiv ] [ xiv [ xiv From Chaos to Coherence
pears to be principally a pump, in fact plays a demonstrable role
in human emotional response and in tel li gence. Hardly a sur-
prise to lov ers, songwriters, poets, or parents. But Doc proved it,
developing a thor ough go ing set of mental and phys i cal practices
that harness the emotional power of the heart mus cle and direct
that power toward the reduction of stress, im proved group in-
ter ac tion, and other positive effects. He called it HeartMath.
Doc and his collaboratorsSara Paddison, Rollin Mc-
Craty, Howard Martin, Deborah Rozman, Bruce Cryer, and oth-
erslearned that the lin ear i ty of human thought and the pace
at which the body and mind tend to move from one momentary
ex pe ri ence to another were additional tools that could lever the
basic discovery concerning the role of the heart muscle. They
also learned that the HeartMath prac tice is especially effective
when conducted in the presence of oth erscoworkers, for ex-
am ple.
Through the work of the not-for-proft Institute of Heart-
Math and more recently through the development of IQM (In-
ner Quality Man age ment) techniques, Docs HeartMath tools
for the en hance ment of personal experience have been turned
to the sphere of team development and the improvement of or-
ga ni za tions. HeartMath and IQM today are being feld ed to the
corporate, gov ern ment, and military sectors. Repeat buyers of
the training in clude Motorola, Hewlett-Packard, Canadian Im-
pe ri al Bank of Com merce, Royal Dutch Shell (UK), and Cathay
Pacifc Airways (Hong Kong), as well as many state, fed er al, and
provincial government agen cies throughout North America.
IQM is so hot that Doc, Bruce, and the man age ment team of
his newly formed for-proft training and consulting com pa ny,
HeartMath LLC, are rapidly expanding to meet the world wide
corporate demand for their training courses.
On an afternoon in 1992, Bruce Cryer frst appeared in
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[ xv ] [ xv [ xv
front of my desk at Business Week Executive Programs, 36 foors
up in Rockefeller Center in the heart of midtown Man hat tan.
His task was to impart an awareness of what at frst appears to
be pop psy chol o gy to a frankly skeptical editor in ter est ed only
in information of practical ap pli ca tion to the needs of large cor-
po ra tions. Bruce had no cor po rate clients at all: only a few pris-
ons, a juvenile delinquency pro gram, some school districts, and
a U.S. Army base.
The technology of HeartMath proves itself to any skep-
tic in sec onds: Focus your thinking on the pump beating in
your chest. Im me di ate ly the body warms and frame of mind is
loosened and changed. This was Doc Childres remarkable dis-
cov ery, a naturally oc cur ring transformative tech nol o gy of the
human body that had some how gone un dis cov ered or at least
undeveloped, unrecorded, and untransmitted for cen tu ries.
It was as though Bruce had brought me the frst re port of the
wheel, the telephone, or the semiconductor. I could see that this
was a new and dramatically useful tech nol o gy.
HeartMath is signifcant both as a discovery and as a def -
ni tion: Thanks to this book by Doc and Bruce, and to Doc's past
volumes, this remarkable internal tech nol o gy of the human
body is unlikely to again be forgotten. As news of the tech niques
spreads, HeartMath will be come part of the lexicon of hu man
behavior, part of everyones life.
There is no limit to the potential of HeartMath because at
root it is a simple, phys i cal act: a mental formation, a thought
with physical effects. It is neither philosophy, faith, nor belief.
The essentially phys i cal character of the practice enables its
easy ap pli ca tion across all the barriers that cus tom ar i ly divide
humanity. There is nothing cul tur al ly American about Heart-
Math. It will not transgress any re li gious or cultural pre cept. It
will work as well in India, Iran, China, or Nigeria as it works in
001 Frontmatter FCTC.ID 1/6/04, 11:09 AM 15
[ xvi ] From Chaos to Coherence
California, New York, the United Kingdom, or Sweden.
Within this potential universality lies HeartMaths im-
mense promise: If everybody did this, what a wonderful world.
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[ xvii ]
Introduction to
the Revised Edi tion
THE YEARS SINCE THE ORIGINAL PUBLICATION OF THIS
book in 1998 have seen remarkable change. The internet
spawned an e-com merce revolution few of even the most op ti -
mis tic prog nos ti ca tors could have predicted. Technology stocks
su per charged an incredible period of economic ex pan sion.
Wealth was created at an unheard of pace. Con sol i da tion hap-
pened across many industries, creating fewer competitors and
giant behemoths. Bigger is better. So is faster. Dot-coms were
the rage, then the failures became staggering. Economic con-
traction, fed by the sudden glut of technology, set a wor ried tone
in American society, and then the terrorist attacks of Sep tem ber
11, 2001 shocked an American society which be lieved its wealth
and power somehow protected it from such acts, while many in
Western Europe and elsewhere wondered, Whos next?
The pace of change was wild and exciting, and then it
turned dark and frightening, ag ing many of us faster than we
re al ize. Whats the price to us, from the sustainability of our
or ga ni za tions to the sustainability of our social systems, to the
qual i ty of life were mod el ing to our kids?
Theres another momentum picking up speed in the
worlda coherence momentum. Even in an era of un prec e-
dent ed economic and political uncertainty, this momentum
is ush er ing in new de sire to con nect, new forms of com mu ni -
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[ xviii ] From Chaos to Coherence
cat ing, new busi ness mod els, new types of re la tion ships, and
new intelligence.
So where does the heart ft in? Employees loved stock op-
tions but now crave mean ing in their work in place of non-stop
anxiety. Companies still angst over shareholder val ue and be ing
frst-to-market, but more strive to make the 100 Best Plac es
to Work list so all the talent doesnt leave when the economy
improves. Gen-Xers and boomers alike are drawing lines in the
sand about per son al free dom, fun and fulfllment.
This book is about bringing coherence out of what in creas -
ing ly seems chaotic and crazy. It will describe a set of tools be ing
used around the world to help people sift through the moun-
tains of data, to reduce their stress, and to rebuild the health
and vitality of themselves and their or ga ni za tions.
This book presents new research dis cov er ies that are fun-
damentally changing the way we view healthy, high-performing
individuals and organizations. It will pro vide prac ti cal tools to
open up your think ing to new ways of be ingfor you and your
or ga ni za tion. It doesnt have all the answers but it should make
you ask some really good ques tions. It may even awaken your
heart.
-Doc Childre and Bruce Cryer, 2004
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[ 1 ]
c h a p t e r
11
Business at the
Speed of Bal ance
Some day, after we have mas tered the winds, the waves,
the tides, and gravity...we shall harness...the en er gies of
love. Then, for the second time in the history of the world,
men will have discovered fre.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN
SPEED IS AN INCREDIBLE DRUG. JUST ASK A FORMULA ONE
driv er, a day-trad er, or the CEO of any one of thousands of start-
ups try ing desperately to get there frst with the next great idea,
the really cool technology, the killer app. We have con vinced
our selves fast er is better, indeed faster is man da to ry. Lethargy, man da to ry man da to ry
even bal ance, is death in todays mar kets. But what fuel is driv-
ing us? Is our organizationare werun ning on high-oc tane
or the fumes of fear? Fear well lose the race, be left be hind, be
dumped in the trash heap of what could have been?
Balance sounds boring. And whos got time for it? Who
cares that our bodies were not designed to handle the in cred i ble
information tsunami unleashed over the last de cade? Who cares
that information is now doubling every 12-18 months, com-
pared to every 30-36 months in 1995, or every 20 years back
in 1954? Who cares that most people in business today must
process hundreds of inputs daily (one survey sug gests 205 mes-
sages per day is the current average), let alone their regular job.
Who cares that in parallel with the glo bal iza tion of information
has developed an alarming rise of youth violence? Or that it took
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[ 2 ] From Chaos to Coherence
the planet several million years to reach 3 billion inhabitants,
and less than 50 to add 3 billion more.
1
Many people care.
From Chaos to Coherence was written for the future health From Chaos to Coherence From Chaos to Coherence
of organizations and the future potential of people. It proposes
a new way to build or ga ni za tions that respond to change, crisis,
and chal lenge with poise, fexibility, and balance. Organizations
built of peo ple who respond quickly and caringly to changes in
the econ o my, their markets, their culture, and in themselves.
The how is a blend of sci ence, business practicality, and the
combined in tel li gence of the hu man heart and in tel lect.
Our view is that a new level of or ga ni za tion al effciency,
syn chro ni za tion, and effectiveness is pos si ble by studying and
ap ply ing new in for ma tion about the intelligence of the human
system. Or ga ni za tions will make only incremental im prove ments
in ef fec tive ness and sustainability until a more thorough and sen-
sitive un der stand ing of the human system resides at the core of
how or ga ni za tions function.
Research during the 90s profoundly deepened our knowl-
edge of hu man intelligence, opening up radical new pos si -
bil i ties. The fact that intelligence is distributed through out the distributed distributed
hu man sys tem and that the heart is an intelligent system pro-
found ly af fect ing brain pro cess ing represents a new model for found ly af fect ing brain pro cess ing found ly af fect ing brain pro cess ing
help ing or ga ni za tion al sys tems become more balanced, more
in tel li gent, more adaptive, and more humane. In many ways, the
emer gence of the Web mirrors this discovery.
Our team set out to build a coherent organization that would
put both care and effciency at the heart of all our activities: care
for our cli ents and care for ourselves, effcient service for our cus-
tom ers, and in ter nal effciency for ourselves. Many of the 20 or
so who formed the original team at HeartMath had experience
working in com pa nies or public agencies mired in in co her ence
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Business at the Speed of Balance [ 3 ]
and in ef fec tive ness. Hu man values often were absent, and so was
business ef f cien cy. Ear ly on, Doc recognized a link between the
heart of a per son and the heart of an or gan ization. He knew organi-
zations re fect the col lec tive mind-sets and attitudes of the people
who in hab it them.
We spent most of the 90s deeply researching human phys i -
ol o gy and or ga ni za tion al effectiveness. We tested our the o ries
and tools with thousands of people in dozens of public and
pri vate sec tor organizations in North America, Europe and Asia,
and in the organizations we built. Through this pro cess we
de vel oped In ner Qual i ty Man age ment

(IQM), a set of scientif-


cally-based tools for help ing busi ness es (all or ga ni za tions) work
at the speed of bal ance.
THE FOUR DYNAMICS OF IQM
The four dynamics of Inner Quality Management are interde-
pendent and integrated:
Internal self-management
Coherent communication
Boosting organizational climate
Strategic processes of renewal
The cornerstone of IQM is internal self-management internal self-management internal self-management
help ing people manage their minds and emotions effectively.
Creativity, decision-making, health and well-being all im prove
when mind and emotions are coherent and relatively noise-free.
This is essential for building a high performance or ga ni za tion
in this age of accelerating change. Achiev ing co her ent com mu -
ni ca tion in an in creas ing ly noisy world is the prime ob jec tive ni ca tion ni ca tion
of the sec ond dy nam ic. This involves managing both the huge
vol umes of elec tron ic com mu ni ca tion we are ex posed to as
well as the in ter per son al kind. The kind that drives us cra zyor
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[ 4 ] From Chaos to Coherence
brings deep sat is fac tion. A grow ing body of re search is re veal ing
the role cli mate plays in an or ga ni za tions long-term health and cli mate cli mate
per for mance, and we all know what it feels like to work in a
team we love versus one we dont. This is where dy nam ic three
will lead us. Dy nam ic four describes, through ad di tion al tools
and case stud ies, the strategic need for re new al in the culture of re new al re new al
an organization. The ob jec tive of all this is in creased co her ence
in all as pects of in di vid u al and or ga ni za tion al life, leading to
sustainable business outcomes that insure an organizations
viability and well-being. (Chap ter 2 will in tro duce the four dy-
nam ics in great er depth.)
01 Ch 1 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:45 PM 4
Business at the Speed of Balance [ 5 ]
Its Alive!
Consider that all organizations are living systems composed
of peo ple who think and feel. Each organization is a large com plex and and
organism whose health and resilience depends on the same
fac tors that de ter mine an individuals health and balance. Smart
or ga ni za tionslike smart peo pleare now paying attention to
the el e ments that are work ing as well as to those that are not. Any
num ber of factors can weaken and di min ish the ef fec tive ness
of the oth ers: change in market, change in lead er ship, change
in gov ern ment. Change of any kind in creas ing ly af fects an
or ga ni za tions re sil ience, its per spec tive, and its clar i ty of
purpose. Its fairly easy to spot the business outcomes of such
change. But its more important to frst understand the effects at
the individual level.
Dynamic 1. Internal Self-Management
If you have spent much of your career working in a medium to
large corporation, health care system, or government agency,
you have no doubt been trained to im prove qual i ty, think
stra te gi cal ly, out pace the com pe ti tion, or keep the cus tom er
satisfed. More than ever, organizations have to see outside
themselves. Isolationism and myopia dont cut it today. Its all
about connections, partnering, collaborating, and leveraging
what we have through the strengths and talents of others.
Many organizations are re al iz ing that its the adapt abil i ty, the
creativity, and the innovative intelligence with in the individual
that is the only real com pet i tive advantage any organization has.
In some ways, the military has fo cused on this more than
the pri vate sector, historically. Its num ber one ob jec tive must al-
ways be force readi ness.
2
There is no ques tion, in the minds of
military lead ers, that the individual must be pre pared men tal ly,
emo tion al ly, and phys i cal ly to deal with any thing, in clud ing
01 Ch 1 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:45 PM 5
[ 6 ] From Chaos to Coherence
life-and-death sit u a tions. Too of ten oth er organizations forget
this critical em pha sis on sus tain ing, nur tur ing, and pre par ing
the in di vid u al and, because of a ba sic emotional im bal ance in
that organization, twist mun dane prob lems into life-and-death
dra mas. People mak ing the tran si tion from mil i tary to busi ness
ca reers are of ten shocked by the cra zi ness in for-proft compa-
nies over is sues it aint worth losing any sleep over. One of our
cli ents, a vet er an of the mil i tary and in tel li gence com mu ni ties
who served dur ing the Per sian Gulf War, told us of his shock at
the wasted en er gy he has seen in cor po rate Amer i ca over mun-
dane is sues mag ni fed be yond reason.
Internal self-management is based on these insights:
1. The pressure on the individual will increase in the years
to come.
2. Understanding human processesmental, emo tion al,
and physicalis essential to the individual and the or ga -
ni za tion.
3. Identifying and plugging the leaks in your own system
saves energy.
4. You can increase your capacity for intelligence.
Dynamic 2. Coherent Communication
The success of internal self-management techniques is frst tested
in in ter ac tions with others. In an increasingly connected world,
com mu ni ca tion is more prevalent and demanding than ever.
Or ga ni za tion al and per son al ineffciency com pounds when the
qual i ty of com mu ni ca tion is low, when the im por tance of it is
ig nored, or when we simply tell ourselves other things are more
press ing. Coherent com mu ni ca tion is a model for effective
in for ma tion transfer and meaningful conversations between
01 Ch 1 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:45 PM 6
Business at the Speed of Balance [ 7 ] [ 7 [ 7
co work ers, with customers, patients, or con stit u ents, and within
oneself. Coherent com mu ni ca tion is based on four principles:
1. Achieve understanding frst.
2. Listen nonjudgmentally.
3. Listen for the essence.
4. Be authentic.
Dynamic 3. Boosting the Organizational Cli mate
Signifcant research has demonstratedand most peoples
per son al ex pe ri ence confrmsthe necessity of a positive
work place climate for ef fec tive ness. This topic should not just be
the domain of the human resources or personnel department,
since everyone in the or ga ni za tion contributes to the climate,
as do fac tors external to the workplace. Anyone who has been
through a merger knows frst-hand just how dramatic a climate
change can be and how potentially devastating to personal
pro duc tiv i ty. This dy nam ic cre ates the in ter nal en vi ron men tal
fac tors that sup port or, if ig nored, un der mine dy nam ics one and
two. The key prin ci ples here are:
1. An Emotional Virus is insidious in many organizations
to day.
2. A healthy organizational climate heals the virus through
supportive man age ment, contribution, self-ex pres sion,
rec og ni tion, clar i ty, and chal lenge.
3. Human qualities such as adaptability, shared core values,
care, and ap pre ci a tion are the hallmark of great places to
work.
4. Understanding the distinction between knowledge
and wis dom leads to smarter decisions and smarter
or ga ni za tions.
01 Ch 1 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:45 PM 7
[ 8 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Dynamic 4. Strategic Processes of Renewal
Moving from theory, conceptual models, and case studies to
prac ti cal ap pli ca tion is essential for ongoing organizational
co her ence. This is the nitty-grit ty of how the organization applies
its learn ing. This is also the dynamic that allows the organization
to renew itself at a strategic level, provided that the internal,
communication and climate dy nam ics are well balanced and
pos i tive. The principles of this dynamic are:
1. Balance is the keynote for self-renewing or ga ni za tions.
2. Building effective teams and coaching skills can le ver age
an organizations human capital.
3. Creativity and innovation arise out of coherent peo ple.
4. Complex decision-making requires big picture think ing.
This book provides specifc tools for the intelligent
or ches tra tion of each dynamic. Weakness in any area strains the
whole system and hinders performance. Progress in any area
boosts over all effciency and ef fec tive ness. Its all about dynamic
bal ance.
01 Ch 1 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:45 PM 8
c h a p t e r
22
The Coherence Im per a tive
SCIENTISTS WHO STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT, AS
well as those who study bi o log i cal systems, understand the
con cept of co her ence. The dif fer ence be tween an ordinary
house hold light bulb and a laser il lus trates the concept. A light
bulb pro duc es light waves or particles that spread out from the
light source, bump ing into each other and diluting the potency
of the output. Scientists call this in co her ent light. Not terribly in co her ent in co her ent
ef f cient, but this is the in her ent nature of a light bulb. As a re-
sult, the light from such a bulb il lu mi nates only a limited range:
the high er the wattage, the more far-reaching its effect and the
more energy required to pow er it. But signifcant en er gy must
go into a bulb for it to cre ate sig nif cant light be cause of the
in co her enceor in ef f cien cyof its light waves. Most or di nary
bulbs also burn out fairly quickly.
However, if these waves could be brought into co her -
encemade more focused and or ga nizeda dra mat i cal ly new
level of pow er and ef fec tive ness would be achieved. This is the
un der ly ing prin ci ple behind a laser. A la ser pro duc es coher-
ent light waves that are highly effcient, ordered, not wast ed or effcient effcient
dis si pat ed bouncing into themselves. As a re sult, com mer cial
lasers need operate only on a tiny wattage because of this eff-
ciency. They are in cred i bly pre cise in a growing ar ray of sur gi cal
pro ce dures and com mer cial ap pli ca tions be cause they are so
fo cused, co her ent, and pen e trat ing. The shift from in co her ence
[ 9 ]
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 9
[ 10 ] From Chaos to Coherence
to co her ence is stunning: a 60-watt light bulb whose light waves
could be made coherent as a laser, would have the power to
bore a hole through the sun!
1
We all have experienced moments of coherence, where
things were in sync, we were in the fow, our actions and in-
ten tions matched, and the outcomes were productive, ef f cient,
and fulflling. For many, how rare and random these moments
are. They often emerge out of chaos. Imag ine if we could bring
our lives and our or ga ni za tions into a new level of co her ence,
fo cus, and clarity. What if an or ganization is doing an ad mi ra ble
job, providing decent customer service, good prod ucts or ser-
vices, while, un be knownst to it self, can cel ing out much of its
effectiveness be cause of internal dis tor tion, static, and stress?
Light bulbs burn out; so do people, and so do or ga ni za tions.
If employees are constantly brooding over negative com-
ments from coworkers or thinking about a problem at home,
coherence with in those in di vid u als is com pro mised. How could
it not be? They may try to be at ten tive to their work, but the
mental and emo tion al pro cess es they are going through will
drain them of vitality and dilute their ef fec tive ness. Just as in the
example of the house hold light bulb, they would be producing
ran dom ly, and it takes a lot of power to keep the light burn ing.
In the workplace, people some times fnd this power through
drawing on raw nerve en er gy or the fear of not meet ing man age -
ments ex pec ta tions. If this pattern continues, they can burn out
and productivity ceases.
Heres the puzzle: Chaos can be appealing. In the 90s
many tal ent ed people left pre dict able, or dered, rou tine jobs
with suc cess ful companies (many with great stock options and
beneft plans) for the unpredictability and ad ven ture of dotcom
start-ups. While the organizations these Gen-Xers and boomers
left may not have been models of coherence or bal ance, cha os
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 10
The Coherence Imperative [ 11 ]
with fun sounded a lot better than chaos with drone.
This became a profound management challenge for older
com pa nies until the recession took full effect. And staff re ten -
tion remains a critical issue for health care systems ev ery where.
When the economy rebounds, staff retention will be critical in
the private sector too, in order to main tain co her ence in the or-
ga ni za tion and at tract the kind of tal ent they need to grow and
prosper.
Peopleemployees and customers alikewant in di vid u al
attention and customized solutions. The days of one-size-fts-
allfor any thingare long gone. How can coherence emerge
out of this seeming chaos?
Putting emphasis on learning how to deal effectively with
work place and personal problems will create more co her ence in
the individual. At ten tion span, mental clarity, and creativity will
nat u ral ly increase. Coherence is effciency in action. Co her ent
people thrive men tal ly, emotionally, and phys i cal ly. Co her ence
is not a static, rigid state. When a system is coherent, virtually no
energy is wasted be cause of the in ter nal syn chro ni za tion. Pow er
is maximizedthe pow er to adapt, fex, innovate. This coherent
pow er results in a major leap in ef f cien cy and effectiveness.
Coherence within people can also be measured biomedi-
cally, with pro found implications for productivity, men tal clar-
ity, and car dio vas cu lar, im mune system, and hor mon al health,
as well as the aging process. Cardiac co her ence is a term used to co her ence co her ence
describe the state of the car dio vas cu lar sys tem when the elec-
tri cal and mechanical sys tems of the heart are syn chro nized and
operating effeciently.
2
Internal co her ence can be mea sured by
mon i tor ing the elec tri cal syn chro ni za tion of brain and heart and
determining whether the ner vous system is full of noise or static
free. (More on this in the next chapter.) The ef fect of increased
in di vid u al co her ence means we spend less en er gy to maintain
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 11
[ 12 ] From Chaos to Coherence
health, we waste less energy through in ef f cient thoughts and
reactions, and our body does not strain to keep us focused and
productive.
Coherence is a progressive statethe more we build it, the
more we have in reserve. The aim is to increase the ratio of time
spent, per son al ly and organizationally, in coherence. In creased
personal co her ence yields greater fexibility, adapt abil i ty, cre-
ativ i ty, and per haps most important, the self-se cu ri ty to re gain
hope.
Organizationsbeing the sum total of the intelligence, cre-
ativ i ty, self-management, and coherence of their peopleop-
er ate the same way. As co her ence increases within in di vid u als
and teams, a much high er level of or ga ni za tion al coherence and
alignment is possiblecoherence between the organizations
mis sion, its vision, its strategies and its ac tions. Coherence
is con sis ten cy be tween customer expectations and customer con sis ten cy con sis ten cy
satisfaction. Co her ence is continuity in every internal process continuity continuity
and com mu ni ca tion modality. Co her ence is balance within the balance balance
per son al life of each stakeholder in the process. Does this im ply
or require a static external environment? Hardly. The increas-
ing chaos in all the world's system re quires a high ly fexible,
adap tive, intelligent response. Co her ence is the en er gy-ef f cient
mo dal i ty in a chaotic world. Because so many corporate, public
and health care organizations lack much coherence, even a lit tle
coherence goes a long way.
Organizational coherence can also be measured. Research
con duct ed by the Institute of HeartMath labs,
3
as well as by
oth er re search ers cit ed in this book, confrms what many or ga -
ni za tion al think ers and businesspeople have known in tu itive ly
for years: Or ga ni za tion s which si mul ta neous ly address per son al
dynamics and or ga ni za tion al structures are more successful and and and
sustainable outperform their competitors.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 12
The Coherence Imperative [ 13 ]
Entrainment
Through HeartMath's work with teams in many types of private
and pub lic sec tor or ga ni za tions, it became clear that individuals
frst must learn tools for their own self-management. Work shops
and offsite sem i nars abound to ad dress team building but
most ig nore the fundamental men tal and emotional processes
with in the individual. We ques tioned how teams could ever be with in with in
more ef fec tive until the individuals became more in sync with
them selves. We began to understand a phe nom e non known
to sci en tists but quite lack ing in most or ga ni za tionsthe phe-
nom e non of entrainment. Entrainment is the scientifc term for Entrainment Entrainment
the syn chro ni za tion of sys tems (see Fig ure 21). Flocks of birds,
schools of fsh, the pace mak er cells in the hu man heartall are
examples of en train ment. Teams that are entrained function
smoothly, cap i tal iz ing on the cre ativ i ty and intelligence of the
in di vid u al members with min i mal dis tor tion or static. To use
Faith Pop corns term, they are click ing.
4
They are more coher-
ent in everything they do. There is less distortion and internal
con fict and greater re sil ience and fex i bil i ty in the face of chal-
lenge or cri sis. Opin ions and perspectives within the group are
diverse; they dont all think alike, but there is respect and the
desire to col lab o rate. They are in sync.
Coherent individuals are the prerequisite for entrained
teams. In di vid u als who are coherent enjoy greater balance in
their work and personal lives, and fnd decision-making easier.
Youve experienced entrainment and its lackorchestras,
sports teams, and dance troupes that achieved high levels of
en train ment and moved ef fort less ly as one co her ent whole, cel-
ebrating individual excellence and unique ness; com pa nies that
grew too fast and became in cred i bly disjointed; ath letes who
per formed in the zone only to lose it and grow de spon dent.
A common thread is the heart. Was their heart in what
they were doing? Were they operating from a deep in tu i tive in-
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 13
[ 14 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Entrainment Entrainment
In Sync
Out of Sync
copyright 1994, Institute of HeartMath
FIGURE 21 Entrainment. The concept of entrainment was frst discovered
in 1665 by the Dutch clock maker Christiaan Huyggens, who observed
that pendulum clocks fell into synchronized rhythm if their pendulums were
of the same length. Even after breaking their rhythm they fell back into syn-
chro ni za tion. Numerous ex am ples exist in the biological world of this innate
tendency to conserve energy.
tel li gence or had personality dif fer enc es over rid den com mon
goals, common values, and a common mis sion? Were love and
appreciation guiding prin ci ples fueling their actions? Doc's and
Bruce's pro fes sion al careers have been extremely var iedman-
u fac tur ing, mu sic, business, biotech, publishing, and now
per son al and or ga ni za tion al ef fec tive ness consulting. The high
points always hap pened when our hearts were fully engaged in
what we were doing. That pro cess always yielded cre ative in-
sight and ef f cient solutions. And we had a lot more fun.
The State of What Is
How is this era of unprecedented change affecting personal and
organizational coherence? For corporations and health care or-
ganizations alike, in creased cus tom er and consumer aware ness
has re sult ed in great er ex pec ta tions and de mands. In creased
com pe ti tion has in creased internal pres suresmany of which
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 14
The Coherence Imperative [ 15 ]
are emo tion alwhile re duc ing proft mar gins. A more com plex
mar ket place has re quired ever more so phis ti cat ed sales and
mar ket ing tech niques. The rapid pro lif er a tion of in for ma tion
tech nol o gy has created a moun tain of information to man-
age and re spond to. The pub lic sector has faced many of these
same profound chang es with the added bur den of an elec tor ate
deep ly cynical about the rel e vance of gov ern men tal in sti tu tions
and policies. Gridlock now is used to describe po lit i cal im pass es Gridlock Gridlock
as often as free way traffc. Downsizing, also known eu phe mis t-
i cal ly as right- right right sizing and dark ly as sizing sizing capsizing, has ar rived in every capsizing capsizing
seg ment of society, with numerous military base closures in the
Unit ed States causing wrench ing change in the com mu ni ties
grown de pen dent on them. Reengineering and outsourcing
have been ini ti at ed to boost internal effciency, while new skills
to manage the chang es have been re quired. Feel ing tired yet?
The Impact of Change
Many organizations have gotten fatter, and the reduction in
bu reau crat ic lay ers has meant people have to be much more
fex i ble, have multiple skills, and struggle with roles that often
are less defned. Even the world of science has felt the pain and
promise of change. In the United States, managed care has to-
tal ly altered how disease is treat ed and dramatically af fect ed
al ready strained doctor-pa tient re la tion ships. At the same time,
the fragmentation of science into thou sands of subspecialties is
seeing a back lash into more in te grat ed ap proach es that build on
in ter dis ci pli nary strengths such as psychoneuroimmunology,
the study of mind-body interactions.
5
A U.S. Bureau of Labor Sta tis tics study discovered that
sig nif cant ef fects occur in em ploy ee productivity and ac tu al
be hav ior as a result of change.
6
As a direct con se quence of or ga -
ni za tion al changewheth er brought upon by changing mar ket,
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 15
[ 16 ] From Chaos to Coherence
downsizing, a merger, change in lead er ship, or sim ply a se ries of
bad decisions,
Productive work dropped from 4.8 hours per day to 1.2
hours per day, a loss of 75%.
Social chat and gossip in creased from 1.5 hours per day to 3.2
hours per day, an increase of more than 100%.
Retraining time went from 0 hours to 1.8 hours, now oc cu -
py ing near ly 25% of the employees time.
The Emerging Cost of Stress
According to the U.S. De part ment of Labor, the work place is the
great est sin gle source of stress, no mat ter what you do or how
much you earn.
7
Stress may now account for 7590% of all visits
to phy si cians, according to the Amer i can Institute of Stress.
8
The
price tag to Amer i can busi ness es for stress is at least $200 bil lion
a year.
9
Until very recently, this was the Emperors new clothes
of or ga ni za tion al ef fec tive nesswe knew stress was out of con-
trol, but most of us were afraid to speak up about it. Thankfully,
that has started to change. The coherence mo men tum is picking
up speed.
The Globalization of Stress
America has no exclusive fran chise on workplace stress. A 1997
New York Times ar ti cle noted that the word New York Times New York Times stress has be come stress stress
so uni ver sal it does not need to be trans lat ed into the local lan-
guag es.
10
Say stress in vir tu al ly any country of the world and
the locals will know what you mean. A Unit ed Na tions Re port
called job stress the 20th-cen tu ry disease. the the
11
In the United Kingdom, as much as 10% of the GNP now
goes to stress-related costs. A recent study in the UK
12
showed
that 60% of man ag ers work in excess of the normal work week,
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 16
The Coherence Imperative [ 17 ] [ 17 [ 17
and 52% claim to be suffering from too much work, up from
40% in 1993. Fur ther more, 40% of male re spon dents felt they
did not spend enough time at home. Over 50% cited the bal ance
be tween home and work as stress ful. This study also found that
47% of those in ter viewed found their workload had in creased
great ly dur ing that year. In Can a da, at least $12 bil lion is spent
each year on trackable stress-related costs, and 46% of Canadian
wom en and 36% of Ca na di an men cite be ing too busy as the
main cause of work stress.
13
Their colleagues in Ja pan, Hong Kong, and the de vel op ing
econ o mies of Asia have sim i lar issues. In fact, Asian managers
have mir rored many of the same stressed out be hav iors and
con se quenc es of their Eu ro pe an and North Amer i can coun-
ter parts.
14
In Ja pan, the word karoshi lit er al ly means dying at karoshi karoshi
your desk and is con sid ered a
na tion al health crisis affecting
tens of thousands each year.
Ac cord ing to the Na tion al Po-
lice Agen cy, sui cides in Ja pan
in 1996 totaled about 23,000,
more than dou ble the number
of traf fc fa tal i ties. The de-
mise of the job-for-life system
is especially tough for the Jap-
a nese salaryman, whose so cial
rank is de ter mined by his
company and his po si tion,
reported Time magazine in a
February 1998 cover sto ry.
15
At
least 200 law suits have been
fled by fam i lies of people who
dropped dead af ter too many
all-nighters.
16
were worried...
I
n one recent study, 44% of
the work ers ques tioned
be lieved their workload was
ex ces sive, 46% wor ried about
lay offs, 55% wor ried about the
com pa nys fu ture, and 50% felt
their jobs were not se cure. This
equates to millions of peo ple
try ing to work through worry
and in se cu ri ty, on a dai ly basis.
An oth er study found that 42%
of Americans had looked for a
new job be cause of the strug gle
to main tain work-per son al life
bal ance.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 17
[ 18 ] From Chaos to Coherence
These statistics amount
to a global mountain of inner
tur moil and incoherence. The
typical organizational re sponse
has been denial or a band-aid
fx. Of fer a lunch-and-learn
for those trou bled by stress.
Encourage managers to spend
more time lis ten ing. Send
an ex ec u tive to a lead er ship
course to help him smooth out
his style. Systemic solutions
that address core human emo-
tional processes have been
largely absent.
Only the Dead Have Done
Enough
There clearly is much that
could be feared today. In co -
her ence reigns. There also is
much that could be appreci-
ated. Co her ence emerg es.
Which is it? Where do we focus
our at ten tion? If we ap pre -
ci ate only whats good, will we
not ig nore the real prob lems
and is sues that cry out for at-
ten tion? A re cent high-lev el
meet ing of a glo bal tele com -
mu ni ca tion com pa ny shift ed
course con sid er ably when an
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
reduce stress
S
tress is the main disabler
of per son al and or ga ni z-
a tion al per for mance. Ad dress ing
it has become a crit i cal business
strat e gy. Peo ples per cep tions
about events create in ter nal stress,
so sole ly ad dress ing struc tur al
and or ga ni za tion al is sues, and
not ad dress ing emotional per-
ceptions, will fail to resolve the
problem. Help ing people widen
their per spec tives about work
loads, em ploy ee re la tion ships,
man age ment, cus tom ers, etc., can
signifcantly reduce stress lev els,
free ing up en er gy to address ex-
ter nal factors that encourage a
stress undertone. Changing per-
cep tion re quires new in tel li gence.
Allocate re sourc es to increase
heart in tel li gence with in your
or ga ni za tion and take steps to
pro mote mental, emo tion al and
work/life bal ance. Your ef forts and
ex pen di tures will sig nif cant ly
in crease or ga ni za tion al co her ence
and per for mance.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 18
The Coherence Imperative [ 19 ]
ex haust ed man ag er stat ed, Only the dead have done enough.
This state ment, cyn i cal and des per ate though it was, was met
with com plete un der stand ing and sym pa thy from the oth er
over worked and underappreciated man ag ers and executives in
the room.
In her ex cel lent book Lead er ship and the New Science, Lead er ship and the New Science Lead er ship and the New Science
Mar g a ret Wheatley asks: How do we create or ga ni za tion al
co her ence, where ac tiv i ties cor re spond to purpose? How do we
cre ate struc tures that move with change, that are fex i ble and
adap tive, even boundaryless, that en able rath er than con strain?
How do we sim pli fy things with out losing both control and
dif fer en ti a tion? How do we re solve personal needs for free dom
and au ton o my with or ga ni za tion al needs for pre dic tion and
con trol? . . . Is there a magnetic
force, a basin for activity,
so at trac tive that it pulls all
be hav ior toward it and cre ates
co her ence?
17
To this we
would answer yes. That force
does exist. It can and must
be tapped for the future of
or ga ni za tions and our selves.
Testing the Theory
As a research organization, a
fundamental objective of the
In sti tute of HeartMath has
been to inform leaders in sci-
ence and busi ness of its dis-
cov er ies and to leverage previ-
ous work into more extensive
projects. Demonstrating the
In sti tutes ideas of or ga ni za -
recognize
change will accelerate
C
omplacency is out.
Adaptability is in. Every
glo bal trend fore cast for the
econ o my, health care, political
sys tems, ed u ca tion and fam i ly
life, points to a pe ri od of un-
prec e dent ed change. New in tel -
li gence is need ed to deal ef fec -
tive ly with changes that stretch
our capacities, per son al ly and
pro fes sion al ly. Make your own
in ter nal co her ence a pri or i ty.
The fu ture will de mand this
more than ever.
recognize
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 19
[ 20 ] From Chaos to Coherence
tion al co her ence in a world-class organization was a high prior-
ity. In 1994, the director of emerg ing tech nol o gies for a For tune
50 company approached Bruce about one of the frms core ob-
jec tives: enhancing the human per for mance of its peo ple. The
company already had a global rep u ta tion for prod uct in no va tion
and an unusually strong focus on its people. It en tered mar kets
where it had no expertise and quickly dom i nat ed them. The
company of ten credited the organizationwide focus on train ing
as fun da men tal to its mar ket leadership.
18
But now the companys issues were changing. Tech nol o gy
ad vanc es in their key in dus tries were becoming so rapid, lead-
er ship no longer was assured. Stress on people was in creas ing,
partly due to the or ga ni za tions size and challenge to sustain
its healthy growth, part ly due to societal and family is sues un-
related to the organization. The HeartMath team was asked to
design a series of programs for a wide range of staff mem bers
to address and measure multiple issues, such as pro duc tiv i ty,
teamwork, com mu ni ca tion effectiveness, health and stress, cre-
ativity, and in no va tion.
Plans were drawn to recruit three teams of employees for
the pi lot pro grams, which would be held in two different lo ca -
tions in the United States. The pilot groups would consist of one
group of ex ec u tives, mid dle managers and ad min is tra tive staff
members; one intact soft ware en gi neer ing team; and a team of
assembly line work ers. This was HeartMaths frst sig nif cant
research-based cor po rate intervention
19
and the frst to test the
validity of its con cepts.
Improvements in Productivity, Teamwork, Health,
and Em pow er ment
The program was conducted over a six-month period. Dramatic
im prove ments in pro duc tiv i ty were measured in the assembly
line work ers (see Figure 22):
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 20
The Coherence Imperative [ 21 ]
93% had increased productivity.
90% had improved teamwork.
93% acknowledged an increased sense of empowerment.
93% felt healthier, including signifcant gains in energy and
vi tal i ty, less tension, fewer physical problems, a re duced need
for med i ca tion, and greater personal and pro fes sion al fulfll-
ment.
More than 20 rec om men da tions made by the as so ci ates for
improving pro duc tiv i ty were im ple ment ed by the manage-
ment team.
22% decrease in defects.
A key factor of concern to the company was car dio vas cu lar
health and effciency. Of the adult working pop u la tion in Amer-
i ca, 33% have high blood pressure.
20
The fg ures are sim i lar in
Europe. High blood pres sure (or hy per ten sion) is the leading
risk factor for heart dis ease and stroke
21
and can dra mat i cal ly in-
hib it performance and performance performance pro duc tiv i ty. While this in ter ven tion had pro duc tiv i ty pro duc tiv i ty
FIGURE 22 The graph shows changes in productivity, teamwork, em pow -
er ment, and health in workers who learned HeartMath coherence tech-
niques, compared to a control group of workers performing the same job.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 21
[ 22 ] From Chaos to Coherence
not been positioned as a wellness pro gramthe intent was in-
creasing business pro duc tiv i tyour clients in tu itive ly knew the creasing business pro duc tiv i ty creasing business pro duc tiv i ty
relationship be tween individual health and pro duc tiv i ty:
26% of the executive, administrative, and engineering teams
were hy per ten sive at the start of the study.
After six months, all participants had regained normal blood
pres sure. They had also learned to lower blood pres sure dur-
ing high ly stressful situations.
There were signifcant improvements in other pro duc -
tiv i ty-af fect ing factors:
18% less anxiety
26% less burnout
20% less hostility
32% increase in contentment
There was a 36% reduction in overall stress symptoms,
which in cluded the following:
56% reduction in sleeplessness
31% decrease in rapid heartbeats
27% reduction in headaches
33% reduction in heartburn
30% reduction in trembling due to stress
Bruce also received many comments refecting greatly in-
creased per son al and team coherence.
More inventions were disclosed in the last six months.
Since my stress levels are now lower, I am more relaxed and
able to think more clearly. My negotiation skills have im-
proved.
My number of patents per month literally doubled.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 22
The Coherence Imperative [ 23 ]
I feel happier with myself. I perform better with my job. I
com mu ni cate morewithout being afraid.
Im handling family life a lot better with less worries, and Ive
re solved a lot of prolonged issues. I can listen to oth ers, be
open-mind ed, willing to train co work ers, and come to work
feel ing hap py and ready to work.
In corporate speak, we hit a home rungreat data, great
per son al enthusiasm, plans to expand the im ple men ta tion
through out at least one fac to ry. The fact that the company was
Motorola gave us enor mous cred i bil i ty and leverage to begin
speak ing with other organizations about the po ten tial benefts
of the Institutes technology. We were even rewarded with a spe-
cial prize at an internal competition held by the company.
The primary division where these tools were implemented
saw record growth and the cor po rate university began of fer ing
IQM at head quar ters. So we offer this story as an ex am ple of
what could be. In an age when organizational strain and un-
cer tain ty pre dom i nates, when our most productive hours and
years re main dedicated to or ga ni za tions that often show lit tle or
no loy al ty to us, there are com pel ling reasons to do things dif-
fer ent ly. And they can result in mea sur able im prove ments that
or ga ni za tionsand peoplerequire.
Perceptionthe lens through which we view lifeis at the
root of the solutions. As Victor Frankl, a Holocaust sur vi vor and
au thor, put it so eloquently,
everything can be tak en away from a man but
one thing: the last of the human free domsto
choose ones at ti tude in any given set of cir cum -
stanc es, to choose ones own way.
22
Doc has spent years showing that it is ones attitudes that
un der lie ev ery as pect of per son al and organizational co her ence.
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[ 24 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Too often it is the hand-me-down mind-sets, in herited from
gen er a tions of man ag ers be fore us, that reinforce or ga ni za tion al
rigidity and in fex i bil i ty. By free ing ourselves from those attitudes,
co her ence be comes pos si ble, es pe cial ly in an age where all the
rules have changed.
23
As Albert Einstein said, The world we have
created is a prod uct of our way of think ing.
24
We need a new way
of think ing. We need a new intelligence.
02 Ch 2 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:47 PM 24
[ 25 ]
DYNAMIC 1
INTERNAL SELF-MANAGEMENT
1. Understanding human processesmental, emotional and phys-
icalis necessary to create sustained organizational transfor-
mation. A new model of human intelligence provides clues.
2. The pressure on the individual will increase in the years to
come as societal, family, and internal stresses mount and the
pace of change accelerates.
3. As individuals learn to identify and plug the leaks in their own
personal systems, they stop draining energy and effectiveness
personally and organizationally.
4. Individuals can learn to increase their capacity for intelligence,
resulting in more effective decisions, greater resilience, and a
heightened sense of well-being. This provides enormous value
to any organization.
Internal Self-
Management
Increase
Capacity for
Intelligence
Recognize
Internal Stresses
Understand
the Human
Process
Plug
the Leaks
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03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:10 PM 26
[ 27 ]
c h a p t e r
3
A New Model of
Human Intelligence
INTELLIGENCE USED TO BE SO SIMPLE. GOOD GENES
guaranteed high IQ, which got you into a frst-rate university,
which paved the way for a great job, a beautiful family, and a
fne career. As long as you were part of the intelligentsia or the
business elite.
Then reality set in.
Many people began to doubt IQ was an accurate predic-
tor of real intelligence, the kind it takes to lead a good life, have
great relationships, and really be successful. Intuitively many
people knew IQ didnt measure street smarts, creativity, artistic
brilliance, or emotional sensitivity.
Plaque seen in a rural store in North Carolina:
The brain said, Im the smartest organ in the body. The
heart said, Who told you?
The human body is an incredible systemroughly 7
trillion cells with a mind-boggling level of physical and bio-
chemical coordination necessary just to turn a page, cough, or
drive a car. When you consider how little of it you have to think
about, it becomes even more amazing. When was the last time
you reminded your heart to beat, your lungs to expand and
contract, or your digestive organs to secrete just the right bio-
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[ 28 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 29 ]
chemicals at just the right time? These and a myriad of other
processes are handled unconsciously every moment we live.
Our intelligence manages the whole system, much of it uncon-
scious. What is becoming increasingly apparent is that all our
processes are profoundly affected by what we consciously do:
what we think, what we feel, how we react. Research is now clear
that the inability to manage oneself effciently leads to premature
aging, diminished mental clarity, and even blocked access to our
innate intelligence. The converse is also true: Increasing internal
coherence leads to more effciency in all physiological systems,
and greater creativity, adaptability, and fexibility.
This is the backdrop for the frst theme in the internal self-
management dynamic:
Understanding human processesmental, emotional, and
physicalis necessary to create sustained organizational trans-
formation. A new model of human intelligence provides clues.
The notion of multiple intelligences came into vogue over
the last twenty years, each type of intelligence a unique dimen-
sion of what it means to be fully human. The parallels between
the development of computing and the evolution in our under-
standing of human intelligence are striking. Thirty years ago,
mainframe computers and the human brain were considered
the supreme source of all intelligence in their respective do-
mains: smart computer, dumb terminal; intelligent gray matter,
organs that simply follow commands. The explosion in com-
putational power of the microprocessor meant smart desktops
connecting with other desktops. Soon the network became the
computer and connectivity meant increased intelligence, or at
least increased access to information. Simultaneously, scientists
began to discover that human information processing was far
more distributed than previously thought. Perhaps most chal-
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[ 28 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 29 ]
lenging to our notion of centralized intelligence was the discov-
ery that intelligence is not confned to the gray matter within the
human skull.
Neural circuits are pathways in our brains that develop as
we learn new behaviors and skills. They grow and develop as
we do. At birth, perhaps 100 billion neurons already exist in the
brain, yet few circuits, relatively speaking, have been formed,
which is why a human baby is so dependent on others for the
frst few years of its life. How the neurons connect with each
other is determined largely by what the child experiences and
by the human social factors in the environment. Their connec-
tions with other neurons form the neural circuitsa grid that
greatly affects perception and learned behavior. They are the
storehouse of memory. Yet, neural networks exist in other parts
of the body beyond the brain. The hunt for more intelligence
had begun.
DNA and Development
DNA is a complex molecule found in every cell in our body.
It contains the genetic blueprint for the cells and how they will
shape our bodies. In terms of brain development, DNA has cod-
ed within it the basic patterns for the brains structure. However,
DNA does not determine the neuronal pathways (circuits) and
connections that form nor the strength of those connections.
These form as a result of our repeated experiences and the in-
fuence of the environment in which we live and to which we
adapt. Imagine a computer chip whose circuits formed through
experience as the operator used the computer, not only through
its intrinsic design. Every computer would be totally unique to
its user. The essence is that, while DNA gives us a basic structure
for brain development, the patterns formed by the neurons and
the strength of their connections develop as a result of the input
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[ 30 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 31 ]
and experience we each have. Our intelligence is unique and
pliable.
As young children our neurons are rapidly forming new
circuits in response to learning a new skill, such as walking,
physical coordination, or adapting to the environment. If chil-
dren are often stressed, circuits develop that are hypersensitive
to stress in later life, and their ability to adapt is limited. Puberty
is characterized by the start of sex hormone production, result-
ing in a variety of physiological changes, including a reduction
of plasticity in the neural circuits. For example, learning a sec-
ond language after puberty is considerably more diffcult, neu-
rologically speaking, than before. Or anotherthe frst genera-
tion raised with computers since preschool is now entering the
workforce, and leading much of the Internet revolution. Their
circuits formed in response to an entirely different set of stimuli
than their parents. To them, technology is easy; its matter-of-
fact. In very real terms its a natural extension of how they think
and relate to the world.
Back to the neural circuit story.
Unhooking Neurons
It takes considerable focus and energy to reconfgure the
neuronal circuits once a basic pattern has been set. This does
not mean that the brain cannot be rewired; it simply requires
more energy. Once a thought pattern is set frmly in place it be-
comes a mind-set, meaning our perceptions and responses
are bound by that pattern. This limits our range of possibilities
and adaptability. If you ever wondered why changing mind-sets
can seem to be such a daunting experience, have you ever tried
to unhook a neuron? The concept of intelligence has required
some updating as this information has been uncovered. To limit
our defnition of intelligence to mental capacity would obstruct
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[ 30 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 31 ]
a new understanding of the entire human system as intelligent.
Intelligence itself has many dimensions.
Intelligence Throughout
It is now known that complex neuronal structures exist not
only in the brain but also within the gut and the human heart.
Neurochemicals, the carriers of nervous system information,
are produced in vast quantities in these organs as well. These
chemicals in turn affect brain processing and virtually every
other organ in the body. For several years researchers have
studied the enteric nervous system, a complex set of nerves
found in the intestinal tract. This elaborate network of neurons
and neurochemicals is so sophisticated and complex it is now
called the gut brain. Its activity directly affects brain function.
More neurons exist in the gutabout 100 millionthan in the
entire spinal column
1
, and this gut brain appears to be heavily
infuenced by our emotions. Have you ever felt butterfies in
your stomach or a knot of worry? Most gastrointestinal dis-
orders have a strong emotional component as any patient with
colitis or student about to take an exam will tell you.
Gut Feelings
The gut feeling many people trust has biological roots.
Considered a single entity, [the gut brain] is a network of neu-
rons, neurotransmitters and proteins that zap messages be-
tween neurons, support cells like those found in the brain prop-
er and a complex circuitry that enables it to act independently,
learn, remember and, as the saying goes, produce gut feelings,
according to an article in the New York Times.
2
In many martial
arts traditions, this area of our anatomy is viewed as a source
03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:10 PM 31
[ 32 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 33 ]
of power and intelligence. Here, martial arts teachers tell us, is
where to center yourself and gain power.
3
Troubling feelings
land here, too, as the millions who obsess over share price can
attest.
The Brain in the Heart
Now new research has been published that is totally re-
structuring our views about intelligence yet again. This new
data shows that a sophisticated intrinsic nervous system is now
known to exist within the human heart. Research cardiologist J.
A. Armour, M.D., of Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, calls
this intrinsic nervous system of the heart the little brain in the
heart.
4
It has powerful, highly sophisticated computational abil-
ities and profoundly affects both heart and brain function. Neu-
rochemicals such as norepinephrine and dopamine, formerly
believed to be produced only in the brain and nervous system,
also are produced within the heart, as well as hormones such as
ANF, known as the balance hormone. These appear to directly
affect brain function.
5
Just as the gut brains circuitry allows it
to act independently, learn, remember, and produce gut feel-
ings, so the existence of the hearts brain helps to explain the
wide range of feelings associated with the heart.
Networked Intelligence
So it appears at least three brainsmind, gut, and heart
are networked together, infuencing each other 24 hours a day,
much of it below our conscious awareness. Stress and emo-
tional mismanagement appear to negatively impact the coher-
ent functioning among these three intelligent systems.
In his book Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason and the
Brain, neuroscientist Antonio Damasio offers compelling evi-
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[ 32 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 33 ]
dence that emotions and intellectual functions are processed
in different parts of the brain, which then are integrated in the
prefrontal cortex.
6
The notion that intelligence is a purely cere-
bral, aloof activity uncontaminated and unaffected by emotions
has been shown in this and much other recent research to be an
outdated and misguided myth. Emotions play a primary role in
the development and function of the mind. Emotions clearly
play a role in day-to-day productivity. Think of the last bad de-
cision made in your organization. Did mismanaged emotion
play a part? Did someone overreact and create a policy based
on knee-jerk reactions? Did reactive emotions in the organiza-
tion play a key role in the hue and cry greeting the unfortunate
decision? Chances are they probably did.
Emotional Intelligence
Daniel Goleman, a Harvard-trained Ph.D. and New York
Times science writer, has popularized the concept of emotional
intelligence in his book of the same name,
7
and has spawned
a movement of researchers and consultants seeking to under-
stand the emotion-performance connection. Goleman cites ex-
ample after example of studies showing that emotional balance
and self-awareness are essential to success in all aspects of life.
He argues that we must begin to value emotional skills at least
as highly as intellectual ones, since standard IQ is so rarely an
accurate predictor of personal or professional effectiveness. He
summarizes what he means by emotional intelligence as these
abilities:
Self-awareness
Self-management
Social awareness
Relationship management
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[ 34 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 35 ]
These could be summarized as self-management skills and
interpersonal skills. Many researchers and educators have em-
braced the framework of emotional intelligence because it vali-
dates our experience of what determines organizational success
or failure, and personal coherence or chaos.
If we are honest, our organizations and our lives could use
a lot more of these characteristics than they currently exhibit.
We believe that: In an age of chaos, emotional management or
mismanagement is more important in determining the long-
term success of an organization than product success or process
improvements. This is as true of start-up frms that experience
rapid success but are unprepared for its operational realities as
it is for the massive older organization or institution affected by
large-scale emotional turmoil and malaise of its workforce. It is
also true that 80% of the Fortune 500 companies of 1970 have
disappeared off the list.
Hope and Resilience
Without hope, no one can live fully. Organizations with
hope are resilient and buoyant. They continue to learn and
grow and are able to adapt to crises or challenges within the
environment. The biological roots of hope and despair are
becoming clearer. Child development specialist and author
Joseph Chilton Pearce recounted research showing that, when
we become upset for any reason, all neural action, learning,
memory, cognition, problem-solving, and so on, is adversely af-
fected.
8
How often does this happen in your organization? Our
emotional state is critical to what and how we learn in addition
to how well we can recall and apply what we have learned. An
unhappy experience while learning something can, in the fu-
ture, bring up that same feeling as we try to recall the item we
learned. Without conscious thought or choice, a person often
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[ 34 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 35 ]
avoids learning environments and challenges because of un-
pleasant feelings imbedded in neural tracks in our brains during
earlier learning experiences.
Early on in our careers, we began to understand the conse-
quences of organizational incoherence. One biotech company
we were associated with worked hard to land major national me-
dia coverage on a key product, knowing that would catapult the
company into the consumer mainstream and success would be
assured. In fact it had become highly focused on this idea, and
determined to achieve it. The frm was looking for the quick
bang, instant recognition, the sizzle, the stimulus of the quick hit.
(Deeper discussion on the operational and human consequences
was absent.) The media story hit, and business grew 500% in
one month. Needless to say, the company was ill-prepared for
this kind of growth. Not only were all the essential systems not
effectively in place, the human foundation had not been solidly
built so the employees began a revolving door syndrome of com-
ing and going that sapped the organizations effectiveness. In-
coherence reigned. The company never again reached the sales
level of that one rocket-ship month.
Emotion and Intellect
Emotion, not intellect, is the fuel that drives the organiza-
tional engine. Intellect provides the direction, but not the fuel. In
most organizations, this understanding has not been activated,
so the fuel being used is not high octane, but more like kerosene,
fast-burning but low quality. How an organization reacts, how it
prepares its people for changethe emotional feld of a com-
panyall have underlying emotional components that organiz-
ations can no longer ignore. Smart organizations will learn to
harness and manage coherent emotional intelligence to unleash
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[ 36 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 37 ]
tremendous power within that organization. One of the great
ironies, and opportunities, is that the mind becomes far more
effective, sharp, and clear as the emotions become balanced and
understood. The mind itself can tap into another dimension of
intelligence, clarity, and creativity when unmanaged emotions
are not leaking all the fuel.
What biology underlies this concept of emotional intelligence?
Built into the emotional-cognitive structures of the brain are many
evolutionary functions that date back to our species struggle for
survival and the mechanisms that evolved to cope with that stress.
Brain structures like the amygdala in the emotional or limbic re-
gion of the brain can hijack intellectual processes when intense
emotions are experienced in the system.
9
This is why even very
smart people can make very foolish choices when under emo-
tional stress. And, even scarier for organizations and people today
is that millions of us have maladapted to the stress in our lives and
are just beginning to realize how much stress we have.
Evolution, Intelligence, and Stress
A commonly held view in neuroscience is that different brain
structures perform different functions that have evolved over
time (see Figure 31). In a general sense, the human brain can
be thought of as having three main structural regions, which are
associated with differing levels of control and a variety of func-
tions and basic drives. We call these the frst, second, and third
brains.
The first brain is comprised of the brain stem structures in
the modern human brain processes, including hypothalamus,
pons, medulla, and reticular formation. It governs refex and in-
stinct, and is responsible for many basic functions necessary for
survival, including:
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[ 36 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 37 ]
approach/avoidance behavior
hormonal control
temperature control
hunger/thirst control
basic respiration and heart rate control
reproductive drive
The second brain consists of the subcortical (also called
limbic) areas, including hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and
pituitary. This region of the brain exhibits control over the frst
level and is capable of hindsight, the ability to see, after the event,
what should have been done. This is an aspect of the develop-
ment of memory, which is an important evolutionary addition.
Its functions and basic drives include:
territoriality
fear, anger, attack
maternal love
anxiety
FIGURE 31 This diagram depicts the three generalized stages of brain
evolution and the levels of control, functions, and behaviors that are asso-
ciated with the three main structural regions of the modern human brain.
Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath Research Center
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[ 38 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 39 ]
hate
jealousy
Emotional information appears to be processed in this
brain region, yet it is not where we actually experience the phys-
ical manifestation of the feelings. Positive feelings, such as love
or appreciation, are usually experienced around the heart area;
negative emotions, such as fear or anger, are often experienced
in the solar plexus, where the gut brain clues us in to things that
do not feel right, and heartache is an experience felt by many in
both the heart and solar plexus.
The third brain has the highest level of control and is
capable of foresight and many other important functions, in-
cluding:
perception and differentiation of thought and emotion
self-refection
discrimination of appropriate behavior
problem resolution
guilt
goal satisfaction
forgiving
The third brain, including the isocortex, frontal lobes,
temporal lobes, parietal lobes, and occipital lobes, constitutes
roughly 80% of the human brain. An organization hires you
largely based on what it thinks it can squeeze out of this portion
of your brain. Higher order human capabilities like language,
creativity, self-refection, complex problem solving, and the abil-
ity to choose what is appropriate behavior are believed to emerge
from these structures. From our teen years onward, specialized
circuitry continues to develop in the prefrontal lobes that helps
us chart a moral course in life. We learn to manage and balance
reaction and emotion in making the little and big choices in life
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[ 38 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 39 ]
through the development of the frontal lobes.
10

Institute of HeartMath (IHM) research suggests that emo-
tional reactiveness and stress, which we often experience as feel-
ings of inner turmoil, can inhibit the cortical regions in the third
brain.
11
With the cortical functions inhibited, problem-solving is
hampered, reaction speeds and coordination are impaired, and
we cannot think as clearly. Higher intelligence can be jammed by
the reactions and pulls of the frst and second brain regions. Our
decisions are less effective, our listening skills impaired, our cre-
ativity obstructed. Fortunately, the reverse also is true. When we
feel harmonious and balanced, cortical (higher brain) function
is enhanced. We can see possibilities where previously we could
perceive only dead-ends. (Many people intuitively know this to
be true. It is fun to have the research catch up with intuition.)
Perception and Stress
Let us look deeper into the role of perception and stress. For many
years, it was believed we consciously perceive an event prior to the
awareness that it could be dangerous or a threat to our survival.
However, in recent years, research has revealed the role of an al-
mond-sized structure that profoundly infuences both perception
and behavior. Called the amygdala and located in the region
of the second brain, one of its key roles is to compare incom-
ing information with past experience, looking for a match (see
Figure 32). It also is believed to be the storehouse of emotional
memory, so the matches it is looking for are emotionally signif-
cant. The amygdala is not terribly precise, so if new information
appears to match, messages are sent to the brain that indeed a
match has been found. This can result in what has been called
emotional hijacking, where we have an immediate emotional
reaction to something based on past experience, whether or not
that experience is relevant to the new situation. This emotional
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[ 40 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 41 ]
reaction not only bypasses the higher centers of the brain but also
profoundly affects perception and ultimately behavior.
The Physiology of Stress
When we perceive or anticipate a threat of any sort, no matter
how small, we fre up our nervous system, or more specifcally a
branch of our autonomic nervous system (ANS) called the sym-
pathetic nervous system. The inner emotional turmoil that often
accompanies the activation of this fght or fight response is
what we call stress. This state of arousal results in the production
of chemicals such as adrenaline. In contrast, when we relax, other
chemicals such as acetylcholine, which help slow our systems
down, are produced by the parasympathetic nervous system in
greater amounts. This is what has been called the relaxation
FIGURE 32 The amygdala is an almond-sized structure in the subcortical
area of the brain. It eavesdrops on information received through the thala-
mus, looking for an emotional match to previous experience. Working at high
speed, if a match appears to be found, it communicates to the higher regions
of the region affecting our behavior and decision making. Copyright 1998 Insti-
tute of HeartMath Research Center
Emotional Memory
Amygdala
Activation of ANS and
stress hormones
Cortex
Frontal lobes
Cerebellum
Thalamus
Visual
Cortex
1997, Institute of HeartMath
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[ 40 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 41 ]
response. There is a considerable body of evidence suggesting
that overdominance of the sympathetic drive can result in hyper-
tension, and imbalance in these two branches underlies many
chronic diseases. (See Figure 3-3)
The Emotional Axis
In addition to the autonomic nervous system there is an addi-
tional axis of human experience that profoundly infuences our
response to threat: the emotional or hormonal axis. If negative
emotions, such as fear, anger, worry, or anxiety are present, the
body produces more cortisol. If these negative emotions persist
cortisol levels can increase to the point that they can negatively
impact health, productivity, immune function, and sleep pat-
terns. The detrimental effects of raised cortisol levels are fre-
quently exacerbated by simultaneous increases in adrenaline
levels. These chemical changes not only cause long-term damage
FIGURE 33 Autonomic nervous system. The ANS consists of two branch-
es, the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. It regulates over 90% of
the bodys functions automatically. The heart, brain, immune, hormonal,
respiration, and digestive systemsall are connected by this network of
nerves. Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath Research Center
Parasympathetic
Constrict bronchioles
Slow down heartbeat
Increase secretion
Increase motility
Sympathetic
Dilate bronchioles
Speed up heartbeat
Decrease secretion
Decrease motility
Secrete adrenaline
03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:10 PM 41
[ 42 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 43 ]
but they accelerate the aging process.
12
In contrast, when were in
a consistently positive emotional state, production of hormones
such as DHEA is increased, and we feel a sense of well-being and
success, hardiness, and resilience. Most traditional stress man-
agement techniques focus on relaxation and seek to bring down
the level of arousal. While it is very important to be able to relax,
the effects of relaxation are often short-term. Therefore relaxation
is only part of the answer, because low arousal, relaxed states can
be detrimental if associated with a negative emotion such as
boredom, apathy, resentment, or withdrawal. In other words,
relaxation isnt the answer if the passion is gone. (See Figure 3-4)
Emotional Alchemy
Positively transforming the internal emotional state has a pro-
found effect on our hormonal balance, increasing the production
FIGURE 34 The physiology of stress. The vertical axis represents the au-
tonomic nervous system described in Figure 33. At the top is sympathetic
activity, indicated as high arousal/effort. At the bottom is parasympathetic
activity, indicated by low arousal/relaxation/sleep. The horizontal axis rep-
resents the emotional domain. Negative emotion on the right is associated
with excessive levels of cortisol, while positive emotion leads to increased
DHEA levels. Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath Research Center
03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:10 PM 42
[ 42 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 43 ]
of DHEA
13
and reducing cortisol levels. DHEA is an essential
hormone and is known as the vitality hormone because of its
anti-aging properties. If our emotional state is more positive and
coherent, even diffcult external factors do not destabilize us, and
we are able to move between excitement and contentment more
of the time. The generation of a stress response with increased
adrenaline and cortisol levels should not be seen as negative.
They can be perfectly healthy so long as the chemical activation
does not persist and become chronic. Similarly stressful situa-
tions should not be viewed as negative but as a wake-up call, an
opportunity to switch gears and fnd more productive perspec-
tives and solutions. Chaos isnt the problem; how long it takes to
fnd coherence is the real game.
The Perception Loop
The crucial factor here is that we have control over the whole
process. We have control over our perceptions and the under-
lying reactions we generate, which create a cascade of events
that either enhance or limit our effectiveness. Perceptions gen-
erate thoughts and emotions, which in turn produce measur-
able changes in heart rate, hormonal balance, immune system
strength, and a host of other internal processes. These phys-
iological effects, in turn, alter the neural circuits themselves,
which affects our perception. This is a feedback system. When
we are in a negative mood, for example, a distorted perception
can generate negative thoughts and emotions, causing physio-
logical imbalances in the heart, immune, and hormonal systems,
which reinforce the circuitry, and the negative cycle continues.
Research in emotional intelligence has shown that the most
successful people in life are the ones who have learned to man-
age their emotional reactiveness, neutralizing or transforming
negative emotions and in the process gaining a new richness of
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[ 44 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 45 ]
experience.
14
Emotional intelligence can be taught and learned.
The human heart provides the key.
Heart-Brain Communication
Improving heart-brain communication is key to developing
emotional intelligence. One of the greatest changes in scientifc
understanding over the last twenty years, has been the detailed
understanding of how different bodily systems interact. One of
the most surprising fndings is that the heart plays a critical role
in a whole array of brain processes. The heart communicates
to the brain in a variety of ways. It communicates electrically
through two sets of nerve pathways. It also communicates elec-
tromagnetically by radiating a signal that reaches every cell in the
body, including the brain. And, it communicates mechanically
through pressure waves conducted along blood vessels. The in-
fuence of the heart on the brain should not be underestimated.
We often speak of the importance of heart in getting things
done, in having pride in our work, in having the courage to take
risks or speak our truth. However, in North America and Europe,
mainly over the past 50 years or so, having "heart" is often seen as
a sign of weakness, irrational behavior, or being soft. It has been
barred from most business discussions on the grounds of imma-
Perception
Thoughts &
Emotions
Physiological
Effects
Neural
Circuits
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[ 44 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 45 ]
turity and over-emotionalism.
Ironically, many organizations
today act in remarkably im-
mature, overemotional ways
because of a lack of heart, un-
derstanding, and compassion.
Meanwhile, heart disease has
become the number one killer
in much of the world.
Research over the last
two decades has revealed that
emotional states profoundly
affect the rhythmic beating of
our hearts, and the signals they
transmit.
15
These signals in
turn cause measurable chang-
es in our brains ability to think
and process information. Re-
searchers in the 1960s found
that the heart acted as if it had
a mind of its own.
16
In the
fetus, the heart starts to beat
before the brain and nervous
system have developed, and it
appears to have its own type of
intelligence. The electrical en-
ergy in each heartbeat and the
information contained therein
is pulsed to every cell of the
body. When the electrical pat-
terns of the brain synchronize
with the rhythmic patterns
The modern-day Chinese pic-
togram for listen is composed
of symbols for ear, king, eye, and
heart. The meaning is to listen
with the ear, giving respect as
you would to a king, watching
with the eye, and doing this with
a full heart.
The ancient Chinese pictogram
for think represents a babys
skull connected to the heart.
The meaning is that to think re-
quires an open mind connected
to the heart. An ancient diction-
ary defnition describes the silk
threads that connect brain and
heart.
Listen
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[ 46 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 47 ]
of the heart, people operate with greater physiological coher-
ence, resulting in increased conscious awareness and greater
intelligence. The ability to self-generate feelings such as care,
appreciation, and compassion is key to greater brain effciency,
enhanced learning, and a more emotionally balanced life. This
is one reason why heart intelligence is such a powerful meta-
phor for increasing personal and organizational effectiveness.
More importantly, it works.
Cortical Inhibition
A negative reaction to an unpleasant interruption can cause the
signal generated by the heart to become chaotic, which in turn
can inhibit cortical activity.
16
You have been jarred, focus is lost,
and it requires an additional expenditure of energy to get back on
track. Understanding this heart-brain interaction helps explain
the relationship between emotional and cognitive processes in
early childhood development as well as later in life. In practical
terms, it is now clear that negative emotional states cause more
chaotic heart signals so the information being sent to all these
structures in the brain is less coherent.
17
Desynchronization within
the brain is a common result, leading to poor or short-sighted de-
cisions, impulsive communication, lack of physical coordination,
and other no-win outcomes. The resultant chaos and confusion
in the brain, frst discovered in the 1960s,
18
is called cortical inhi-
bition. (See Figure 3-6)
Coffee in Your Keyboard
Cortical inhibition manifests itself as less effcient decision mak-
ing or hesitant speech as people struggle to fnd the right words
to say what they really mean. Reaction speed is also measurably
slowed at these times. Usually, it is when you are rushing or pan-
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[ 46 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 47 ]
icked that you accidentally knock a cup of coffee onto the pile of
papers or into the keyboard. Focusing on internal self-manage-
ment starts to help you gain control, as you become a master, not
an unwitting victim of the normal knee-jerk response. Organiz-
ations of the future will study closely how learning happens at the
biological level and help all the players maximize their learning
within the organization.
Amplifed Contrast
Organizational incoherencethe accumulated noise, turmoil,
pressure, and confictcan increase the internal distortion people
feel, strengthening and reinforcing the negative, chaotic pattern
in the individual. The good news is that a positive environment
can play a signifcant role in making coherence more familiar and
help dissolve the negative patterns. Even in people with lifelong
patterns that are nonproductive or unhealthy, a core remains that
yearns to be productive, be effective, and feel fulflled. Increasing
levels of stress in the world only amplify the contrast between the
FIGURE 36 Your changing heart rhythms affect not only the heart but also
the brains ability to process information, including decision making, prob-
lem solving, and creativity. Jagged rhythms, shown at top, lead to cortical
inhibition, while smoother rhythms, below, are associated with cortical facili-
tation. Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath Research Center
50
60
70
80
90
100
H
E
A
R
T

R
A
T
E
1 50 100 150 200
50
60
70
80
90
100
H
E
A
R
T

R
A
T
E
TIME (SECONDS)
APPRECIATION
FRUSTRATION
03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:11 PM 47
[ 48 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 49 ]
drive and desire for coherence and the ever-present incoherence.
As the gap widens between how people feel and how they want to
feel, despair or resignation too often flls the gap. Biologically, this
only makes matters worse and our effectiveness in dealing with
problems is weakened or distorted. Identifying personal reactive
patterns and understanding their consequences is the frst step
in reprogramming them. Research suggests that reprogramming
ineffcient thought and emotional processes indeed is possible.
19
If you want to be effective personally or keep good people in your
organization, it may be required.
Big Babies and the Storefront
Emotional states are contagious. Smile at a baby, and the baby
smiles back. Treat a customer sincerely, and the customer ap-
preciates you and rewards you with loyalty. You get upset, and
the baby cries. Treat employees with anger and disrespect, and
employees internalize their resentment and lose the motivation
to do their best. You can sense an immediate shift in a babys
emotional state by virtue of muscle tone and the way it holds
its whole body. Ever noticed the same shift in an uncomfortable
staff meeting or customer interaction? Usually, this is much more
subtle and covert than with babies, who have no social condi-
tioning to edit their behavior. By adulthood many of us have per-
fected the storefront, hiding our real feelings behind a facade
of strained niceness while the internal engine of discontent revs
furiously. This requires massive quantities of energy, and is in
stark contrast to the spirit of connection that has emerged in the
last few years.
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[ 48 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 49 ]
Learning in the Workplace
In adult learning, the effectiveness of the teacher or coach, who
is often the supervisor or manager, has everything to do with the
internal coherence of that teacher. But the level of insecurity is so
high in many organizations, interactions between supervisor and
supervised are flled with the silent noise of uncertainty, the fear
of criticism, and the resistance to input. A supervisors warmth
and coherence can do much to dissolve this resistance and ten-
sion. Conversely, a managers discomfort, frustration, or anger
will reinforce the resistant attitude on the part of the employee. In
the excellent book, First, Break All the Rules, the authors remind
us that most people quit bosses, not companies. It is the all-too-
often incoherent leadership decisions that convince people its
time to move on.
20
Emotional Buying
Let us take this discussion of internal emotional coherence
to a very practical business situation: the sales call. The frst
impression within the buyer usually is an emotional one: feel-
ings of discomfort and distrust or security and comfort with the
salesperson. The emotional state of the salesperson sets the tone
for the exchange that follows. When people are being sold they
tend to observe more acutely and, rightly or wrongly, form opin-
ions about the salesperson at high speed. People often buy from
someone they like, and if a salesperson seems insincere, pushy
or emotionally unstable, the buyer often has reservations about
making a purchase. An old axiom in the sales profession is that
nothing is as ineffective as a desperate salesperson. Conversely,
increased coherence in the salesperson fosters greater respect
and trust in the buyer, deeper, more effective listening, more
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[ 50 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 51 ]
understanding and clarity, and greater potential for a successful
sale. Now we can see the biological and electromagnetic roots of
that observation.
Rewiring Neural Tracks
People can learn to rewire maladapted neural tracks that in-
hibit the learning, growth, and emotional maturity necessary
for success in any aspect of life. With practice, profound results
can occur. These changes can be measured using spectral anal-
ysis of the ECG as improvements in cardiac coherence,
21
with
concurrent brain wave entrainment,
22
enhanced immunity,
23

and improved hormonal balance
24
. These powerful effects are
brought about through the application of techniques that foster
the entrained state. Caring and appreciation, consciously ap-
plied, are perfect examples of how heart intelligence changes
physiology.
More Than a Pump
The term heart intelligence implies that the heart is far more
than just a pump, mechanically beating at least 110,000 times
a day. In fact, its electrical, magnetic, neuronal, and hormonal
properties make it a truly remarkable part of the human system.
The surprising conclusion of a number of recent strands of re-
search is that the heart possesses even more intelligence than
those functions suggest. We know the heart is fundamental to
our existence, and in fact use the word heart to describe any-
thing that is core, central, or foundational. Ironically it was only
during the last century that the West assumed the supremacy of
the brain and intellect, the heart fell out of favor and was viewed
as a sentimental trap. But viewing the heart as weak, emotional,
and irrational is an old-fashioned mental model that is not only
incorrect and outdated but also no longer serves our highest
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[ 50 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 51 ]
interests. Its time to stop blaming the heart for mismanaged
emotions and to start to see the heart for what it isthe source
of our core power and essential in helping us to access new intel-
ligence.
The heart we are talking about is not synonymous with
emotion. Research conducted at the Institute of HeartMath and
elsewhere suggests that the heart possesses an intelligence be-
yond the emotional or analytical. The heart does indeed sense
emotional information and is capable of transcending the traps
of unmanaged emotion. Evidence is mounting that the hearts
intelligence is a core operating system in the human being, ca-
pable of the coherent organization of mental, emotional, and
cellular intelligence.
Frequencies of Intelligence
Frequencies are everywhere. We can see light frequencies,
hear sound frequencies, and sense the varying frequencies of
thought and emotion. Eyes are receiving stations designed to
pick up certain but not all frequencies of light. Ears are designed
to detect audible frequencies in a specifc range. People cant
hear what a dogs ears are designed to hear, although the
sounds a dog hears are just as real. AM radio is designed to
receive frequencies in the AM range of a radio dial; FM stations
broadcast in another frequency range, which an FM radio is
designed to pick up. Although the heart and brain each radiate
electrical frequencies vibrating within yet another range,
primarily 030 Hz, the amplitude of the hearts signal is 4060
times stronger than that of the brain. At the same time, these
intelligent organs also receive incoming information and
can produce a host of biochemical and electrical changes in
response to this sensory input. (How interesting something as
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[ 52 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 53 ]
fundamental as the electromagnetic spectrum is now licensed
by the federal government for use by all the tech companies
needing bandwidth.)
Heart Intelligence Defned
Heart intelligence can be defned as the intelligent fow of in-
sight that arises once the mind and emotions are balanced and
coherent. Appreciation, caring, courage, and compassion are
examples of core frequencies within the bandwidth of heart
intelligence. Each time you generate one of these frequencies,
or positive emotions, your physiology shifts into a more eff-
cient mode. Activation of heart feelings is an intelligent use of
the bodys emotional power and serves as the ignition key for
intuitive intelligence. Often, in moments of peace, stillness, or
appreciation, intuitional insights start to fow. Even the most
restless mind gains new perspective and understanding in the
presence of a caring heart. Positive emotions have a specifc fre-
quency pattern, as seen in HRV (heart rate variability) traces, and
their frequency is quite different from negative emotions.
Intuitive Intelligence
We defne mental intelligence as that range of human intelligence
in which the brain can analyze, deduce, reason, and memorize.
Emotions infuence and perturb these processes, which are central
to human interaction. HeartMath defnes heart intelligence as that
part of human intelligence that operates in a bandwidth embracing
mental, emotional, and even cellular intelligence. As ones mental
process comes under management by this heart intelligence and the
fuel of emotion surrenders to the intelligence of wisdom, intuitive
intelligence unfolds. New understandings about oneself, the orga-
nization, the market, or anything important are quicker to emerge.
You engage heart intelligence each time you attempt to step back
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[ 52 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 53 ]
from chaotic situations to gain
a more balanced, emotionally
neutral perspective. Intuitive
insight often emerges.
Mental intelligence is to
analysis as heart intelligence is
to intuition. The management
of ones emotional nature
and the ability to consciously
generate positive emotion
provides the doorway for
unleashing intuition. Without
active intuition, life becomes
rigid and infexible, so we eas-
ily miss important cues on
lessons to be learned or oppor-
tunities to be created. Many
decisions in this accelerating
business environment seem
to be based more on a keep-
up-with-the-Joneses mentality
than balanced, mature insight.
Ironically, intuition operates at
high speed, so we can keep up
without blowing up when we
activate intuition.
Intuition is a Bandwidth
One of the key insights that has
shaped our research over the
last 15 years was the sugges-
tion that intuition is a type, or
develop intuitive
intelligence to round
out intellectual capacity
I
ntuition exists in a bandwidth
of intelligence beyond what
most people have developed. Ev-
eryone is born with the capacity
for intuitionthe ability to know
something without knowing how
you know. The propensity towards
rational, linear methods of prob-
lem solving has muted the voice of
intuition in most of the developed
world. What if the human system
actually possessed a high level of
intuitive intelligence, but we just
hadnt learned to operationalize
it? The accelerated age in which
we live demands that we optimize
it. The kinds of personal and or-
ganizational breakthroughs that
are needed to move through the
inertia and the old ways of doing
things will not come from an anal-
ysis that is based primarily on past
experience. The development of
intuition is the next frontier in op-
timizing human performance. Ask
your heart how to have more of it.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
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[ 54 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 55 ]
bandwidth, of intelligence central to the design of the human be-
ing. All people are born with the capacity for intuition. It is just as
central to humans as the drive to survive or to care for others. It
can be blocked and obstructed, but that makes it no less powerful
in its potential to guide peoples lives or guide the organizations
in which they work. Consistently tapping into ones innate intui-
tive intelligence represents the most effcient method of internal
self-management available. We suggest that the human system
is preprogrammed to operate with a high level of operational
intuitive intelligence, and that in this accelerated information
age we have created the perfect conditions to optimize it. With
consistent practice, it becomes automatic instead of random.
Tamed Complexity
Intuition does not always appear as the ingenious breakthrough
or something grandiose. Intuitive thoughts, feelings, and solu-
tions often manifest themselves as good old common sense,
which as we all know is not that common. Common sense is
effcient. Simple, common sense should be respected. Simplic-
ity is complexity that has been tamed and reduced to something
that easily can be applied. It is like a complex math equation that
fnally results in equals. The equation can be quite long, but
eventually it resolves itself and produces just a few very appro-
priate and accurate numbers. Intuition often leads to simplic-
ity and common sense. How many situations do you face right
now that you wish could be made simple and dealt with through
common sense?
New Way of ThinkingThe First Priority
The kind of personal and organizational insights needed to
break through the inertia and old ways of doing things will not
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[ 54 ] From Chaos to Coherence A New Model of Human Intelligence [ 55 ]
come from analysis or reason based primarily on past expe-
rience. Did it for you? Consistently? Probably not. A new way
of thinkingcollaborative, compassionate, and creativewill
be required for success and coherence in the future. Activating
heart intelligence will be key to creating the internal coherence
to make it possible.
A mind (or organization) without heart is scattered, im-
pulsive, and easily distracted. Emotions (and organizations)
without the intelligent balance that comes from the heart cre-
ate fash fres of instability and waste, causing people to stay
locked in self-justifed mental loops, missing a heart intelligent
perspective that could offer deeper understanding. Incoherence
rules. (People leave.) Groups operating only on instinct arising
from gut feelings and often based in fear stay constrained in
modalities that imprison the spirit and age prematurely. The
heart puts frst things frst, from the 7 trillion cells it nourishes to
the life it sustains to the vitality it ensuresintuitive, intelligent,
businesslike; core, fundamental; the frst priority.
03 CH 3 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:11 PM 55
c h a p t e r
44
c h a p t e r c h a p t e r
Growing Up
in the Hudson Riv er:
Over com ing Ad ap ta tion
MANY YEARS BEFORE I MET DOC, I WAS AN ACTOR AND
ap peared in about 700 performances of the New York produc-
tion of The Fantasticks. Early on, the process of speaking the
lines, sing ing the songs, and bounding around the stage be came
au to mat ic; for an actor, the challenge in a long run is mechani-
cality, not mem o ry. One night, about 400 per for manc es into my
run, I went totally blank. Time warped for a split second and
I ex pe ri enced total terror un til, without my con scious mind
know ing what I was saying, the words started coming out of my
mouth, automatically. I was relieved and amazed words were
be ing spoken with no apparent conscious input. I had been
saved by the medulla.
A portion of the brainthe medullahelps us bail out
of the con scious thought process because of what are called ste-
reo typed be hav iors. This is the part of the brain where we learn
functions that soon can become au to mat ic. With ste reo typed
behaviors, we often are unconscious we are do ing them. People
who commute to the same place daily often have no actual
rec ol lec tion of how they got to work, because they may be so
preoccupied with business problems or per son al is sues. Yet the
innate intelligence of the brain and muscular sys tem handles it
[ 56 ]
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Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 57 ] [ 57 [ 57
all automatically while our pri ma ry focus of at ten tion lies else-
where.
We do many things automatically, without really un der -
stand ing the impact of the behavior or its cellular con se quenc es.
As a boy grow ing up in northern New Jersey in the 1950s and
1960s, I made frequent trips into Manhattan.
The Hudson River was in bad shape in those days and I
won dered how fshor any thingcould survive in such murky,
oily, gar bage-in fest ed water. Later, in the context of what I had
learned about human adaptation, I mused how a fsh raised in
the Hudson perceived life. Grow ing up in there, the fsh knew
noth ing else, had no other life ex pe ri ence to compare it to, no
benchmark of a clean, fresh river. Born and raised in that en-
vi ron ment, the fsh was forced to adapt, no mat ter what the
health or survival consequences might have been. In deed, we
heard sto ries of a depleted fsh population, we were warned not
to eat fsh caught there, and we saw pictures of dis eased fsh be-
ing caught on poles off the old docks in low er Manhattan. What
if one of those poor Hudson Riv er fsh won a dream va ca tion
to Lake Tahoe? That fsh might at frst be shocked by the pu-
rity and pris tine na ture of the lake but would quickly adapt and
thrive and prob a bly would fnd the ca si nos on the Ne va da side
es pe cial ly intriguing.
Adaptation. Many people are so familiar with a certain
lev el of anx i ety, ten sion, or frustration in their organization or in
their lives in gen er al, they think that is the only alternative; an-
oth er way of func tion ing seems a distant or cruel dream. They
have adapted. Then, if they hit the jackpot, their com pa ny goes
pub lic, or they achieve a new status in life or move to a nic er
neigh bor hood, within a few months they can adapt again and
take that for grant ed. The nov el ty, and the re gen er a tive pow er of
ap pre ci a tion, has worn off.
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 57
[ 58 ] From Chaos to Coherence
One of the truly remarkable aspects of life on this planet
is adaptability. The adaptive power of the human system is es-
sen tial in accelerated times. Yet, people have a tendency to mal-
adapt to their environment, blocking the very intelligence that adapt adapt
would lift them out of the pain or suffering they feel.
Maladaptation
Maladaptation means adapt ing in an unhealthy way to cir cum - Maladaptation Maladaptation
stanc es in ourselves and/or our environment. Maladapting
to stressful events means we live un con scious of their con se -
quenc es, thinking there is no al ter na tive or, worse, that it is
okay to behave in certain ways, det ri men tal or not. We perceive
everyone around us thinking and acting in a similar man ner, so
we become semiconscious, allowing our mal adap tive behavior
to slow ly drain us. This re sults in the con vic tion we are do ing
just fne, but in fact we could be taxing our bod ies un nec es sar i ly
and operating with far less ef fec tive ness and ful fll ment than we
ac tu al ly could.
The way in which many people respond to stress ful sit u a-
tions pro vides a per fect sce nar io for this mal ad ap ta tion pro cess.
Management im ple ments a new pol i cy, so many em ploy ees
com plain about the change. It appears as if it is not only okay
to moan and groan, but that is the ap pro pri ate re sponse to the
sit u a tion. The com plaints spread like an in fec tious virus, and
once on the ram page, it can seem as if a con test is going on to
see who can come up with the most cre ative gripe. Whether the
policy change is for the best or not makes no difference to our
bodies. The stress created by neg a tive, judg men tal thoughts and
feel ings creates a hormonal imbalance, taxes the nervous sys-
tem and the heart, and burns a lot of en er gy. Cortical in hi bi tion
results, and we think less clear ly. We feel tired and do not know
why but con ve nient ly blame it on the pressures of the job or the
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Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 59 ]
obviously out-of-touch management team. Af ter all, isnt that
what your co work ers are say ing? Blame fur ther am pli fes the
neg a tive im pact of the re sponse to the re quired change, and
peo ple sink further into a quicksand of their own making while
thinking they are re spond ing ap pro pri ate ly.
How many in your organization maladapt to daily stress,
rather than adapt healthfully? Even the positive benefts of reg-
u lar exercise can mask the causes of stressnoneffcient per-
cep tionswhile soothing only the symp toms, such as fa tigue.
As stress mounts, most people internalize the strain and
re actthat is the extent of their adaptive processso that a
new level of ten sion and in ter nal distortion seems normal. This
pro cess continues unchecked, but be cause it is so gradual, most
cannot see its dev as tat ing effects. You could call this death by a
thousand paper cuts. Physiologically, maladaptation is blamed
for contributing to cer tain chronic conditions such as high
blood pres sure. Our bodies maladapt to the mounting external
stress, with out neutralizing its effects; and our biology reacts to
the new more frenetic pace. Now the bar has been raised, phys-
i o log i cal ly speak ing, we have ab sorbed the noise in stead of qui-
et ing it, and a new lev el of in ter nal in co her ence be gins to seem
nor mal. High blood pressure too often comes with the ter ri to ry.
This process is at the root of the second theme of Internal
Self-Man age ment:
The pressure on the individual will increase in the years to
come as societal, family, and internal stresses mount and
the pace of change accelerates.
The word stress has old roots in the Latin word tress tress strictus and strictus strictus
an cient meanings like affict, punish, and pull asunder.
Soon af ter World War II, the medical community began pack-
ag ing a new con cept of stress, the notion that the trials and trib- stress stress
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 59
[ 60 ] From Chaos to Coherence
u la tions of life trig ger a physiological stress response, re sult ing
in mea sur able phys i cal and mental illness.
1
Hans Selye coined the modern use of the term stress and stress stress
de scribed it as the rate of wear and tear on the body.
2
New re-
search has found that what creates more stress than any other
stressor mea sured is people having to shift concepts, shift in-
ten tion and focus, to many different tasks, many times an hour.
The stress is worse when you also feel worry, anxiety, in se cu ri ty,
or feel that you have no con trol. Its not the shifting, per se, that
is damaging; its all the mind-emotional reactions that come
with the shifts. Unlike 30 years ago, in the fast pace of life to-
day, re search sug gests the av er age per son in an or ga ni za tion is
called on to shift con ceptsor shift the fo cus of attentiondoz-
ens of times each hour. The advance of tech nol o gy insures this
number will keep in creas ing. E-mail, voicemail, in ter rup tions,
fax es, phones ring ing, peo ple (in clud ing spouse and children)
demanding at ten tion while you are trying to get something else
doneall are ex am ples of con cept shift de mands. When you
con sid er the num ber of peo ple in fairly rou tine jobs with few
in ter rup tions, that means many people are dealing with 10 to
20 or more con cept shifts per hour. When you consider an 810- 20 or more con cept shifts per hour 20 or more con cept shifts per hour
hour day, this concept shift ing easily could translate into 80,
100, or even 150 shifts a day. At each of these shift points, you
have a choice: react and let stress ac cu mu late, or stay neutral
and balanced with full ac cess to your intelligence. Do you shift
and grind the gears in ter nal ly or, with more applied intelligence,
could you shift through neu tral before activating the next
gear and save your self a lot of wear and tear? This can sound
abstract or ide al is tic, yet most of us know some one who seems
to glide ef fort less ly from task to task, with feathers un ruf fed
and pro duc tiv i ty remaining re mark ably high. These people are
in cred i bly valuable to or ga ni za tions.
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 60
Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 61 ]
Stressful reactions have an impact on your health, sleep
pat terns, com mu ni ca tion effectiveness, health care costs, de-
ci sion makingthe list goes on. Clearly, the sheer volume of
stressful reactions most people facemany of which are au to -
mat ic and unconsciousrep re sents the most serious chal lenge
to health, productivity, and or ga ni za tion al coherence. It is non-
stop.
Focusing on self-awareness and internal self-management
of your men tal and emo tion al processes begins by iden ti fy ing
when you are feeling stressed or operating below par, then
neu tral iz ing the doz ens of internal reactions to in crease your
in ter nal co her ence. Recognizing whether you have adapt ed or Recognizing Recognizing
mal adapt ed, how ev er, can be es pe cial ly challenging, since many
people are like the fsh in the Hudson River with au to mat ic,
pro grammed reactions to the en vi ron ment and no apparent
al ter na tive. More than once, HeartMath facilitators have heard
workshop attendees describe how they have no stress in their
lives and are wondering why the facilitator is spend ing so much
time talking about it. Then, when asked, the par tic i pants explain
that they do not get along with their co work ers, hate their boss,
and have few friends, but for tu nate ly, no stress!
Hormonal Maladaptation
Maladaptation results in increased levels of the stress hormone
cor ti sol and depressed levels of the vitality hormone DHEA.
DHEA and cortisol have very different effects on human cells.
When chronic maladaptation causes the ratio between these
two pow er ful hor mones to be imbalanced, the body re sponds
in sev er al ways: In su lin drops; bone density goes down; mus cle
mass is de creased; fat ac cu mu la tion around the waist and hips
goes up; and skin re pair, tissue healing, and immune activity
slow downall lead ing to accelerated aging. This is because,
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 61
[ 62 ] From Chaos to Coherence
bio chem i cal ly, the body is in survival mode as a result of the
un seen mal ad ap ta tion. If these reactions continue, the hy-
po thal a mus in the brain is reset to higher cortisol levels. This
eventually de stroys brain cells in the hippocampus, a part of
the brain that causes memory, while spatial and other learning
abil i ties di min ish. REM sleep is im paired, resulting in sleep less -
ness or waking up depressed. In creased cortisol and de creased
DHEA lev els are a predisposing fac tor to many age-re lat ed dis-
eases, in clud ing obe si ty, osteoporosis, arthritis, Alzheimers dis-
ease, ar te rio scle ro sis (hardening of arteries), and some forms of
can cer. Other than that, no problem.
Recent studies on aging by the MacArthur Foundation re-
port ed that, The way people agewhether they end up sick,
demented or sex less in their 70s or 80s or vigorous, sharp and
li bid i nousis mostly a matter of how they live. Only about
30% of the characteristics of ag ing are genetically based; the
rest70%is not. Genetics play the greatest role in health
char ac ter is tics early in life. But, by age 80, for many char ac -
ter is tics, hardly any genetic infuence is left. According to John
Rowe, gerontologist, former president of Mount Sinai Med i cal
Cen ter in New York, and now CEO at Aetna, People are large ly
re spon si ble for their own old age.
3
Flexible Attitudes Build Flexible Physiology
This job is killing me may make literal sense, according to a
pair of reports in the British Medical Journal. British Medical Journal British Medical Journal
4
According to the
re search ers, men who showed large increases in blood pres sure
as they anticipated an ex er cise test and who reported high job
demands had 1040% greater carotid artery thickness than men
whose per ceived job demands were low. These fnd ings were per ceived per ceived
stron gest among men who showed at least 20% ca rot id artery
thick en ing on their baseline ultrasound exams. Moreover, in
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 62
Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 63 ]
this subgroup, men with high job demands and whose blood
pres sure went up had more than 46% greater pro gres sion of
ath ero scle ro sis than the others.
5
Per cep tion rears its head
again. An important axiom here: flex i ble at ti tudes build fexible
physiology. physiology physiology
Emotion and Immune Health
A study conducted at the Institute of HeartMath
6
demonstrated
a link be tween emotion and immune function. Groups of vol-
un teers were asked to focus on two different emotionsan ger
and carewhile a key immune sys tem antibody, secre to ry IgA,
was being measured. IgA (immunoglobulin A) is widespread in
the immune system, acting as a protective coat ing for the cells
against invading bacteria or viruses. Stress is known to decrease
IgA levels, leaving us more vulnerable to res pi ra to ry problems
such as colds or fus. The study found that a fve-minute period
of recalling an an gry experience caused a six-hour sup pres sion
of IgA levels. Five minutes of sincerely feel ing care or com pas -
sion, on the other hand, boosted IgA lev els for six hours.
You come out of a staff meeting feeling annoyed and angry
at how your proposal was dismissed. You replay the scene in
your mind, scripting the perfect defense, anger simmering the
whole time. (You are lucky if you spend only fve minutes do-
ing this; many people spend hours.) More ef fec tive ly than most
en vi ron men tal factors could do, you have created hormonal
im bal ance and suppressed a key part of your immune func-
tionfor hours. Chron ic re play ing of the event runs static in
your thinking and decision-making and can lead to an in creas -
ing ly com mon stateburn out.
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 63
[ 64 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Burnout Hits the Wall Street Journal
The malaise hitting the workplace clearly is not an isolated in-
stance. A re spect ed writer for the Wall Street Journal covered Wall Street Journal Wall Street Journal
such issues for years, then felt compelled to come clean about
her own challenges:
Though Ive written about burnout as a workplace issue, I secretly
be lieved it was a malady suffered by others. Studies have said as
much as 25% of the work force is at risk of burnout. Nevertheless, I
thought of the term as a pop-culture label for fatigue, or a scapegoat
for bad work habits. With a fex i ble job I enjoy, I thought I was im-
mune. Thats what I thought. And with that at ti tude I ran my life
straight into the ground.
7
Emotion and Stress Affect Heart Survival
More and more studies are demonstrating a link between ones
emo tion al state and long-term health. A study conducted at the
Georgetown Uni ver si ty School of Nursing in Washington, DC,
shows that psychosocial factors can contribute to heart survival
even more than the persons physiological status. In an article
published in the American Journal of Critical Care, American Journal of Critical Care American Journal of Critical Care
8
Dr. Sue A.
Th o mas, lead researcher in the study, said:
Patients who suffer serious cardiovascular disease are at higher risk
if they have changes in their emotional status, too. We cant just
treat one and ne glect the other and expect that people are going to
get well. We cant just treat the physical. We have to treat the whole
per son, the mind and the body. . . . The pattern of higher numbers
of past stressful life events, lower ex pec ta tions of future life changes,
and increasing levels of depression in the period after myocardial
in f arc tion [heart attack] presents a consistent psychosocial profle
of cardiac patients with increased risk of dying. . . . This study and
oth ers show that the emotional state and relationships of pa tients in
the pe ri od after [the heart attack] are as important as the pa tients
car dio vas cu lar dis ease severity in determining their prognosis.
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 64
Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 65 ]
A study at Duke University in North Carolina
9
suggests
that re lax ation, feeling better about yourself, and managing
emo tion al and psy cho log i cal stress can profoundly reduce the
risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD affects 13.5 mil lion
Americans and hun dreds of millions world wide, at a price tag to
the U.S. economy of at least $117 billion in lost pro duc tiv i ty and
treatment. Published in the American Med i cal As so ci a tions Ar-
chives of Internal Medicine, the fve-year study with 107 pa tients chives of Internal Medicine chives of Internal Medicine
with heart disease showed that patients who learned to manage
stress re duced their risk of having an oth er heart at tack or heart
problems by 74% when com pared with pa tients re ceiv ing med i -
ca tion only. Re duc ing mental stress also proved more benefcial
than getting exercise.
Stopping Emo tion al Drain
The third theme of internal self-management is crit i cal:
As individuals learn to iden ti fy and plug the leaks in their
own per son al sys tems, they stop draining en er gy and ef-
fec tive ness per son al ly and or ga ni za tion al ly.
You obviously have a choice in how you re spond to these
sta tis tics about the re la tion ship of emotional bal ance to health:
react with fear that you are on the road to a life of mis ery, deny
it, or greet the news with hope that in tel li gent so lu tions may
ex ist. We sug gest the last re sponse. Any par a digm shift to in-
creased peace and in tel li gence in the new mil len ni um will have
to in clude man ag ing the emo tions and bring ing them in phase
with the in tel li gence of the heart. This process builds emo tion al
pow er so you can man age rap id change. Peo ple are taught
in school to man age emotional out bursts, but an emo tion al
drain of energy still goes on inside that most peo ple do not
recognize. Most peo ple think managing emo tions is just about
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 65
[ 66 ] From Chaos to Coherence
con trol ling anger or the more obvious dis plays of emo tion al
mis man age ment. It also is about all the lit tle hurts, dis ap point -
ments, anxieties, fear ful pro jec tions about the future, and so on.
These more sub tle emo tion al states drain away more vitality
and in tel li gence ca pac i ty than peo ple know. They are the real
rob bers. Once emo tion al en er gy is leaked away, deep ex haus -
tion sets in. When we are emo tion al ly drained, we be come more
vul ner a ble to an gry out bursts and caus tic be hav ior. The ac cu -
mu lat ed drain of emo tion al mis man age ment is a major cause
of severe anx i ety and de pres sion. If that isnt warn ing enough,
a 32-year study of more than 2,000 men showed that anx i ety is
one of the stron gest risk fac tors for sud den car di ac death. Men
with anx i ety had six times in-
creased risk of sud den car di ac
death than men who re port ed
no symp toms of anx i ety.
10
There has been much trag-
edy in my life; at least half
of it ac tu al ly happened.
MARK TWAIN
It takes emotional buoy-
an cy to experience a con ti nu ity
of rich tex tures in life. When
you feel buoy ant, it is eas i er
to de fect problem sit u a tions.
What at times could make you
angry does not seem to mat ter
that much. Buoy an cy flls you
with energy. Quality of life is
not just a ques tion of lifestyle
or ca reer choice but is based
increase your
capacity for intelligence
I
ntelligence capacity is
diminished when frustra-
tion, anx i ety, or in ner turmoil
op er ate. Such emotional states
cause incoherence in the rhyth-
mic and elec tri cal output of the
heart, diminishing neu ro log i cal
effciency. Its one of the reasons
smart people can do stupid
things. When you make internal
coherence a daily priority, you
save time and en er gy. Internal
coherence oils your system.
Without oil in an en gine, it burns
up. So can you.
increase your
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 66
Growing Up in the Hudson River [ 67 ] [ 67 [ 67
make fexibility
your aim
F
lexibility and adaptability
do not happen just by re-
act ing fast to new in for ma tion.
They arise from mental and
emo tion al bal ance, the lack
of at tach ment to specifc out-
comes, and put ting care for self
and others as a prime op er at ing
principle. Flexible at ti tudes
build fexible phys i ol o gy. Flex-
ible physiology means more re-
silience in times of challenge or
strain. Staying openemotion-
allyinsures in ter nal fexibility.
make fexibility
on wheth er your emotional re serves are flled or drained. Peo ple
of ten try to mend emo tion al energy drains with phys i cal stim u -
la tionfood, ex er cise, drugs, sexbut still fnd them selves tired
and worn out once the buzz has worn off. This is be cause the
mind has con tin ued to justify the emo tion al bleed-off of the un-
re solved sit u a tion, re sult ing in an on go ing in ner dialogue that
per pet u ates more emo tion al drain and fa tigue.
The energy required to sus tain a storefrontlook-
ing good on the out side while feeling bad on the in sideis
ex pen sive. You can be mild tem pered yet full of in ter nal
emo tion al re ac tions that leave you con tin u ous ly be low par.
It takes sig nif cant en er gy to sus tain emo tion al re ac tive ness,
en er gy you oth er wise could use for cre ativ i ty, enriching your
re la tion ships, and in creas ing
your ful fll ment in all as pects
of your life. A high er ra tio of
emo tion al man age ment will
bring a high er return in per-
son al power and ef fec tive ness.
En gag ing pos i tive emo tions is
an in stant energy booster that
sustains. Jus ti fy ing neg a tive
re ac tions is an energy drain
that also sus tains. As you plug
the leaksemo tion al lyyour
en er gy starts to ac cu mu late.
Energy for clear thinking, cre-
ativ i ty, quick so lu tions and
human con nec tion.
Theres a simple tool to
clear up the murky waters and
move into the do main of heart
intelligenceFreeze-Frame.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
04 CH 4 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:49 PM 67
c h a p t e r
55
Freeze-Frame

: One-Minute
Self Man age ment
AS KIDS WE WERE TAUGHT: STOP, LOOK, LISTEN. AS ADULTS,
the new mantra has become: stop, shift, listen.
The re search de scribed in Chap ter Three in di cates that the
heart-mind-body com plex is in her ent ly de signed to work in en-
er gy-ef f cient, har mon ic, syn chro nized ways. This is as much to
main tain our en er gy lev els when deal ing with ex ter nal en vi ron -
men tal or so cial fac tors as to max i mize the po ten tial for growth.
Aware ness of the nat u ral in ner workings of our system, if ap-
plied with even a fraction of the en er gy we ap ply to learn ing ex-
ternal systems such as com put ers, tech no log i cal con ve nienc es,
or any skill we throw our heart into, can have a huge payoff. The
payoff starts with pay ing at ten tion.
Freeze-Frame is a pow er ful tool to neutralize any neg a tive
or in ef f cient re ac tionor
pre vent it before it startsby
cap i tal iz ing on the built-in
heart-brain com mu ni ca tion
link. Freeze-Frame is a way
to stop the ac tion (much like
press ing the pause button
on your VCR or DVD re mote
control), shift your focus of
at ten tion, and scan for en er gy-
[ 68 ]
T
he next theme of internal
self-man age ment is this:
Individuals can learn to in crease
their ca pac i ty for in tel li gence
re sult ing in more ef fec tive de ci -
sions, great er re sil ience, and a
height ened sense of well-be ing.
This pro vides enor mous val ue to
any organization.
Frame is a pow er ful tool to neutralize any neg a tive
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 68
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 69 ]
sav ing so lu tions. While Freeze-Frame is by no means a tool just
to re duce stress, regular prac tice of the tech nique great ly height-
ens your aware ness of the noise in your sys tem and al lows you
to hear a common-sense voice inside. You gain in creased access
to in tel li gence.
Freeze-Frame is a fast-acting power tool for transforming
stress ful thoughts and emotions into clarity, allowing you to take
ef f cient and ef fec tive action. With practice, you gain increased
pow er to come to balance and quickly change a negative, drain ing
response into a proactive, creative one. Here are the steps.
Freeze-Frame Steps
1. Take a time out so that you can tem po rari ly dis en gage from
your thoughts and feelingsespecially stress ful ones.
2. Shift your focus to the area around your heartnow feel your
breath com ing in through your heart and out through your
so lar plexus.
Practice breathing this way a few times to ease into the tech-
nique.
3. Make a sincere effort to ac ti vate a pos i tive feeling.
This can be a genuine feel ing of ap pre ci a tion or care for some-
one, some place or some thing in your life.
4. Ask yourself what would be an ef f cient, effective at ti tude or
action that would balance and de-stress your sys tem.
5. Quietly sense any change in per cep tion or feel ing and sus tain
it as long as you can.
Heart perceptions are often sub tle. They gently suggest ef fec tive
solutions that would be best for you and all con cerned.
Step one requires self-awareness and the realization that
learn ing about your internal communication network will max-
i mize every as pect of your fulfllment. This is like scanning to
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 69
[ 70 ] From Chaos to Coherence
see what seems out of phase, troubling, or confusing.
Step two sets the stage for a new approach. Focusing in
the area of the heart is unfamiliar to many people but quickly
be comes natural. People usu al ly feel their most positive feelings
of love, appreciation, or joy as warm sensations around their
heart. Do not try to feel the heart beating or any oth er phys i o-
log i cal sensation in the organ; rather focus your attention gen tly
in that area. Try to be neutral. (Focusing frst on your big toe for
a few seconds, then the palm of your hand, then the cen ter of
your chest helps give you a feel for this focusing pro cess. Once
you feel comfortable focusing in the area of the heart there is
no need to repeat the focus on the big toe or hand.) Breathing
deeply helps increase the sensation. The es sence of step two is
to anchor yourself in your heart so you are not dragged back in
to the ineffcient mental loops that caused you to Freeze-Frame
in the frst place.
In Step three you activate a positive feeling. This both
neu tral iz es the neg a tive emotion you had and brings increased
electrical coherence to the body. This step goes beyond vi su -
al iz ing a pretty scene or having a happy thought. The in tent is al iz ing al iz ing
to actually feel it. Just as the amygdala in the brain has the power feel feel
to conjure up negative emotional mem o ries that can rob clear
perception, you can generate positive feel ings which re store you you
balance phys i o log i cal ly while widening per spec tive.
Step four enables you to revisit the problem from a new
emo tion al state. At worst, you have neutralized the stress re-
ac tion and stopped a mental, emotional, and physical drain. At
best, you also have gained insight that helps you solve prob lems
or take action.
Step fve ensures that you listen to and act on any new in-
sights.
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 70
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 71 ]
Why Does Freeze-Frame Work?
By consciously shifting focus from the problem causing stress
and fo cus ing instead in the area of the heart on a positive feel-
ing, you are withdrawing amplitude from the problem and al-
low ing your per spec tive to widen. In Freeze-Frame, the pro cess
of shifting focus to the heart enables the power in the elec tri cal
system of the heart to work for you, resulting in new in tu i tive
insights for dealing with the prob lem. Even if no new in sights
appear, Freeze-Frame can get you into neutral, buying you time
for more clarity while reducing the strain on you.
The affairs of the heart are directly connected to the brain
and its the hearts natural intelligence that must be un-
fold ed for the brain to operate with greater effciency.
JOSEPH CHILTON PEARCE, EVOLUTIONS END
Like Bruce, the realization that asking the heart for guid-
ance could re sult in intelligent solutions came early on in my
professional life. A native of North Carolina, like many of my
friends, I began work ing at a furniture fac to ry after a tour in the
military. Conficts erupt ed on the job, particularly when I felt
un fair ly judged. Still fairly hot-tempered, a deeper intelligence
reminded me that to lose it over something trivial could jeop-
ar dize my job. Arriving late for work one day, I was soundly hu-
mil i at ed by a supervisor. I was determined to tell off my su per -
vi sor, over the prin ci ple of it, but I realized this was short sight ed
and foolish. Heart in tel li gence had saved the dayand saved
my job.
Freeze-Frame provides direct access to heart intelligence.
As you prac tice, you are retraining your physiology. Your mind
and body have be come quite familiar with the reactive pat-
ternsthey have become habit. These are habits it clearly is in
your self-interest to break. As you shift focus to your heart and
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 71
[ 72 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Freeze-Frame, heart rate patterns be come smoother, so the
mes sag es the heart is sending the brain fa cil i tate the brains
ac tiv i ties in stead of inhibit them. The more bal anced emotional
state Freeze-Frame gives you also al lows for great er electrical
co her ence in your body, so all sys tems can run more ef fec tive ly.
The essence of the Freeze-Frame process is
Shift
Ac ti vate
Sense
Shift your at ten tion to the area around your heart. Shift Shift Activate
a positive feel ing from the past or even some thing fun in the
fu ture. Sense a new, more effective attitude or action to take.
(Re mem ber, each time you act counter to your val ues, which
spring from your heart in tel li gence, you are fght ing your self. It
is a battle you can not win.)
Neutral
Neutral is one of the most ef f cient psychophysiological states
on the plan et. Neu tral is a state where you are not jumping
ahead too quick ly nor moving too slow ly. Neutral does not mean
being in ac tive, com pla cent, or pas sive. It is a calm poise that al-
lows new in for ma tion and new pos si bil i ties to emerge be fore
rushing to ac tion. When in neu tral you actually in crease your
sen si tiv i ty and in tu i tive in tel li gence. Neu tral is fertile ground
from which new pos si bil i ties can grow. It is not a state you could
sustain all your waking hoursat least not yetbut the minutes
and hours you are able to be neutral have tremendous benefts
in increased clarity, increased energy, and reduced ag ing.
Neutral means put ting the overactive mind in check, slow-
ing down the con stant stream of thoughts and taking a deep er,
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 72
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 73 ]
unbiased look at sit u a tions big and small. Neu tral saves wear
and tear on our bod ies. It keeps our sys tems working smooth ly,
in a fow. It is an eco nom i cal ap proach to life. If we con stant ly
react to every con ver sa tion, as sign ment, change, or random
perception, we drain away valu able energy that can be needed
when a de fn i tive ac tion needs to be tak en. Neu tral is not an
unfocused, un pro duc tive state. It is a highly in tel li gent, or dered
awareness that ob serves with out boxing you in.
Neutral takes practice be cause the mind works at high
speed and quick ly forms opin ions and perspectives about ev-
ery thing, right or wrong. E-mails are fying with rumors about a
man age ment change in your organization. You project neg a tive
scenarios into the fu ture, and ex pe ri ence a cas cade of what ifs,
de vi tal iz ing your system and com pro mis ing pro duc tiv i ty in the
pro cess. What ac tu al ly hap pened is that some one over heard a
com ment that the man ag er of your di vi sion is go ing to be trans-
ferred. They did not really hear the whole con ver sa tion, just a
few words. You only heard the rumor. With out go ing to neu tral
you can start to think things like, Does this mean the de part -
ment is going to have to go through an oth er re or ga ni za tion? I
bet Bill will get the man ag ers job in stead of me. I just knew it.
Thats just not fair! If its true and I dont get a pro mo tion I think
its time to start looking for another job. One pro jec tion leads
to another and an oth er and before long youve painted the en-
tire pic ture of a possible scenario on which you have very little
in for ma tion. All of that mental pro cess ing adds stress to your
sys tem and ac cel er ates the aging pro cess needlessly. At times
like these, a dose of neutral would go a long way. In neutral, you
would put the mind projections on hold. Stay bal anced and wait
and see what hap pens. You re al ly do not know the outcome of
the change or, in this ex am ple, if a change re al ly will take place.
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 73
[ 74 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Lets continue with the example: A coworker asks you if
you had heard any thing about a possible managerial change
and how you feel about it. You say that you are do ing fne, you
are neutral about it. On deep er review you could be feeling low-
grade angst inside. You believe that you have re al ly gone to neu-
tral be cause the po ten tial change no longer is caus ing an guish
and anxiety, but in truth you con tin ue to subtly process the po-
ten tial ly un pleasant pos si bil i ties all day, de vi tal iz ing as you go.
You might say you feel neutral about itbut not re al lynot to
the point where youre really at peace with it. From a heart in tel -
li gent per spec tive, you would see there still is un fn ished busi-
ness to take care of, a deeper state of neu tral to be ac tu al ized.
Neutral can be disguised in internal conversations:
What ev er. I guess it will be all right. Some how Ill probably fnd
a way to deal with it no mat ter how it goes. This kind of ap-
proach often is ac com pa nied by feel ings of res ig na tion. You feel
beaten down and have not really sur ren dered en thusiastically to
the situation. Real neutral con tains self-se cu ri ty. You peace ful ly
allow things to play out and use your avail able en er gy in more
productive ways.
Getting back to a neutral state is becoming increasingly
es sen tial for en hancing personal balance and effectiveness.
One study found that if you work too long at mental tasks, your
prob lem-solv ing time can increase by up to 500 percent.
1
When
you are in neu tral, energy is not draining, you are not wasting
gal lons of en er gy in worry or anxiety.
The Power of Becoming Neutral
Becoming neutral several times each day, even if you cannot
fnd a pos i tive feeling to focus on, gives you these benefts:
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 74
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 75 ]
It prevents sudden surges of adrenaline that drain energy.
It stops chaotic messages inhibiting the brain, which slows
thinking.
As you pay at ten tion to the thoughts and feel ings that go
on each day, deep er levels of neutral can be achieved. This can
seem par a dox i cal, but as you increase in self-man age ment, you
be come more sen si tized to sub tle noise and incoherence in your
system. What seemed neutral when you start ed can be come
pro gres sive ly deep er aware ness. From this state of neu tral, your
system can re charge and new insights can un fold.
Stress Prevention
Most people have numerous pre dict able situations that throw
them off bal ance or cause stressthe weekly staff meet ing, the
daily com mute, the per for -
mance appraisal, tele phone
calls with clients, cus tom ers
or vendors. A 30-sec ond
Freeze-Frame pri or to any of
these events helps you man-
age your self, save en er gy and
in crease your co her ence.
Sit quietly at your desk,
eyes open or closed, shift your
fo cus in ter nal ly to the cen ter of
your chest and breathe deep ly.
Recall the most pos i tive feel-
ing you can mus ter. If you
are about to meet with or talk
to some one with whom you
have had con fict before, fnd
how do you get
neutral?
W
hat does it feel like?
Neutral is a state of qui-
etude in sidenot total si lence
or the total ab sence of thought,
but a state of greater bal ance
than usu al, a dynamic peace.
Use the frst two steps of Freeze-
Frame to get you there:
1. Recognize how you feel.
2. Shift your attention to the
area of the heart and breathe
through the heart and solar
plexus.
Stop. Shift. Listen
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
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n
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05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 75
[ 76 ] From Chaos to Coherence
some thing in the per son to appreciate. Stay anchored in your
heart and re mind yourself to at least stay neu tral if the wa ters stay neu tral stay neu tral
get rough. (In later chapters, we de scribe how Freeze-Frame can
be in cor po rat ed in all com mu ni ca tion to ensure au then tic i ty in
what you say and depth in how you hear.)
Button Pushers
Have you ever experienced a neg a tive irrational reaction mere ly
on see ing the name of the send er of an e-mail mes sage? (Of
course you have. If you havent, you prob a bly are in e-denial.)
Do you ever think, Oh boy, here he goes again!? Do you ever
jump to con clu sions and start ac cus ing your child of naugh ty
be hav ior be fore fnd ing out the truth? In all these ex am ples,
you could be right to jus ti fy the re ac tionbased on the emo-
tion al mem o ry stored in the brain. How ev er, right or not, your
re ac tion is drain ing your energy, it could be cloud ing a more
ac cu rate per cep tion, and it can drive a spike into the heart of an
im por tant re la tion ship.
Staying neutral allows you to save energy just in case the just in case just in case
oth er per son was not to blame, the e-mail actually was a thank
you note, or the child was in no cent of the crime ac cused.
Neu tral is a tre men dous en er gy saver.
Energy Effciency
Focusing on internal self-man age ment results in more ef f cient
use of your energy on all lev elsmen tal ly, emo tion al ly, and
phys i cal ly. Stop to Freeze-Frame, then ask your self, What is the
most en er gy-ef f cient response in this sit u a tion? The con cept
of en er gy effciency became pop u lar in the gas-guz zling 1970s,
when the skyrocketing price of oil forced a rethinking of how we
spend our fnite en er gy re sourc es. Ap plied to the hu man system,
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 76
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 77 ] [ 77 [ 77
be com ing more energy ef f -
cient per son al ly can help you
see a big ger picture, save en-
er gy now, and un told amounts
of en er gy lat er on. In creas ing
per son al en er gy ef f cien cy is
anal o gous to in creas ing profts:
More spare en er gy is avail able
to in vest in fun, cre ative, or
re gen er a tive ac tiv i ties.
Each day brings mul ti ple
new opportunities to explore
in creas ing en er gy effciency.
As you begin to Freeze-Frame
sev er al times a day, you will
be come more sen si tized to
sub tle stress es in your system.
You will no tice more often
when your ac tions con tra dict
an in tu i tive insight. You will
an tic i pate fu ture prob lems
ear li er and have in creased
en er gy avail able to pre vent prob lems or mitigate their dam-
age if they al ready oc curred. Ap ply this con cept to cus tom er or
patient interactions, wheth er or not to hold meet ings, or what
type of com mu ni ca tion is ap pro pri ate around a spe cifc is sue.
Con sid er ing energy ef f cien cy im me di ate ly shifts you into a
more expansive per cep tu al frame work, more options are seen,
and wider con se quenc es un der stood. Con sid er ing en er gy ef f -
cien cy in her ent ly in volves whole-sys tem views. If a par tic u lar
course of ac tion seems ex pe di ent to you or a key stake hold er
but would dra mat i cal ly alien ate oth er key play ers, it clear ly
learn to manage
your but ton-pushers
E
veryone has things or
people that push their but-
tons. Those but ton push ers
are generally fairly pre dict able,
as irritating as they may be. Make
a list of these seem ing ly mi nor ir-
ritants for a deep er look at things
that cause a reaction on a regular
ba sis. The fact that you continue
to re act means you are also be ing
pre dict able, the victim of neural
circuits that engage when ev er
the button-pusher does that
thing. Freeze-Frame or fnd a
neutral perspective to let your in-
tel li gence perceive the sit u a tion
in new ways.
learn to manage
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
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05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 77
[ 78 ] From Chaos to Coherence
would not be energy ef f cient.
The ex tra en er gy you expend
to deal with the fall out could
neu tral ize the positive ben e ft
of the ex pe di ent de ci sion. As
you con sid er var i ous sce nar i os
this week or this year from
the point of view of en er gy
ef f cien cy, a new bal anced pic-
ture begins to emerge, of ten
yield ing sur pris ing in sights. A
pro cess for deep en ing these
in sights in prob lem-solv ing or
de ci sion-mak ing mo dal i ties is
called the as set-defcit balance
sheet. sheet sheet
The Asset-Defcit
Bal ance Sheet
The asset-defcit balance sheet
is designed to sys tem at i cal ly
un cov er new in for ma tion
about personal or busi ness prob lems while re duc ing the drain
of neg a tive or un bal anced emo tions. The con cept is that, when
mak ing de ci sions that re quire deeper re fec tion, a care ful weigh-
ing of the assets and def cits of the pro posed course of ac tion
yields clar i ty and more en er gy-ef f cient de ci sions. This pro cess,
by the very act of care ful ly con sid er ing upsides and down sides
from a neutral per spec tive, reduces emo tion al drag. Many times
in our own or ga ni za tion, people have made pro pos als op po site
to their orig i nal emo tion al im pulse, once they had con sid ered
deep ly all the as sets and def cits. Some times un ex pect ed as sets
freeze-frame
during meet ings
M
eetings can sometimes
begin to slow down and
de scend into chaos. Peo ple
start talking over each other,
dif fer enc es of opin ion begin to
arise and the orig i nal fo cus of
the meet ing starts to dis ap pear.
As a man ag er, once you re al ize
this is hap pen ing, it can help to
stop pro ceed ings for one min-
ute, dis en gage from the meet ing
pro cess and ask the group to do
a Freeze-Frame. This will help
sig nif cant ly to get the group
and your meet ing back on track
and moving forward with clarity
and balance.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 78
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 79 ]
came to mind that were un seen when the idea was frst fown.
Also com mon was the re al iza tion that po ten tial def cits are eas-
i ly man age able in the face of the over whelm ing assets. At oth er
times, sig nif cant def cits were re vealed that would have been
ig nored if the frst evan gel i cal in stinct had been fol lowed.
Business and Well-Be ing Im prove ments
All the clients we work with have critical business is sues that
need im prov ing. At Royal Dutch Shell in the United King-
dom, sev er al op er at ing com pa nies in sti tut ed pro grams in the
HeartMath tech nol o gy af ter a suc cess ful ini tial pilot pro gram
in volv ing mid dle and se nior lev el man ag ers. In the pi lot pro-
gram, several sig nif cant pos i tive chang es were not ed, in clud ing
an over all drop in blood pres sure from 126/80 to 118/78 with in
six weeks. Sig nif cant im prove ments were not ed in the group
an asset-defcit exercise
S
can the past week and jot down all the sig nif cant pos i tive
events that occurred, both per son al ly and pro fes sion al ly. Write
them down on the left side of a sheet of pa per un der the head ing As sets. Feel
ap pre ci a tion for each item you jot down. Now shift to the def cit side and,
from a neu tral per spec tive, jot down the neg a tive per son al and pro fes sion al from a neu tral per spec tive from a neu tral per spec tive
events dur ing the same pe ri od. Note if any of the def cits oc curred be cause
you failed to lis ten to in tu ition. Also note if any def cits could be trans-
formedat least neu tral izedthrough Freeze-Frame. No tice if the type of
as sets and def cits you have fall into a pat tern. For ex am ple, many peo ple say
their as sets are re la tion ship based but the def cits re fect sit u a tions be yond
their con trol. Often times, people are sur prised how much en er gy can be
drained by one or two def cits, while sig nif cant as sets go un no ticed. Freeze-
Frame one last time, then sum ma rize to dis cov er the es sence of your week.
How bal anced was it?
an asset-defcit exercise
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 79
[ 80 ] From Chaos to Coherence
with the high est lev el of stress. These in clud ed re duc tions of
65% in ten sion, 87% in fa tigue, 65% in an ger, and 44% in in ten -
tions to leave the com pa ny. A fur ther as sess ment six months
af ter HeartMath tools were in tro duced saw a fur ther re duc tion
in vir tu al ly all key pa ram e ters (see Fig ure 51).
2
At one of the worlds larg est and most powerful tech nol o gy
com pa nies, similar results oc curred for a high per for mance en gi -
neer ing team. Tracked against a con trol group of en gi neers from
the same di vi sion, the program was con duct ed dur ing one of the
most intense pe ri ods of growth and strain in the di vi sion.
rebounding
P
atricia Chapman at tend ed a HeartMath pro gram after a six-
year bout with ar rhyth mia and ven tric u lar ta chy car dia (an elec-
tri cal mal func tion ing of the heart). Her con di tion had in volved sev er al
se ri ous at tacks, sur gery, and an ex tend ed work ab sence. A longtime em-
ploy ee of one of Silicon Val leys leg end ary com pa nies, her job in volved
over see ing in ves tor re la tions, a high pres sure job to be sure! She stat ed,
I was so used to the adren a line rush that I did not know what it was
like not to have it. Af ter she at tend ed a week end HeartMath sem i nar,
Patricias col leagues im me di ate ly noticed a dif fer enceless stress and
ten sion and more ease, even dur ing a par tic u lar ly hectic work pe ri od.
Her ar rhyth mia spe cial ists at Stanford Uni ver si ty were also im pressed
and within fve months af ter her pro gram, they re duced her med i ca tion
by 50%. After my week end at HeartMath, when ev er that adren a line
would start to rush again, I could stop the trig ger. Now I can pull my self
back into bal ance at will. Her health im prove ment has now sus tained
for fve years and there have been no fur ther ep i sodes of ven tric u lar
ta chy car dia or need for surgery.
rebounding
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 80
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Self Management [ 81 ]
The test group saw a 17% re duc tion in fatigue compared to
the con trol groups 1% in crease.
The test group had a 7% increase in vitality while the con-
trol group saw vitality fall 7%.
Sleeplessness improved 8% in the test group while it wors-
ened 18% in the control group.
Social support rose 11% in the test group while it de clined
by 6% in the control group.
FIGURE 51 A summary of stress-re lat ed improvements seen in three or ga -
ni za tions uti liz ing the IQM tech nol o gy. Pre- and post-IQM tech nol o gy values
represent a six-week pe ri od. Number values represent the percentage of
par tic i pants who re port ed the stress symptoms often or most of the time.
Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath Research Cen ter
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:50 PM 81
[ 82 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Anxiety fell 13% in the test group while increasing 1% in
the control group.
Rapid heartbeats declined 17% in the test group, while ris-
ing 10% in the control group.
Among the tens of thousands of people worldwide who
have learned the IQM tools, one of the most common benefts
people cite is having more time. The next chapter explains how.
05 CH 5 FCTC.ID 01/06/04, 3:56 PM 82
c h a p t e r
66
Time, Expectations,
and Oth er Things Its
Dif f cult to Manage
TIME WAS TOUGH ENOUGH TO MANAGE; THEN THE
Internet arrived. 24/7, the pressures of doing business with
sev er al continents (let alone several time zones) in a sin gle
day, the need to generate clinical outcomes when man-
aged care forces cost and quality compromises, all add to the
col lec tive im pres sion time is rac ing ahead and the brakes
arent working. How do we step back with out fall ing be-
hind? More daringly, how do we see ahead with clar i ty and
vision without compromising our own health and balance?
One of the biggest energy drains for most people is their
love-hate re lationship with time. Time was a major challenge
while the frst edition of this book was be ing writ ten. All the
training and consulting activities of our non-proft organization
had just been licensed to a new for-proft company, HeartMath
LLC. Some re porting re la tion ships changed, no one lost his or
her job but many new jobs were add ed and many of our re la -
tion ships were changed pro found ly. Anyone who has been in-
volved with a sig nif cant business re struc tur ing understands the
com plex i ties involved. Add to that the legal, accounting, and tax
im plications of cre at ing a new for-proft company out of a not-
[ 83 ]
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 83
[ 84 ] From Chaos to Coherence
for-proft one.
1
Time felt crunched as people were chal lenged to
do their regular jobs while spend ing con sid er able time plan ning
and or ga niz ing the tran si tion.
While this transition was essential to the ex pan sion of our
work, we did not rush it. We set mile stones and goals, mar shaled
resources hop ing to meet them, but stayed fex i ble in the face of
busi ness and legal re al i ties. This change was not one we would
undo, so taking our time and do ing it prop er lywith min i mal
strain on the peo ple and existing busi ness mo men tumhas
been es sen tial.
We launched the In sti tutes corporate training ac tiv i ties in
1993 and watched them grow at a rate of 70% per year for four
years. While jug gling four training and in ter na tion al consulting di-
vi sions, with all the strategic part ners and players that im plies, we
remain focused on the foundation of all our work: the inside job.
When we contracted for this book and agreed to a com-
ple tion date, we thought: Whoa! Well need a time shift to get
all this ac com plished and maintain personal balance. Since the
book was frst published, HeartMath merged with a pub lish ing
and mul ti me dia company, further pushing the en ve lope in our
re la tion ship with time.
What do we mean by a time shift? Time shifting could time shift time shift
sound like a con cept out of the movie Back to the Future or an- Back to the Future Back to the Future
oth er time-warp ing movie. The sense we mean is far more prac-
ti cal yet profound. Time shifting is survival in the Internet age. It
de scribes an in ter nal state so coherent that your per cep tion of
timeand your ability to shape itchanges dra mat i cal ly. Ev ery
time you catch yourself before falling into a neg a tive re ac tion,
you have time shifted. Ev ery time you stop long enough to fnd
an in tu i tive solution in stead of rushing ahead im pul sive ly, you
have time shifted. Ev ery time you allow your in tu i tive in tel -
li gence to pro pel you out of inertia or con fu sion, you have time
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 84
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 85 ]
shifted. If you arrive at a solution to a diffcult per son al or or ga -
ni za tion al issue in fve minutes in stead of fve hours, you have
time shifted. You have jumped out of the self-lim it ing men tal
fre quen cy that says, Cer tain things just take time, into a new
di men sion. Time shift ing means moving past standard lin ear
time fows. Staying in the Now, more aware and sensitive to
whatever is go ing on would be effcient use of time. We call this
being present. Most people, how ev er, at any giv en time, have present present
a percentage of their thoughts assigned to re liv ing the past or
projecting into the fu ture. Not having enough time, especially
with the crush of information over load, is a high-rank ing source
of stress yet most peo ple do not stay as present as they could. By
learn ing how to stay present, time is used more ef f cient ly and
stress over load is great ly reduced.
Some would say, There is an objective reality to time; 24
hours in each day, no more, no less. Yet your perception and
ef fec tive ness in regard to time clearly changes as your per cep -
tion changes. Love what you are do ing and time fies. Hate
it and time stretches mad den ing ly. Stay stuck in an in ef f cient
thought loop, and your ef fec tive ness within a given time span
can diminish dramatically.
Many problems people have fnally do resolve but not be-
fore they have used up a lot of precious time. For example, two
staff argue over patient treatment. After the ar gu ment they each
re play the un com fort able incident over and over. In an ef fort to
feel jus ti fed, they may tell someone else about it, mak ing their
points about what they said and why. Lat er in the day, the mind
begins to run out of gas and new thoughts like per haps I was a
little too emotional in that ex change or I wish that hadnt hap-
pened. I really do like her start to arise. Soon, a more ob jec tive
review of the argument comes on-screen and a desire to apolo-
gize or make things right starts to dom i nate the mental process.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 85
[ 86 ] From Chaos to Coherence
The next day, the apology is made and both par ties feel a re-
lease. Things go back to nor mal and balance is re gained.
In this case, what if effciency and effectiveness had been
di min ished by 10, 20, or even 50% during the hours this person
com plained and re sented? His use of time clearly was not ef f -
cient, and emotional mis man age ment was the culprit. Learn ing
to Freeze-Frame and neutralize the petty an noy anc es and dis-
turbances saves enor mous loads of energy and, in this ex am ple,
could have shifted this scene in the movie of life ahead several
hours. A time shift.
How many situations face you each day where time feels
like the en e my or at least a hun gry competitor for your san i ty
and sense of bal ance? Snap ping
out of a judgmental thought
pro cess causes a time shift.
Catching yourself re play ing the
same inner di a logue over and
overand stopping itcauses
a time shift. We mean this liter-
ally. Your re la tion ship to time
fun da men tal ly shifts when
you engage heart intelligence
in stead of relying sole ly on the
mind. Scientists on the edge
pro pose an elastic view of time,
that in an ex pand ing uni verse,
time is stretch ing. We know
the sense of sat is fac tion that
comes when weve completed
a diffcult as sign ment, or made
it through a troubling con ver -
sa tion with min i mal emo tion al
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
use freeze-frame
several times a day
F
reeze-Frame brings
increased co her ence to
the au to nom ic ner vous sys tem,
en hanc ing hor mon al and im-
mune system bal ance and car dio -
vas cu lar ef f cien cy. Freeze-Frame
helps to max i mize your co her -
ence, bal ance, poise, and men tal
clar i ty. Practice Freeze-Frame
dur ing tran si tion times from
home to work, when chang ing
be tween dif fer ent tasks at work,
from work to home. Try it fve
times a day for a month and see
what hap pens.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 86
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 87 ] [ 87 [ 87
tur moil. We enjoy the next span of time in f nite ly more than had
the issue not re solved.
Time Wizards
Some of the most effective peo ple are those who are not im pris -
oned by in com plete per spec tives of time. They are the ones who
say, Why are we rush ing this decision? Their pa tience usu-
ally pays off. They also are the ones who, at other times, can be
quite decisive and in tu itive ly recognize the im por tance of quick
action be cause of how much time and en er gy could be saved
by not delaying. The emo tion al ly in tel li gent people recognize
the ob jec tive reality of time but deep ly understand how easily
its grip on our per cep tions can be loos ened and transformed.
Temporal alchemy.
When faced with ob vi ous ly con fict ing pri or i ties that
can not pos si bly be ac complished in the time frame, what
al ter na tive is there other than mind-numb ing stress? The frst
thing is to as sume there is a solution that can be achieved once is is
you get in ter nal ly coherent enough to per ceive it. Internal co-
southwest time
H
igh performance teams seem to operate in a parallel uni verse of
time and effectiveness. South west Airlines is a mod el of or ga ni z-
a tion al co her ence. Time ef f cien cy is one of their bot tom-line out comes
and their on-time per for mance beats the com pe ti tion every year. They
have time shifted into a new di men sion of effectiveness that their cus-
tomers love and their com pet i tors envy. When you watch many oth er
airlines per form the same tasks, it is easy to see a marked con trast.
Internal co her enceloving what they are doing and hav ing fun do ing
itis the spring board for time ef f cien cy at South west.
southwest time
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 87
[ 88 ] From Chaos to Coherence
her ence is the priority and can lead to sur pris ing time saving
con ve nience. Speed with balance.
Time Convenience
The number of conveniences that occurred for us once the
de ci sion was made to produce a fnished manuscript in nine
monthswhile maintaining a 5060 hour "regular job" work
weekhave been amazing. Meetings to dis cuss the con tent and
di rec tion of the book occurred just at the right time on sev er al
oc casions, saving us con sid er able energy and time. A key client,
for ex am ple, post poned two ses sions at a time when we need ed
ex tra writ ing time. Two free writing days resulted. Two divisions
of another client independently decided im por tant meet ings
should be held on the same day, saving several hours of trav el
time. We scheduled more than 60 book daysun break able
ap point mentsand informed staff members we were un avail -
able those days. Life be came more coherent as we did. Balanc-
ing all these pri or i ties became a daily chal lenge and a game to
mas ter.
Then another reality set in: The rapid growth of our busi-
ness made it increasingly diffcult to put consistent qual i ty
time into writ ing. Many is sues came up re gard ing our re struc -
tur ing and new stra te gic direction that required input. To keep
say ing, We are work ing on the book, was starting to sound
hollow and even a bit ir re spon si ble. And yet our con tract with
the publisher had a fxed date. The only pos si bil i ty was to re-
quest a sig nif cant extension, de spite con cern that publication
of the book would be delayed for a full season. Meanwhile, the
publisher had in de pen dent ly realized the fol low ing season
would be better any way, so an extension was will ing ly grant ed.
Time had shifted, and the shift occurred because of an internal
at ti tude shift that acknowledged that, in the name of bal ance,
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 88
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 89 ]
life had to shift.
What are some of the key attitudes and internal per cep -
tions un der ly ing your problems with time? How do you man-
age something as ab so lute and un con trol la ble as time? The frst
point is to remember the obvious: time itself is un man age able.
What you can manage is your perception of it and the events can can
with in it. Pon der deeply on this. Nu mer ous pro grams exist to
help us gain mastery over time and many sys tems offer prac-
ti cal for mats and guide lines. Yet the mastery peo ple need is over
in ef f cient thoughts, judgments, and ex pec ta tions.
Expectations
Few things can devastate per son al or professional re la tion ships
and in ner peaceor cause a bigger drain on your mental and
emotional balanceas much as unmet expectations. The raise
we ex pect ed to get, the rec og ni tion we expected to get, the
com mit ments we ex pect our colleagues to keep, the qual i ty of
work we are ex pect ed to pro duceall of these unmet ex pec -
ta tions and our reactions to them can gen er ate a stream of dis-
ap point ed thoughts and feel ings. These emotions so eas i ly can
move into a torrent of frustration, resentment, and anger, all of
which affect pro duc tiv i ty at every level of life. We f nal ly re al ize
we have to neu tral ize expectations if we want to enjoy life.
The problem is how easy reactions are to justify. After all, how easy reactions are to justify how easy reactions are to justify
you ex pect ed to be treated a cer tain way: any rational per son ex pect ed ex pect ed
would have expected the same treatment, you tell yourself and
anyone who will sympathize. The free-agent economyMe,
Inc., and all its variationshave created unspoken ex pec ta tions
of entitlement, expectations that are almost im pos si ble to con-
sistently meet.
Ex pectations often are based on some form of idealism.
They set us up for dis ap point ment and allow for no new pos si -
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 89
[ 90 ] From Chaos to Coherence
bil i ties to emerge. When reality does not match your men tal im-
age, the gap between your expectation and the per vad ing reality
creates a tension that can be hard to re lease. The paper wealth
catapulting employees net worth into the strato sphere brings
with it post-IPO depression when the share price dives. Super-
charged emotional expectation is the cause. If you could re lease
or trans mute the ten sion, you could move on quick ly and adapt
to the new re al i ty. In fact, the new re al i ty might turn out to be
bet ter than the one we ex pect ed, but if we see things through
old mental models about the way things have to be, we are cut
off from new possibilities. Tough to do in the high-speed, hyper-
competitive new economy.
If your expectations have become crystallized, it takes emo-
tion al adapt abil i ty and fex i bil i ty to regain balance and se cu ri ty. In
the ab sence of such powerful intelligence, the emo tion al res i due of
the ex pec ta tion lingers, cre at ing the per fect opportunity for dis ap -
point ment, the pri ma ry by-prod uct of ex pec ta tion. At a more sub tle
lev el, dis ap point ment is a con ve nient hid ing place for judg ments.
You judge people, plac es, is sues,
and your self for not meet ing
your ex pec ta tions. You say you
were not judging, you were just
dis ap point ed about the sit u a-
tion. But, if you looked deep er,
you might fnd that judg ment
was at the root of your dis ap -
point ment.
A team member you re-
spect promises a report by 3:
00. By 4:00, noth ing; 4:30, still
noth ing; 5:30, not even a hint.
At 5:45 the report f nal ly ar-
rives via e-mail, putting you
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
manage your manage your
feelings around
unmet ex pec ta tions
S
can your awareness
regularly for sub tle as well
as overt ex pec ta tions of your self
and oth ers. Con sid er how to stay
emo tion al ly bal anced if things
do not work out as ex pect ed. Will
all life as we know it really expire
if the ex pec ta tion is not fulflled?
Prob a bly not.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 90
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 91 ]
badly behind sched ule on your project. You say you are not mad,
just dis ap point ed that this person was not as re spon si ble as she
should be. Some where in this example a judg ment is lurk ing. If
you could see a tran script of the thoughts and feeling you had
between 3:15 and 5:45 it would reveal a lot about how ex pec -
ta tion led to judgment and then to dis ap point ment. When the
team member who was late tells you her child had fall en down
at school and cut his hand, requiring stitch es, and that she was
called to the school to take the child home and just for got to call
to say the re port would be late, you quickly for give her, but the
dam age of ex pec ta tion has al ready been done to your body and
your men tal and emo tion al energy reserves.
As the broken ex pec ta tion lingers, a lot of en er gy is used
to sus tain the dis ap point ment, energy no long er available for
pro duc tive activities. Your mind is pre oc cu pied, the in ter nal
di a logue races, and time once again is the enemy. Your phys i -
ol o gy slides deeper into in co her ence, making it hard er still to
shift per spec tive. Your cells actually age. It does not have to be
this way.
In the process of in creas ing your internal self-manage-
ment through heart in tel li gence, scan your aware ness regularly
for sub tle as well as overt expectations of your self and others on
your team or in your family. Con sid er how to stay emo tion al ly
neu tral if things do not work out as ex pect ed. Deeper man-
age ment of ex pec ta tions re quires un der stand ing the ex cite ment
that often spawns them and where it originates. Many sce nar i os
would tell the story equal ly well, but the sales pro cess pro vides a
con ve nient model.
Ratios
We both have known many sales peo ple who were ex cel lent at
at tract ing a buyers interest but then, in their overenthusiasm
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 91
[ 92 ] From Chaos to Coherence
over the po ten tial of a large sale, short-circuited the process.
In the long run, they lost more sales than they made. Each time
this happened, the dis ap point ment grew, mak ing the ex pec -
ta tion for the next sale even harder to manage. This kind of neg-
a tive feedback loop can be dev as tat ing to self-confdence. Many
good sales peo ple give up be cause of the dis ap point ment from
unmet expectations about the sure thing.
Successful salespeople know about ratios: Some deals
close, some do not. As long as the ratio stays con sis tent with
their goals, ev ery thing is fne. They in tu itive ly know that over-
ex cite ment about po ten tial sales cre ates the per fect breed ing
ground for fail ure. Sales peo ple with a bal anced in ter nal atti-
tude un der stand the unpredictability of life, so such people can
bounce back quick ly even when the sure thing evap o rates.
The concept of ratios is cen tral to rapid progress in in-
ter nal self-man age ment. First you use it to balance your own
ex pec ta tions, then apply it to oth er ar eas. You may make rap id
progress in stopping the leak of a long-standing mental habit,
then feel your progress sty mied when a tough sit u a tion causes
you to lose your cool. You feel like you slid backward be cause
you reacted negatively, and then you judge your self for the slip.
Slipping does not negate the genuine progress you made. What
you do next in your internal attitude, however, sets the stage for next next
either more progress or in er tia. Los ing hope, be com ing de spon -
dent, or doubt ing yourself will leak mas sive quantities of en er gy
and intelligence. Appreciating the in creas ing ratios of time you Appreciating Appreciating
already spent in greater co her ence provides a booster for sus-
tain ing them, especially when chal lenged. Un der stand ing ratios
helps you have sensible ex pec ta tions about people, your self,
and your work in stead of de mand ing ab so lute per fec tion and
being con tin u ous ly dis ap point ed.
We have learned, from per son al experience, the need to
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 92
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 93 ]
stay bal anced and positive while keeping energy-draining ex-
pec ta tions to an absolute min i mum.
This attitude of allowing life and people to be their un pre -
dict able selves, while main-
tain ing a positive inner at-
ti tude that has security ei ther
way, can bring ever-in creas ing
rates of success, per son al ly
and professionally. What an
iro ny: manage ex pec ta tions
and watch them be surpassed.
And if they are not, you have
accumulated ex tra energy to
move on to the next po ten tial.
Become over ly crystallized
and at tached to a po ten tial
out come and you block a
more pos i tive po ten tial from
un fold ing.
Much of the noise and
in co her ence in organizations
to day re sults from over prom -
is ing and underdelivering. In
your en thu si asm to convince a
buy er of the val ue of your prod-
uct or a col league of the value of
an idea, it is easy to set ex pec -
ta tions at un reach able lev els.
Overenthusiasm based in the
minds need for stim u la tion is
the real cul prit. The great est
an ti dote is build ing more ac-
sales
turnaround
A
regional offce of a large
computer reseller saw its
rev e nues and customer sat-
is fac tion plum met over a six-
month pe ri od, going from $5
mil lion per month in rev e nues
to $1 million per month. Things
got so bad they even had a streak
of 34 consecutive proposals lost.
A com pre hen sive HeartMath
pro gram was instituted for all
125 people in the di vi sion, along
with special strategy ses sions
with the management team,
sales team, and executive coach-
ing. In creas ing personal and or-
ga ni za tion al coherence was the
target so the company could at-
tract and keep good cus tom ers.
Six months after the program
was launched, during one three-
week period the frm won $45
million in new con tracts.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 93
[ 94 ] From Chaos to Coherence
cep tance and ap pre ci a tion for
what is. A self-se cure per son
knows it is much smart er to un-
derpromise and overdeliver, but
it takes in ner se cu ri ty to hold
true to that per spec tive. Es pe -
cial ly when the hype ma chine
blares from TV sets, ban ner ads
and spam.
Freeze-Frame is a great
tool to scan your inner radar
screen for sim mer ing ex pec -
ta tions in your self or those you
could have cre at ed in others.
As soon as you do this scan-
ning, you will be gin to get a
pic ture of how much more
en er gy and in tel li gence you
could have avail able.
Judgmentalness
Another signifcant energy drain already mentioned is be-
ing judg men tal. Judgment of others or yourself results from
as sess ments made with out ben e ft of heart in tel li gence. They
of ten re sult from an over ac tive mind siz ing up a person
or sit u a tion based on lim it ed or emo tion al ly dis tort ed in for -
ma tion. Judg ments have no payoff. They throw your sys tem
out of bal ance phys i o log i cal lyin fact, you are most vul ner a ble
to be ing judg men tal when op er at ing at a def cit emo tion al ly.
Be ing judg men tal drives a wedge be tween your self and the
per son you are judg ing. Judg ments of one self are par tic u lar ly
in sid i ous, cloaked as they are in the robes of self-im prove -
understand the
science of ratios
U
nderstanding the con cept
of ra tios will accelerate
your progress in in ter nal self-
man age ment. First use it to bal-
ance your own expectations. Ap-
preciate all the good already in
your life, even though one thing
didnt work out. Then, ap ply it
to oth er areas. Ap pre ci at ing the
in creas ing ratio of times youve
spent in great er coherence pro-
vides a boost er, es pe cial ly when
chal lenged. Its not about being
perfect. Its about im prov ing on
the ra tios.
understand the
G
e
t
C
o
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t
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 94
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 95 ]
ment. We judge our selves over a stupid mis take, not being
quick enough on our feet, not being con f dent in the cli ent
presentation. We say we are not im prov ing, or we fear an un-
changed pat tern will doom us per son al ly or pro fes sion al ly,
all the while drain ing our emo tion al re serves and lim it ing
the po ten tial for growth. We judge oth ers be cause their be-
hav ior fails to match our ex pec ta tions, but all too of ten,
when over stressed or overrushed, we default to judg ment
at the frst sight of a cer tain per son or be fore even read ing the
bosss e-mail. At our most im ma ture, we feed judg ments based
on gen der, race, gen er a tion, pro fes sion, or ac a dem ic back-
ground. The big se cret is this:
ev ery one else is do ing the
same thing to themselves!
In all these cases, judg-
ment drains and robs us of
the clar i ty need ed to build
re la tion ships or take decisive
ac tion. While it can seem stim-
u lat ing, even fun, to judge,
judgmentalness ac tu al ly con-
sumes tre men dous quan ti ties
of en er gy. Its only use ful ness
is as a wake-up call, let ting
us know we let unmanaged
emo tion cloud per cep tion
while ac cel er at ing our ag ing.
Ap pre ci at ing that we spot ted
the judg ment, then quick ly
neu tral iz ing the unmanaged
emo tion, can re store balance
and full in tel li gence.
under-promise
and over-deliver
I
n this age of hype and hyper-
competition, the noise of
out land ish guarantees can be
deaf en ing. Over-enthusiasm
based on the minds need for
stim u la tion is the real culprit.
By building more acceptance
and appreciation for what is,
youll gain a sense of balance
and ma tu ri ty that will feel sol id
to you and those around you. A
self-se cure person knows it is
much smarter to un der-promise
and over-de liv er. It takes inner
se cu ri ty to hold true to that per-
cep tion.
under-promise
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
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n
t
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 95
[ 96 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Judgment is one of the
most pervasive drains on the
plan et. Judg ment underlies
all ethnic, ra cial, and regional
con fict. It un der lies teams
re fus ing to co op er ate with
oth ers, stra te gic alliances and
mergers gone bad, executives
over ly crit i cal of sub or di nates,
even nations out to de stroy a
neigh bor. Of ten the judgment
seems jus ti fed, based on past
ex pe ri ence. This was a take-
over, not a merger. The mind
con structs its mem o ry of a
past abuse, then carefully pro-
tects its vi a bil i ty. Judg ments
rare ly re treat with out a fght,
so deep ly em bedded can they
be in our men tal, emotional,
and cel lu lar make up.
Heart intelligence, ac-
ti vat ing positive emotional
states to yield in creased in tu i-
tive un der stand ing, can pop
the bal loon of judgment so
we re gain balance. Once their
fangs have been re moved,
judg men tal at ti tudes can be
seen as mere ly the in ef f cient prod uct of mental-emo tion al im-
bal ance. Neu tral iz ing judg ment will not rob you of the power to
dis crim i nate, as sess, or eval u ate. In fact, once the judg men tal
mind is rec og nized, clar i ty, bal ance, and poise all can in crease.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
stop judgmental stop judgmental
at ti tudes
W
e defne judgmentalness
as the tendency to make
as sess ments of peo ple or sit u a-
tions without the beneft of com-
passion or un der stand ing from
the heart. Judgmental at ti tudes
drive a wedge be tween you and
that which you are judg ing. Real-
ize these judg men tal attitudes
are often based on misperception
or lack of in for ma tion. De spite
the fact that the tendency to
be judg men tal is culturally in-
grained from an early age, there
is wisdom in learning to un learn
this pattern. Use Freeze-Frame to
catch judgmental at ti tudes and
neutralize the ef fects by asking
your heart for a more complete
perspective. Ex tra credit: avoid
the trap of judg ing your self for
catching your self in a judgmental
at ti tude.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 96
Time, Expectations, and Other Things Its Diffcult to Manage [ 97 ] [ 97 [ 97
Dynamic Balance Dynamic Dynamic
For those of us who love to work at high speed and pride our-
selves on be ing able to thrive under pressure, the no tion of
bal ance could seem cute but frankly rather bland and un pro - bal ance bal ance
duc tive. So think of high-wire artists. Clear ly these per form ers
un der stand the im por tance of balance; in fact, for them it is a
life-and-death is sue. They must make hun dreds of mi cro-ad-
just ments to stay bal anced on the wire and keep their nerves,
anxiety, and vi su al dis trac tions from ru in ing their day. Balance
is key, but there is no lack of ad ven ture, ex cite ment, or risk. In
fact, with out bal ance their fun would be a one-shot thing. with out with out
Look at balance from an oth er perspective. In the 1960s
and 1970s, a great Amer i can track star, Lee Evans, set world re-
cords in the 400 meter, 500 meter, 600 meter, and 1,600 meter
relay and many oth er distances. Many of these records were
not bro ken until the 1980s. In his track days, Lee was known as
an ex treme ly hardworking athlete, but what set him apart was
some thing dif fer ent. Lee was not the most grace ful run ner, but
he had learned that to go fast er, the an swer was not to tense up,
but to re lax more deep ly. While run ning, he would tell him self
to relax and fnd a more fow ing style; he would ac cel er ate and
win near ly ev ery race. A deep er lev el of bal ance helped him fnd
more speed and grace.
2
A third analogy is a high performance car. For a Ferrari to
pick up speed, you need to shift gears intelligently. Each time
you shift gears, the en gine is able to run more ef f cient ly so
you can drive fast er with less wear and tear on the engine. High
per for mance cars like a Ferrari need constant tuning so that a
dy nam ic balance is main tained and high er speed is pos si ble.
With out constant aligning and balancing of the engine, the
wheels, proper fuel and vital fu ids, the car runs poorly or, worse
yet, can spin out of con trol. Speed still is the ob jec tive, but bal-
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 97
[ 98 ] From Chaos to Coherence
ance is the way to achieve it.
Pay ing at ten tion to the cars
need for adjusting is a con-
stant priority.
Think about how these
analogies relate to your day
or your organization: Are
you rac ing to get more done,
while causing in creas ing wear
and tear? Could you cre ate
personal strategic mo ments
to slow down, step back, and
discover a more bal anced,
effcient way to get the job
donewith less strain on you?
What effect might that have on
your sense of time, your pro-
duc tiv i ty, your re la tion ships,
or the qual i ty of your com mu -
ni ca tion? Where is the organi-
zation picking up friction by
going too fast without checking the oil, refueling, and re-strat-
egizing? Yes, speed mat ters in the new economy. Chal lenge your
assumption that speed and frenzy are the same thing.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
innovatetry innovatetry
balance
B
alance is a dynamic state
of max i mum fexibility,
not a bland un pro duc tive state
of me di oc ri ty. Balance requires
mo ment-by-moment re-cal i -
bra tion to changing con di tions,
attitudes, and op por tu ni ties.
Bal ance is unique for each
person. True bal ance means
internal dis tor tion is minimized
so your full intelligence is max-
i mized. A high-wire artist is a
prime ex am ple of balance in
the midst of adventure and risk.
Dont mis take boredom for bal-
ance.
06 CH 6 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:54 PM 98
DYNAMIC DYNAMIC 2
COHERENT COMMUNICATION
1. Achieving understanding frst is essential for effective com mu -
ni ca tion. How easy it is to think we understand the views of a
customer, colleague, or constituent without truly know ing.
2. Listening nonjudgmentally allows full intelligence and un der -
stand ing to unfold. It requires careful attention to mind-sets
about people and ourselves. High speed judgments of others
block full understanding of their point of view.
3. Listening for the essence of a communication means hearing Listening for the essence Listening for the essence
deeply the core message without being distracted by the
superfcial tone or quality.
4. Authentic dialogue brings increased clarity and reduces the
noise in any system. Heart-based authenticity represents an
in tel li gent trans for ma tion of unmanaged diatribe, an tag o nism,
or with hold ing.
[ 99 ]
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 99
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 100
c h a p t e r
7
Authentic Communication:
Its Time for Some
Serious Consideration
ORGANIZATIONS TODAY ARE CHOKING ON MYRIAD
communication problemsfrom confict avoidance to systems
confusion to sheer information overload to male-female pos-
turing and wariness. In an era when the primary reason people
leave their jobs is the inability to get along with their supervisor,
improving communication rapidly is becoming a personal and
strategic necessity. What is missing? An obvious answer would
be the heart. But, again, we do not mean just that communic-
ation needs more sentiment or emotion. Rather, compassion,
mature understanding, and intuitive sensitivity are needed to
transform the communication distortions we experience daily.
We need some real conversations.
Authentic communication implies listening and speaking
with sincerity, security, and balance. Using your own voice and
deeply respecting the voicethe heartof the other. It implies
a fullness, a completeness, a directness to ones communication
that arises from the core of oneself, not the storefront. As Rob-
ert Frost said, Something we were withholding made us weak,
until we found out it was ourselves. Sincerity is the oil that
lubricates communication, dissolving the metallic friction so
prevalent in this information-inundated world. Security arises
[ 101 ]
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 01/06/04, 3:58 PM 101
[ 102 ] From Chaos to Coherence
from a core know ing that everything is okay; its Latin roots
mean without fear. Balance provides the self-calibration so
heart intelligence is the core frequencythe central operating
sys temguid ing how we speak and listen.
If organizations would ever muster up the courage to
mea sure the lost pro duc tiv i ty and stress generated because of mea sure mea sure
the un ex pressed con cerns, fears, and an tag o nism present, they
would be shocked. The gap between what most peo ple feel and feel feel
what they say is huge and cost ly. National surveys in the United say say
States sug gest 70% of employees are afraid to speak up at work.
(In some other coun tries, this per cent age is far higher.
1
)
We have trained ourselvesand most or ga ni za tions abet
this train ing implicitlyto speak in a voice other than our own.
As a young actor I would occasionally muse what it would be
like to have a career in which you were paid to be yourself. I did
quite nicely putting on the per so nas of various characters, but
al ways talked in the voic es of others. Sure, I came through
the character, but I was always aware of the flters, the masks,
through which I spoke. I ro man ti cized about work ing in the cor-
po rate world and be ing paid to be myself. Soon after leav ing
the the ater in the late 70s I learned just how naive I was. I be gan
to see frsthand how much peo ple feel they must com pro mise
them selves, in the name of busi ness. A website, which then
be came a book and a movementThe Cluetrain Manifesto Cluetrain Manifesto Cluetrain Manifesto
sees the Em per ors new clothes, and isnt afraid to speak up.
We dont believe what were saying at work. We know no one else
be lieves it either. But we keep saying it because because because be-
cause the needles stuck. The records broken. Be cause we just cant
stop. Because who would we be if we didnt talk like that?
2

We are not advocating a free-for-all of truth telling for its own
sake; in fact, that can be quite de struc tive in an emo tion al ly im-
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 102
Authentic Communication [ 103 ]
ma ture en vi ron ment. Some use
au then tic i ty, or being a straight
shooter, as a mask for unman-
aged emotion and judg ment.
Real authenticity is not re-
ac tion; it is expression from the
corethe core of com pas sion,
un der stand ing, and in tu ition.
Nor is au then tic i ty soft or tenta-
tive. The fail ure to be au then tic
and the resulting in co her ence
is cost ing more than we want
to know. How do you feel when you you
you fail to speak up over an in-
sen si tive decision, know ing your
courage could be greeted with
blackballing and iso la tion?
What ex am ples in your pro-
fes sion al career have you seen
where the failure to ad dress
an issue proved costly? There
are some trag ic examples. The prob lem with the O-rings in the
space shut tle Challenger was known prior to launch. Fail ure to
speak forthrightlyand for that com mu ni ca tion to be heard
cost the lives of the entire crew. Ev ery day in or ga ni za tions
around the world, peo ple no tice things that could be cost ly, but no tice no tice
often out of fear, many of these observations go un ex pressed.
The personal guilt and self-blame you can ex pe ri ence for not
speak ing up can haunt you for years.
Any book on organizational theory states the obvious: Ef-
fec tive com mu ni ca tion is essential for successful re la tion ships
and suc cess ful or ga ni za tions. But we are sug gest ing something
achieve
understanding frst
I
f your mental engine is
revving too fast, you can
jump to con clu sions or make
as sump tions that could be
com plete ly wrong. Discipline
your selfespecially in the face
of unpleasant news, ru mors,
or delicate personal issuesto
make sure you un der stand what
a customer, colleague, or friend
really means, rath er than un-
der stand ing just what they are
saying. What people mean and
what they say may not be the
same thing, particularly when
people are under pressure.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 103
[ 104 ] From Chaos to Coherence
much deep er: authentic, essence lev el com mu ni ca tion that
catapults speak er and listener into a new di men sion of clarity,
resonance, and entrainment.
Is authentic communication merely an interpersonal
im per a tive between us and our colleagues or between man-
age ment and em ploy ees (not that this is exactly easy to ac com -
plish)? Dont our cus tom ers want the same truth and di rect ness
we hope for in our close re la tion ships? The Web has opened
up conversations like never before in hu man history. Ev ery -
thing your or ga ni za tion is doingor not doingis grist for the
mill for some chat room or listserv and myriad other forms of
impartial, in stan ta neous communication. Again the Cluetrain
pro vo ca teurs:
Marketing has been training its practitioners for de cades in the art of
im per son at ing sincerity and warmth. But marketing can no longer
keep up appearances. People talk. They get on the Web and they let
the world know that the happy site with the smiling puppy masks a
company with coins where its heart is supposed to be. They tell the
world that the company that prom is es to make you feel like royalty
doesnt reply to e-mail messages and makes you pay the shipping
charg es when you return their crappy mer chan dise. The market will
fnd out who and what you are. Count on it.
Thats why you poison your own well when you lie. You break trust
with your own people as well as your cus tom ers. You may be able to
win back the trust youve blown, but only by speak ing in a real voice,
and by en gag ing peo ple rather than delivering messages to them.
3

Underlying these fundamentals is the deep principle that
to au then ti cal ly communicate with others requires self-honesty
and in creas ing levels of self-maturity. Authentic communica-
tion starts with listening to yourself, especially the sometimes
chal leng ing prompt ing of your heart. So many things in life can
convince people to justify their reactions, throwing them back
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 104
Authentic Communication [ 105 ]
into fear or insecurity. Freeze-Frame and neutral are two tools
to bring you back to bal ance and help you become more deeply
aware of what you are feel ing, the consequences of these feel-
ings, and possible true-to-your self solutions.
Electric Communication
Some re search ers sug gest that our com pre hen sion of a con ver -
sa tion is only minimally based on the words ex pressed. As much
as 58% of our un der stand ing is due to our in ter pre ta tion (per-
ception) of body lan guage, 35% on our per cep tion of the lan guage lan guage tone
of voice, with only 7% based on our in ter pre ta tion of the of voice of voice words
themselves. Obviously, this leaves lots of room for mis un der -
stand ing and in co her ence.
What a radiant person she is! He has such magnetism
and pres ence. The room was electric as she announced the
plans for next year. These and other phrases reveal a deep in-
tu i tive un der stand ing that com mu ni ca tion is not just auditory
but also vi su al; and it is electromagnetic. Research has dem- and and
on strat ed that the heart produces an electromagnetic feld that
can be measured at least ten feet from the body using cur rent
technology. As soon as you come within ten feet of some one
else, your felds interact. (Another rea son why crowd ed subways
are so hard on the nerves?) Research has es tab lished that mea-
surable changes occur in the hearts feld, de pend ing on ones
emotional state: Frustration causes static in the feld, while
appreciation or care creates increasing levels of coherence in
the feld (see Figure 71).
So, while your words communicate one message, your
tone of voice another, and your body language yet another,
your own heart is radiating an undeniable, hard-to-hide elec-
trical mes sage. Quantum the o ry would sug gest that, although
the elec tri cal component of hu man communication may only
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 105
[ 106 ] From Chaos to Coherence
trans mit 10 or 12 feet, the quantum level knows no such lim i -
ta tions. Once again it is clear: We live in a sea of frequencies.
Information is ev ery where. We each broadcast and re ceive. The
clarity of the reception has ev ery thing to do with the clar i ty of
the receiveryou. Have you ever listened to someone a bit im-
pa tient ly, tried to speed the conversation along by fnishing the
speak ers sentence and letting him or her know you un der stood,
only to fnd out you were dead wrong and com plete ly missed
the point? Or if you cannot remember ever doing this, no doubt
it has been done to you and it drove you cra zy. Internal noise
from unmanaged emotional stress is one of the greatest inhibi-
tors of clear, effective, essence level com mu ni ca tion.
FIGURE 71 Feelings affect the information contained within the hearts elec-
tri cal signal, which is transmitted to all the cells in your body. The graph on
the left shows the noise created within the heart electrically when we ex pe -
ri ence a neg a tive emotional state such as frustration. It is called an in co her ent
pattern be cause the signals are distorted. The graph on the right shows the
co her ent elec tri cal patterns created by the heart during a positive emo tion al
state, in this case, ap pre ci a tion. Notice how the lines are clear, or dered, and
harmonious.
0 10 20 30
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
Frequency (Hertz)
ECG Frequency Spectrum
ECG Frequency Spectrum
0 10 20 30
Frequency (Hertz)
Frustration
Frustration
Appreciation
Appreciation
( Incoherent )
( Coherent )
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 106
Authentic Communication [ 107 ] [ 107 [ 107
The electrical signal radiated by the human heart is trans ferred be tween
people when they touch, as shown by these two graphs. Two subjects
were being measured simultaneously: Subject As brain waves and sub-
ject Bs elec tro car dio gram. The graphs on the left show their re spec tive
mea sure ments while sitting four feet apart. However, when they touch,
as shown in the graphs on the right, the electrocardiogram of subject B
appears in the brain wave pattern of sub ject A, showing a mea sur able
elec tri cal trans fer ence while the two touched.
Electricity of Touch
the electricity of touch
A
dditional research at the Institute has shown that, when touch ing
someone through a handshake or hug, a measurable trans fer ence
of elec tri cal en er gy between the two people takes place. Happy, sad, lov-
ing, or insecureit does not matter: Touching gen er ates an elec tri cal
trans fer ence. In fact, even close proximity be tween two peo ple registers
an elec tri cal effect, when people are as close as 18 inches.
4
If the hearts
electromagnetic feld acts as a carrier wave for emotional tur moil or
pos i tive feelings, we would be wise to pay closer attention to our at ti -
tudes and feelings. We may be affecting others more than we re al ize!
Copy right 1998 Institute of HeartMath Re search Center
the electricity of touch
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 107
[ 108 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Deep Listening
If deeper, more authentic communication with others is the
goal, how could you avoid starting with yourselfthe gut feel-
ings, the instinct, the still small voice within? How often do you
ignore an intuitive sense because the minds rationality or past
experience (that pesky amygdala) blocks the way? Re mem ber
that in tu i tive in tel li gence represents an un der de vel oped fre-
quen cy range with in each persons in tel li gence capacity. From quen cy range with in each persons in tel li gence capacity quen cy range with in each persons in tel li gence capacity
time to time you may get a fash of in sight or glimpse of the
obvious, but how random or un pre dict able these intuitions can
seem.
Attempting to listen to the intelligent voice of the heart
re quires prac tice, especially when the minds decibel level is
peak ing. But it is a practice that yields payoff in every di men sion
of life. Mastering lis ten ing to yourself is facilitated by disciplined
at tempts to do so. Freeze-Frame throughout your day and ask
yourself to pick up subtle signals telling you that some thing is
out of phase, some thing needs attention, I need to deal with so
and so. Pick spe cifc times in your day to scan the inner ra dar
screen for un at tend ed-to is sues or concerns. Ear ly mon i tor ing
during the daily commute, lunch, and other breaks are ex cel lent
times to step back, check the inner voice and re spond, save, or
delete. A major part of everyday stress re sults from failure to
lis ten to ones own intelligent input. Can you re call any times in
the past week, month, or even year when you kicked yourself for
not do ing something, or you regretted say ing some thing that in
your heart you knew was not ap pro pri ate? For most people, this
is fair ly common. If ex am ples are hard to come by, look for it in
others. Youll get the picture.
Listening to yourself as you would a child or a friend with a
prob lem can quickly increase compassion for yourself and then
for oth ers. Most peo ple have mastered one overused aspect of
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 108
Authentic Communication [ 109 ]
lis ten ingthe art of listening to their own self-judgment and
self-blaming. They play hours of per son al ized self-helpless
tapes, designed to imprison them in the familiarity of de spair
and unfulfllment. It requires a new, more compassionate focus
to be come neutral and quiet long enough to listen to a deeper
in tel li gence be neath the emotional pain or tur moil. Of course,
once you get adept at lis ten ing to yourself, au then tic action is
mandated from within. In the face of in tel li gent choic es, fail-
ure to act confrms the self-defeating behaviors you are try ing
to trans form. Acting from the heart represents a new level of
self-em power ment, a new platform from which to build more
in ter nal co her ence and more authentic communication.
Whether your role is to lead others or simply to lead your-
self, acute ly understanding what you are feeling and per ceiv ing
is the pre req ui site to understanding what others think and feel.
It is easy to master the store front we talked about. In a society
where looking good while feeling bad is hav ing ever more seri-
ous consequences, it is time to let the hearts wis dom guide our
actions. Start by paying clos er at ten tion to your subtle in ter nal
feelings. Attempt to verbalize them on paper or to close friends.
Never stop this pro cess if con tin u al growth and un fold ing your
in tel li gence is a goal. Shar ing ones deepest insights in vari ably
yields un ex pect ed clar i ty. In tel li gence is ev ery where.
Barriers
There are two types of barriers to effective, authentic com mu -
ni ca tion: en coding errors and decoding errors. Encoding in- Encoding Encoding
volves the meaning we as cribe to the communication we send;
decoding is the process of making mean ing out of what we hear. decoding decoding
Encoding errors occur when we as the speaker:
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 109
[ 110 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Are not clear what we want to say due to excessive emo-
tion al noise.
Do not know what we really mean.
Use words that have meaning only to us, with no clear
trans la tion for the listener.
Decoding errors occur when we as the listener:
Misinterpret the essence based on our perception of body
lan guage, tone, or words.
Form judgments about the speaker.
Listen at only the surface lev el.
Make an inappropriate match between what the speak er
is say ing and some pre vi ous experience.
Have so much internal noise that the signal we are listen-
ing to is drowned out.
4
Intuitive listening provides a technique for reducing these
er rors so greater coherence can be achieved.
Intuitive Listening
If you have taken a man age ment development, cus tom er ser-
vice, sales train ing, or parenting course, you probably learned
fun da men tals of good lis ten ing: steady eye contact, open recep-
tive body language, paraphrasing key points. All good storefront
com mu ni ca tion. Intuitive com mu ni ca tion im plies that a deeper
level of in tel li gence, ef f cien cy, and ef fec tive ness are at play
when you get past the mannequins in the win dow.
Good listening requires both the hardware and soft ware,
hearing and un der stand ing. There are three distinct levels of
lis ten ing:
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 110
Authentic Communication [ 111 ]
1. The word level is where much mis com mu ni ca tion hap-
pens. How many ar gu ments or mis un der stand ings are over the
words said and not the real meaning? The words them selves are
just the tip of the ice berg of the real com mu ni ca tion a per son
is try ing to make. Many times peo ple cannot fnd the words to
describe accurately what they want to say; others are sim ply not
adept with words, although they might com mu ni cate their feel-
ings in a very expressive way. What one person means by heart, heart heart
for ex am ple, could be totally dif fer ent than what someone else
means. Words are cages around fre quen cies. They are often
crude attempts to capture the essence of an idea and con vey it
with clarity and spec i fc i ty. They are nec es sary but not al ways
suffcient, and of ten the cause of con fu sion.
2. Beneath the words we speak is the feeling level, where a feeling level feeling level
deep er meaning can be found. We all have listened to peo ple
who were say ing one thing, but we thought they meant some-
thing quite dif fer ent. Feelings are an area most people are
un com fort able dis cuss ing, and clear differences exist be tween
men and women. Yet, this often is where re la tion ships are made
or lost. Feel ings of ten are ex-
pressed, es pe cial ly in busi ness
set tings, through tone of voice
and body lan guage. Less often
are they expressed au then -
ti cal ly.
3. The deepest level of
com mu ni ca tion is called the
es sence lev el. Re mem ber a es sence lev el es sence lev el
con ver sa tion with someone
in which you felt so in sync,
it was as though the person
knew ex act ly what you meant
practice
listening in tu itive ly
G
reat leaders hear the
meaning behind the words.
They are able to an tic i pate prob-
lems before they occur, and pay
at ten tion to feel ings, not just the
data. Focus in the heart and be
neutral to lis ten for sub tle sig nals
that could be easy to miss.
practice
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 111
[ 112 ] From Chaos to Coherence
or felt. This is very ef f cient com mu ni ca tion that cuts through
when words are in ad e quate or do not convey the deep est mean-
ing. Get ting to the essence saves time, fa cil i tates understanding,
and es tab lish es a true con nec tion.
Finding the essence means getting past the store front to
the stock room. What is on the shelves inside, is it organized, is it
carefully man aged? We are using this metaphor guardedly, not
so you actually will seek to un der stand the inventory in a con-
ver sa tion, but rather to in tu itive ly un der stand the core, the real
substance, un der neath the sur face.
There is no downside for seek ing to un der stand the es-
sence of an is sue or another
per sons point of view. While
it could sound time con-
sum ing, in tu i tive lis ten ing
has as its aim a tremendous
in crease in mu tu al respect,
un der stand ing, and en er gy ef-
f cien cy. By uti liz ing in tu i tive
in tel li gence, you op er ate out
of a deep part of your own es-
sence, which is why you more
easily can hear the es sence
of another per son or mes-
sage. Not only do speak er and
lis ten er feel better about the feel feel
ex change, co her ence is high er,
lead ing to cre ative so lu tions
that surpass what is pos si ble
when the air is flled with dis-
tor tion and con ten tion. In fact,
this type of com mu ni ca tion
is highly en er giz ing. When
listening as an
in no va tion tool
I
ts amazing how much more
creative and innovative
peo ple are when they feel heard
and ap pre ci at ed. Organizational
cul tures that pride themselves
on biting critiques of new
ideasoften masking an in tel -
lec tu al arroganceinhibit the
spirit of innovation that seeks
freedom, needs space to operate,
and will grow in value if ap pre -
ci at ed. Listen sincerely to new
ideas, honor the intention of the
originator, and, even if the idea
is premature or incomplete, en-
courage more!
listening as an
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 112
Authentic Communication [ 113 ]
you feel heard, es pe cial ly if the is sue is emo tion al ly charged, a
tre men dous re lease can occur, free ing up en er gy for more pro-
duc tive things.
Intuitive listening re quires being neutral or even pos i tive
emo tion al ly while lis ten ing to another person:
Try to feel appreciation for the other as a person, so you
see a full er pic ture, not just a limited view created by the
mes sage be ing delivered or an old memory you have.
This means allowing the person the time and space to
com plete thoughts without interrupting, judging, or rush-
ing.
It means giving your complete attention, not having your
mind on oth er tasks because you have so much to do.
It involves, when nec es sary, repeating what you believe to
be the es sence of what the other person has saidto make
sure the per son feels heardbefore re spond ing with your
per spec tive or opin ion.
It requires a measure of emotional maturity to not simply
re act de fen sive ly if the mes sage contains feed back for you.
From this foun da tion of ma tu ri ty, a deeper re la tion ship
can be built. For cus tom ers and cli ents this is es sen tial,
just as it is for friends and col leagues.
Each of these principles can and should be applied both
to our selves and to our communication with others. Several
years ago a new member of our staff was having a challenge
adapting to our unique organizational cul ture. An MBA with
extensive con sult ing ex pe ri ence on Wall Street, she found the
degree of co op er a tion, col lab o ra tion, and camaraderie appeal-
ing but some what dis con cert ing because of how different it was
from her previous highly competitive professional experiences.
At one point, she began grum bling about the dynamics within
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 113
[ 114 ] From Chaos to Coherence
the team. I asked if she would be willing to bring up the issue
open ly in a team meeting. She agreed, although it took some
cour age on her part. During the meeting she force ful ly shared
her con cerns, which related to a perceived gap be tween the se-
nior members and the junior ones, and the intense frus tra tion
this caused her to feel. I tried to listen nonjudgmentally (though
this was not entirely easy), re al iz ing I could have had the same
per spec tive be ing in her shoes. I locked in to the es sence of her
words, try ing not to get thrown by the emo tion al de liv ery (neu-
tral came in very handy). As I lis tened, I ap pre ci at ed her cour- tral tral
age for speak ing up and her anxiety over the gap she felt. But,
be fore making any com ments,
I made sure I had un der stood
the es sence by para phras ing it
back to her, then asked if I had
heard her cor rect ly. She threw
her arms up in the air and said,
Fi nal ly, some one has heard
me! The relief in her face and
body was tre men dous. Gone
was the ten sion, the fear, and
the in se cu ri ty that, if poorly
ex pressed, her words could
re sult in reprisal or iso la tion,
a com mon pat tern in so many
cor po rate en vi ron ments. I
con clud ed the ex change by
sug gest ing we talk off-line
to make sure I un der stood her
con cerns fully.
Here is where the power
of intuitive listening became
authentic
intranets?
P
eople want to talk. They
also want to be heard. The
Web is quench ing this thirst
for some, but many want to
talk open ly about your or ga -
ni za tionwhats working, whats
not; what wild, new ideas could
jumpstart the rocky new prod uct
launch; what attitudes in the cul-
ture would make peo ple want to
stay when the head hunt er calls.
Your intranet can be a place to
en cour age open con ver sa tions.
Dont try to con trol them. Fat
chance, any way. But do make a
sin cere ef fort to hear what theyre
trying to say.
authentic
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 114
Authentic Communication [ 115 ]
so pro found. While talking privately she realized that once she
f nal ly felt heard, it be came clear that most of the problem
was in her per cep tion. She thanked me for listening, and a bond
of open ness, se cu ri ty, and respect remains to this day.
Time after time, we have seen the power of intuitive in-
tel li gence trans form ordinary communication. Performance
reviews that nei ther party is look ing forward to, diffcult ne go -
ti a tions, client in ter ac tionsall these con tin u al ly become more
ful fll ing and ef f cient when in ter nal coherence is max i mized,
noise is reduced, and the heart provides the play ing feld.
A software company pres i dent from Australia of fered this
story:
Today, one day after I fnished the HeartMath program, I went into
what I ex pect ed to be one of the most diffcult negotiations of my
life. I was ne go ti at ing the [company name] distribution agreement,
which was like many agreements that I have negotiated in my life,
ex cept that this time I was ne go ti at ing with my life savings, re sult ing
in a not insignifcant in crease in pres sure. The agree ment that I
had received from [company name] about two months ago did not
re fect the true spirit of the agree ment that we had made on a hand-
shake, and I started to feel very conficted about this. From the dis-
tance of Australia, I felt that [com pa ny name] want ed to draw back
from the agreement that we had made verbally. Actions sub se quent
to my challenging the basic conditions of the agree ment were also
not helpful in changing my opinion that they were re neg ing. They
did not respond to phone calls or e-mail. Finally, and most criti-
cal, they did not send me a f nal draft of the contract as I re quest ed.
Hence, I had every rea son to expect the worst (from a nor mal busi-
ness point of view). Hav ing changed my per cep tu al po si tion with
respect to [company name], these were the smooth est negotiations
that I have ever been in. I Freeze-Framed often and poured love out
of my heart for the negotiators as often as I could. They con ced ed ev-
ery major point in the negotiations, about 15 in all, and only on one
point did they not con cede, which, from my point of view, was a mi-
nor con sid er ation. This negotiation went like clock work and major
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 115
[ 116 ] From Chaos to Coherence
issues like term of contract, continuity, ar bi tra tion procedures, and
quotas all fell the way that I wanted.
6

At frst glance it seems te dious to have to make sure you
un der stand the essence of what someone is saying. After all,
dont most people talk in slow, cir cu i tous sen tenc es anyway?
It is much more effcient to cut in and help the other person
clar i fy his or her thoughts, isnt it? Hooked on speed, al ways
rush ing to keep up, how easy it is to jus ti fy insensitive, in ef -
fec tive com mu ni ca tion, veiled as it is behind the screen of judg-
ment. The iro ny is how much havoc is cre at ed by the rushed
de ci sions and fran tic thought pro cess es we con vinced our selves
are es sen tial to our organization or ca reer.
Slowing the mental chat ter while neutralizing the emo-
tion al clat ter al lows the high speed refned intelligence of in tu -
ition to be heard. The heart has the power to neu tral ize run away
mental mis siles and disarm the emo tion al gre nades. As a side
beneft of lis ten ing in tu itive ly for the es sence, a study con duct ed
at Johns Hopkins Uni ver si ty showed that mar ried peo ple who
were able to ac cu rate ly sum ma rize the feel ings of their spouse
were able to low er blood pres sure.
Think of the great leaders of our time or a mentor who
made a last ing impact on you. We suspect a part of your heart
was awakened by the sin cere spir it of that person. Most like ly
the person had the gift or de vel oped the skill of deep lis ten ing,
and that depth in fused the words he or she spoke as well. The
power and authenticity of their ex pres sion seemed to res o nate
from a deep passion and knowingness.
Communication Webs
Another important di men sion is the coherence of a teams com-
mu ni ca tion with oth er parts of the or ga ni za tion, as well as the
net works of re la tion ships it is able to build outside its im me di ate
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 116
Authentic Communication [ 117 ] [ 117 [ 117
sphere. Main tain ing co herence within necessitates co her ence
with out. In one study at the Harvard Business School, the way
a team or unit was linked to oth ers had a dra mat ic effect on its
per for mance. In one mul ti na tion al elec tron ics com pa ny, for
ex am ple, the best con nect ed busi ness units were able to bring
prod ucts to mar ket 30% fast er than av er age.
7
As any one whos
ever talked on a cell phone or trans mit ted data through a mo-
dem knows, its one thing to be con nect ed, and quite an oth er
when that con nec tion is dis tort ed or in ter mit tent.
Or ga ni za tion al
Ap pli ca tions
The applications of coherent
communication to an or ga -
ni za tion are many.
Meetings. Before a meet-
ing starts, review the key
prin ci ples: listening non-
judgmentally, lis ten ing
for the es sence, achiev-
ing un der stand ing frst,
and speak ing au then -
ti cal ly. Write them on a
fip chart or grease board
as a re mind er. Sum-
ma rize key points of any
dis cus sion or pre sen -
ta tion to make sure the
whole group is in sync.
Con tin ue dis cuss ing
un til there is shared
clarity. An intact team
communication
leaps
M
any organizations have
seen measurable ben e fts
from ap ply ing tools of co her ent
com mu ni ca tion. At a glo bal en-
er gy com pa ny, a key stra te gic
team had only 14% of its mem-
bers feel ing meetings were well
or ga nized. After six months with
IQM tools, this fg ure had jumped
to 53%. Only 43% felt they lis-
tened to each oth er pri or to IQM
train ing, but six months later
73% felt lis ten ing was good. And
in this same team, only 57% felt
free to express them selves pri or
to IQM. Six months after the IQM
in ter ven tion, 93% felt free to ex-
press their views.
communication
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 117
[ 118 ] From Chaos to Coherence
from Hewlett-Packard used this pro cess to make sure
the an nounce ment of a new strategy was un der stood by
ev ery one. The an nounce ment took less than fve min-
utes to make but more than an hour to dis tin guish the
var i ous in ter pre ta tions from the real mes sage ex pressed.
Had they not taken this time, con sid er able un cer tain ty
and con fu sion would have re sult ed, wast ing many hours
and pos si bly cul mi nat ing in mis guid ed de ci sions. Has this
hap pened in your or ga ni za tion?
Phone conversations. Whether dealing with a customer,
ven dor, or patient, applying the principles of intuitive
lis ten ing and au then tic com mu ni ca tion helps ensure a
speed i er, mutually ben e f cial outcome that can be en-
er giz ing. Es pe cial ly when you have no body language
or other vi su al clues to rely on, focusing on keeping
yourself emo tion al ly neu tral or pos i tive while mak-
ing sure you hear the other per son is far less drain ing
than being judg men tal or making unfair or inaccurate
assumptions.
Performance reviews. Performance reviews are one of the
most emo tion al ly draining and commonly avoided or ga -
ni za tion al ac tiv i ties. Yet, they can be a rich op por tu ni ty for
growth. Au then tic com mu ni ca tion in this con text means
putting the per sons highest good as your pri ma ry ob-
jec tive. Make sure your appraisal allows ad e quate time for
the per sons as sets to be dis cussedand make sure the
per son hears your ap pre ci a tion, sin cere ly. Where feed-
back is necessary, make sure the tone is not judg men tal
but is supportive and direct. Using Freeze-Frame at the
start of this pro cess can neu tral ize or re duce anxiety while
cre at ing a stron ger feld for rap port in stead of an tag o nism.
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 118
Authentic Communication [ 119 ]
External relationships. Evaluate the quality of com mu ni c-
a tion be tween your team and other key di vi sions within
the organization. Where is coherence lack ing? Where
is it strong? Par tic u lar ly ex am ine any areas of ex tend ed
com mu ni ca tion where people have be come re signed to
in co her ence or an tag o nism. This is a high le ver age point
for boosting pro duc tiv i ty. Typ i cal ex am ples of hardened
re la tion ships in clude man u fac tur ing with mar ket ing, sales
with ac count ing, marketing with sales, and medical staff
with administration.
System noise. Continue to ask where there is noise in any
part of the system:
Sales people frustrated over level of services and sup-
port,
Administration staff inhibited by infrastructure or pro-
cess in ef f cien cies,
Production people resentful over design delays or con-
stant chang es,
Nurses stuck in a no-mans land between se nior man-
age ment preoccupation with shareholder (or board)
perception, and physician attitudes and patient expec-
tations.
Then ask your people what solutions they see, which
rec og nize the needs of the whole system: employee, man-
ag er, department, company and customer.
Fundamentally, beneath all the research and the sug ges -
tions for how to increase coherence personally and or ga ni za -
tion al ly, it boils down to this: the human need to con nect with
others in a meaningful way is more urgent than ever. The emer-
gence of the Web and a diz zy ing array of com mu ni ca tion tools
and devices has only made ob vi ous what our hearts knew we
07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 119
[ 120 ] From Chaos to Coherence
wanted all along. The Cluetrain writers en vi sion: Cluetrain Cluetrain
New types of connections. The heart fowing to oth er hearts. A new
rhythm. A new causality. A new un der stand ing of pow er. Con ver -
sa tion that understands that it isnt a dis trac tion from work, its the
real work of business.
8

07 CH 7 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 120
c h a p t e r
8
Technology, Inner
Technology, and the
Measure of Human Capital
AS WITH VIRTUALLY EVERY FACET OF SOCIETY TODAY,
technology is in massive transition, facing signifcant choices for
its future direction. The picture is chaotic to be sure. With com-
puting power now exceeding even Moores Law of doubling of
microprocessor speed every 18 months and devices becoming
smaller, more compact, and more versatile, the future looks
like a gadget freaks paradise. Much of this new technology will
add immeasurably to our ability to learn and understand across
borders and across time zones. Our glee in successfully using a
GPS (global positioning system) navigation system (provided at
no extra charge by Hertz) and the ease it afforded us going from
appointment to appointment all over the Chicago metropolitan
area, was yet another example of how fun and energy-saving
technology can be. So what's the downside? Concerns about
cyber-crime, children glued to computer screens, breakdown
of traditional communities, the digital divide between rich and
poorconnected and unconnectedare just some potential
effects.
1
The debate rages. None other than Bill Joy, a founder of
Sun Microsystems, and one of the industrys most thoughtful
[ 121 ]
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 01/06/04, 3:59 PM 121
[ 122 ] From Chaos to Coherence
pi o neers, has publicly questioned the un bri dled technology-
for-technologys-sake mentality. The IPO frenzy surrounding
all the Internet start-ups fur ther amplifed an often irrational,
keep-up-with-the-Joneses mindset that embraces every tech-
nological in no va tion without con sid er ing the social or human
con se quenc es. Bill Joy:
For Aristotle, an argument based on a poem was as valid as one
based on science. Weve lost that. I dont sense in this com mu ni ty
that an eth i cal, spir i tu al-based ar gu ment carries nearly as much
weight as a capitalist im per a tive or the notion that progress is the ul-
ti mate. That what ev er hap pens happens. Its scientifc fa tal ism and it
could be fatal for us.
2
Or this from Tom Valovic, author of Digital Mythologies:
There is a tremendous, market-driven haste to get into in vis i ble
tech nol o gies that are unstable and dan ger ous to life. It re quires this
re li gious leap of faith that science knows best.
3
The point is not that technology is evil. Its neutral. The
lack of emotional managementat this critical stage of human
evo lu tionis the wild card.
Increasingly, communication is becoming electronic. The
good news is that there are more ways to connect than ever; the
bad news is that there seems to be no escape. As bandwidth (the
range of available frequencies) expands to satisfy our craving
for information, so does the potential for in for ma tion overload.
The more information to which we gain access, the more our in-
ter nal circuitry overloads, making ef fec tive pro cess ing diffcult
at best.
A Reuters study
4
A Reuters study A Reuters study suggests we are witnessing the rise of a
new generation of dataholics. Based on a survey of 1,000 peo-
ple in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany,
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 122
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 123 ]
Singapore, and Hong Kong, the survey cited these responses:
More than 50% feel unable to handle all the information
ac cu mu lat ed in their jobs.
61% believe information overload is present in their work-
place, with 80% predicting the situation will worsen.
47% take material home or work longer hours to keep up
with the amount of information accumulated.
55% are concerned children will become information
junk ies, with 36% ex treme ly worried their children were
overexposed to in for ma tion.
Nearly half of all parents said their children prefer PCs to
peers.
The picture has not brightened since 9/11. Two re search ers
have determined that as much as 85% of the pop u la tion feels
uncomfortable with technology.
5
The 15% who are com fort able
still fall prey to frustration, intimidation, or dis tress. Even the
techno-literati feel the pressure. The number of messages and
oth er demands on our at ten tionwhether phone calls, e-mail,
TV ads, Internet junk mail (af fec tion ate ly called spam), or oth- spam spam
er kinds of messagesnumber in the tens of thou sands daily.
As we were work ing on this book, a call came in from a cli ent, a
senior executive of a global technology cor po ra tion, who was la-
ment ing the incredible drain on his en er gy required to deal with
the 200250 daily e-mail mes sag es he receives. Most get deleted
without being read. And yet the send ers thought they had com-
municated.
E-mail can rapidly aggravate organizational incoherence.
React neg a tive ly, even mistakenly, to a new policy or any sit u a-
tion, and you can in stant ly broadcast your displeasure to doz-
ens of people. Here is a simple sto ry. In a large fnancial ser vic es
frm, an irate employee gave hostile feed back via e-mail to a co-
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 123
[ 124 ] From Chaos to Coherence
worker and sent copies to 15 other people, including the boss of
the coworkers boss. The team director then had to sort out the
is sue, while re sponding to two higher levels of man age ment and
calming down the co worker who had been pub lic ly and unfairly
humiliated, elec tron i cal ly. Similarly, cus tom er com plaints elec-
tronically can snake their way very high into an or ga ni za tion,
involving many people emotionally in the drama. In both ex-
amples, e-mail is not the villain; it is neu tral. But e-mail has be-
come a convenient vehicle in the trans mis sion of incoherence
and emotional mis management.
The information overload phenomenon increasingly is
glo bal. Another survey done by Reuters,
6
conducted with man-
age ment per son nel in the Unit ed Kingdom, United States,
Australia, Hong Kong, and Singapore, revealed a tre men dous
amount of men tal an guish and physical illness re sult ing from
in for ma tion fatigue.
One in four of the 1,300 managers surveyed admitted to
suf fer ing ill health as a result of the volume of information
they must han dle.
48% agreed that the Internet will play a primary role in
fur ther ag gra vat ing the problem over the next few years.
Two thirds of managers re port ed that tension with work
col leagues and loss of job satisfaction arise because of
stress as so ci at ed with in for ma tion overload.
43% of senior managers suffered from ill health as a direct
con se quence of stress associated with information over-
load.
62% testifed that their personal relationships suffered as a
result of information overload.
44% believed the cost of collecting information exceeds its
value to business.
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 124
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 125 ]
How much of this craze for information arises out of in se -
cu ri ty and fearfear we will be left behind, fear someone else
will do the deal or get to the mar ket faster, insecurity that if we
are not constantly con nect ed our value and worth will be
questioned and ultimately cast aside?
It is fascinating to step back and realize how quickly in for -
ma tion tech nol o gy be came
cen tral to our lives. Can you
re mem ber when you did not
own a VCR, nobody sent fax es,
no body used e-mail, per son al
com put ers were a nov el ty (even
in busi ness), pag ers did not ex-
ist, and phones in cars were for
pres i dents and prime min is ters?
This pastoral scene is 1980! Fast
for ward to the present and we,
in the de vel oped coun tries,
clear ly live in an entirely dif-
fer ent world. To day, many of
usmore all the timework
and live in tech nol o gy-in ten sive
en vi ron ments. Our homes in-
creas ing ly refect the tech nol o gy
fren zy in or ga ni za tions. And, by
all ac counts, the in ten si ty and
speed of change will only in-
crease. There is no end in sight
for this trend to slow down or
shift di rec tion.
7
Only when the
neg a tive con se quenc es cost us
dearly are we like ly to chal lenge
the basic as sump tion that an
examine how to
reduce information
over load
T
echnology facilitates
convenience and effciency
and also creates chal leng es.
Healthy or ga ni za tions of the fu-
ture will balance the ac qui si tion
of information with in di vid u al
well-being and pro duc tiv i ty.
Un bri dled as sim i la tion of in for -
ma tion grinds individual pro duc -
tiv i ty un der a moun tain of need-
less data. Make sure in for ma tion
sys tems and pro cess es make it
eas i er for peo ple to do their jobs,
not feel more over whelmed. Use
this same principle to examine
how to make it easier for cus-
tom ers to do busi ness with you.
Con nec tiv i ty is great when theres
meaning in the con nec tion.
examine how to
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 125
[ 126 ] From Chaos to Coherence
ever-in creas ing vol ume of raw in for ma tion is in her ent ly good.
(One can die of too much of any thing, in clud ing water.) any thing any thing
In a very short time15 years or socomputers and in for -
ma tion tech nol o gy rap id ly became the primary physical as set
of corporations and cen tral to their operations. Today, close
to half of all capital ex pen di tures made by companies are on
com put ers, networks, and software, the largest single cat e go ry
of ex pen di ture.
8
Almost every employee of public and private
sec tor organizations must be able to operate at least one but
usu al ly several kinds of in for ma tion tech nol o gy device: com-
put ers, laptops, modems, fax ma chines, e-mail, pagers, cel lu lar
phones, and other similar equip ment.
A Coherent Response to Information
Tech nol o gy
How do we cope with all this? Pull the plug on technology and
go back to simpler living? Unplugging is not prac ti cal nor pos-
si ble for organizations, though we clearly have a choice at home.
Fur ther more, our perceptions of tech nol o gy and the kinds of perceptions perceptions
demands and changes on our lives that come with it are key to
whether tech nol o gys value exceeds its price.
Technology does not place us into an idyllic garden of
par a dise but rath er into an unsettling garden of paradox, as-
serts David Glen Mick of the Uni ver si ty of Wisconsin in Mad-
i son.
9
The essence of a paradox is that it cannot be re solved.
It creates an emotional confict within a person that can be a
source of considerable stress, and the need to cope with that
stress affects how the person behaves as a consumer. Mick
and fellow researcher Susan Fournier of the Harvard Busi ness
School have identifed seven paradoxes that char ac ter ize the
re la tion ship between consumers and tech nol o gy:
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 126
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 127 ] [ 127 [ 127
The way in which technology insures greater control or ex- control control
ac er bates cha os.
Whether technology promises freedom or creates new freedom freedom en-
slave ment. slave ment slave ment
The need for the latest new technology versus the fear of
be com ing obsolete.
The way technology boosts our intelligence while at times
hu mil i at ing us into a feeling of stupidity. stupidity stupidity
The promise of increased effciency versus the reality of ex-
tra new chores creating ineffciency. ineffciency ineffciency
The premise technology will fulfll needs, while in fact cre- fulfll needs fulfll needs
at ing new needs.
The value of technology in increasing assimilation and
con nec tion between people, versus its tendency to create
iso la tion by di min ish ing face-to-face contact. di min ish ing di min ish ing
Technology serves us when it enhances un der stand ing. In-
for ma tion is useless without an agile mind and a balanced heart.
The Cluetrain boys again:
We dont need more information. We dont need bet ter in for ma tion.
We dont need automatically fltered and summarized information.
We need un der stand ing. We desperately want to un der stand whats
going on in our business, in our markets. And un der stand ing is not
more or higher information.
10
The information age requires a new type of intelligence
for peo ple to sort through, flter, and effectively process all the
data and choices now avail able. Whether you are a consumer of
tech nol o gy or a product de vel op er, learning to develop heart
in tel li gence gives you increased insight to assess the essential
value of informationor a new productfrom a wider per-
spec tive. Without heart intelligencewhen operating solely
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 127
[ 128 ] From Chaos to Coherence
from an over taxed mindpeople quickly are over whelmed and
respond to only the loudest and most persistent in for ma tion or
default to old, familiar pro cess es. An intelligent as sess ment of
new information is diffcult at best. In the extreme, you may de-
fen sive ly shut down and not really assimilate much in for ma tion
at all. As the knowledge base is built and you achieve com pe -
tence in reducing your internal noise, you can use intuition to
search the internal knowledge base at lightning speed, bypass-
ing a more linear search process. The internal knowl edge base,
coupled with intuition, allows one to leap be yond known pos-
sibilities to fnd unique new solutions when necessary. This rep-
resents tremendous le ver age for anyone in busi ness today. When resents tremendous le ver age for anyone in busi ness today resents tremendous le ver age for anyone in busi ness today
trying to sort information at high speed, focus on your heart, get
neutral, and ask yourself for the most important understanding
you can gain.
So if technology has radically increased the bandwidth of
pos si ble in for ma tion transfermore ways in which to connect,
more conduits for knowl edge fow, and more opportunities to
be over whelmedwhat if tech nol o gy was actively being used to
enhance the quality of that information? Watts Wacker and Jim
Taylor, authors of The 500-Year Delta, make this observation:
It was Arno Penzias, the 1978 Nobel laureate in physics, who frst
the o rized that computing had met communicating to form con-
nec tiv i ty and that, in ef fect, everything eventually will be con nect ed.
Computing, in short, was nev er about data crunching. Data crunch-
ing was the means; connectivity was the end, which is why the data-
pigs and cyber-pioneers will never in her it the Earth. Nor was the
communications revolution about the ma chines and ser vic es that
spawned it. Fax machines, modems, interactive TV, and Internet
providers were all the means; connectivity was the end. Com put ing
and communicating did more than intersect; they fused. And when
they fused, connectivity was born. But connectivity fnally is not the
end, either. Connectivity is a state of existence, nothing more. The
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 128
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 129 ]
true end is what hap pens when things are in connection, what hap-
pens when con nec tiv i ty itself fuses with information.
11
To which we add: Connectivity is great if the signals are
clear and the content has enduring value. But, how much noise
is present in the con nec tion, the noise of incoherence on the
part of the sender or receiver? What is the enduring value of the
messages being sent? How do we improve the inner quality of
the people operating the tech nol o gy? people people
Torrey Byles is a business economist and writer on elec-
tron ic and dig i tal commerce. Byles points out that com put ers,
like any other tool, above all are in tend ed to en hance human
productivity. For ex am ple, call-center and cus tom er sup port
departments use com put ers to quickly bring up the account
fle of a customer who calls in. Call-center rep re sen ta tives are
far more pro duc tive in deal ing with the spe cifc is sues, requests,
and other pertinent in for ma tion con cern ing the cus tom er
than if they had no ready ac cess to the cus tom er fles, which
the computer provides. The result, we all hope, is a customer
who re mains loyal to the company and sat is fed with his or her
interaction with it. But what about the in ter nal attitude of the
rep re sen ta tive? Does the customer feel un der stood or respected
during the in ter ac tion or just ef f cient ly han dled so another call
can be taken? Tech no log i cal ef f cien cy can en hance, but never
replace, the warmth of hu man respect and sin cere listening.
Another example is the re search er in a governmental health
agen cy. She uses com put ers for many purposes in clud ing search-
ing databases of re search papers or oth er in for ma tion, build ing
sim u la tions and models of nat u ral pro cess es, and con duct ing
sta tis ti cal analyses of lab o ra to ry ex per i ments. In both of these
ex am ples, com put ers make a big dif fer ence in al low ing work ers
to achieve the de sired out comes. Without com put ers in these
examples, either dras ti cal ly more work ers would be re quired to
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 129
[ 130 ] From Chaos to Coherence
achieve the same re sults or else
the same re sults just could not
be ac com plished in the same
pe ri od of time and for the
same cost to the or ga ni za tion.
Un for tu nate ly, com put er sys-
tems can be poor ly de signed
and im ple ment ed into work-
places, so that they coun ter act
pro duc tive hu man work. In
these cases, com put ers only
frus trate, over whelm, or oth-
er wise block the ef f cient fow
of work.
Byles goes on to suggest
that the heartand per son al
emo tion al bal anceplays a
critical role in get ting the most
pro duc tiv i ty out of in for ma tion sys tems.
In the design and deployment of computers, balanced emotions on
the part of the designers will result in effective computer sys tems for
the end-users. In the day-to-day use of computers by end-users at
work, balanced emo tions will allow workers to use the systems in the
manner in which they are in tended, and to avoid being frustrated
and overwhelmed by them. In oth er words, by combining emo-
tion al ly balanced people with the pow ers of in for ma tion tech nol o gy,
companies can achieve break throughs in per for mance.
12
The Heart and Human Capital
To what extent computers have truly added to human pro duc -
tiv i ty is a sig nif cant debate among economists and busi ness
leaders cur rent ly. At a cli ent lunch where the food tide of e-mail
dont use
technology as a
sub sti tute for human
warmth
I
ts easy to fre off an e-mail,
full of comments you would have
nev er said in person. Its also handy
to leave voicemail mes sag es at odd
hours, knowing you can avoid direct
contact and real con ver sa tion. Re-
mem ber, you like peo ple to com mu -
ni cate with you with some warmth,
care, and di rect ness, rather than
us ing half sen tenc es, sym bols and
ab bre vi a tions. Re mem ber the heart.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 130
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 131 ]
overload was being lamented, one high-tech company executive
sincerely asked wheth er we felt technology had enough positive
benefts to outweigh its obvious stress-pro duc ing down side. In
an age where the mass con scious ness seems to assume more
technology is inherently better, many say that no well-grounded
mea sure ments unequivocally show that computers have en-
hanced workers output. Others say that, be cause computers
wholly change the nature of output (in terms of quality of prod-
uct, ability to customize product to in di vid u al cus tom er pref-
erences, speed of production, worker skill re quire ments, and
oth er factors), the impact of computers is almost impossible to
measure in an apples-to-apples fash ion. Nevertheless, most
economists and others in the f nan cial community agree that
com put ers and information tech nol o gy are features of a new
un der stand ing of human eco nom ic growth: in tel lec tu al capital
and the knowledge econ o my.
In this new understanding, the content of peoples intellect
(their imag i na tion, knowledge, creative ideas, skill sets, as sess -
ments, de signs, abil i ty to make requests and promises, fu ture
expectations, etc.) is the source of all wealth. Material prod ucts
are only by-prod ucts of the intellect. Ma te ri al, tangible things
come into existence only af ter people have con ceived of them,
worked to attain them, and used specifc prac ti cal ways of at-
taining them. The in tan gi ble and in tel lec tu al pre cedesand
is inherently more valuable thanthe tan gi ble and ma te ri al.
(Clear ly our view is that in tel lect is only one as pect of human
and or ga ni za tion al in tel li gence. But how re fresh ing that some-
thing as intangible as in tel lect ac tu al ly is being mea sured in
organizations.)
Leif Edvinsson, the worlds frst vice president of in tel -
lec tu al cap i tal at Swe dens Skandia, and Micha el S. Malone, a
noted business writer, sum up this point well in their book, In-
tel lec tu al Capital: tel lec tu al Capital tel lec tu al Capital
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 131
[ 132 ] From Chaos to Coherence
All individual capabilities, the knowledge, skill, and experience of the
com panies employees and managers, is included under the term
hu man cap i tal. But it must be more than simply the sum of these
mea sures; rather, it also must capture the dynamics of an intelligent
organization in a chang ing com pet i tive environment. For ex am ple:
Are employees and man ag ers constantly upgrading their skills and
adding new ones? Are these new skills and com pe ten cies recognized
by the com pa ny and incorporated into its operations? And are these
new skills, as well as the experiences of com pa ny veterans, being
shared through out the or ga ni za tion? Or, al ter na tive ly, is the com-
pa ny still draw ing on a body of aging and in creas ing ly ob so lete skills,
ig nor ing (even pun ish ing) new com pe ten cies gained by em ploy ees,
and locking up knowl edge as a way of cornering pow er and infu-
ence with the or ga ni za tion?
13
Given that we are be gin ning to see how importantand
mea sur ably valuablethe intellect is, what does this tell us
about the emotional and in tu i tive sides of being human? What
would happen if we could coherently orchestrate a balance of all
human factors, change able and dynamic though they are? The
fruits of the intellects pow ers are con di tioned by the emo tion al
state of the person. An angry or depressed sci en tist is a sci en tist
whose in tel lec tu al cap i tal is low. A joy ous, en thu si as tic plumb er
is a plumb er who brings tre men dous in tel lec tu al cap i tal (cre-
ativ i ty, knowledge, skills, etc.) to mak ing a won der ful hu man
hab i tat. At the same time that some busi ness es have dis cov ered
in tel lec tu al capital, we are dis cov er ing hu man cap i tal. Good
human capitalin oth er words, in tel lec tu al and emo tion al bal-
anceis a pre req ui site for a per son to gain access to his or her
in tel lec tu al cap i tal.
Byles makes a further point worth pondering. Hu mans have
in vent ed many in cred i ble tools over the mil len nia. (An thro pol o-
gists say that tool mak ing is a fun da men tal human trait.) The
spe cies has now advanced to the point where we rec og nize that
our tools are not only phys i cal but non phys i cal as well. We are
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Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 133 ]
now working to sys tem at i cal ly cre ate and ex ploit non phys i cal
toolsin soft ware pro grams, ed u ca tion and train ing, and knowl-
edge that is recorded in var i ous elec tron ic media.
The in for ma tion age with its in for ma tion tools (name ly,
com put ers) is the dawn ing of an age where a common and
wide spread prac tice in hu man so ci ety is to use intangible tools
at work. Com put ers are some what of a bridge tool: part phys i cal
and part non phys i cal. They con nect the phys i cal world with the
in tel lec tu al world, the world of ideas and intellect.
14
Emo tion al
man age ment prac tic es are an oth er set of in tan gi ble tools. Where
in for ma tion tech nol o gy has been viewed as the tool of the in-
tel lect, the intellect is a far more pow er ful tool when fu eled by
man aged emo tions. Heart in tel li gence is the up grade for the hu-
man op er at ing sys tem.
The Institute of
HeartMath has created an in-
stru ment that mea sures key
aspects of hu man capital and
pinpoints where stress is in-
hibiting its full leverage. The
Personal and Or ga ni za tion al
Quality As sess ment (POQA)
mea sures more than a
dozen sep a rate constructs,
tracking self-management
com pe ten cies, personal qual-
ity, organizational quality and
or ga ni za tion al climate. The
or ga ni za tion al con structs
mea sured by the POQA in-
clude social sup port, goal
clar i ty, men tal clar i ty, job sat-
coaxing the
knowledge out
I
s our harried quest for more
information driving real
knowl edge and wisdom un der -
ground? How much knowl edge
lies buried in the hearts, minds,
and hard drives of our best and
brightest, but were all feeling too
overloaded to share it? How can
we encourage, honor, and reward
the open shar ing of what weve
learned in ways that dont add to
our bur den, but could lighten the
load?
coaxing the
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[ 134 ] From Chaos to Coherence
is fac tion, pro duc tiv i ty, and com mu ni ca tion ef fec tive ness. The
self-management com pe ten cies include global neg a tive affect
(mood), sad ness, de pres sion, an ger, dis tress, fa tigue, pos i tive
af fect (mood), peace ful ness, and vi tal i ty. The stress symptoms
mea sured are sleep less ness, anx i ety, body aches, indigestion,
and rapid heart beats. Attitudes to ward the job, toward man-
agement, and intention to leave the job are just a few of the
organizational is sues explored.
The POQA is used to com pare the health and hu man cap-
i tal of an or ga ni za tion against a da ta base of world-class or ga ni z-
a tions, and to measure chang es resulting from the ap pli ca tion of
the IQM tech nol o gy. (The case stud ies data cited in the Appen-
dix were gen er at ed through the POQA, with the ex cep tion of the
biomedical data, which was generated through stan dard medi-
cal monitoring.) As this information is fed back to participants
and man age ment, clear steps can be taken to re duce the noise,
resulting in higher value hu man capital and business solutions.
Coherent Information Shar ing
Clearly, the coherent sharing of information is a key to suc-
cess in the fu tureand a pri ma ry way to reduce per son al and
or ga ni za tion al strain. As tech nol o gy con tin ues to ex pand the
band width of com mu ni ca tion, people still must over see the
qual i ty. Inner qual i ty man age ment em pha siz es help ing in di -
vid u als un der stand how to boost their own in ner qual i tyto
im prove the internal com mu ni ca tion with in them selvesthen
take that to their team (or family), their de part ment (or so cial
cir cle), their or ga ni za tion (or community).
We found that this shar ing of information is easy to ser-
mon ize about but harder to ac tu al ize when business op er ates
at ever-in creas ing speeds. For people to stop long enough to
re mem ber the im por tance of shar ing (when they have a mil-
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 134
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 135 ]
lion other things to do), they
need spe cifc tools for the
process of step ping back. The
ability to pull back and rec-
og nize frus tra tion, ir ri ta tion,
anger, or anx i ety is the frst
im por tant step to ward fnd-
ing an ef fec tive en er gy-sav ing
so lu tion, to move from chaos
to coherence.
Living Information
Getting off the treadmill for
one minute to Freeze-Frame
can in stant ly wid en the band-
width of avail able in tel li gence:
more in for ma tion with which
to make de ci sions and more
care to add to one self and the
situation one is in. In terms of
the com mu ni ca tion process
it self, this creates what we call val ue-add ed information, with
the potential for much great er impact and broader ap pli ca tion.
When true care is at the core of the de sire to share, the quality
of all sub se quent activities shifts into another do main of power
and effectiveness.
Another way to look at this: it is one thing to rec og nize the
im por tance of a broadcast, another to spend the time ensuring
that the receiver is properly tuned and distortion free. Most or-
ga ni za tions are fairly good at the former but com plete ly ig nore
the latter. Real shar ing of information re quires un der stand ing
the subtleties and nu anc es of in for ma tion trans fer be tween
in an age of
internet time, move
at the speed of balance
T
he internet economy has
caused a tremendous ac-
cel er a tion in business ac tiv i ty.
Without balance, this high-speed
connectivity can lead to rushed
decisions, strained sys tems, and
over whelmed em ploy ees. Seek
balance in your stra te gic discus-
sions. Stay vis i ble and attentive
to rap id ly changing markets and
world con di tions, but act with
ma tu ri ty and care for peo ple and
balance any tendency towards
emotional reactivity or strained
im pul sive ness.
in an age of
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08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 135
[ 136 ] From Chaos to Coherence
people. Then it becomes the trans fer of living information.
As soon as humans are involved, we need to remember
that we are deal ing with nonlinear systems who feel as well as feel feel
think. The hu man being, physiologically and psychologically, is
a living example of chaos theory in ac tion. Skill in human un der -
stand ing provides the resonant feld to allow seam less, stat ic-
free information transfer. Put simply, when you re mem ber to be
compassionate, authentic, and caring in your com mu ni ca tion,
it is much easier for the listener to hear the mes sage. This is a
skill that requires practice to de vel op and the positive, public
reinforcement of its merits. For example, stop ping to deeply con-
sider the range of responses to a piece of e-mail you are about to sider the range of responses sider the range of responses
broad cast can save considerable stress and increase productiv-
ity. Con sid er ing the most appropriate means of communica-
tioneven mul ti ple modesensures a high er level of receptiv-
ity to and sustainability of the mes sage. But I sent you e-mail
about this! is no excuse for in suf f cient com mu ni ca tion.
A Creative Vision
Information technology today is very primitive compared to what
it will be in the future. In 20 years, we will look back at to days
com put ers, wireless com mu ni ca tion devices, the Internet, and
so forth and think that these are very sim ple tools, some perhaps
even mis guid ed. Byles believes in for ma tion tech nol o gies will be
designed around principles of emotional man age ment and other
core human char ac ter is tics.
15
Ar gu ably there is no oth er al ter -
na tive. What do we do in the mean time?
Practical examples of stress-reducing ways of han dling
tech nol o gy overload in clude the following. Take a moment to
Freeze-Frame be fore logging on to be fore be fore e-mail. Then as you scan the in-
box, ask your self, what is the high est pri or i ty in for ma tion here and
what is the most ef f cient way to re spond? Stay neu tral to keep
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 136
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 137 ] [ 137 [ 137
your re ac tions in check as you pore through oth er wise non essential
in for ma tion. Re main ing emo tion al ly neu tral means stress will not
subtly ac cu mu late on the back of judg men tal thoughts, con cerns,
or frus tra tions. Be stra te gic as to when and how you re spond. Re-
mem ber that if you are op er at ing in a re ac tive mode, you will not
re spond with full in tel li gence or care.
At HeartMath LLC, we im ple ment ed a simple meth od that
has saved con sid er able time in e-mail read ing and set ting pri or i-
ties. Since some e-mail mes sag es need be only a simple phrase,
such as Be there at 3 for the meet ing or Report need ed by 4:
30, we es tab lished a pro to col that any mes sage that could be
sum ma rized in a few words would start with a * sym bol. This
* symbol in the subject line
lets the read er know the en-
tire mes sage is con tained in
the sub ject line, there fore no
need to open the e-mail since
there is nothing else there to
read. For example, our admin-
istrator sends us a re mind er
phrased like this: *Itin er ary in
your in box!
We simply read this sub-
ject line in the list of e-mails,
then delete. You would be
surprised how much time
this simple pro cess can save,
especially when you consider
the number of employees,
the number of hours spent on
e-mail, the number of days at
work. While this does not solve
be connected,
not en slaved
T
he lure of technology and
the pressure to con stant ly
ex pand ones knowledge base
cre ates a dilemma. Do you stay
con tin u ous ly connected in an
in creas ing ly des per ate attempt
to stay informed, or learn to
use tech nol o gy as a tool, not a
drug? Tech nol o gy can ag gra vate
per son al in co her ence. Use your
intuition to know when to un plug.
Look for bal ance in how to use it.
Let its power to create sys tems ef-
f cien cies be the guide line. Learn
how to surf in tu itive ly.
be connected,
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[ 138 ] From Chaos to Coherence
the whole prob lem of over use of e-mail in many or ga ni za tions,
it does encourage an attitude of effcient, concise com mu ni c-
a tion that is sensitive to the needs and workload of the re ceiv er.
We heard of at least one multibillion-dollar organization
giv ing per mis sion to overworked employees not to respond
to e-mail for 2448 hours, to encourage greater balance in the
face of e-overload. The policy achieved mixed results since the
culture continues to covertly reward overwork and employees
work hab its are slow to change. The attitudinal level is where
the real work must occur.
Organizations also need to dis cuss how communication is dis cuss dis cuss
work ing, in what ways people are feel ing over whelmed, where
they feel underinformed, so the mind and heart together can
de sign effective ways to com mu ni cate that are effcient for all
con cerned. Intuitive in tel li gence increases as you continuously
step back for a moment and ponder a more effective re sponse.
One of the most pre cious commodities for all of us is time, and
we could all do a lot better job of re specting each others and
our own.
Voice mail is yet another ubiquitous form of com mu -
ni ca tion that has rad i cal ly changed the nature of how we com-
mu ni cate. (When was the last time you called a large organiza-
tion and heard a busy signal? We heard one re cent ly and, for a
moment, didnt know what to do.) Re spond ing to the number of
voice mail messages and an occasionally strained or angry tone
is a signifcant source of an guish and dread, sapping coherence
in virtually all or ga ni za tions. What if your computer system
could monitor the in co her ence generated dur ing and after
listening to voice mail and could track the impaired decision
making, the health con se quenc es, and the loss of pro duc tiv i ty?
You probably would be shocked at the data. Taking a mo ment
to Freeze-Frame and fnd neutral before and during listening
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 138
Technology, Inner Technology, and the Measure of Human Capital [ 139 ]
and responding to voice mail can keep your sys tem more in bal-
ance, as well as help you hear beneath an an gry or im pa tient
tone to the underlying essence of the mes sage. Intuitive listen-
ing can ensure you are hearing the es sence of the message and
responding from that depth. The al ter na tive is ever-increasing
levels of incoherence, per son al ly and professionally.
Technology can be a vehicle for positive experience be-
yond in tel lec tu al stimulation in many ways. Screen savers could
remind you to value important elements of your life. Digitized
images on your com put er monitor could help you recall a feel-
ing of peace and rejuvenation. While some or ga ni za tions frown
on personalized use of computers, ever-wors en ing productivity
and deepening mal aise eventually will reveal that computers
and information sys tems must become vehicles for the posi-
tive reinforcement of be hav iors that boost the organizational
climate.
One of the most popular follow-up tools we ever devised
is a sim ple Internet group subscribed to by past IQM program
at tend ees. Each week thousands of people around the world
re ceive a two to three para graph e-mail message about the ap-
pli ca tion of one of the tools they have learned. We continuously
hear that these sim ple e-mail messages quick ly are read and ab-
sorbed, so sure are the read ers that this will be a to tal ly pos i tive,
useful, and car ing message. Noth ing else to do, no response
re quired, no re ports to fll out. Just a brief interlude to remind
them what is im por tant, to re gain co her ence, to move past me-
chan i cal hab its and get the mind and heart in sync. We have
helped client or ga ni za tions set up similar dis cus sion groups to
keep or ga ni za tion al co her ence themes alive amidst the din of
work.
What if computers and oth er information devices in the
fu ture were able to mon i tor your physical or emo tion al state and
08 CH 8 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:55 PM 139
[ 140 ] From Chaos to Coherence
re mind you how to shift per-
cep tion? What if they could
dis play on the screen your
out-of-sync heart rhythms,
then at the touch of a but ton,
you could re bal ance them
and re fresh your en tire sys tem
for the next few hours? (Just
such a tool was de vel oped by
our re search team since the
frst edi tion of this book was
pub lished. Called the Freeze-
Framer

, this award-winning
computer learning system gives
users immediate feedback on
the rhythmic patterns of their
hearts, which respond dynami-
cally to changes in stress and
emotion.) What if hard ware and soft ware en gi neers in the future
continuously ex plored how to make these tools ser vants of our
growth as peo ple, not just ve hi cles for more in for ma tion?
In the visionary words of Singapores prime minister, Goh
Chok Tong, We should focus on building capabilities, re sil -
ience, and heartware for the fu ture.
16
The caring and ef f cient
integration of tools for in ter nal self- management and coherent
com mu ni ca tion un der pin the next dy nam ic: or ga ni za tion al cli-
mate.
plug the leaks
A
nything unresolved
events or concerns you
con tin ue to ex pend un nec es sary
en er gy ondrains energy not only
per son al ly but or ga ni za tion al ly.
Stop ping any drain saves energy
and also helps restore hormonal
and car dio vas cu lar balance. Use
the Freeze-Frame tech nique to
iden ti fy areas youre leaking en er gy.
You can learn to use this high per-
for mance technique to plug leaks
before they be come foods.
plug the leaks
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DYNAMIC 3
BOOSTING THE ORGANIZATIONAL
CLIMATE
1. An emotional virus is attacking many organizations today. It
is the result of emotional mismanagement and shortsighted
management practices. And a corollary of this is organi-
zational learning thrives when the organizational immune
system is strong and vibrant.
2. A healthy organizational climate is now proven to boost
productivity. These elements include supportive manage-
ment, contribution, self-expression, recognition, clarity, and
challenge.
3. Shared core values such as adaptability, fexibility, care,
and appreciation underlie sustainable organizational cli-
mates.
4. Understanding the distinction between knowledge and wis-
dom is essential to organizational leadership. Building wise
companies through developing wise people is the next or-
ganizational frontier.
[ 141 ]
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:18 PM 141
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:18 PM 142
c h a p t e r
9
Theres a Virus Loose
and Its Got Bob
YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED. THERES A VIRUS SPREADING IN
your organization, but it didnt come through the e-mail system.
It spreads person to person, department to department. Across
cubicles. Across time zones. Across cultures. Thank goodness
there is an antidote.
From a systems perspective, an organization is an or-
ganisma living, breathing, mutually dependent entity. It
requires a wide variety of nutrients and resources to be healthy;
it can get sick in response to external stressors or internal im-
balance and, unless it learns to
heal itself, eventually becomes
sick and dies.
Typically today when an
organization recognizes some-
things not right, the solutions
are to focus on cost cutting,
process reengineering, product
improvements, or improving
customer service. While these
well-intentioned initiatives
are usually necessary, they are
not suffcient. They focus on
[ 143 ]
whats got bob
A
n emotional virus is
attacking many organiz-
ations today. It is the net effect
of emotional mismanagement
and shortsighted management
practices. And its corollary is
this: organizational learning
thrives when the organizational
immune system is strong and
vibrant.
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:18 PM 143
[ 144 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 145 ]
the symptoms, not the cause. In many organizations, this clas-
sic Band-Aid approach actually creates more frustration, anger,
and anxiety, while the organization, or organism, becomes even
sicker. Once people are drained emotionally, the creative energy
needed to develop new innovations is sapped. Additional en-
ergy is then expended in ineffcient ways that put added strain
on the people, and the downward spiral accelerates. Acrimony,
mistrust, antagonism, and blame are just a few of the emo-
tional reactions that take up residence in the workplace. Finger
pointing becomes the preferred exercise program, and left un-
checked, the very creative source for the organization is drained.
A CSC (Computer Sciences Corporation) Index State of
Reengineering Report revealed these statistics undermining
many organizational climates:
50% of the companies studied reported that the most dif-
fcult part of reengineering is dealing with fear and anxiety
in their organizations.
73% of the companies said that they were using reengi-
neering to eliminate, on average, 21% of the jobs.
Of 99 completed reengineering initiatives, 67% were
judged as producing mediocre, marginal, or failed results.
Consider this analogy. Bob, an executive with your frm,
goes for his annual physical. Nothing seems to be wrong health-
wise, just a routine checkup. Of course, he had been feeling a
little tired lately, but who wouldnt be with all the international
travel, round the clock pressure, and never enough help.
The doctor reviews the lab reports, checks the vital signs, then
rechecks. His face turns serious. Bob expects the worst. Your
blood pressure is at the edge of stage two hypertension, choles-
terol is nearly off the chart, and you have the beginning stages of
arrhythmia. Im putting you on a program of increased exercise,
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:18 PM 144
[ 144 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 145 ]
no-fat diet, and no more
stress! To Bob, life has just
been turned upside down. A
radical rethinking of his entire
lifestyle has been necessitated
by the doctors shocking dis-
covery. No second opinion is
going to lower that blood pres-
sure or cholesterol. And how is
he going to have no stress?!?
Bobs problems are not just
physical. Hes been struggling
for the past 12 months with a
poorly conceived merger. The
two cultures have clearly not
meshed, and the antagonism
between the factions have
gotten extreme. Now hes the
target of employee hostility
and it doesnt feel fair!
Compare this to the busi-
ness that is humming along
successfully, taking its market
by storm, feeling indomitable.
Its new technology is the buzz
of Wall Street and a cover story
in Fortune is in the works. A
few systems seem to be strain-
ing every so often, but this is
considered just growing pains.
However, a series of late prod-
uct releases and the departure
eliminate the
emotional virus
T
he collective lack of
emotional self-manage-
ment within an organization can
prevent increases in productivity
and inhibit sustained long-term
growth. An organization with an
unhealthy climate permeated
by judgmentalism, anger, blame,
constant complaining, overcare,
and an us versus them attitude,
impairs the organizations abil-
ity to innovate and to remain
resilient. In a highly competitive,
rapidly changing business envi-
ronment, failure to address these
cultural issues will ultimately
lead to corporate failure. Make
these cultural issues a priority.
Obtain the resources needed to
identify the emotional virus in
your organization. Implement
a strategy to create a new level
of emotional coherence to help
ensure the long-term success of
your organization.
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[ 146 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 147 ]
of two key executives have people edgy. Before long stock
analysts worry the share price is overvalued, and the company
cannot meet the demand for its technology, so management
brings in a consultant team that says the company needs to
reengineer. But the situation quickly turns critical. After two
consecutive quarters of losses, the Board of Directors steps in
and orders a downsizing. Now everyone feels like they have just
been hit by the fu, but there is no Alka-Seltzer for this sickness.
In an era of corporate chaos, we are now seeing a new phe-
nomenon: the emotional virus. The virus hits its victim organiz-
ations unexpectedly, seemingly without symptoms, until sud-
denly the organism is quite sick and may be in need of radical
surgery. The roots of the sickness are emotional. The virus grows
and thrives on emotional imbalance, insensitivity, and overre-
action in the organization. It is the antithesis of organizational
coherence. The greater the incoherence, the more nutrients the
virus has to feed on.
What Is the Virus?
Doc frst coined the term emotional virus while he was con-
sulting with a CEO who had attended an IQM program in
California. The executive was concerned about the internal
backbiting among several of his management teams, which was
clearly affecting not only morale but also productivity in a key
division. The emotional virus was described this way: It is the
net effect of emotional mismanagement within an organization.
As with other viruses, the emotional virus is highly infectious.
People think it is okay to complain, whine, and sarcastically
laugh about the imbalanced coworker, the stressed out boss
who ignores voice mail or e-mail, the department that just can-
not get its act togethernot realizing they have caught the emo-
tional virus bug.
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:18 PM 146
[ 146 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 147 ]
Each casual complaint
and unconscious judgment is
like coughing in a coworkers
face, thus spreading the germs
of negative emotions and
creating a caustic, unfulflling
environment. Once an out-
break of the emotional virus
has been detected, the work-
place should be quarantined
until proper medicine arrives,
but that is not the way busi-
ness worksyet.
In evaluating long-term
growth, companies that
spend time and money on
eliminating the emotional
virus will see a big return on
their investment. Ignoring
it and staying on the track of
believing that is just the way
it is is a dangerous move on
the chessboard of future busi-
ness. People are changing
and the knowledge worker of
tomorrow will have a different
set of standards for evaluating
job satisfaction.
This already is hap-
pening. The workforce already
is demanding more harmo-
nious working relationships.
Y
our appropriate use of
judgment and account-
ability as a manager and within
your team or division is crucial.
However, a team permeated with
negative, judgmental attitudes,
constant criticism and blaming,
is a team with limited coherence
and a limited chance for success.
As a manager, start by making
a concerted effort to eliminate
blame concerning the people
you manage. Then, encourage
or even insist, that the people
you manage stop judging and
blaming each other. When you
see it in meetings, in the lunch
room or in the hallways, point it
out, with care. Creating a culture
within your team that supports
each other, offers balanced feed-
back when needed, but stops the
use of blame, is an important
key to team coherence.
BLAME
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[ 148 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 149 ]
Salary, although still important, is not as high on the list as it
used to be. Workers often are cashing out, taking less pay
and moving into jobs more in line with their core values. Work-
ing in an environment where people do not stab each other in
the back, where management and employees can have a more
open dialogue, and where the employee feels connected to and
proud of the company and its products are among the career
core values people are adopt-
ing. The emotional virus eats
away at these organizational
qualities and many people are
seeking a place to work where
they do not have to witness
watercooler and break room
character assassinations. It
isnt that people cant take it.
Millions do daily. Times are
changing, however. As Doc
told the CEO, In the name
of smart business, increased
productivity, less employee
turnover and lower health
care cost, the emotional virus
eventually will have to be dealt
with.
The workplace is not the
only location where an emo-
tional virus is on the attack.
Many employees leave home
or community environments
full of viral activity. Without
tools for effective self-manage-
ment, people become drained
demonstrate
sincere appreciation
S
incere appreciation, not
just a cursory or contrived
gesture, is a powerful motivator.
A simple act of appreciating
someone for a job theyve
done, for their commitment,
or for simply being who they
are, adds a boost of energy that
pays big dividends. Managing
often requires giving feedback,
encouraging others to improve
performance, and in some cases
delivering reprimands. Heres
a tip. Always try to express as
much or more sincere appre-
ciation as you do criticism for
the people you manage. Your
employees will appreciate this
and appreciation quickly builds
team coherence.
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[ 148 ] From Chaos to Coherence Theres a Virus Loose and Its Got Bob [ 149 ]
emotionally because of the increasing pressures in society, fam-
ily life, and their workplace. They are unable to recoup the lost
energy, and the people around them soon become affected or
infected. Like any virus, it spreads quickly if the organizational
immune system already is weak.
The only way we have seen to eliminate the emotional
virus or stop it before it gets out of control is to educate indi-
viduals who make up an organization on how to manage their
thoughts and emotions. It has to come from the individual
change of perspective within the people who make up an orga-
nization. It is usually essential to start right at the top with the
senior management but it can start in a team of line workers
and be highly effective. Just as the emotional virus spreads from
person to person so does the antidote. As people in the orga-
nization, especially the most visible and infuential ones, begin
to actualize change within themselves, others soon will follow
suit or move on to another environment that resonates with
their attitudes. Start by fostering an atmosphere of appreciation.
Do not allow judgments to go on without pointing them out.
Put more care into communication and use heart intelligence to
make decisions, big and small, especially when the decision af-
fects others. There is more but these suggestions, if applied with
sincerity and consistency, at least will save you from becoming
infected and go a long way toward helping your coworkers and
your organization.
There Must Be Someone We Can Blame
Executives like Bob often take the blame for being the carriers
of the virus that has hit the company. And sometimes they are
indeed a major source of incoherence. Witness the unpleasant
public departures of CEOs at Apple three times within fve
years, a company once noted for its innovative vision and peo-
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ple-oriented culture. Or the
blindness of American auto-
makers to their companies
sickness while the Japanese
gained dominance and mar-
ket share. Many business
magazines write gloating
postmortems of once-hot ex-
ecutives, helping their demise
become public. No company
is immune from the emo-
tional virus or its ravages. Yet,
rarely do analysts look at the
emotional coherence of the
organization, so easy is it to
blame missed product dead-
lines, bad decisions, or other
external factors that have a
deeper cause.
It could be tempting to
see the emotional virus as
an isolated phenomenon.
It wont happen here. Re-
consider some of the global
statistics cited earlier. The
sudden collapse of several
Asian economies in 1997
forced a major reexamination of business potentials in that part
of the world while affecting global commerce. What role has
emotional mismanagement greed, unhealthy competition,
and the likeplayed in that drama? Similarly, could many of
the stress-related health care and productivity-related costs of
doing business today in Europe and North America be based,
B
lame is defnitely a lose-
lose strategy. The physio-
logical impact of blame on the
body and the effect it has on
those blamed should be moti-
vation enough to eliminate it.
Since people have unconsciously
created, over a number of years,
neural circuitry that often sup-
ports blaming and judgmental
attitudes, it can take some time
to adjust these patterns. Recog-
nize when youre blaming man-
agement, the system, a client,
a spouse, then shift to neutral
and look for a more balanced
perspective. While the blame
may seem justifed, remember it
actually drains your energy and
inhibits creativity.
#2
BLAME
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
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at least in part, on underlying emotional mismanagement and
organizational structures that ensure a fertile environment for
continued viral growth? We anticipate the situation will worsen
as increasing globalization creates conditions perfect to mutate
new strains of the emotional virus. As with populations that
were isolated for centuries then devastated by disease brought
by their conquerors, few have built the emotional resilience re-
quired to manage unprecedented change and uncertainty. In an
age of connectivity, no one is isolated anymore.
How to Strengthen the Organizational Immune
System
Recent research in human physiology has revealed key aspects
of immune system health with remarkable parallels in orga-
nizational behavior. In the human body, feelings like anger,
frustration, and irritation weaken the immune system and drain
vitality, leaving you more susceptible to colds, fu, and more
serious illnesses. An Institute of HeartMath research study,
1

published in the Journal for Advancement of Medicine, shows
that even a fve-minute episode of recalling an angry expe-
rience can suppress a key component of the immune system
for as long as six hours. This research is showing the converse
is also true: Attitudes like appreciation, care, and compassion
signifcantly boost the immune system, and give you more resil-
ience and strength to withstand sickness (see Figure 91). With
these positive feelings operating in your system, even if you do
get sick, you recover more quickly and recoup lost energy. The
more your system is balanced, the more intuitive insight you are
capable ofintuition that can anticipate problems before they
turn ugly.
Organizations are strikingly similar. Work environments
characterized by excess stress, contention, and anxiety breed
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insecurity and nonproductivity and inhibit creativity. People
do not want to come to work in these rigid, infexible environ-
ments. The negative attitudes compound the pressure on an al-
ready strained organization. The last place most people look for
answers is within; the frst thing many will do is fnd someone
or something to blame, reinforcing the organizational rigidity.
Bobs an easy target.
The same attitudes proven to boost a persons immune
system are the ones known to create a harmonious, productive
and creative workplace. Where people are valued, appreciated
and cared for, they produce more, have greater loyalty to their
employer, and have higher levels of creativity (see Figure 92).
Attitudes like appreciation, care, and compassion are not just
sweet; they are powerful medicine for the virus.
FIGURE 91 Emotions can affect the bodys frst line of defense against
bacteria, viruses, or pathogens. In this study, IgA (secretory immunoglobulin
A), a key immune system antibody, was found to be suppressed for nearly
six hours after a fve-minute period of recalled anger. On the other hand, a
fve-minute period of feeling sincere care caused a signifcant short-term rise
in IgA, and a gradual increase over a six-hour period. Copyright 1998 Institute
of HeartMath Research Center
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How to Spot the Emotional Virus
The challenge in tracking and curing the emotional virus again
is one of perception. Like the fsh growing up in the Hudson
River, assuming the polluted water was real water, many of
the symptoms of the emotional virus are so prevalent, there
seems no alternative, or they seem invisible, so maladapted are
FIGURE 92 Attrition improvements. A summary of improving employee
attitudes in three companies utilizing the IQM technology. Data refects
responses to questions on home and work confict, desire to leave the or-
ganization, desire to quit the job, and feeling good about the job. Data
was collected over six months, showing a signifcant improvement in all
measures. For each category, three bars represent pre-data, post-data (six
weeks), and post-post-data (six months). Copyright 1998 Institute of HeartMath
Research Center
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we to their effects. Common symptoms include:
Caustic humor
Constant stream of complaints
Defeatism
Resentment
Us vs. them mentality
Suspicion
Frequent communication breakdowns
Ongoing fatigue or an overrushed pace of work
Anxiety, fear, intolerance, resignation, antagonism, despair
All these symptoms can be seen, heard, and felt in lunch-
rooms, around the coffee machine, by the copier, in mail rooms
and boardrooms, and around the dinner table. Early detection
and prevention is the best insurance policy.
Climate
How does your workplace feel? Dynamic, energized, a magnet
for talent? Frantic, rushed, burning people out? Downbeat,
discouraged, rats leaving a sinking ship? Most of us intuitively
understand that the climate of ones workplace has an impact
on how people feel and on how they perform. In using the term
climate, we refer to the collective atmosphere of a workplace:
the attitudes, perceptions, and dynamics that affect how people
perform on a daily basis. Climate, like the weather, is not static
and unchanging. Nevertheless, as with any locale, certain cli-
mate patterns are unique to each organization. More important,
unlike the weather, we all are involved in creating our organiza-
tional climate on a daily basis.
For almost a century researchers have explored the causes
of work-related injuries, a major cost to any organization and
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one of the earliest measures of organizational incoherence. At
frst, it was believed certain employees were more accident
prone than others, but studies failed to support this contention
as a defnitive personality trait. Research then shifted to uncov-
ering the personality traits that differentiated workers who were
hurt from those who avoided injury. Looking into the psychol-
ogy of safety became essential as organizations such as OSHA
and the National Safety Board in the United States determined
that 90% of all accidents are caused by unsafe acts, while only
10% are caused by unsafe working conditions.
2
The vast majority of workers today are employed in non-
manufacturing jobs, where workplace safety concerns focus
more around issues such as ergonomics, workload, and mental
and emotional processes, as opposed to the heavy labor of our
forefathers. Yet workers compensation claims are soaring in
many nonmanufacturing sectors of the economy. And health,
safety, and environmental issues are growing in importance,
especially in industries such as technology, petroleum, and avi-
ation, where disregard for these issues can be catastrophic.
According to Dr. Phil Smith, an organizational psychologist
working in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong, a review of 61
studies of job burnout concludes that
of the three facets of burnoutemotional exhaustion, depersona-
lization and diminished personal accomplishmentemotional
exhaustion is most sensitive to factors which negatively infuence
workplace climate, and is the strongest predictor of attachment
to the organization. Interestingly, job stressors such as role stress,
workload and role confict have a disproportionate impact on emo-
tional exhaustion, not equaled by the relief provided by resources
such as social support, job enhancement and reward structure. This
implies that attempts to compensate for the effects of stressful work
environments by the provision of additional resources may not be
successful.
3

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Dr. Smith goes on to suggest that, While a good emotional cli-
mate is not by itself suffcient to ensure success, a bad climate is
certain to prevent it.
The Brown and Leigh Study
Underlying the inner quality management model is the under-
standing that your effectiveness in anything you attemptca-
reer, marriage, relationships, funis based on activating the
most intelligent perceptions of yourself, your environment, and
those with whom you interact. Most of us would agree with this.
Research showing a direct, measurable link between ones per-
ception of the climate of ones workplace and ones own perfor-
mance has been lacking, however. A ground-breaking study by
Steven P. Brown and Thomas V. Leigh, published in 1996 in the
Journal of Applied Psychology, sought to investigate the process
by which workplace climate is related to employee involvement,
effort, and performance.
4
A refreshing aspect of the study was
that the researchers chose 178 salespeople in three different
companies as the test subjects. Sales results were monitored
and correlated with the studys predictions, providing a bottom-
line context for the study outcomes.
Based on numerous previous studies, Brown, a professor
at the Cox School of Business at Southern Methodist University,
and Leigh, a professor at the Terry College of Business at the Uni-
versity of Georgia, designed their study to examine six dimensions
of a workplaces psychological climate (see Figure 93):
5
Supportive management. The extent to which people feel
supported by their immediate manager.
Clarity. The degree of clarity about what is expected of an
individual.
Contribution. The feeling that ones contribution is worth-
while.
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Recognition. The feeling that ones contribution is recog-
nized and appreciated.
Self-expression. Feeling free to question the way things are
done.
Challenge. The feeling that ones work is challenging.
Each of these was considered to be an indicator of how
psychologically safe and meaningful the employee/salesperson
perceived the organizational environment to be. The dimen-
sions build on the work of the past century in linking job satis-
faction and specifc organizational outcomes.
The 178 salespeople, one group of which represented a
paper goods manufacturer and the others represented offce
products companies, were surveyed on these six aspects of their
managers attitudes and the workplace climate. The salespeople
in turn were measured by their managers on three dimensions
of work performance: achieving sales objectives, extent of tech-
FIGURE 93 Brown and Leigh study of organizational climate. Source:
Reprinted with permission from Steven P. Brown and Thomas V. Leigh, A
New Look at Psychological Climate and Its Relationship to Job Involvement,
Effort and Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, no. 4 (1996),
pp. 35868.
Climate boosts performance
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nical knowledge, and administrative performance.
The study results were signifcant and supported the re-
searchers predictions: An organizational climate perceived by
employees as psychologically safe and meaningful positively af-
fects productivity. This occurs when
Management is perceived as supportive.
Work roles are well-defned.
Employees feel free to express and be themselves.
Employees feel that they are making a meaningful contri-
bution.
Employees are appropriately recognized for their contri-
bution.
Employees perceive their work as challenging.
Then, employees are more involved in their job and exert
greater effort.
6
This leads to measurable improvement in sales,
administrative performance, and product knowledge. (De-
scribed later is a way to measure and productively address these
aspects of climate.)
Ignoring the Climate
The health consequences of ignoring the workplace climate
was researched in a long-term study of British civil servants.
The study indicated that employees with little control over their
working environment face a signifcantly higher risk of heart dis-
ease than those with authority to infuence their job conditions.
Our research suggests that illness in the workplace is to some
extent a management issue, says Michael G. Marmot, director
of the International Centre for Health and Society at University
College in London and lead author of the report.
7
The way work
is organized appears to make an important contribution to the
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link between socioeconomic status and heart-attack risk, he
adds. The study, which tracked nearly 7,400 men and women in
London civil-service jobs for an average of more than fve years,
found that those in low-grade positions with little control over
their responsibilities were at a 50% higher risk of developing
symptoms of coronary heart disease than those in higher level
jobs. Since 1992, the United Kingdom has made companies li-
able for employee stress. Numerous lawsuits brought by em-
ployees against employers who created stressful environments
have been won. Similar legislation in the United States so far has
been blocked. In the highly litigious American culture, one can
imagine the economic and social chaos that would be wrought
by such legal actions. Liability issues aside, organizations the
world over must deal on a daily basis with the consequences of
unhealthy climates.
Assessing Organizational Coherence:
The Organizational Coherence Survey
Building on the considerable organizational research of the
past 100 years, the Institute has developed a survey instrument
that carefully assesses how employees feel about their organi-
zational climate. The Organizational Coherence Survey,
8
cre-
ated jointly by Edgecumbe Consulting Group Ltd. (UK) and the
Institute of HeartMath, gives management focused information
on the state of the organizational climate and how to improve it.
Edgecumbes chairman, Dr. David Pendleton, an organizational
psychologist and codeveloper of the survey, says,
There is an increasing body of evidence that coherent organizations
do better than their misaligned counterparts. They outperform the
market and bring out the best in their people. We believe that they
outperform their competitors because they bring out the best in their
people. They certainly gain clear and predictable advantage because
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they are more effciently coordinated. In the public sector, they pro-
vide consistently superior service to their constituents.
9
The survey is designed to provide insights into the extent
to which an organization is coherent. Pendleton views coher-
ence as
the state in which those features that are considered important
by the stakeholders are performed to a high standard in the orga-
nization. It is the consistency between expectations and reality that
goes beyond mere alignment, a buzzword of the 80s and 90s.
Aligned organizations may consistently implement norms that do
harm to their people. Coherent organizations are aligned around
norms that bring out the best in people at work.
10

Organizations usually do not become incoherent by delib-
erate actions. They usually are not sabotaged into an incoherent
state, nor do most managers act maliciously. They are under-
mined by subtle factors that are easily ignored or missed in the
high speed world experienced in most organizations. The survey
is designed to act as an early detection mechanism and identify
how appropriate actions may be taken. A unique aspect of the
surveys design is that questions are asked two ways: How do
you feel about the issue? and How important is it to you to feel
good about it? The distinction between importance and current
feelings shows the gap between expectations and reality and the
sources of organizational noise and incoherence. The emotional
virus lives and thrives in the gap between expectations and per-
ceived reality.
Content
The survey investigates how the respondents are feeling in gen-
eral. It seeks to determine the extent to which they enjoy their
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work, feel motivated, feel (un)stressed, feel valued, feel proud
to be a member of their organization, and feel committed to it.
It also asks how they feel when they have fnished a typical day.
These outcomes represent their responses to how they are treat-
ed at work, and how they feel about their experiences there.
The six topics explored in the Organizational Coherence
Survey (see Figure 94) are as follows:
1. Taking care of business. The extent to which each key
group of employees takes care of the interests of its cus-
tomers, staff members, and shareholders.
2. A sense of well-being at work. How people feel in their
workplace.
3. Relationships at work. How people feel about their rela-
tionships with key individuals and groups.
4. Managing people. The style of management that brings
out the best in the employees surveyed and sustains their
efforts in the longer term.
5. Managing the organization. How people feel about the
balance between their work effort and the rewards they
receive.
6. The working climate. How people feel working for their
particular manager (this topic investigates the six dimen-
sions explored in the Brown and Leigh study).
Once the information is clear on how the organization
perceives itself and its management practices and behaviors,
clear priorities can be established and action plans built for
continuous improvement. Many organizations do annual or
biannual employee satisfaction surveys. Because most such
surveys ask only how employees feel, while neglecting to ask the
importance, the information is far less focused and meaningful.
One client is a rapidly growing company within a large
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health care organization. Rapid growth meant new systems
and processes were required that had been unnecessary when
the company was small and entrepreneurial. Rapid growth also
meant lots of hiring, so the unique West Coast culture of inno-
vation and friendliness began to be diluted. The strain in the
company was showing up in declining employee satisfaction
scores. In 1995, an outsider was named VP of marketing while
the popular previous VP assumed a larger role. The new VP was
greeted with mistrust and suspicion, and satisfaction scores in
marketing plummeted. Hoping to turn around the decline in
her organization and uncover the emotional virus, the VP asked
us to provide the Organizational Coherence Survey to pinpoint
the areas of incoherence and fnd the virus. Several parallels with
their own employee satisfaction survey were found, allowing for
FIGURE 94 Organizational coherence survey. All items within each of
the six topics are plotted in a scattergram format, yielding information on
priority and importance. Depending on where in the graph each item falls,
it can be characterized as fx, celebrate, ignore, or question.
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targeted discussions and solutions. Six months later, satisfaction
survey scores had doubled or tripled, even though it had been a
period of signifcant turbulence
in the department. Along the
way, the company saw rev-
enues increase to record levels
and market share increase,
while the top priority in mar-
keting and customer service
had become organizational
climate.
The survey was not
administered in isolation.
Marketing and customer service
staff members were trained in
IQM tools, the tools became
integrated in staff meetings and
performance reviews, and a
coaching series was initiated for
managers. The Organizational
Coherence Survey is designed
for continuous feedback.
After an initial survey of the
entire organization or division,
representative samples
are frequently testedsay,
every three monthsso the
information is kept current
and feedback to employees can
happen quickly.
The assumption, too,
is that employees must be
how do you
create a start-up
climate?
T
he lure of a start-up is not
only stock options and
IPO wealthits the climate of
challenge, fun, risk-taking, be-
ing part of something new, and,
especially, feeling you can re-
ally make a difference. Larger
technology companies who have
traditionally been magnets for
talentlike Microsoft, Sony
or Ciscoare fnding growth
has made them big, with all
the problems that implies. In-
novative managers are now
realizing they need to create a
start-up environment to attract
or retain great people. To pull it
off requires autonomy, account-
ability, and more than a little
chutzpah. How could your com-
pany or division have the spunk
and energy of a start-up, with
the maturity and wisdom youve
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[ 164 ] From Chaos to Coherence
given tools to manage their perceptions and emotional reactions
so they become active creators of a healthier climate, not just
victims of management whims. Analyzing organizational
incoherencewhile giving employees practical tools for
managing and leveraging their emotional and intellectual
processesrepresents a powerful parallel approach to regaining
organizational vitality.
But the work on climate should not rely solely on
information and perceptions from within. Your customers, your
key partners and your major vendors are also interacting with
your organization. Theyre experiencing frsthand the effects of
a virus, or hopefully being delighted to do business with such a
healthy, resilient organization. Do you know how each of these
constituents would rate your climate, or what suggestions they
could make to create more coherence? Conversationsdeep
and ongoingwith each of these groups can be like a fresh
breeze into a stale or dark atmosphere. At times the feedback is
liable to feel like thunder and lightning. But the electricity could
be just the energy needed to wake up a sleepy town.
By the way, Bob sends his regards. Hes on a beach in Maui
exploring his options.
09 CH 9 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 4:19 PM 164
c h a p t e r
10
Core Values: The
Foundation of Sustainability
With the demise of the myth of job security, the accel-
erating pace of change, and the increasing ambiguity and
complexity of our world, people who depend on external
structures to provide continuity and stability run the very
real risk of having their moorings ripped away. The only
truly reliable source of stability is a strong inner core and
the willingness to change and adapt everything except
that core. JAMES C. COLLINS AND JERRY PORRAS
1
UNSWERVING AT THE COREREMAINING TRUE TO ONES
heartis the prerequisite to building resilience and fexibility
mentally, emotionally, and physically. The model of coherence
suggests that coherence at the heart of a system, personal or or-
ganizational, is the foundation for rapid shifts in effectiveness,
growth, and motivation. Our research into human effciency,
performance and fulfllment has yielded this conclusion, the
third principle of Dynamic 3:
Shared core values such as adaptability, fexibility, care,
and appreciation underlie sustainable organizational
cultures.
Core Values as a Foundation
As we and others have delved deeply into the common prin-
ciples and best practices of great companies, that search has
[ 165 ]
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[ 166 ] From Chaos to Coherence Core Values: The Foundation of Sustainability [ 167 ]
refect on, and feel,
your core values
T
hese are the values that
truly matter, not the New
Years resolution variety. These
are the values that sustain you in
times of crisis or tragedy. Start
the day by remembering what
really matters to youyour aims
in life. When you remain con-
nected with your core values,
your life will more readily refect
them. Developing your core val-
ues through increasing levels of
self-care and care for others will
impact the quality of your life
and your contribution to life.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
yielded a common conclusion. At the heart of all successful
organizationsand indeed successful peopleis a set of frmly
held core values for which the organization feels passion. These
values, more than just profts or the thrill of competition, are the
source of the organizations creative energy. Business leaders
and their organizations need to make sure that as business strat-
egies change, adapt, and morph into new activities uniquely
suited to the time and the market, core values and purpose re-
main stable and protected.
It is no different personally. When we are fulflled, it is be-
cause of coherence between the values of our hearts and the
actions we carry out in our professional and family lives. While
our relationships will vary de-
pending on the depth of trust,
love, and commitment, the
corethe heartout of which
we act does not change. In fact,
the more consistently we act
from our core values, the more
the intelligence of these values
unfolds, increasing our abil-
ity to adapt intelligently to the
world around us.
Indeed core values are
powerful because they are the
embodiment of intelligent op-
erating principles for our lives
or our organizations. Values as
intelligence may be a new twist
on this fundamental principle,
and yet each of us could see
how the values we hold most
dear indicate the direction
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for a highly intelligent use of our energy. Intelligent not in the
context merely of being intellectually astute, but in being energy
effcient. Our perceptions are clearer, decisions more balanced,
communication more caring and well-reasoned. Core values do
not lead to mushy actions or sentimentality; they are the bat-
tery chargers for wisdom. We are smarter when in phase with
our core values. As internal coherence increases by becoming
more consistently in phase with the hearts core values, leaps in
perception, creativity, and adaptability are possible. Thats heart
intelligence.
Adaptability Revisited
Why would adaptability be an essential characteristic? Certainly
the pace of change would demand it. According to research
conducted by the authors of The Service-Proft Chain,
2
the clear
differentiator between high and low performing frms, all with
strong cultures, was the ability of each frm to adapt to chang-
ing environments, whether legal, technological, social, or com-
petitive. The authors discovered that the single most important
indicator of adaptability was the adherence by management to
a clear set of core values stressing the importance of delivering
results to various constituencies, especially customers and em-
ployees, as part of an effort to deliver profts to owners. They
concluded:
1. Strong cultures dont win as consistently as adaptable ones,
2. Adaptability is a state of the management mind resulting from a
set of core values that include an emphasis on the importance of
change, and
3. Organizations that vigorously practice these core values and in-
stall devices for maintaining adaptability not only greatly improve
their chances of sustaining high performance over time, they in-
crease their chances of achieving successful transitions from one
leader to another.
3

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The true meaning of adaptability implies healthy adjust-
ments to external factors, as opposed to the maladaptation pro-
cess discussed earlier in the rigidifying way most people react to
stressors. True adaptability is the ability to assess from the mind
and the heartto analyze and feelthen shift attitude and ac-
tion. How we respond to a crisis or unexpected occurrence un-
derpins true adaptability. Adaptability allows speed without the
negative consequences.
The Role of Signifcance
How you adapt to each event of your day is based largely on
the signifcance you ascribe to it. Consider signifcance from an
emotional perspective. How signifcant something becomes is
directly proportional to the amount of emotional energy you as-
sign it. When you feel secure and confdent, unpleasant events
have much less signifcance than when you are emotionally
imbalanced. You see things in perspective. But when operating
at a defcit, the tone of voice, the infection or the implied mes-
sage in a conversation can easily become magnifed in your per-
ception. Then, your internal video machine replays the story
repeatedly while you work yourself up into greater emotional
turmoil. All of this because of the signifcance you placed on the
event.
Certain people overinvest in making things signifcant.
They make a big deal out of nearly everything. From a balanced,
heart-driven perspective people can see more easily how much
of their own vital, precious energy needs to be given to each
daily event. If everything is signifcant it becomes diffcult to not
eventually feel drained and victimized by emotions. People who
do well long term and can handle pressure are often the ones
who naturally are more even keeled. They do not make things
overly signifcant. This does not make them better or worse than
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others, but it is a gift that saves energy and sustains personal
productivity. All of us can learn to take the signifcance out of
things. The concept and practice of taking out the signifcance
is powerful. It seems so simple and it is, but when applied as a
tool or technique the amount of your unnecessary, ineffcient
energy expenditures will decrease signifcantly.
There is a fne line between an attitude of irresponsibil-
ity or simply brushing things off as opposed to intelligently
withdrawing some of the signifcance out of lifes tricky events.
It is intuitive intelligence in action to know how much of your
emotional energy to give to something. Some things are more
important than we at frst perceive, while other things are not
as important as we make them out to be. Overdramatizing and
adding signifcance to anything amplifes it, just like throwing
a log on a fre causes the fre to burn brighter and hotter. Use
heart discrimination to decide what kind of fres you really want
to build.
Taking out the signifcance is an important skill for devel-
oping adaptability. Adaptability is an energetic fexing of our in-
ner muscles when a situation requires extra energy. It builds re-
serves in the system that manifest themselves as more genuine
care. As you learn to take the signifcance out of things that you
know will not serve your best interests, you will see a natural in-
crease in your ability to care.
It is much easier for people to adapt to change when the
environment supports them, as the Brown and Leigh study
implies. However, if your organizational climate clearly is flled
with an emotional virus, it is still in your interest to adapt as fully
as possible, even if that adaptation process involves an intel-
ligent exit from the unhealthy environment. (Being a doormat
for abuse or incoherence is not the intelligent insight of truly
caring perspectives.) This is as true at the individual level as
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at the team or organizational level when faced with unhealthy
competition, unethical practices, or attitudes that contradict
your deeply held core values. Adaptability in this context, espe-
cially, requires centering ever more deeply in your core values
and, from that position of strength and wisdom, determining
the most energy-effcient, coherent response possible.
Organizational life today is full of such bombardment that
true adaptability rests on your ability to heartfully adapt to all
the mini-crises and disturbances, using heart intelligence as
an inner guidance system. This can be as simple as stopping
long enough to ask yourself, What is the best way to adapt to
this situation, for the good of all involved? Your heart, if asked,
can supply surprising wisdom. When you learn to adapt by be-
coming internally coherent, you can discover more coherent
solutions.
Learning to take the signifcance out of situations that re-
ally are minor blips on the screen saves energy for those issues
of real signifcancethe core values and viability of you and
your organization. With unnecessary signifcance kept to a min-
imum, the energy to adapt, fex, and innovate is maximized.
Care
A basic human instinct is to care. In our work, we have seen that
care is central to personal or organizational effectiveness, when
balanced with effciency:
Effciency + Care = Effectiveness
Consider this simple equation both personally and or-
ganizationally. Biomedical research cited in the last chapter
suggests that feeling sincere care for something or someone
actually boosts immune system function, as measured by the
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antibody IgA. A study by Harvard psychologist David McClel-
lan and C. Kirshnit in 1988
4
showed that inducing the feeling
of care could boost levels of IgA, the bodys frst line of defense
against pathogenic invaders such as viruses or bacteria. Clearly,
care is a good investment of energy. You receive a payoff for you
when you care, beyond just being nice. Care is rejuvenating for
both the giver and receiver. It acts like a lubricant on mental,
emotional, and physical levels, increasing adaptability mentally,
emotionally, and physically.
Here we present one of the prime personal and organiza-
tional challenges in this age of transition: Care is its own reward,
as poets and philosophers have said for centuries. Whether or
not the other person sees your actions as caring, by adapting
to stress through the heart, you have saved untold amounts
of energy, potentially saved a decision that could have proven
costly to the organization, and stopped an emotional and phys-
iological drain in your own system.
Reviving the Corporate Heart
The research cited in the last chapter revealed organizational
benefts of caring. Consider how you and your organization
could apply care to the six dimensions of climate:
Recognition
Clarity
Contribution
Supportive management
Self-expression
Challenge
Even asking the questions would be an act of caring, but be pre-
pared to follow through sincerely on the responses or the efforts
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will backfre, being viewed cynically as yet another example of
management paying lip service to employee perceptions and
concerns, with no intention of acting on them.
A practical application for caring in the workplace is to ask
your managers to have their people assess their own assets and
defcits on each of the six dimensions of climate, then discuss
with them key patterns in the feedback and how to best address
them. Do the same yourself with those who report to you or, if
you do not manage others, with your closest colleagues. Discuss
in your next staff meeting how your department or division, as
well as the organization as
a whole, stacks up on each
dimension. By evaluating
defcits and assets you can un-
derstand what areas require
attention, while appreciating
those areas deserving appre-
ciation and celebration. This
activity can lead to a sense of
excitement and pride as you
recognize what is good in the
climate you have all created.
Sincere appreciation builds
a solid foundation for future
growth.
Sincere Care
Underlying the application of
care in your workplace is sin-
cerity. Without sincerity car-
ing acts ring hollow. Sincere
care is required to achieve a
merger
mayhem
Y
ou dont need more
statistics to know many
mergers succeed only on the
pre-merger spreadsheet. Just
ask any merged employee who
has seen their budget, their
authority, and their internal net-
works freeze as the merger sets
in. Most often, a fundamental
clash of values is at the root of
the turmoil. The promised busi-
ness effciencies may eventually
result, but at what cost? Cultural
integrationconnecting in the
heartmay be the only life pre-
server if the culture collision is
too extreme.
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true service attitude with people. When care is mechanical or
insincere, it causes resistance and reaction in others, undermin-
ing adaptability. Coworkers, family, clients, and superiors can
tell the difference between required courtesy and sincere care.
Put simply, it is much easier to adapt healthfully to unpleasant
or unexpected circumstances when we feel our workplace or so-
cial environment is caring. Care is the glue that keeps relation-
ships together once the novelty has worn off. This is as true in
organizational life as in the personal domain.
Tom Peters has echoed this point:
Store shelves groan under the weight of new products, but few have
heart. Service offerings are about as lifeless. Most hotels, for ex-
ample, spent the last decade buffng their customer service. The me-
chanics are better. Bravo. But the heart is usually absent: the sincere
sense of Welcome to my home as opposed to Ive gotta remember
to act like I care.
5
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel in San Francisco is different.
An award-winning hotel in the heart of San Franciscos fnancial
district, it has consistently provided exceptional value and ser-
vice to its guests since opening in the late 1980s. And yet like any
other high performing organization, management recognized
its staff members were being held to ever-higher standards
while facing greater personal pressures as societal stress in-
creased. IQM tools were instituted at all levels of the hotel staff
to help ensure a high level of balance of personal and profes-
sional effectiveness. At the Mandarin, there is an understanding
that care for oneself and for colleagues goes hand in hand with
exceptional care for customers.
Caregiverswhether social workers, health care profes-
sionals, or counselorsare at their best when providing the kind
of support that makes it easier for the patient to adapt to and re-
cover from the illness, injury, or personal setback. The caregiv-
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ers themselves, however, must learn when the care is enhancing
their own and others adaptability and when it is detracting. A
1990 study
6
on caregiving among nurses observed that caring
did not lead to burnout but it was the lack of caring or overcar-
ing that did. The study reported that caring itself allows nurses
to access a very important source of energy and renewal. When
nurses became overly emotionally identifed with the plight of
their patients, their care turned to burnout. Whether your job
involves caring for patients, caring for customers, or requires
extra care in times of high stress and pressure, keeping your
care balanced and rejuvenating requires vigilance and close at-
tention. This is one of the greatest challenges in an age of chaos
and complexity. When care depletes, it becomes overcare.
The Drain of Overcare
Overcaring is caring that crossed the line into anxiety and worry,
ceased to be nurturing for the giver and receiver, and is close to
the top of the list of personal and organizational energy drains.
Overcaring begins as caring, but because of unmanaged emo-
tions such as unrealistic expectations, emotional attachment, or
mental preoccupation, the caring becomes tainted and dimin-
ished in its effectiveness. In the extreme, overcaring is debili-
tating for all concerned, driving a wedge between you and the
object of your overcaring. Clear examples of overcaring would
be these:
The micro-manager who must have a hand in every detail
of his division, causing stress and ineffciency in those he
supervises, and confning himself to a self-created en-
vironment of obsessive mental activity, cut off from the
nourishing power of the heart.
The parent who hovers over a sick child, creating an en-
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vironment not of caring support but of overbearing in-
trusion.
Overcaring is tricky because, in our achievement-oriented
society, the only alternative to overcaring seems to be uncar-
ing or apathy. The truth is that overcaring is so emotionally and
physically draining, chronic overcaring eventually leads to not
caring. But there is a healthy, balanced alternative. The chal-
lenge is to identify overcaring early on and utilize heart intelli-
gence to determine a more balanced and caring response.
A simple question can help distinguish caring from its kiss-
ing cousin overcaring: Is my care stress producing or stress re-
ducing? If it is overcaring, you will sense stress in your system;
if balanced caring, you will experience more contentment and
peace.
Identifying Overcare
Overcare is defned not by the specifc behavior or action but
by the underlying attitude. This often is experienced as ongoing
anxiety and concern, which may briefy subside in moments of
appreciation but continues to drain energy and occupy our at-
tention. While there are no pat rules for what actions are over-
caring and what are caring, here are some examples. Working
overtime to complete a project is not always driven by overcare;
it could be an act of true caring, so long as the internal attitude
was not fueled by worry and fear. How much more energized
do you feel by any project when you are positively motivated
to complete it instead of fearing the consequences of its lack of
completion? When worry or fear is the fuel, you still may com-
plete the project in the allotted timemaybe even fasterbut
at a signifcant cost to your health and balance on all levels.
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Similarly, failing to address a diffcult employee issue could be
the result of overcaring about how the employee might react.
The caring action would be to ask the heart for a clear perspec-
tive on the situation and how to most effectively resolve the sit-
uation for the good of all concerned. A reminder: the effects of
these stressful, overcaring behaviors do not just go poof! and
disappear. They live on in our bodies as diminished vitality and
the emotional memories of the overcaring events that replay
themselves.
In our work with organizational clients, we continuously
ask ourselves if the something extra we think we should do for
the client truly adds value or if it is just going to add stress to us
and provide nothing benefcial to the client. Keeping overcaring
in check is a tremendous energy saver, with the added beneft
that the effect of care on clients, customers, and staff members
is increased signifcantly. In staff meetings we ask each other
what areas of overcare we have around workload, deadlines, or
performance, then get help to diminish the load or explore new
perspectives on the reality of the pressures. Stopping overcare
in its tracks frees up tremendous energy that allows you, or
your team, to jump to a whole new level of effciency and effec-
tiveness that translates into improved business results.
How easy it is to spend hours watching an internal movie
of possible horrifc future scenarios, all the result of overcaring!
If they fail to manifest themselves, we still have aged our bodies
in the hours or days or weeks we spent overcaring. Clearly, not
an effcient investment of energy. But, once again, the healthy
alternative to overcaring is not apathy but rather balanced car-
ing. It is incumbent on us as leaders, managers, or parents to
take seriously potential threats to the health and safety of our
organization or our loved ones. Overcaring can be the wake-up
call that a new perspective and action are necessary to deal with
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a potential threat. However, once overcaring is recognized, we
would do well to adapt our attitude, neutralize our stress re-
action, then proceed with whatever balanced caring would be
appropriate.
Overcaring blocks effectiveness, person-
ally and professionally. It is noise that distorts clear
communication, whether you are the receiver or the transmitter.
It limits our ability to satisfy internal or external customers or be
as productive and fulflled as we can be. The good news is that
all overcaring starts out as caring, but unmanaged emotions
dilute the caring and keep us stuck in perspectives that tend
to perpetuate the overcaring. The challenge is to bring the car-
ing back into balance. Overcaring creates the breeding ground
for actions and attitudes that will self-fulfll the underlying
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overcaring. Overcaring breeds more overcaring. Unchecked, over-
caring can lead to reactions and attitudes that allow the emo-
tional virus to thrive.
What examples of overcare in yourself or others can you
think of? Take a moment and list a few key examples of overcare
in your life. Then, recognize the current effect on you, the other
person, your energy level, effectiveness, health, and so on. One
of the most powerful tools for neutralizing overcaring is Freeze-
Frame. Most overcaring is
just one attitude adjustment
away from a caring, balanced
attitude and action, but with-
out stopping and consulting
the heart, the answers easily
can evade your awareness. Use
Freeze-Frame to ask yourself
how to bring the overcaring
back into balance and uncover
intelligent alternatives.
Jobs That Magnetize
Overcare
Certain segments of an orga-
nization are especially vul-
nerable to overcaring, such
as customer service and sales.
Because these positions deal
directly with the customer,
most reps live in a precarious
world of loyalty to two mas-
ters. Caring for both, it is often
hard to discern the appro-
care without
overcare
L
earning how to maintain a
state of balanced care
without falling into the trap of
worry, anxiety, and overload
about your job and/or the people
you manage is essential. Care is
regenerative. Overcare drains
your energy and compromises
your effectiveness as a manager
while at the same time negatively
impacting the people you man-
age. Make an effort to identify
your overcares. Then, use the
Freeze-Frame technique to elim-
inate these overcares and bring
yourself back to balanced care.
Take things one step at a time
and appreciate your successes.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
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[ 178 ] From Chaos to Coherence Core Values: The Foundation of Sustainability [ 179 ]
priate actionlook after the needs of the customer or look after
the company? The pat answer would be that in taking care of the
customer the company will be taken care of. In a general sense,
this is true, but when an irrational or out-of-control customer is
in your face, such a perspective lacks credibility and practical-
ity. In the real world, people get upset, expectations are not met,
insecurity is high, and things are said or done that do not refect
the deeper core values of that person. Recognizing, neutralizing,
then moving past the overcaring can bring balanced solutions
or, at least, minimize the drain. Neutralizing any emotional
reaction from a negative interaction with a customerbefore
dealing with the next onehas immediate payoff.
Overcare is a powerful inhibitor of personal and organiz-
ational effectiveness, cloaked as it is in the robes of care and
concern. In many organizational cultures, we are rewarded for
overcaring. Our commitment is questioned if we fail to display
the proper overcare. How dare you leave the offce at 5:00 to
be with your family, dont you care? Why arent you worried
about the production delay, dont you care? Why arent you
anxious about the client presentation, dont you realize the sig-
nifcance of this account? In our extremist, stimulus-addicted
culture, there appears no alternative to chronic, debilitating
overcaring, other than total apathy or self-centeredness. Yet
research on the effects of chronic anxiety or worry on health,
let alone the emotional drain on the organization of constantly
being on edge, should suggest overcaring already is costing us
dearly.
If you manage people, you would do well to examine areas
of overcaring in your management style. Overcaring disempow-
ers others. Overcaring in leaders robs them of the magnetism
necessary to inspire confdence and hope. Overcaring is caring
made incoherent. When people resist change, overcaring ac-
cumulates. As you adapt intelligently to change, that is caring.
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Care regenerates; overcare depletes. When overcaring is rec-
ognized in a team or in yourself, specifc steps can be taken to
regain balanced care.
Self-Care Revisited
A powerful element in the reduction of overcaring and
achievement of organizational adaptability is self-care. In many
cultures, self-care is almost taboo, because the fear is that any
focus on self-care will lead to self-obsession and attitudes
that undermine the collective well-being. The Asian focus on
collective culture makes it challenging to justify the importance
of self-care. American culture by contrast could seem to be self-
indulgent and self-caring to the extreme. And yet, for many,
balanced self-care is nearly nonexistent, going no deeper than
self-medicating with drugs, alcohol, or a once-a-year vacation
that is often stressful, a strain to prepare for, and over far too
quickly. The notion of self-care can conjure up images of
mandatory exercise, no junk food or high-cholesterol meals,
severely restricting or eliminating ingestion of substances
such as alcohol or tobaccoin short, self-care seems to be
self-denial. What we are suggesting is something much more
core to each personthe balanced care of oneself. People take
for granted that children need care to grow and mature, that
plants need regular attention and care to thrive, that pets need
care to be the happy playmates we want them to be. Are you
any different? Deep self-care would mean regular refection on
your core values, assessing where your life lacks coherence and
balance, evaluating how much and in what way you want to
attend to physical healthin short, caring for all the dimensions
of your life. And, if fun is not on the list, good luck not feeling
deprived.
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By focusing self-care in the mental and emotional domains
and achieving balance there through the activation of heart in-
telligence, signifcant jumps in effectiveness can occur. An orga-
nization where self-care is a valued quality is far more resilient
than one that denies its importance. Imagine a car refusing the
offer of a fresh tank of gas!
The Heart Lock-In

A powerful tool for increasing internal coherence through self-


care is the Heart Lock-In. In this tool, the objective is to practice
staying focused in the heart frequencies of care and appre-
ciation. It is called a lock-in because you attempt to lock in to
the heart feeling domain, like a jet fghter pilot directs radar to
lock onto a target or a great athlete stays locked in to the zone,
keeping mental and emotional distractions to a minimum
so performance is optimized. Heart Zones
7
is music specially
designed to facilitate Heart Lock-Ins. This four-song concept
(composed and performed by Doc) takes you through a car-
diovascular workout for your mind and emotions, leaving you
feeling refreshed and energized. The overall intention is to calm
and reenergize. As with a Freeze-Frame, you attempt to keep
your focus in the area of the heart, but if thoughts or concerns
arise, you note them, then return to a focus in the heart. Many
organizations today incorporate this simple 515 minute cen-
tering tool in meetings or planning sessions. The rationale? By
increasing internal coherence, you increase team coherence.
Over the past 25 years, we explored many tools for adapt-
ability, increased intelligence, and self-care. We have found the
Heart Lock-In technique to be extremely powerful, providing a
daily boost and surprising clarity. With consistent practice, levels
of physical, mental, and emotional resilience increase dramati-
cally. As a state of internal balance more frequently is reached,
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it becomes much easier to quickly adapt to unexpected change.
The Heart Lock-In was designed to help people build a strong
muscle for internal self-management, making it much easier to
fnd a neutral or positive perspective when they Freeze-Frame.
An entire organization using this tool enhances its adaptability,
creativity, and climate.
We had an example of the benefts of frequent Heart Lock-
Ins in Kuala Lumpur. While testing the presentation technology,
we realized the power converter had been broken in transit.
When an alternate converter was fnally found, we plugged in all
the equipment and watched
as a key biomedical device
began to smoke, while brown
oil leaked from the switch.
Our hosts became quite con-
cerned, while all our attention
went to how best to adapt.
We stayed calm, scanned for
alternatives in the event the
unit was damaged beyond
repair, knowing the nearest
repair shop was 10,000 miles
away. By staying in balance,
we helped our hosts keep
their concerns to a minimum.
By the time the unit was suc-
cessfully repaired by a highly
ingenious man named Siva,
we had kept stress from grab-
bing our vitality. Heart Lock-In
techniques had helped us sus-
tain health, clarity, and focus.
lock-in to your
heart three times
a week (or more)
G
reat athletes, musicians
and leaders know the
importance of mental and emo-
tional balance. They also know
that if your heart is not engaged
in your work, you will be less ef-
fective and less fulflled. A Heart
Lock-Inpracticed regularlyis
a powerful tool for increasing
your mental and emotional bal-
ance. Its well worth the time in-
vested to truly lock-in to deep-
er heart feelings, giving you a
refreshing break from the mind
and helping to activate your
heart intelligenceintuition.
G
e
t
C
o
he
r
e
n
t
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In the past two chapters, we discussed the role of climate
in organizational performance, the primacy of core values to
organizational longevity, and essential qualities such as adapt-
ability, care, self-care, and appreciation. In the background dur-
ing this discussion lurked the fourth principle of Dynamic 3:
Understanding the distinction between knowledge and
wisdom is essential to organizational sustainability. Build-
ing wise companies through developing wise people is the
next organizational frontier.
It is no longer enough to be smartall the technological
tools in the world add meaning and value only if they enhance
our core values, the deepest part of our heart, and our con-
nections with others. Acquiring knowledge is no guarantee of
practical, useful application or depth. Wisdom implies a ma-
ture integration of appropriate knowledge, a seasoned ability
to flter the nonessential from the essential. Self-management
and internal coherence are central to the emergence of wisdom
personally and organizationally. A healthy, adaptive climate
makes the journey all the easier. Wisdom also will emerge as
information overloadknowledge addictionpervades more
corners of our lives. For some, pain or tragedy will force the is-
sue. For others, deeper promptings from the heart will urge a
shift in perception, an insistence on living in integrity with our
hearts, of putting care for self and others as a prerequisite to
survival and fulfllment in the next millennium. The markets,
the customers, the constituents will expect this from us. They
want it, too.
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[ 184 ] From Chaos to Coherence
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DYNAMIC 4
STRATEGIC PROCESSES OF RENEWAL
1. Balance is the keynote for self-renewing organizations.
2. Key management skills will be seen as strategic imperatives:
Building effective teams can be achieved based on the
model of entrained systems.
Coaching guarantees ongoing learning and continuity of
the coherent organization.
3. Creativity and innovation arise out of coherent people and
coherent processes and underlie competitive advantage.
4. Complex decision making and project planning require big
picture thinking.
[ 185 ]
Strategic
Processes of
Renewal
Decision
Making & Project
Planning
Team Work &
Coaching
Balance
Creativity &
Innovation
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c h a p t e r
11
Leading from
Chaos to Coherence
THE GRAND BALLROOM WAS BUZZING WITH PRE-CONCERT
anticipation. The conductor strode confdently to the podium,
plainly comfortable in his role despite the odd khaki safari outft
he was wearing. He introduced himself to the orchestra, dressed
in evening wear, which seemed pleased to meet him, although
many of us in the audience of 1,000 CEOs
1
and spouses were
perplexed at the apparent unfamiliarity between orchestra and
conductor. The conductor placed his baton on the podium and
invited the orchestra to play the frst movement of a Beethoven
symphonywithout him. Startled but professional, the concert-
master (frst violinist) raised his bow and with a nod of his head
the orchestra began, playing fawlesslyleaderless, in sync, har-
monious. Whatever nervousness they may have had about the
conductorless performance quickly dissolved in the coherence
and professionalism of their effort.
The conductor then turned with a challenge to the CEOs.
How many of you have such faith in the professionalism and skill
of your people to attempt something like this? Do you really ap-
preciate their talents and creativity or do you assume everything
will collapse without you? He was not done.
The conductor then demonstrated how, with the caring ap-
plication of intelligence, even greater potential could be realized
[ 187 ]
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[ 188 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 189 ]
in the orchestra. He rehearsed each section of the orchestra (a
group of professional musicians who had been assembled for
one night only) through the same symphony, singing passages
where subtle nuances would bring the symphony to life. He
encouraged balance and coherence among the sections, or-
chestrating an entire performance with eloquence and passion.
He left the stage, changed into a white tuxedo and returned to
conduct. With his coaching, they now performed again, this time
with even greater brilliance, grace, and passion. Thunderous ap-
plause greeted their fnal note.
Many in the audience were stunned by the rapid transfor-
mation they had just witnessed. Entrepreneurial and driven, the
CEOs were being asked to appreciate more, to care more, to go
beyond living life from the neck up, and to share their insight
and wisdom with their people. We all had witnessed a coherent
organization take shape in front of our eyes. The CEOs now had
a new challenge: how to translate this inspiring metaphor into
practical application that recognizes the realities of business and
organizational life.
Excellent organizations are self-renewing systems, fnding
continuous nourishment, internally and externally. They are
alert to subtle or profound changes in the environment inside
or outside the organization that can be intelligently adapted to.
This is the imperative for success in an age of unprecedented
acceleration. Whether you are the leader of many, leader of a
few, or simply leader of yourself, renewal is a strategic necessity.
Typically the term strategy is used to describe the clear vi-
sion and comprehensive plans that are designed to accomplish
specifc organizational or personal objectives. The problem to-
day is the rapid obsolescence of most strategic thinking. Exces-
sive strategizing based solely on analytical thinking or competi-
tive analysis is contradictory to the very principles of innovation
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and fexibility required today. So many corporations link strat-
egy only to short-term proftability, to the great detriment of the
organizations viability. In the future, strategy will be seen as
simply one factoralbeit an essential oneensuring viability,
with individual and organizational coherence as the foundation.
We believe the critical strategic imperatives for success in the
21
st
century are building adaptability, coherence, and innova-
tion into all levels of the organization.
The frst theme in Dynamic 4 is this:
Balance is the keynote for self-renewing organizations.
A balance of all four dynamics of IQMinternal self-man-
agement, coherent communication, boosting organizational
climate, and strategic renewalcan ensure that the orga-
nization is resilient, nimble, and always innovating. Balance in
this context does not imply that the organization is static or still,
but rather intelligently and dynamically aware of itself and its
environment, fne-tuning itself when it gets thrown off course.
Aware of the market and its customers, communication is rich
and frequent, the lifeblood of the organizations rapid evolution.
Renewal at the organizational level can go deep as the indi-
viduals themselves are encouraged and rewarded for renewing
themselves.
The Service-Proft Chain
How do high-performing organizations consistently renew
themselves? Patterns of organizational renewal were described
in the mid-90s when James Heskett, W. Earl Strasser, Jr., and
Leonard A. Schlesinger at the Harvard University Graduate
School of Business Administration reported ground-breaking
research around an idea called the service-proft chain.
2
The ser-
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vice-proft chain (see Figure 111) was developed from analyses
of successful service organizations such as Southwest Airlines,
Wal-Mart, Intuit Corporation, Taco Bell, and MCI. It establishes
clear relationships between proftability, customer loyalty, and
employee satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. The links in
the chain are as follows:
Proft and growth are stimulated primarily by customer
loyalty.
Loyalty is a direct result of customer satisfaction.
Satisfaction is infuenced largely by the value of services
provided to customers.
Value is created by satisfed, loyal, and productive em-
ployees.
Productivity is largely the result of employee satisfaction.
Employee satisfaction, in turn, results from high-quality
support services and policiesthe internal quality of an
organizationthat enable employees to deliver results to
customers.
Internal quality results from leadership, which under-
stands that frontline workers and customers need to be
the center of management focus. The fow of organiz-
ational care and appreciation must especially go to those
key stakeholders.
The IQM model of organizational coherence maps well
to this research. The absence or presence of internal self-man-
agement, coherent communication, a healthy organizational
climate, and strategic renewal can be seen in every link in the
chain. The service-proft chain focuses management thinking
on two very important ideas:
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1. Do what is necessary to detect the needs and ensure the
satisfaction and loyalty of targeted customers.
2. Achieve this, in most cases, by giving employees the lat-
itude and support necessary to deliver high value to de-
sired customers.
In short, create coherence and balance within the organization
around each link in the chain.
In looking deeper at the service-proft chain model, some
interesting observations appear. Heskett and his coauthors note
that the accomplishments of the organizations they cite did not
happen by chance. Nor did they happen completely by excellent
planning and design alone.
They resulted from extraordinary leadership by a small group of
exceptional people who understood implicitly the relationships
embodied in the service proft chain, who put them to work to cre-
ate organizations capable of detecting and adapting to changing
customer needs, and who have seen to it that cultures have been
FIGURE 111 The service-proft chain. Source: Reprinted with permission
from Simon and Schuster, New York, 1997.
The service-proft chain
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created in their organizations that will sustain them during future
ups and downs.
3
The story of Southwest Airlines has been told many times,
but its lessons bear repeating. Their focus: high value for cus-
tomers needing frequent transportation over relatively short
distances at a cost comparable to the cost of driving their own
car. For these customers, Southwest means high quality, re-
fected in frequent departures and on-time arrivals. High quality
also means frst-name recognition by loyal employees who have
worked the ticket counters long enough to be able to recognize
hundreds of frequent fyers by name.
4
It is arguably a highly co-
herent organization, clear and focused on its people and those
they serve.
As any jazz musician knows, it takes fexibility and adapt-
ability for improvisation to create beauty. This clearly has be-
come the hallmark of Southwest Airlines organizational culture.
In an article in Leader to Leader, a brilliant magazine published
by the Peter F. Drucker Foundation, Herb Kelleher, Southwests
maverick founder and CEO, says this about people in the orga-
nization:
Whats the secret to building a great organization? How do you
sustain consistent growth, profts and service in an industry that
can literally change overnight? And how do you build a culture of
commitment and performance when the notion of loyaltyon the
part of customers, employees, and employersseems like a quaint
anachronism? I can answer basically in two words: be yourself.
5
How effective do you feel this approach would be if there
was not a fairly high level of balance and coherence within the
individuals serving the customers? It is impossible to mandate
this kind of attitude. If the organizational culture did not help
the individual feel good about his or her job, resources, au-
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tonomy, sense of family, and sense of balance, how effective
would the efforts really be? If the culture is supportive, then it
still is up to the individual whether or not to be himself or herself.
In high-performing organizations, management recog-
nizes the value of collaboration. Antagonism and unhealthy
competition are the antitheses of the qualities needed by nim-
ble, adaptive organizations in the future.
Management Skill
What management skills are primary in the development of
such adaptive, authentic, dynamic workplaces? We suggest two:
Building effective teams can be achieved based on the
model of entrained systems.
Coaching guarantees ongoing renewal and growth of the
coherent organization.
Leaders today have unprecedented levels of responsi-
bility. Not only must they master ever-changing technology,
be aware of workplace policies and laws, and study market
conditions, they also must attend to the needs of their people.
They are asked to be supportive, to appreciate, to provide clear
direction without micro-managing, to delegate authority for
the empowerment of othersall this while balancing their own
home and work priorities. It can be daunting, to say the least.
As a leaders responsibilities grow, self-management becomes
increasingly important. So does improving communication
and neutralizing incoherence. Diversity in the workplace also
requires attending to the climate managers create. The load
can be overwhelming, yet the potential for personal and pro-
fessional development possible through the development of
heart intelligence, along with a focus on developing teams and
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coaching skills, can springboard any manager into the next level
of effciency and effectiveness.
A study at Cornell Universitys Johnson Graduate School
of Management
6
found that compassion and building team-
work will be two of the most important characteristics business
leaders will need for success a decade from now. The study in-
volved interviews with executives at Fortune 1000 companies.
By contrast recent MBA graduates in the same study ranked
results orientation much higher and disagreed with their more
seasoned counterparts about the importance of social issues.
The results may indicate that experience cultivates a broader
defnition of corporate responsibility. It would be interesting to
increase customer care
O
rganizations are learning the valueand fragilityof
customer loyalty. Service, not price, and not quality, has become
the new proving ground when competing for and keeping customers.
Many organizations emphasize caring for the customer, but how do you
become a leader in this area? First, you cant give what you dont have.
The organization must genuinely care for its employees, giving them
what they need to take care of themselves. Providing them with skills to
attain a new level of mental and emotional management is an essential
aspect of showing care for employees. Second, the individuals within an
organization must demonstrate care for each other. The care you want
the employee to show the customer must be modeled in the day-to-day
operations of the organization. Third, there is a huge difference between
required courtesy and sincere, authentic care. If you can help your em-
ployees develop more caring, heart-based qualities while eliminating
overcare, they will bring great value and authenticity to the process of
consistently demonstrating customer care.
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survey the MBA students 20 years from now and see if their po-
sitions have changed.
We described earlier that entrainment is a natural state of
synchronization seen throughout the biological worldfocks
of birds, schools of fsh, the pacemaker cells in our own heart,
all working in a synchronized way, are just a few examples.
We have all experienced entrainment in our social or profes-
sional lives or at least we have admired it from a distance. The
principle here is that complex systems such as teams require
coherent individual parts to attain new levels of coherence as a
whole. As the individual componentsteam members, become
more self-managed and communication distortion is reduced
the system entrains. Once entrained, a jump to a new level of
effectiveness is possible. Without entrainment in your system,
energy is wasted. Without coherence between your core values
and actions, there is a lag in your system and the energy of spirit
is blocked from fully manifesting itself.
The same is true organizationally. Teams lacking entrain-
ment often have confict, withhold critical information, and are
separated from a common vision. Lip service is useless, while
the outcomes of such teams are unmistakable. It is essential to
get at the root of what inhibits teams, what unspoken dynamics
jam frequencies for potential coherence, what resentments keep
the whole system from clicking in to its next level of power and
effectiveness. Perfection is not the goal; consistent improvement
in coherence is.
Love is the force that ignites the spirit and binds teams
together.
PHIL JACKSON, SACRED HOOPS
When teams lack entrainment, there is a gap between what
the head sees and what the heart wants. Without heart intel-
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ligence engaged, the head often will see the myriad of tasks and
details and easily feel overwhelmed. Teams stuck in the mind
lack the compassionate qualities that foster sharing and easing
of each others workloads. They see only the burden, the dead-
lines, the pressure. No coherent vision can penetrate the density
of the collective malaise, unless the noise increases to the point a
crack in the facade appears. All
too often these days the open-
ings occur because of pain or
tragedysickness or death
of a teammate, colleague, or
even an employee in another
division. The wake-up call can
be stunning in its effects.
Before becoming a client,
one of the worlds largest and
most successful global orga-
nizations saw three suicides
among its executive ranks in
one year. One of the executives
stabbed himself in the heart,
he was in such emotional
pain. Another multinational
recognized it needed to deal
forthrightly with the stress-
coherence issue after two
suicides, one on the shop foor,
rocked its employees. Going
postal has become a cynical
clich to describe the behavior
of any disgruntled employee.
lead with your
vulnerability
O
ld school managers keep
a stiff upper lip, are proud
of being stress athletes, and
model behavior that can lead
others to burnout or breakdown.
Todays great managers know
that being open about personal
and professional challenges, and
sharing information about your-
self appropriately, magnetizes
people to you. Leading with
vulnerability means openly ac-
knowledging how youve worked
through professional issues that
were emotionally challenging,
and admitting issues you have.
It also means being receptive to
the input of others. A balance of
clear direction with sensitivity to
people creates effectiveness.
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Transforming Organizational Culture at Delnor-
Community Hospital
Diane Ball, R.N., of Delnor-Community Hospital in Geneva, Il-
linois outside Chicago was looking for a way to help her cardiac
rehab patients deal with stress effectively. Learning about Heart-
Math research at a cardiology conference, she was later trained to
teach patients the stress-reduction techniques. What surprised
her was just how helpful the tools were in helping her deal with
her own stress. She noticed surprising boosts in energy and clari-
ty, and Diane felt compelled to share her experience with hospital
leadership, including Jim Elsner, VP of Health Systems.
Hospital executives attended HeartMath programs and
recognized the potential beneft for staff in reducing stress
and improving communication and care. They hoped patients
would also feel the effect of a more coherent hospital envi-
ronment. The timing was perfect. The previous year, Delnor had
set goals to become a national leader in patient satisfaction, as
well as the frst choice for health care delivery in their primary
market. Tom Wright, Delnors Chief Operating Offcer, was
leading the new corporate initiatives with Craig Livermore,
CEO. These initiatives included the goal of becoming Employer
of Choice in the area and these executives recognized Heart-
Math could provide the glue to help the strategic pieces ft to-
gether. The executives soon offered HeartMath programs to the
entire leadership of the hospital and then to the entire employee
workforce, board members and physicians.
By 2003, 60 percent of the workforce had been trained in
the HeartMath Staff Retention and Development Program, and
the program is now part of new employee orientation. Results
have been signifcant:
Employee turnoverimproved from 26.9% in 2000, to
21% in 2001, to 14.5% in 2002, 14.4% in 2003.
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Turnover for the HeartMath-trained group was only 5.9%
the frst year; after the second year, turnover in this group
was down to 1.4%, and stabilized at 4% for the HeartMath
group in the third year.
This turnover reduction has saved the hospital more
than $1.3 million in the frst two years.
Improved patient satisfaction from the 73
rd
percentile to 98
th
percentile based on the Parkside Survey national database;
Ranked #1 in employee satisfaction based on Sperduto
and Associates national database of over 300 health care
organizations.
Delnor was honored with the 2002 Corporate Health and
Productivity Management Award and has become a national
model for how coherently a health care system can operate, and
just how dramatic those results can be.
Tom Wright observes, HeartMath has given us tools to
make the difference between required courtesy and genuine
care. We have achieved our benchmarks in excellence in patient
satisfaction and employee satisfaction. I believe without Heart-
Math, we could not have reached our potential.
Appreciation
Of all the building blocks that underlie effective teams, ap-
preciation is one of its cornerstones. Appreciation, as said
earlier, implies an increase in value. Anything that is appre-
ciated increases in value. This is as true for relationships and
the creativity and skills of a team as it is for tangible assets
such as real estate, stock, or the family car. (Tangible goods in
most cases depreciate after purchase, of course, but the rate
of depreciation is signifcantly slowed if care is applied to the
upkeep of the asset.) Many teams regularly examine the gaps
in their performance to continuously improve. This defcit-
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focused approach clearly can boost performance but at what
human cost? An individual who never feels good enough, whose
performance is never quite to the highest standard, probably
lives in a world of nonstop anxiety. (In a booming economy,
their options to leave look all the more enticing.) Such people
second-guess themselves regularly, so their performance is
marked by stops and starts, rushing and hesitating. There is no
fow to their work; anxiety blocks the pathways to greater co-
herence. Biologically, we know such anxiety equates to noise in
the heart-brain communication system, impairing performance
and obstructing optimal health. While old-school management
theories still insist that encouraging anxiety in employees keeps
them hungry, appreciation is a far more effcient modality and
one that enhances every link in the service-proft chain.
For appreciation to have value organizationally, it must
be sincere. Employee of the month awards and special parking
places are well-intentioned efforts to appreciate the individual,
but in many cases inbred cynicism in the workplace neutralizes
the positive effect of such efforts. Many overburdened man-
agers are taught to show appreciation to employees to boost
morale. In one case we recently heard from the U.S. Air Force,
a training offcer complained of insincerity on the part of her
supervisor. Super job! was the consistent reply from the boss
on every memo or report she delivered to him. Tiring of this lack
of authenticity, she questioned coworkers who reported to the
same supervisor, only to discover everyones reports always
were greeted with Super job! The lack of sincerity had bred an
emotional virus the supervisor was too aloof to detect. Yet the
intent had been to show appreciation.
When pure sincerity forms within, it is outwardly realized
in other peoples hearts. LAO TZU, 6TH CENTURY B.C.
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If lack of sincerity runs counter to all efforts in appre-
ciation, sincerity multiplies its effectiveness. Sincere appreciation
reduces static in an individual or team and gives a power boost
to all subsequent efforts. Recall a time when you were sincerely
appreciated by a supervisor, coworker, or customer (if this is
diffcult to remember, your organizational culture may be in
need of heart). The appreciation you received was energizing,
motivating, and confrming. It still brings a feeling of accom-
plishment if residual doubts
or fatigue linger after a project
is completed. It boosts conf-
dence and frees the spirit to
do more of what was already
worthy of appreciating. Some
old-school managers still
believe appreciation makes
people complacent or egotis-
tical, yet if done from the heart
the opposite occurs. Teams
that sincerely appreciate each
others efforts, skills, and di-
versity are far stronger than
those constantly competing
for the spotlight. Many teams
would say they value and ap-
preciate each other, yet in our
experience, sitting down to go
over the assets of each team
member can create an en-
trainment few other activities
could. Highly touted experie-
ntial team-building activities,
even though they can create
activate sincere
appreciation
A
nything that is appreciated
increases in value. This in-
cludes appreciation of yourself,
your co-workers, your organiza-
tion, your lifeyou get the point!
For appreciation to have value,
it must be sincere. Sincere ap-
preciation gives a power boost to
individual and team efforts. It is
energizing, motivating, and pro-
motes cohesion. Appreciation
can help shift your perspective
to more balance and keep you in
touch with the big picture and
whats really important. Find
something to appreciate and
watch how your perspective and
energy shift.
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shared memories and fun, rarely build the kind of rapport as
does the consistent expression of sincere appreciation borne
out of increasingly authentic conversations. Time after time, we
have seen teams move from mediocre to exceptional when ap-
preciation becomes an operating principle.
Big Picture/Little Picture
Finding something to appreciate during a diffcult situation
quickly moves the perspective to the big picture from the little
picture. On hearing of a mistake by someone you supervise,
you have a choiceimmediately criticize the individual for a
lack of critical thinking and overdramatize the potential effect,
or appreciate what other strains may have been affecting the
performance and still give the necessary feedback. Seeing the
bigger picture involves understanding the life of this individual,
the stress he or she is under, the long-term viability of the or-
ganization, how well you are feeling at this moment, as well as
the problem that needs addressing. Stuck in the little picture
you see only the problem, often magnifed beyond reason. Ap-
preciation is a tool to keep your perspectives refreshed and
balanced.
Overachieving?
The concept of the overachiever is an intriguing one when
considering effective teamwork. Whether in sports or busi-
ness, teams we call overachievers invariably are performing
above their level. How do they do this? Our view is that the
overachievers are so in sync, so unself-conscious, so en-
trained and balanced, that they achieve a whole new standard
of performance. Appreciation of each other is a hallmark of
overachieving teams. Sometimes, external lucky events are
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the catalyst, or it could be a powerful leader whose magnetic
expression of unifying core values inspires the team members
to move past self-limiting beliefs or mind-sets. Once the old
mind-sets are put to rest, the team is primed for a jump into a
surprising level of effectiveness, creativity, and potency. Call-
ing such teams overachievers is inaccurate. These individuals
and teams actually have reached a state of optimized potential,
made possible by the achievement of coherence.
Underachievers are the opposite. High on talent, rich in
intelligent capacity and potential, they fail to meet expectations
because of some underlying incoherence or imbalance in them
or the environment. Often emotional mismanagement is spoil-
ing the talent and isolating them from teammates. Sometimes,
an inordinate ego-centrism is so off-putting to fellow team
members, the static and distortion becomes deafening, under-
mining coherent effectiveness. Such individuals or teams drop
well below the plateau of their potential, creating a new subpar
standard of disappointment and negative self-worth.
Service Straight from the Heart
The cabin crew of a 747 must be a model of synchronized ac-
tivity. In the competitive world of long-haul international fights,
the care and effciency given to passengers while onboard the
plane has a powerful infuence on a passengers future decision
on a carrier. Hong Kongbased Cathay Pacifc Airways has long
been considered one of the premier airlines fying in and out
of Asia, winning numerous awards in the process. Seeking to
differentiate itself from other high-quality carriers, a new mar-
keting campaign was launched in 1995, Service Straight from
the Heart. As with all marketing campaigns promising unique,
memorable service, the challenge then became to deliver on
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the promise. Peter Buecking,
then general manager for in-
fight services, recognized that
providing unique customized
service to passengers was key
to differentiating Cathay from
its competitors. But he also
recognized that the capability
of the individuals within the
cabin crew to consistently pro-
vide exceptional service was
related directly to their abil-
ity to reduce stress and keep
work-life priorities in balance.
The strategy was to initially
introduce the IQM technology
to the ground staff for in-fight
services, so the fight crews
would see a model of extra car-
ing and effcient service at the
home base. Through the lead-
ership of David Ling, training
director, nearly 300 staff mem-
bers have gone through the
program and increases in team
entrainment, effciency, and effectiveness have been signifcant.
In 1998, the airline received the Air Transport World Passenger
Service Award, the Oscar of the airline industry.
maximize the
talents of the people
you manage
E
xceptional managers
identify the key talents of
each of the people they man-
age and do whatever they can
to design their roles to max-
imize those talents. Its not
uncommon for managers to fall
into a pattern of focusing on
peoples defcits and blaming
them for not producing enough
or at the desired level. Discover
ways to acknowledge and work
with the assets of the people you
manage. Do your own appre-
ciation list of the key qualities
and talents of each person. Ask
yourself how to maximize those.
Then ask them the same ques-
tions.
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Coaching
Great managers and leaders are those who, in spite of their ob-
vious individual talent, intelligence, and creativity, choose to
spread their innate skill and grace, helping others become far
better in their presence. Such people are magnetic and inspiring
because they have chosen to radiate their gifts, instead of inter-
nalize them. We delight in the expansive presence they create.
Their very heart-based coherence, absent as it is of any mean-
ness of spirit, enhances the talents, the capabilities, and the very
processes around them. Business (and politics!) could do with a
lot more of them.
And yet, in an age of such rapid transition and acceleration
of intelligence, the temptations to waver from that coherence
are everywhere. How demoralizing it is, how stung we feel in our
gut, when a hero falls or a human frailty fnally is exposed. We
long to believe there is, somewhere or in someone, a coherence
that can rise out of the chaos and the confusion. It brings hope
when we see it in another.
Which brings us back to ourselves. Hope, fulfllment, and
inspiration can be ignited externally for us, but we must stoke
the fre daily. We must recognize the personal ineffciencies, the
unconscious drains in our thoughts, the external and self-judg-
ments. We must be responsible for ourselves and then make the
necessary adjustments so we can explore and unfold our own
heart intelligence and, in relationship with others, continue to
refne the capacities that are our gifts.
Margaret Wheatley, a brilliant author and organizational
theorist, has similar views on how to create coherent leadership
for coherent organizations:
We will need to stop describing tasks and instead facilitate process.
We will need to become savvy about how to build relationships, how
to nurture growing, evolving things. All of us will need better skills in
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listening, communicating, and facilitating groups, because these are
the talents that build strong relationships. It is well known that the
era of the rugged individual has been replaced by the era of the team
player. But this is only the beginning. The quantum world has de-
molished the concept of the unconnected individual. . . . Those who
relate through coercion, or from a disregard for the other person,
create negative energy. Those who are open to others and who see
others in their fullness create positive energy. Love in organizations,
then, is the most potent source of power we have available.
7
Most managers and leaders, by the sheer volume of their
life and professional experience, have much to share that can
make any organization far more effcient. Time spent coaching
people in the behaviors, attitudes, and skills known to produce
results is time extremely well spent. And when the race to keep
up with the explosion of new knowledge captures most of our
attention, stepping back to remember the value of deep conver-
sations is essential.
One organization that has operationalized coaching is
Thorlo, a premium manufacturer of sock products, activity-
specifc socks for every occasionwalking, hiking, trekking,
running, tennis, basketball, you name it. Their patented designs
and innovative use of textiles have created a fanatically loyal
customer following (us too!). Their sock products are simply so
comfortable, you quickly become spoiled by how good your feet
feel. These are high-priced products, but most customers feel
the value easily exceeds the price. Thorlo also has a fascinating
corporate culture. Located in the heart of North Carolinas tex-
tile region near Charlotte, the 350-employee company has built
a culture where coaching is practiced actively at all levels of the
organization. Thorlo chairman Jim Throneburg
8
recognized
that, to create an enduring company in which core values in-
fused everything, constant coaching would be required. An early
adopter of team processes, Throneburg was quick to see that the
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team could founder without a
coaching mechanism to en-
sure appropriate knowledge
and wisdom transfer. His was
not a mild commitment: Four
hours each week10% of the
employees paid timeare
spent in team formation,
building coherence around
every aspect of the Thorlo
culture. Each of Thorlos 40-
plus teams has rotating coach
facilitators who are coached
in performing their role clearly
but without excessive domi-
nation.
Several aspects of Thor-
los culture are striking and
support the observations of
the other authors cited here. A
strong, unwavering set of core
values is at the heart of the
Thorlo culture. People, employees and customers, clearly mat-
ter. Helping employees gain fexibility and adaptability is also
key. Thorlo U., an internal curriculum for personal and profes-
sional development, has been developed, unusual in a company
of less than 500 employees. For all its progressive policies and
people-friendly climate, this company is not without signifcant
challenges: Key product patents expire in the next few years,
making it all the more essential for the organizational culture
to have heightened innovation, creativity, and resilience. While
the Thorlo model represents a highly structured commitment
seek input on
how to create a fun,
challenging team
environment
T
he people you manage are
full of ideas that could en-
ergize your teams overall com-
mitment to the organizational
mission and goals. Regularly
seek their input, to enliven the
team atmosphere. When team
members feel that their contri-
butions are valued, their care
for the team and organization
grows, and the teams synergy
improves. Encourage, appreci-
ate, and remember to lighten
up from time to time.
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[ 206 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 207 ]
to a coaching model, the principle of mentoring and guiding
employees into greater coherence will be even more essential as
the pace of business accelerates.
Military Coherence
The military arguably is a model of operational coherence. Pat-
rick L. Townsend and Joan E. Gebhardt, writing in the journal
Leader to Leader, point out the coherence throughout the mil-
itary on its three leadership priorities: The frst is to accomplish
the mission; the second, to take care of personnel; and the third,
to create new leaders. There must be coherence around each
of these interdependent priorities.
9
Incoherence and lack of
focus around any one dramatically weakens the others and the
chance of the missions success. Townsend and Gebhardt then
ask some tough questions of their corporate colleagues:
Can the same be said about a civilian organization? Does everyone
share not only the commitment to the mission but the commitment
to their colleagues? Ask most civilians about their second priority at
work and the response is likely to concern personal career enhance-
ment. Military people are not angels; they are as concerned with
their careers as anyone else. They know, however, that advancement
is a by-product of success in meeting leadership priorities, not a goal
in itself.
Increasingly managers and executives are realizing the
very talents that catapulted them to the senior levels of their or-
ganization may not be the ones that keep them there. Also true
is that each new level requires a broader, more global view. We
usually do not know what we do not know until we get there.
Most organizations are operating in uncharted territory, and the
challenge to continuously renew oneself is becoming ever more
critical.
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[ 208 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 209 ]
But who is doing the same for the senior executives
themselves? Often isolated and removed from the day to day op-
erations, no longer doing some of the roll up your sleeves jobs
that make business fun, executives fnd that their perspectives
and attitudes can grow stale and cut off. Increasingly coaches
are being brought in for these executives for the kind of private
mentoring around professional growth and strategies necessary
for renewed vitality. Whether coaching teams in a factory or
coaching an executive whose performance has been found
wanting, coaching is yet another opportunity for the activation
and transfer of heart intelligence, a caring and bottom-line ap-
proach for organizational renewal.
Clearly, effectiveness in teams will be a prerequisite in
the future. Getting hearts and minds in sync will be expected.
With the world marching inexorably toward collaboration and
cooperation, a practical tool for synthesizing the complexity of
the mind with the clarity of the
heart is Mind and Heart Map-
ping.
Heart Mapping

Mind Mapping was developed


in the 1960s by educators
hoping to synchronize both
hemispheres of the brain into
a coherent whole, leading
to breakthroughs in creativ-
ity and innovation. Mind
Mapping is a highly creative
approach to complex planning
and decision making. To this
well-researched technique,
help your team
increase fexibility
and agility
I
nternal coherence is the
foundation of fexible, agile
people. Flexible attitudes build
fexible physiology. Do the best
you can to model fexibility
and agility from the inside out.
Openly discuss with your team
how to help each other be bal-
anced and reduce feelings of
overload and overwhelm. Be
compassionate with each other.
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[ 208 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 209 ]
we integrated heart intelligence. Once a traditional Mind Map is
developed, participants Freeze-Frame, refect on their core val-
ues, and ask themselves how to integrate these values and how
they want to feel during the project they are mapping. A second
map is created, which usually reveals information totally absent
from the Mind Map, which by intention is more tactical and
pragmatic. The combination of the two maps, mind and heart,
creates a compelling, coherent vision of how to proceed. It pro-
vides a practical tool for individuals or teams to get a broader,
more global view of key issues so that the perspectives gener-
ated are strategically sound, not just tactically driven.
Mind Maps normally generate ideas as to what the group
or individual needs to do. The ideas tend to be action oriented,
theoretical, and already known. This is good, so that an indi-
vidual or group producing the Mind Map clearly sees all the
known items as well as links between issues and potential re-
dundancies. In some cases, the ideas generated tend to be either
already done, successfully or unsuccessfully, or too theoretical
to actually drive any concrete changes. Experience suggests that
concentrating solely on the ideas generated in a Mind Map usu-
ally does not produce the signifcant improvements desired nor
does it keep a focus on the human dynamics and balance of the
team. This is why creating a Heart Map adds more depth to the
process and often uncovers new information.
The Heart Map normally generates a completely different
set of ideas than the Mind Map, as seen in the example that fol-
lows. The ideas tend to be much more to do with how the group
needs to changethe feeling or climate a team is seeking to
achieverather than simply what the group needs to do. The
ideas tend to be more people based, pragmatic, and qualitative,
and less theoretical. If the group is to make the signifcant im-
provements it desires, it needs to address the human qualities
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[ 210 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 211 ]
generated by the Heart Map to enable the good theoretical ideas
generated by the Mind Map to become a sustainable reality.
If the task being mapped is particularly large or complex,
key branches of the maps often require their own maps. In a
group Heart Mapping session, this is accomplished by a sub-
group taking on the task of Heart Mapping that branch. The
fnal crucial phase of Heart Mapping is creating an action plan
from the two maps. This involves stepping back again from the
maps to consider the timing, resources, and personnel needed
as well as to assign specifc timelines. While the entire Heart
Mapping process resembles other planning processes, the em-
phasis on coherent communication and the utilization of heart
intelligence yields much richer information than most tradi-
tional planning methods.
Heart Mapping Improved Teamwork
Chris Sawicki led a European team for a global electronics frm
utilizing the Mind and Heart Mapping tool to enhance their
teamwork skills. Ideas generated by the whole group during the
Mind Map exercise included:
1. Have effective leadership.
2. Establish common goals, identifying targets, timetables,
and sense of urgency.
3. Ensure correct composition and diversity of team
members.
4. Assign specifc responsibilities to team members.
5. Pay attention to building teams.
6. Identify resources available to teams.
7. Run meetings better, with attention to schedule and
venue.
8. Improve communication.
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[ 210 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 211 ]
9. Identify key information for sharing.
10. Establish rewards and incentives for all team members.
11. Identify win-win solutions.
12. Be competent, have clarity.
13. Trust team members.
14. Deliver results.
15. Celebrate success and have fun.
Ideas generated by the whole group in a Heart Map (after a
four-minute Freeze-Frame) were
1. Promote friendship and camaraderie.
2. Place higher importance on appreciation and
understanding.
3. Help each other, inter-individual coaching.
4. Promote a sense of togetherness.
5. Learn and evolve together.
6. Promote harmony.
7. Reward openness.
8. Pay attention to team chemistry.
9. Celebrate more often and put greater value on a
positive atmosphere.
10. Identify and work from the teams spirit and soul.
In this example, there are similarities in the ideas gen-
erated on each map, but there is a qualitative difference. The
Mind Map is more tactical and theoretical; the Heart Map more
collaborative and people driven. The combination of the two
creates a powerful vision for improved teamwork. Six months
later, signifcant business improvements in the team were being
sustained.
A project team at National Semiconductor used this pro-
cess powerfully as part of a cross-functional team offsite sem-
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[ 212 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 213 ]
inar using IQM tools. Participants came from National and fve
other vendor companies working with them on a major global
project. The technical complexity of the project was amplifed
by the fact that local standards in several countries had to be
integrated into the plan. The cross-functional team was spread
out on three continents, so meeting times were also a major
challenge. During the seminar, subgroups Heart Mapped key
areas of the project, then reported back to the whole team for
feedback. (All team members had learned Freeze-Frame, intui-
tive listening, and the concepts of appreciation and overcaring
prior to the start of the Heart Mapping session.) In a fve hour
session, more than 30 pages of action plans were developed
from the Mind and Heart Maps, a process the team said nor-
mally would have taken several months to complete. As impor-
tant as these tangible outcomes was the fun and effciency of
the process. Several months later, the team still was marveling
at how much more effectively, and with so much less stress, this
team had been able to perform. The message once again is this:
Create individual and team coherence frst and highly effcient
results will follow (see Figure 112).
Heart Mapping Applications
The Heart Mapping tool has a variety of powerful applications
because it is fun, surprisingly effcient, and reinforces the need
to step back out of the high speed routine to get a bigger picture.
In a group setting especially, it is essential that the process be
nonjudgmental and founded on the principles of coherent com-
munication. This means encouraging and mapping out all po-
tential ideas, not just those voiced most strongly. It means not
debating any ideas at frst because you are building coherence
within the team doing the Heart Mapping. Hearing all perspec-
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[ 212 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 213 ]
tives is critical to creating the most comprehensive and effective
outcome while uncovering creative ideas that otherwise could
have been missed. Also essential is that the facilitator not edit
or show any bias toward any particular theme but merely guide
and draw out all possible ideas.
In our organization, Heart Mapping is used regularly by
teams during product brainstorming sessions. All possible
ideas, customer needs, market issues, pricing considerations,
and so forth are mapped out in creating an initial picture of the
parameters of the product. It is best not to be linear and sequen-
tial at this stage, so you do not stay locked in traditional ways of
thinking about the idea.
It is also an excellent
tool for client development
or enhancing customer satis-
faction as well as to assess the
status of a project. Using Heart
Mapping for setting personal
priorities is particularly pow-
erful. To set priorities for the
month (or any other defned
time period), start by building
a Mind Map of all potential
and urgent tasks to accomplish
during the month. Be as thor-
ough as possible, especially
including those easy-to-avoid
items you are dreading or
that are particularly tricky
and complex. Freeze-Frame
throughout the creation of the
Mind Map to ask yourself what
use
heart mapping
to prioritize
Y
ou have an extremely full
plate of projects, budgeting
responsibilities, individual tasks,
and sensitive people issues.
Each month do a mind map
of all the critical issues within
your current focus. Then, do a
Heart Map to uncover those that
are the most essential for your
growth personally and profes-
sionally, as well as the growth of
your team and those you man-
age. Where appropriate, share
your insights.
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[ 214 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 215 ]
FIGURE 112 Mind and Heart Maps were generated at the start of the
session to give an overview of the entire project. Out of these maps, sub-
groups developed more detailed maps and plans (opposite), resulting in
numerous plans for the successful implementation of the project. Source:
Reprinted by permission from the Institute of HeartMath.
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[ 214 ] From Chaos to Coherence Leading from Chaos to Coherence [ 215 ]
other items have not been mapped out. Then, once you feel the
map is complete, Freeze-Frame and ask your heart what are the
key priorities, the highest leverage activities that absolutely must
get done. Build a Heart Map from the answers to your questions.
Keep Freeze-Framing to remember this is the time to ensure
that balance is at the core of your activities. This is not the time
to rush back into the details and become paralyzed by the sheer
volume of work you could be doing. Then create an action plan
FIGURE 112 continued
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[ 216 ] From Chaos to Coherence
from both maps, letting the core values revealed in your Heart
Map drive the plan.
Heart Mapping represents yet another way to activate your
full intelligence, instead of relying solely on a linear, analytical
approach or responding only to the loudest needs. It opens up
new creative potentials where noise once predominated.
11 CH 11 FCTC.ID 01/05/04, 3:49 PM 216
c h a p t e r
12 12
Creating a Quantum Fu ture
THERE IS A SCIENCE TO BUSI NESS EFFECTIVENESS, AND
there must be heart for that sci ence to have meaning. The tools
presented here have been built not on dogma and rigid prin-
ci ples but on co her ence and the liq uid intelligence of fex i bil i ty
and adapt abil i ty. The four dy nam ics of IQM are not rules to fol-
low so much as fre quen cies to bring alive and in te grate uniquely
to your cul ture. The per cep tion of each read er will determine to
a great extent how these ideas and tools come alive in the or ga -
ni za tion.
Critical Mass
By creatively implementing the four dynamics of Inner Qual i ty
Man age mentInternal Self-Man age ment, Coherent Com mu -
ni ca tion, Boost ing Or ga ni za tion al Climate, Stra te gic Pro cess es
of Renewalyou can cre ate a great er degree of or ga ni za tion al
co her ence. As we have seen at Delnor Hospital, Motorola and
Cathay Pacifc Airways, once a crit i cal mass of in di vid u als
with in an or ga ni za tion reaches a new lev el of mental and emo-
tion al self-man age ment it will create a coherence mo men tum
that is extremely effective. You still must execute, you still must
listen to and care for your customers, your key part ners and
your peo ple, but your or ga ni za tion will be gin to op er ate with
the competitive ad van tage of great er access to the in tu i tive in-
tel li gence of the heart. As a re sult, the or ga ni za tion will be come
more re sil ient, adapt able, in no va tive, pro duc tive and ef f cient.
[ 217 ] [ 217 [ 217
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[ 218 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Place a new em pha sis on self-de vel op ment to change the or ga -
ni za tion from one with knowl edge into one with wis dom. Core
values and the or ga ni za tions mis sion state ment will take on
new meaning (or require some adjusting). Your peo ple and your
organization have a heart. Re viv ing that heart will al low the
or ga ni za tion to achieve coherence even in the midst of cha os.
Creating the Future
Perception rules our world. During our life time, as for many
gen er a tions be fore us, human perceptions of what is in tel li gent
and what is power, and indeed what is time and the nature
of our ful fll ment, have undergone radical shifts. As informa-
tion has ex plod ed, the schol ars among us have sought to build
bridg es and see con nec tions between oth er wise dis par ate felds
of study. Laws of chaos theory and quan tum physics are dis-
cussed in business schools; biomedical in for ma tion in fu enc es
our hir ing practices and employee train ing; psy cho log i cal stud-
ies in form our work place designs.
It is also safe to say we aint seen nothing yet. Every gen-
er a tion looks at its break throughs as startling when com pared
to the past, and ar gu ably the speed of trans for ma tion today is
great er than at any time in hu man history. It is tempting to be-
lieve the latest breakthrough in sight is the fnal answer. Yet, for
every insight, another far more powerful set of un der stand ings
awaits our intelligent ex ploration. For centuries people were
absolutely con vincedand their observation con frmedthat
the earth was fat. Later ob ser va tion convinced them the earth
was the center of the uni verse, with the sun ro tat ing around it.
Now expanded lenses of per cep tion at both ends of the spec-
trumfrom the Hubble tele scope revealing nev er before seen
worlds to the theoretical view ing of quan tum particlesstretch
the limits of what we can observe and remind us of the power,
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Creating a Quantum Future [ 219 ]
and the limits, of what we perceive. We sug gest here that the
lens of heart in tel li gence pre sents the next fron tier of how to see
and in ter act with life.
Each age of human his to ry has been marked by profound
increases in hu man in tel li gence, but the faws and dis tor tion in
human in ter ac tion have kept the impact of much of this intelli-
gence lim it ed. As a planet we have progressed in technology and
in per son al con ve nience, in in for ma tion availability, in trans-
por ta tion, and in a myriad of other ways. Our standard of liv-
ing has improved in many parts of the world, but fun da men tal
social relations remain mired in immaturity and an tag o nism.
Murder is justifed by religion, race, nationality, or tribe.
Viewed through the lens of history, nothing we know now
could be seen as fnal, as the last word, or even as a resting point
for knowl edge. An irony here is that, in the search for mean-
ing, the an swers often get quirk i er and more basic. Quan tum
sci en tists de vel op names for particles like quarks and mesons;
as tron o mers the o rize the ex ist ence of MACHOsmas sively
accelerating com pact holo ob jectsthat emit no light. The
computer world and most or ga ni za tion al cul tures are flled
with cheer ful ac ro nyms and new words, or old words with new
meanings. There is a bemusement in much of the dis cov ery go-
ing on to day; a sense that the real answers we have been look-
ing for are at once sim pler and even more iron ic than we would
have imag ined.
Human beings show an impetus for self-or ga niz ing, from
the for ma tion of our iden ti ty to the way we ma nip u late our en-
vi ron menthow we make our beds, brush our teeth, fle our pa-
pers, develop stra te gic or va ca tion plans. We at tempt to man age
the present with the future in mind. Left to the mechanicality of
ha bit u at ed mind-sets and emo tion al pro grams from our past,
we usu al ly do an ad e quate job. But, what are we not seeing,
what subtle sig nals of our in tel li gence are we too busy to listen
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[ 220 ] From Chaos to Coherence
to? How are we, unintentionally, tripping ourselves up?
Creativity and in no va tion are central facets of all human
ac tiv i ty. Dar win saw spon ta ne ous genetic mu ta tions that pro-
vid ed adapt abil i ty and com pet i tive advantages and, there fore,
sur viv abil i ty. It has been no ticed that these mu ta tions hap pened
in dis con tin u ous jumps, not a steady pro gres sion of minute
chang es. To a bird, grow ing one extra feather made little dif-
fer ence to fying ability; grow ing many would make a sig nif cant
dif fer ence. In the world of phys ics, elec trons shift or bit al states
in dis con tin u ous jumps, ab sorb ing or emitting en er gy in quan ta
as they do so. The Internet ex ist ed for thirty years before some-
thing ar cane called a brows er cre at ed a dis con tin u ous jump
called the World Wide Web.
Innovation
The shifts in or ga ni za tions can be just as sud den. We be lieve
co her ence is the un der ly ing prin ci ple that will guide quan tum
leaps in future ef fec tive ness.
Out of no where a new
organization will be come
prominent. The sus tain able
or ga ni za tions will be those
found ed on un shak able core
values pro vid ing the operat-
ing sys tem for co her ence. As
these or ga ni za tions hit each
new lev el of co her ence, in no -
va tions will occur out of the
self-re new ing cre ativ i ty. When
faced with ad ver si ty, in stead
of over re act ing emo tion al ly
to the chal lenge, they will
A
Hindu myth has it that the
gods were trying to decide
where to hide the se cret of life.
One god sug gest ed, Lets hide
it in the moun tains. But an-
oth er god said, No, theyll look
there. So one of the gods said,
Lets hide it in the sky, but this
sug ges tion again was met with
No, theyll look there. At which
point the wis est among them
said, Lets hide it in the heart;
theyll nev er look there.
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Creating a Quantum Future [ 221 ]
or ga nize them selves through
intelligent coherence to deal
with the lo cal con di tions. This
is real in no va tion. The con-
sis tent abil i ty to in no vate will
emerge from the un der ly ing
fex i bil i ty and co her ence in
ev ery as pect of the health of
the or ga ni za tion and the in di -
vid u al.
In the past it appeared
leaders could an tag o nize a
person or a sys tem into in no -
vat ing, just as they could use
fear as a mo ti va tor and point
to positive outcomes later on.
But, with the new in tel li gence,
these old meth ods will be seen
as whol ly ineffcient, energy-
drain ing strategies. Na ture
does not seek chaos; it in tel li -
gent ly or ga niz es to ensure its
sur viv al in spite of the cha os.
Coherence brings energy ef f -
cien cy to a chaotic world.
Innovation is the spurt,
the discontinuous jump of
in tel li gence, ap plied in a new
way. Innovation is not pat or
stat ic; there is no best way that best best
is universal. The Internet is
prov ing that. Local so lu tions
that work are critical, just as,
challenge your
as sump tions!
A
s Albert Einstein said, The
signifcant prob lems we
face to day cannot be solved at
the same level of thinking we
were at when we cre at ed them.
Or ga ni za tions use the same
busi ness prac tic es over and over
again as sum ing that they will
con tin ue to produce the de sired
results. Openness to new ideas
and a sin cere desire for posi-
tive change are more important
than ever. Learn to move beyond
rigid mind-sets, knowing what
you know, and learn to be more
adapt able and fexible. Consider
all options in making strategic
and tactical decisions. Use all
of your available intelligence,
logic, informed intuition, expe-
rience, and compassion, to make
decisions. Engage the pow er of
the heart to elim i nate fear of
change and instead em brace it
with a sense of ex cite ment and
adventure. Move quickly, but
move with balance.
challenge your
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[ 222 ] From Chaos to Coherence
on the in di vid u al lev el, being present means having full in tel -
li gence avail able to deal with each unique situation.
Quantum Management
Being in the momentalert, awake, and neutralwill become a
leadership imperative. Living in the past or excessively wor ry ing
about the fu ture wastes en er gy and resources. No or ga ni za tion
can long sur vive liv ing with time warped by history or distorted
by future anxiety.
Popular culture leads us to believe that quantum means quantum quantum
large. In fact, quantum means an elemental building block, too
small to be ac tu al ly mea sured. Small, even infnitesimally small,
however, does not mean in sig nif cant. In fact, the paradox may
be that the smaller you look, the more pow er ful is the poten-
tial effect. Clearly, size is not everything: Massive stars ex plode
into supernova or end up as black holes. Massive companies,
bu reau cra cies, and empires have been forced to get smaller or
crumble. AT&T, Soviet central industrial plan ning, and the Brit-
ish Empire are just a few cel e brat ed examples. Will Microsoft be
next? Will the merger frenzy have its own day of reckoning?
Quantum management implies using full intelligence
to deal ef fec tive ly with each elemental building blockthis
mo ment. Or ga ni za tions will be challenged to fnd lo cal so-
lu tionsnowthat work in an era of increasing complexity, now now
chaos, and stress. The chal lenge will be to achieve the coher-
ence and in ter nal quiet nec es sary to per ceive the deeper order
em bed ded in what appears to be chaos. Unmanaged emo tion
is expert at turning discomfort into mis ery. Find ing that deeper
or der is a key to adaptability and sur viv abil i ty. Leadership of any
organization must be in volved in the detection, man age ment,
and direction of change with adaptation strat e gies taught at the
in di vid u al level. Key strat e gies will be un cov ered by unfolding
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Creating a Quantum Future [ 223 ]
the in tel li gence and self-organizing potential of people in the
or ga ni za tion. The four dynamics of IQM can provide an evolv-
ing, fexible road map for intelligently meeting the chal leng es of
adapting to a new future.
Self-Security
Self-security will be a hallmark of the leaders and ex cep tion al
or ga ni za tions of the future. Self-security in an in di vid u al or a
sys tem brings a high ratio of coherence. Leaders or or ga ni z-
a tions with self-se cu ri ty can push pow er and au thor i ty down-
stream and develop cen ters of innovation and ex cel lence at all
levels of the organization.
Swedens Skandia, a global fnancial and insurance ser-
vices frm and a key innovator in the drive to value and measure
hu man capital, has es tab lished futures centers to explore new
tech nol o gies central to its future. But, more important, as its
op er a tions, product offerings, and workforce become ever more
diverse and complex, it has created a heart offce to ensure
that the companys core values are effectively transmitted. Self-
organization will happen at the local level, but Skandia ensures
that it will unfold in co her ence with the in tel li gence of the core.
1
Quantum management involves guiding the evolution of
people and systems in re sponse to change, creating ge net ic
ad ap ta tions in dis con tin u ous jumps in the blue print of how the
or ga ni za tion sees it self and how it trans mutes itself to of fer new
capabilities. Quan tum man age ment will en sure that the small
and in sig nif cant will not be ig nored. It will be clear when the
prob lem is that we are mov ing too fast in a men tal or emotional
mode and fail ing to un der stand the sig nif cance of an event and
not that the in di vid u al or issue is too small to warrant our at ten -
tion. This re quires paying at ten tionat ten tion that is bal anced, at ten tion at ten tion
co her ent, and aligned with our core values. Quan tum jumps
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[ 224 ] From Chaos to Coherence
will happen then, allowing an organization to keep and grow its
niche in the economic en vi ron ment while main tain ing mean-
ing. Quan tum management re quires the coherent guid ance of
hu man and sys tem ca pa bil i ty into self-re gen er at ing, up ward ly
spi ral ing pat terns, unfolding in the in di vid u al new layers of
em bed ded DNA po ten tial, while un fold ing new layers of market
po ten tial, hu man potential, and innovation po ten tial. Pulling
out of the grav i ty and density in our selves and our organizations
will be key.
Creating Your Plan
Your opportunity now is to maximize the investment you made
in read ing this book and create your own plan to apply the tools
and in sights gained. Where are you headed? What questions
have been stir ring about your per son al balance, your career,
the viability of the organization you work in? A glossary follows,
with defnitions of the key concepts and tools in this book, but
we briefy summarize the tools here.
Internal self-management
Freeze-Frame
Asset-defcit balance sheet
Neutral
Managing time and expectations
Coherent com mu ni ca tion
Intuitive listening
Authentic dialogue
Creating conversations that count
Boosting the organizational climate
Distinguishing caring from overcaring
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 224
Creating a Quantum Future [ 225 ]
Self-care
Healing the emotional virus
Heart Lock-In
Strategic processes of renewal
Heart Mapping
Asset-defcit balance sheet
Coaching
Teamwork
Managing the moment
What are your core values, those qualities and ex pe ri enc es
that make your heart come alive? Consider now your ba sic rou-
tine on a dai ly, week ly, and month ly basis. How much of your
day is spent on the phone, in meetings, plan ning, trav el ing,
re spond ing to voice mail and e-mail? How could your values be-
come more integrated in what you do each day? How would you
feel if they were more integrated? What actions would be differ-
ent? What attitudes would be different? Of all the con cepts and
tools out lined here, which seem eas i est to in te grate into your
sched ule? Which seem chal leng ing, yet the pay-off prob a bly
would be worth it? Create a Mind Map of all the pos si ble ways
you can integrate and apply the tools, re fer ring to the preceding
list. Then cre ate a Heart Map of the high est le ver age activities,
the ones most in sync with your val ues. In clude in these maps
the need to meet with any in di vid u als to resolve confict and
build more coherent com mu ni ca tion. Re mem ber, especially, to
focus on developing great er balance and co her ence in you. The
next to last step is to build an action plan of those tools you can
commit to doing. The fnal step is do ing.
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 225
[ 226 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Presence
Presence is a rare quality in a world of 20-second sound bites,
nonstop stim u la tion, political gridlock, and gnawing anxiety.
What underlies pres ence? Clearly, it is not intellectual prow ess
or Mensa would rule the world. One of the most agonizing ex-
periences is listening to the ramblings of some one disconnected
from ev ery day reality, adrift in a conceptual universe of his or
her own creation. In the world of the performing arts, many
have great tal ent, but few have real presence. Could pres ence be tal ent tal ent
heart-gen er at ed coherence in the world of personal mag net ics?
Peo ple with presence have an ineffable quality about them; they
are present, surprisingly attentive, and undistracted. A full-
ness, a centeredness, a wholeness ra di ates from them. We en joy
being in their presence. You can build presence. It is the natu-
ral ra di ance of heart se cu ri ty.
Many things can rob peo ple and organizations of pres-
ence:
Unresolved con ficts.
Living apart from the hearts core values.
Unmanaged men tal processes that spin out of control.
Judgment of one self and others.
Presence undoubtedly is more tangible than we know and
prob a bly one day will be measurable, a magnetic feld of pres-
ence. But, even before science verifes the existence of pres-
ence, we are con stant ly aware of its ex ist ence in
The store we frequent be cause of the unmistakable
warmth we feel there.
The great actors and ac tress es whose movies we never
miss, so sure are we of the consistent presence and cha-
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 226
Creating a Quantum Future [ 227 ] [ 227 [ 227
ris ma they exude.
The mentor or leader who, just by walking in a room, im-
me di ate ly boosts the dynamic of the environment.
An airline responding compassionately and openly to a
trag e dy.
We also can see the lack of presence in
The news anchor who is merely a news reader, adding no
hu man i ty to todays top sto ries.
The appalling staff meet ing characterized by fre quent in-
ter rup tions, side con ver sa tions, and an tag o nism.
Einsteins Vul ner a bil i ty
Although it took many years be fore Einsteins radical the o ries
be came a part of main stream science, he even tu al ly became
rec og nized as the greatest physicist of the 20th century. At the
height of his fame, a Cath o lic priest from the Vatican challenged
a key te net of Einsteins view of a steady state universe. Ein-
stein summarily dismissed the priest, publicly branding his
mathematics poor. At that time, it was still believed that we
lived in the only galaxy in the universe, but the star tling pic tures
of the great as tron o mer Hubble began to present a much dif-
fer ent pic ture of the cosmos. The clouds that scientists like
Einstein believed to be part of our own gal axy, in fact, were
oth er huge galaxies traveling away from us at un be liev ably high
speed. The beau ty of these im ag es took Einsteins breath away,
and he publicly apol o gized to the priest, dra mat i cal ly changing
his view of cos mic re al i ty in the pro cess. How many leaders and
visionaries are able to show the same vul ner a bil i ty as Einstein
to not only publicly admit his mis take, but then to revel in the
new dis cov ery? This vulnerability and open ness to truth was one
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 227
[ 228 ] From Chaos to Coherence
of the great est gifts Einstein gave to the world and lay pow er ful ly
beneath his un der stat ed, slight ly di shev eled pres ence.
In the future, we will seek more and more to do business
with or ga ni za tions where we feel presence. We will want to
work only for lead ers who re spect presence. We will be keen ly
aware of our core de sire to build our own presence, not because
we are egotistical, but because we must become our true selves.
Pres ence will be an es sen tial qual i ty un der stood to de ter mine
ef fec tive ness in wheth er we as people feel wel comed and un-
der stood, in the cli mate of an or ga ni za tion, and in the teams in
which we work. Pres ence gen er ates and in creas es co her ence.
There is a momentum of new intelligence that cannot be
stopped, even though it may appear embryonic and fragile in
the face of so much chaos and pain. Organizations of the future
will have to un cov er and nurture the heart of the organization. It
will not be easy, but it will be essential.
Heart-based or ga ni za tions will en cour age and en hance
the self-de vel op ment and self-man age ment of all their mem-
bers. They will seek to max i mize intelligence, not by ag gra vat ing
peo ple into doing more, but by nurturing, sup port ing, and chal-
leng ing them. They will see the mental, emo tion al, and phys i cal
health of people in the or ga ni za tion as essential to pro duc tiv i ty
and long-term vi a bil i ty and not just an issue for those who lack
har di ness. They will see com mu ni ca tion as the fow of living
in for ma tion, which has the power to vitalize and re gen er ate.
They will encourage con ver sa tion and the health and ef fec -
tive ness of all com mu ni ca tion methods, not to invade pri va cy
but to rec og nize information fow as nour ish ment itself. They
will un der stand and nurture the cli mate of the or ga ni za tion,
not sim ply because it is good, or nice, or even the right thing
to do; they could not conceive of do ing oth er wise. They will
un der stand that the unbridled ac qui si tion of knowl edge, as
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 228
Creating a Quantum Future [ 229 ]
tan ta liz ing as it may be, is a pale substitute for the sea soned
ma tu ri ty of wis dom. Knowledge without heart is a bur den; wis-
dom re gen er ates. And they will cre ate processes that renew and
re vi tal ize both the individuals and the organization, serv ing the
needs of all. For all this in tel li gent effort, they will be re ward ed
with unheard of break throughs in innovation, cus tom er loy al ty,
and personal ful fll ment. They will have moved from chaos to
co her ence.
12 CH 12 FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:11 PM 229
References
[ 230 ]
Chapter 1
1. Global Studies, Civilizations of the Past and Present, Revised 1998,
Amsco School Publications, Inc., New York, NY
2. Because of HeartMaths extensive work in the military, we have had
many con ver sa tions with military personnel from all four branch es.
Several bases, in clud ing McClellan AFB in Sacramento, have in cor -
po rat ed IQM pro grams in their train ing curricula.
Chapter 2
1. William A. Tiller, Science and Human Transformation: Subtle En-
er gies, In ten tion al i ty and Consciousness (Walnut Creek, CA: Pavior er gies, In ten tion al i ty and Consciousness er gies, In ten tion al i ty and Consciousness
Publishing, 1997), p. 196.
2. William A. Tiller, Rollin McCraty, and Mike Atkinson, Cardiac Co-
her ence: A New Noninvasive Measure of Autonomic Nervous Sys tem
Order, Al ter na tive Ther a pies 2, no. 1 (January 1996). Al ter na tive Ther a pies Al ter na tive Ther a pies
3. The Institute of HeartMath has conducted numerous case studies
with or ga ni za tions applying IQM tools. A summary of several of
these studies ap pears in the Appendix.
4. Faith Popcorn and Lys Marigold, Clicking: Sixteen Trends to Future
Fit Your Life, Your Work, and Your Business (New York: HarperCollins, Fit Your Life, Your Work, and Your Business Fit Your Life, Your Work, and Your Business
1996).
5. Alan Watkins, ed., Mind-Body Medicine: A Clinicians Guide to
Psychoneuro immunology (London: Churchill Livingstone, 1997). Psychoneuro immunology Psychoneuro immunology
This is an excellent over view of the emerging feld of mind-body
med i cine edited by Dr. Alan Watkins. Sev er al references are made in
this book to research conducted at the Institute of HeartMath.
6. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 20, 1997.
7. Taking the Stress Out of Being Stressed Out, Business Week Health
Wire (March 20, 1997). Wire Wire
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 230
References [ 231 ]
8. Paul J. Rosch, Job Stress: Americas Leading Adult Health Problem,
USA Mag a zine (May 1991). USA Mag a zine USA Mag a zine
9. B. L. Seaward, Stress Management (Boston: Jones and Bartlett, Na- Stress Management Stress Management
tion al Safe ty Coun cil, 1995).
10. Richard A. Shweder, Americas Latest Export: A Stressed-Out World,
New York Times (January 25, 1997). New York Times New York Times
11. Cited in Seaward, Stress Management. Stress Management Stress Management
12. Karen Charlesworth, Are Managers Under Stress? A Survey of Man-
age ment Morale, Institute of Management [London] (Sep tem ber
1996).
13. Statistics Canada, Carleton University, and the Conference Board of
Can a da were the sources for these Canadian statistics.
14. In addition to two Reuters studies cited in Chapter Eight, our work in
Asia, es pe cial ly since the collapse of several Asian economies in late
1997, has re vealed a signifcant level of despair and anxiety in many
Asian managers. The collective cultures of many of these countries
have left them un pre pared for the pre cip i tous economic downturn
in that part of the world.
15. Irene M. Kunii, Caving Under Pressure, Time (February 16, 1998). Time Time
16. Sandy Sugawara, Japan Eases Its Killer Work Ethic, Washington Post
(April 20, 1997).
17. Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science: Learning about
Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe (San Francisco: Berrett-Koe- Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe
hler, 1992), p. 8.
18. Robert W. Galvin, The Idea of Ideas (Schaumburg, IL: Motorola Uni- The Idea of Ideas The Idea of Ideas
ver si ty Press, 1991), pp. 109111.
19. Bob Barrios-Choplin, Rollin McCraty, and Bruce Cryer, An Inner
Qual i ty Ap proach to Reducing Stress and Improving Physical and
Emotional Wellbeing at Work, Stress Medicine 13 (1997), pp. 193 Stress Medicine Stress Medicine
201.
20. Common Sense About Feeling Tense, Heart at Work Program, Dal-
las, TX: Amer i can Heart Association, 1995.
21. Ibid.
22. Victor Frankl, Mans Search for Meaning (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1970).
23. Several of Docs earlier books discuss this theme in great detail. Of
par tic u lar in ter est are Self-Empowerment: The Heart Approach to
Stress Man age ment and Stress Man age ment Stress Man age ment Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Stress Man age -
ment (both Boul der Creek, CA: Plan e tary Pub li ca tions).
24. Quoted in Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity: The Inner Path of Lead-
er ship (San Fran cisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1996), p. 9. er ship er ship
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 231
[ 232 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Chapter 3
1. Sandra Blakeslee, Complex and Hidden Brain in Gut Makes Stom-
ach aches and Butterfies, The New York Times (January 23, 1996). The New York Times The New York Times
2. Ibid.
3. Called chi or chi chi qi in the Chinese tradition, and qi qi ki in the Japanese tra- ki ki
di tion, the source of power is believed to emanate from the solar
plexus region. Prac ti tio ners are taught to still the mind and focus
at ten tion in that area, so pow er is fo cused and balanced. In our view,
this practice really is stilling emo tion al turmoil, there by helping a
per son become more coherent. But our re search also indicates the
heart supersedes the solar plexus, elec tri cal ly and bio me chan i cal ly.
4. J. A. Armour, Anatomy and Function of the Intrathoracic Neurons
Reg u lat ing the Mammalian Heart, in I. H. Zucker and J. P. Gilmore,
eds., Re fex Control of the Circulation (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Re fex Control of the Circulation Re fex Control of the Circulation
1991).
5. M. Cantin and J. Genest, The Heart as an Endocrine Gland, Clin i cal
and In ves ti ga tive Medicine 9, no. 4 (1986), pp. 31927. and In ves ti ga tive Medicine and In ves ti ga tive Medicine
6. Antonio Damasio, Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human
Brain (New York: Putnam, 1994). Brain Brain
7. Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More
than IQ (New York: Bantam Books, 1995). than IQ than IQ
8. From Joseph Chilton Pearces Introduction in Doc Childres Teaching
Chil dren to Love (Boulder Creek, CA: Planetary Publications, 1996), Chil dren to Love Chil dren to Love
p. 9.
9. Goleman, Emotional Intelligence
10. Karl H. Pribram, Languages of the Brain (New York: Brandon House,
1971).
11. R. McCraty, W. A. Tiller, M. Atkinson, Head-Heart Entrainment: A
Pre-liminary Survey. Proceedings of the Brain-Mind Applied Neu ro -
phys i ol o gy EEG Neurofeedback Meeting, 1996. Key West, Flor i da (pp.
2630).
12. Rollin McCraty, Bob Barrios-Choplin, and Deborah Rozman, The
Im pact of a New Emotional Self-Management Program on Stress,
Emo tions, Heart Rate Vari abil i ty, DHEA and Cortisol, Integrative
Phys i o log i cal and Be hav ior al Sci ence (1998, in press). Also, D. S. Kerr, Phys i o log i cal and Be hav ior al Sci ence Phys i o log i cal and Be hav ior al Sci ence
L. W. Campbell, and M. D. Applegate, Chron ic Stress-Induced Ac-
cel er a tion of Electrophysiologic and Mor pho met ric Biomarkers of
Hip poc am pal Aging, Society of Neu ro science 11, no. 5 (1991), pp. Society of Neu ro science Society of Neu ro science
131617.
13. McCraty, Barrios-Choplin, Rozman, The Impact of a New Emotional
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 232
References [ 233 ]
Self-Man age ment Program on Stress, Emotions, Heart Rate Vari-
abil i ty, DHEA and Cor ti sol, Integrative Physiological and Be hav ior al
Science (1998, in press). Science Science
14. Goleman, Emotional Intelligence.
15. Rollin McCraty, William A. Tiller, Mike Atkinson, et al., The Effects
of Emo tions on Short Term Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate
Vari abil i ty, Amer i can Jour nal of Cardiology 76, no. 14 (November 15,
1995), pp. 108893.
16. S. A. Rosenfeld, Conversations Between Heart and Brain (Rockville, Conversations Between Heart and Brain Conversations Between Heart and Brain
MD: Na tion al Institute of Mental Health, 1977).
17. William Tiller, Rollin McCraty, and Mike Atkinson, Toward Cardiac
Co her ence: A New Non-Invasive Measure of Autonomic System Or-
der, Al ter na tive Ther a pies (1996). Al ter na tive Ther a pies Al ter na tive Ther a pies
18. Rosenfeld, Conversations Between Heart and Brain.
19. McCraty et al., The Impact of a New Emotional Self-Management
Pro gram.
20. First, Break All the Rules
21. Tiller et al., Toward Cardiac Coherence.
22. McCraty et al., Head-Heart Entrainment: A Preliminary Survey.
23. Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson, and Glen Rein, Music Enhances the
Effect of Positive Emotional States on Salivary IgA and Heart Rate
Vari abil i ty, Stress Med i cine 12 (1996), pp. 16775. Stress Med i cine Stress Med i cine
24. McCraty et al., The Impact of a New Emotional Self-Management
Pro gram.
Chapter 4
1. Richard A. Shweder, Americas Latest Export: A Stressed-Out World,
New York Times (January 25, 1997). New York Times New York Times
2. Cited in ibid.
3. Cited in Jane E. Brody, The Good News About Growing Old, Atlanta
Jour nal and Constitution (April 14, 1996). Jour nal and Constitution Jour nal and Constitution
4. Job Stress Affects Arteries, British Medical Journal 314 (1997), pp. British Medical Journal British Medical Journal
55357.
5. Ibid., pp. 55864.
6. Glen Rein, Mike Atkinson, and Rollin McCraty, The Physiological
and Psy cho log i cal Effects of Compassion and Anger, Journal of Ad-
vance ment in Med i cine 8, no. 2 (1995), pp. 87105. vance ment in Med i cine vance ment in Med i cine
7. Sue Shellenbarger, No, Youre Not Too Tough to Suffer a Bout of
Burn out, Wall Street Journal (June 25, 1997).
8. Cited in a Reuters article, Emotion, Stress Affect Heart Survival,
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 233
[ 234 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Amer i can Jour nal of Critical Care 6, no. 2 (1997), pp. 11626. Amer i can Jour nal of Critical Care Amer i can Jour nal of Critical Care
9. Brigid Schulte, To Help Your Heart, Just Take a Chill Pill, San Jose
Mer cu ry News (October 20, 1997). Mer cu ry News Mer cu ry News
10. Cited in an Associated Press report, Circulation (May 1994). The Circulation Circulation
study au thors are Ichiro Kawachi, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas,
and Scott Weiss.
Chapter 5
1. Robert Cooper and Ayman Sawaf, Executive EQ: Emotional In tel -
li gence in Lead er ship and Organizations (New York: Grosset/Putnam, li gence in Lead er ship and Organizations li gence in Lead er ship and Organizations
1997).
2. See the Appendix for more information.
Chapter 6
1. The Institute of HeartMath is a 501(c)(3) not-for-proft corporation
in cor po rat ed in 1991. HeartMath LLC is the new training and con-
sulting com pa ny, li cens ing the technology of the institute. HeartMath
LLC is a lim it ed liability com pa ny.
2. Lee Evans and Bruce Cryer worked together during the 1984 Olympics
in Los Angeles. We had numerous conversations over several months
about the dis ci plines and attitudes that made him a great track star,
and those attitudes that kept other superb athletes mediocre.
Chapter 7
1. Robert Cooper and Ayman Sawaf, Executive EQ: Emotional In tel -
li gence in Lead er ship and Organizations (New York: Grosset/Putnam,
1997), p. 68.
2. Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls and David Weinberger,
The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual (Cambridge, The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual
MA: Per seus Books, 2000), p. 179.
3. Ibid., p. 103.
4. Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson, Dana Tomasino, and William Tiller,
The Elec tric i ty of Touch: Detection and Measurement of Cardiac
En er gy Ex change Be tween People, in Proceedings of the Fifth Ap pa -
la chian Con fer ence on Neurobehavioral Dynamics: Brain and Values
(Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum As so ci ates, 1998).
5. Dr. Alan Watkins, who has worked extensively with IQM tools in the
United King dom, Europe, and Asia, contributed many of these ideas
of encoding and de cod ing.
6. From a conversation with Gerard McMullan, president, No Fear Soft-
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 234
References [ 235 ]
ware Ser vic es, Sydney, Australia.
7.

Cited in Sarah Cliffe, Knowledge ManagementThe Well-Con-
nect ed Busi ness, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1998, p. 17.
8. Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls and David Weinberger,
The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual, p. 159. The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual
Chapter 8
1. The Institute for the Future is a not-for-proft research organization.
Rob ert Johansen, its president, also is the author of Global Work:
Bridg ing Dis tance, Cul ture and Time, with Mary OHara- Devereaux Bridg ing Dis tance, Cul ture and Time Bridg ing Dis tance, Cul ture and Time
(San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1994), and (with Rob Swigart) Upsizing
the Individual in the Downsized Or ga ni za tion (Reading, MA: Addi- the Individual in the Downsized Or ga ni za tion the Individual in the Downsized Or ga ni za tion
son-Wesley, 1996). Contact the frm at 2744 Sand Hill Road, Menlo
Park, California, 94025-7020, phone at 415-854-6322.
2. Michael Powell, Are Hu mans Doomed?, in ter view with Bill Joy in
The Wash ing ton Post, April 16, 2000. The Wash ing ton Post The Wash ing ton Post
3. Michael Powell, Are Hu mans Doomed?, The Washington Post, April The Washington Post The Washington Post
16, 2000.
4. Study Reveals Growing Danger of Information Addiction, Reuters
(De cem ber 10, 1997).
5. Conversation with Technostress authors Michelle M. Weid and Larry Technostress Technostress
D. Rosen, Oc to ber 25, 1997.
6. Information Fatigue Syndrome, Reuters (October 25, 1997).
7. Many measurements of technology improvement, such as the all im-
por tant price-performance ratio of silicon densities/mi cro pro ces sors
and data trans mis sion char ac ter is tics of light, show that many core
information tech nol o gies are in the early stages of com mer cial ex-
ploitation and that sev er al generations are to come be fore we start
running up against physical lim its. The implication is that, while we
may be awedand stressed out!by com put ers and the Internet to-
day, we aint seen nothing yet.
8. From conversations with Torrey Byles, an economic analyst and
con sult ant spe cial iz ing in Internet commerce and the digital econ-
o my, August to De cem ber 1997. Torrey can be reached at Granada
Research, P.O. Box 2601, El Granada, Cal i for nia, 94018, phone at 650-
726-3002.
9. Cited in David Champion, Marketing: Technologys Garden of Par-
a dox, Harvard Business Review (July-August 1998), p. 12. Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review
10. Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls and David Weinberger,
The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual, p. 148. The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 235
[ 236 ] From Chaos to Coherence
11. Jim Taylor and Watts Wacker, with Howard Means, The 500-Year Del-
ta: What Hap pens After What Comes Next (New York: HarperCollins, ta: What Hap pens After What Comes Next ta: What Hap pens After What Comes Next
1997), p. 115.
12. From a conversation with Torrey Byles.
13. Leif Edvinsson and Michael S. Malone, Intellectual Capital: Realizing
Your Com pa nys True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower (New
York: HarperCollins, 1997), p. 34.
14. From a conversation with Byles.
15. Ibid.
16. Prime Minister Goh Chok Tongs vision for Singapore 21, as reported
in The Straits Times (June 7, 1997). Singapore 21 is a high-level gov- The Straits Times The Straits Times
ern ment ini tia tive for helping the country maintain its excellence
into the 21st cen tu ry, while en sur ing increasing levels of balance for
the people.
Chapter 9
1. Glen Rein, Mike Atkinson, and Rollin McCraty, The Physiological
and Psy cho log i cal Effects of Compassion and Anger, Journal of Ad-
vance ment in Med i cine 8, no. 2 (1995), pp. 87105. vance ment in Med i cine vance ment in Med i cine
2. Jon Gice, The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Workers
Com pen sa tion Claims, CPCU Journal 48, no. 3 (September 1995),
pp. 17884.
3. Phil Smith, Emotional Climate Is More Than Just a Feeling, The
Edge News let ter, Edgecumbe Consulting Group (August 1997). The
Edgecumbe Con sult ing Group can be reached at Edgecumbe Hall,
Rich mond Hill, Clifton, Bristol BS8 1AT, Unit ed Kingdom, phone at
0117-973-8899.
4. Steven P. Brown and Thomas V. Leigh, A New Look at Psychological
Climate and Its Relationship to Job Involvement, Effort and Per for -
mance, Journal of Ap plied Psychology 81, no. 4 (1996), pp. 35868. Journal of Ap plied Psychology Journal of Ap plied Psychology
5. Ibid., p. 361.
6. Ibid.
7. Reported in article by Ron Winslow, Underused Skills Raise Risks of
De vel op ing Heart Disease, The Wall Street Journal (July 25, 1997). The Wall Street Journal The Wall Street Journal
8. Contact HeartMath LLC for complete information.
9. David Pendleton, Organizational Coherence Survey Manual, In sti tute Organizational Coherence Survey Manual Organizational Coherence Survey Manual
of HeartMath, 14700 West Park Avenue, Boulder Creek, CA, 95006,
phone at 831-338-8500.
10. Ibid.
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 236
References [ 237 ] [ 237 [ 237
Chapter 10
1. James C. Collins and Jerry Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of
Vi sion ary Com pa nies (New York: HarperBusiness, 1994), p. xx. Vi sion ary Com pa nies Vi sion ary Com pa nies
2. James L. Heskett, W. Earl Sasser, Jr., and Leonard A. Schlesinger, The
Service-Proft Chain: How Leading Companies Link Proft and Growth
to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue (New York: The Free Press, 1997). to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue
3. Ibid., p. 249.
4. D. C. McClelland and C. Kirshnit, The Effects of Motivational Arous-
al Through Films on Salivary Immunoglobulin A, Psy cho log i cal
Health 2 (1988), pp. 3152. Health Health
5. Tom Peters, You Gotta Have Heart, Canadian Airlines Magazine
(Feb ru ary 1994).
6. Carol Montgomery, The Care-Giving Relationship: Paradoxical and
Tran scen dent Aspects, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 23, no. 2 Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Journal of Transpersonal Psychology
(1991).
7. An album of music designed to enhance mental and emotional bal-
ance. Doc Childre, Heart Zones, Planetary Publications, 1994.
Chapter 11
1. The event was the 1995 YPO (Young Pres i dents Or ga ni za tion) In ter -
na tion al Uni ver si ty in Wash ing ton, DC. Bruce Cryer was pre sent ing
HeartMath tech nol o gy in sev er al work shops to the CEOs. Ben Zan-
der, conductor of the Bos ton Phil har mon ic, was the con duc tor.
2. James L. Heskett, W. Earl Sasser, Jr., and Leonard A. Schlesinger, The
Ser vice-Proft Chain: How Leading Companies Link Proft and Growth
to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue (New York: The Free Press, 1997). to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue to Loyalty, Sat is fac tion, and Val ue
3. Ibid., p. 237.
4. Ibid., p. 238.
5. Herb Kelleher, A Culture of Commitment, Leader to Leader, no. 4
(Spring 1997), p. 20.
6. Executive Survey: Compassion Is Important for Future Busi-
ness Lead ers, Cornell Chronicle 28, no. 10 (October 24, 1996). Cornell Chronicle Cornell Chronicle
Cornell Uni ver si ty Johnson Grad u ate School of Management.
www.gsm.cornell.edu/Newideas/leadershipsurvey2.html.
7. Margaret J. Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science: Learning
about Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe (San Francisco: Ber- about Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe about Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe
rett-Koehler, 1992), pp. 3839.
8. Jim Throneburg, chairman of Thorlo, has attended several Heart-
Math pro grams at our facility in California. We also provided train-
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 237
[ 238 ] From Chaos to Coherence
ing and con sult ing services to the company at its facilities in North
Carolina.
9. Patrick L. Townsend and Joan E. Gebhardt, The Three Priorities of
Lead er ship, Leader to Leader, no. 4 (Spring 1997), p. 13.
Chapter 12
1. Leif Edvinsson and Michael S. Malone, Intellectual Capital: Realizing
Your Com pa nys True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower (New Your Com pa nys True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower Your Com pa nys True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower
York: HarperCollins, 1997), p. 49.
14 References FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:48 PM 238
Glossary
amygdala The key subcortical brain center that coordinates amygdala amygdala
be hav ior al, neu ral, immunological, and hormonal responses
to en vi ron men tal threats. It also serves as the storehouse
of emo tion al memory within the brain. Its function is to
compare in com ing signals from the environment with stored
emotional memories. In this way, the amygdala makes
in stantaneous de ci sions about the threat level of incoming
sensory in for ma tion. Due to its extensive connections to the
hypothalamus and other autonomic nervous system centers,
the amygdala is able to activate the autonomic nervous system
and emo tion al responses before the higher brain centers
receive the sen so ry information.
appreciation An active emotional state in which one has clear
per cep tion or recognition of the quality or magnitude of
that to be thankful for. Ap pre ci a tion also leads to improved
phys i o log i cal balance, as measured in cardiovascular and
immune system function.
asset-defcit balance sheet An IQM tool for evaluating the asset-defcit balance sheet asset-defcit balance sheet
assets and def cits of any project, pending decision, employee
per for mance, or for a wide variety of other uses. In conjunction
with Freeze-Frame, the asset-def cit balance sheet can yield
sur pris ing insights and clar i ty on personal and professional
is sues.
[ 239 ]
Note: Freeze-Frame, Inner Quality Management (IQM), Heart Lock-in, Heart Map-
ping and HeartMath are registered trademarks of the Institute of HeartMath.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 239
[ 240 ] From Chaos to Coherence
autonomic nervous system The portion of the nervous
system that reg u lates most of the bodys involuntary
functions, in clud ing mean heart rate, the movements
of the gas trointes ti nal tract, and the se cre tions of many
glands. Consisting of two branches (the sym pa thet ic and
para sym pa thet ic), the au to nom ic nervous system reg u lates
over 90% of the bodys func tions. The heart, brain, im mune,
hormonal, respiratory, and di ges tive systems are all con nect ed
by this network of nerves.
balance Stability, equilibrium, or the even distribution of weight balance balance
on each side of a vertical axis. The term also used to denote
mental or emotional stability.
baroreceptor system Nerve receptors within the heart and
ar ter ies that are sensitive to pressure changes and transmit
neu ral in for ma tion to the brain to help regulate short-term
blood pressure. The neu ral signals sent via the baroreceptor
system have numerous ef fects on the brain and are able to
alter per cep tion in the higher brain centers.
cardiac coherence A mode of cardiac function in which the
hearts rhyth mic and electrical output is highly ordered.
HeartMath research has shown that positive emotions such
as love, care, and appreciation in crease the co her ence in the
hearts rhythmic beating patterns. Dur ing states of cardiac
co her ence, brain wave patterns have been shown to entrain
with heart rate variability patterns, nervous system balance
and immune func tion are en hanced, and the body functions
with in creased har mo ny and effciency.
cardiovascular system The system in the human body
con sti tut ing the heart and the blood vessels.
caring This is an inner attitude or feeling of true service, with caring caring
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 240
Glossary [ 241 ]
no agen da or attachment to the outcome. Sincere caring is
re ju ve nat ing for both the giv er and receiver.
cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable
of in de pen dent functioning. A complex unit of protoplasm
usu al ly with a nu cleus, cytoplasm, and an enclosing
membrane.
cellular Containing or consisting of cells. cellular cellular
cerebral cortex The most highly developed area of the brain, cerebral cortex cerebral cortex
which gov erns all higher order human capabilities such as
lan guage, cre ativ i ty, and prob lem solving. The cortex, like
other brain centers, con tin ues to develop new neural circuits or
net works throughout life.
chaos Great disorder or confusion; incoherence. Comes from the
Greek word khaos, meaning unformed matter. The dis or dered khaos khaos
state held to have existed before the ordered universe.
coherence Logical connectedness, internal order, or harmony
among the components of a system. The term also can refer
to the tendency toward increased order in the informational
con tent of a system or in the in for ma tion fow between systems.
In physics, two or more wave forms that are phase-locked
to geth er so that their energy is con struc tive are de scribed as
co her ent. Coherence also can be at trib ut ed to a single wave
form, in which case it denotes an ordered or constructive
dis tri bu tion of power content. Recently, the scientifc interest
in coherence in living sys tems has been growing. When a
sys tem is coherent, virtually no energy is wasted because of the
in ter nal synchronization among the parts. In or ga ni za tions,
in creased coherence enables the emergence of new levels of
cre ativ i ty, co op er a tion, productivity, and quality on all levels.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 241
[ 242 ] From Chaos to Coherence
coherent communication Communication between in di vid u als
that is seam less, focused, and free of inner mind static. The co-
herent shar ing of information is a key to business ef fec tive ness
and a pri ma ry way to re duce stress. Coherent com mu ni ca tion
is Dynamic 2 of inner quality man age ment and involves
achieving understanding frst, listening nonjudgmentally, lis-
ten ing for the essence, and au then tic dialogue.
cortical inhibition A desynchronization or reduction of cortical
ac tiv i ty, be lieved to result from the erratic heart rhythms and
resulting neural sig nals transmitted from the heart to the brain
during stress and negative emotional states. This condition can
manifest in less ef f cient decision-making capability, lead ing
to poor or shortsighted decisions, ineffective or impulsive
communication, and reduced phys i cal coordination.
cortisol A hormone produced by the adrenal glands during
stress ful sit u a tions, commonly known as the stress hormone.
Excessive cor ti sol, while an essential hormone, has many
harm ful effects on the body and can de stroy brain cells in the
hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learn ing
and memory.
DHEA An essential hormone produced by the adrenal DHEA DHEA
glands known as the vitality hormone because of its hormone hormone
antiaging prop er ties. As the bodys nat u ral antagonist of the
glucocorticoid hor mones, such as cortisol, DHEA re vers es
many of the un fa vor able physiological effects of ex ces sive
stress. It is the pre cur sor of the sex hormones estrogen and
tes t oster one; and its var ied functions include stimulating the
im mune system, low er ing cho les ter ol levels, and promoting
bone and muscle deposition. Low DHEA levels have been
reported in patients with many major dis eas es.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 242
Glossary [ 243 ]
DNA A complex molecule, found in every cell of the body, that DNA DNA
carries the genetic information or blueprint determining
in di vid u al he red i tary char ac ter is tics. An essential component
of all living matter, DNA is a nucleic acid consisting of two long
chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and is the
ma jor constituent of chro mo somes.
electromagnetic signal In physics, the term is used to describe
a wave prop a gat ed through space or matter by the oscillating
elec tric and mag net ic feld generated by an oscillating electric
charge. In the hu man body, the heart is the most powerful
source of electromagnetic energy.
emotion A strong feeling. Any of various complex reactions
with both men tal and physical manifestations, as love, joy,
sorrow, or anger. Emo tion al energy is neutral, attaching itself
to pos i tive or negative thoughts to create emotions.
emotional virus A metaphorical term used to describe the result
of emo tion al mismanagement within an organization. This
vi rus thrives in the gap between our expectations and the
reality we per ceive. The internal im balances created by an
emotional virus per pet u ate ongoing distortion and obstacles
until re solved. This con cept is part of Dynamic 3, boosting the
or ga ni za tion al climate.
entrainment A phenomenon seen throughout nature, whereby entrainment entrainment
sys tems or organisms exhibiting periodic behavior will fall into
sync and oscillate at the same frequency and phase. A common
example of this phenomenon is the synchronization of two
or more pendulum clocks placed near each oth er. In human
be ings, the entrainment of different oscillating biological
systems to the primary frequency of the heart rhythms often
is observed during positive emotional states. This state
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 243
[ 244 ] From Chaos to Coherence
represents a highly effcient mode of bodily function and is
associated with height ened clarity, buoy an cy, and inner peace.
Entrained teams are those that operate with a higher degree of
synchronization, ef f cien cy, and coherent communication.
epinephrine An adrenal hormone that stimulates the heart,
in creas es mus cu lar strength and endurance, constricts the
blood vessels, and raises blood pressure. Also known as
adren a line.
Freeze-Frame A key tool used in Dynamic 1, internal self-
man age ment, that consists of consciously disengaging ones
mental and emotional reactions to either external or internal
events. The cen ter of attention then is shifted from the mind
and emotions to the physical area around the heart while focus
is on a positive emotion such as love or ap pre ci a tion. This tool
is designed to re lease and prevent stress through stop ping
ineffcient reactions in the mo ment to provide a window of
op por tu ni ty for new, in tu i tive perspectives. Freeze-Frame has
nu mer ous applications for creative thinking, innovation, and
planning, as well as improving overall health and well-being.
frequency The number of times any action, occurrence, or event frequency frequency
is re peated in a given period. In physics, it is the number of
pe ri od ic os cil la tions, vi bra tions, or waves per unit of time,
usually expressed in cy cles per second. Human intelligence
operates with in a large band width of frequencies.
heart A hollow, muscular organ in vertebrates that keeps the heart heart
blood in cir cu la tion throughout the body by means of its
rhyth mic con trac tions and re lax ations. It is the bodys central
and most powerful en er gy generator and rhythmic oscillator;
a complex, self-organized in for ma tion pro cess ing system with
its own functional little brain that continually trans mits
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 244
Glossary [ 245 ]
neu ral, hormonal, rhythmic, and pressure messages to the
brain.
heart-brain entrainment A state in which very low frequency heart-brain entrainment heart-brain entrainment
brain waves and heart rhythms are frequency locked
(en trained). This phe nom e non has been associated with
sig nif cant shifts in per cep tion and heightened intuitive
awareness.
heart intelligence A term coined to express the concept of the
heart as an intelligent system with the power to bring both the
emotional and mental systems into balance and coherence.
heart rate variability (HRV) The normally occurring beat-to-
beat chang es in heart rate. Analysis of HRV is an important
tool used to assess the func tion and balance of the autonomic
ner vous system. HRV is con sid ered a key indicator of aging
and cardiac and overall health.
hologram A three-dimensional image made of light, created
by an in ter fer ence pattern of two interacting laser beams
re cord ed on pho to graph ic flm. Holo means complete or total. Holo Holo
Gram means a writing, drawing, or record of the image. Gram Gram
holographic principle A unique property of a hologram is that
ev ery por tion of the image contains all the information necessary
to produce the whole. The holographic principle that every
part con tains the whole is mirrored in the cellular structure of
the hu man body, whereby every cell contains the in for ma tion
necessary to create a duplicate of the entire organism.
hormonal system A hormone is a substance produced by living
cells that circulates in the body fuids and produces a specifc
effect on the activity of cells remote from its point of origin.
The hormonal sys tem is made up of the many hormones
that act and interact through out the body to reg u late many
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 245
[ 246 ] From Chaos to Coherence
met a bol ic functions, and the cells, organs, and tissues that
man u fac ture them.
immune system The integrated bodily system of organs,
tissues, cells, and cell products, such as antibodies, that
differentiates self from nonself within our body and
neutralizes po ten tial ly pathogenic or gan isms or sub stanc es
that cause disease. The organizational im mune system is
built on the core val ues known to enhance personal fulfllment
and well-being, elim i nat ing the emotional viruses that can
permeate and de stroy the effectiveness and coherence of the
or ga ni za tion.
insight The faculty of seeing into inner character or underlying insight insight
truth and ap prehending the true nature of a thing; a clear
un der stand ing or aware ness.
internal coherence A deep state of internal self-management
in which one is generating increased order and harmony
in the physical, men tal, and emotional systems. In this
state, the car dio vas cu lar, im mune, hormonal, and nervous
systems func tion with heightened ef f cien cy. States of in ter nal
coherence are associated with reduced emotional reactivity,
greater men tal clarity, creativity, adaptability, and fexibility.
internal self-management Dynamic 1 of inner quality internal self-management internal self-management
man age ment, the active process of reducing and neutralizing
ones au to mat ic men tal and emotional reactions to events or
sit u a tions, instead of being their un wit ting victim.
intuition Intelligence and understanding that bypasses the
log i cal, lin ear cognitive processes. The faculty of direct
knowing as if by in stinct, with out conscious reasoning. Pure,
untaught, in fer en tial knowl edge with a keen and quick insight;
common sense.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 246
Glossary [ 247 ] [ 247 [ 247
intuitive intelligence A type of intelligence distinct from
cog ni tive pro cess es, which derives from the consistent use
and ap pli ca tion of ones in tu ition. Research is showing that
the hu man capacity to meet lifes chal leng es with fuidity
and grace is based not on knowledge, logic, or reason alone
but also in cludes the ability to make intuitive decisions.
HeartMath re search suggests that, with training and prac tice,
human be ings can develop a high level of operational intuitive
intelligence.
intuitive listening A means of communicating that involves intuitive listening intuitive listening
deep ly lis ten ing to the other person while maintaining a neutral
and emo tion al ly balanced inner attitude. This communication
technique enables us more readily to understand the essence
of a conversation and often to perceive additional levels of
subtlety within the information being communicated.
limbic system A group of cortical and subcortical brain struc tures
in volved in emotional processing and certain aspects of
memory. These structures include the hypothalamus,
thal a mus, hip poc am pus, and amygdala, among others.
nervous system The system of cells, tissues, and organs that
co or di nates and regulates the bodys responses to internal and
external stim u li. In ver te brates, the nervous system is made up
of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and nerve centers
in receptor and effector organs.
neural circuits Neural pathways consisting of interconnected
neurons in the brain and body through which specifc
in for ma tion is pro cessed. Re search has shown that many of
these neural connections develop in early childhood, based
on our experiences and the type of stimulation we re ceive.
Likewise, even later in life, different neural cir cuits can either
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 247
[ 248 ] From Chaos to Coherence
be re in forced or atrophy, depending on how fre quent ly we
use them. Specifc circuits form and are reinforced through
repeated be hav ior, and in this way both physical and
emo tion al responses can become hardwired and automatic
in our sys tem.
neuron Any of the cells that make up the nervous system,
con sist ing of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites
and a single axon. Neu rons are the fundamental structural and
func tion al units of ner vous tissue.
neutral In physics, having a net electric charge of zero. With
ref er ence to machinery, it means a position in which a set of
gears is dis en gaged. In human beings, it is a state in which we
have consciously disengaged from our automatic mental and
emo tion al reactions to a situation or issue in order to gain a
wider perspective.
organizational incoherence A state resulting from accumulated
in ter nal noise, turmoil, pressure, and confict among
the in di vid u als that make up an organization. This state
is char ac ter ized by distorted per cep tion, high levels of
emotional re ac tiv i ty, and decreased ef f cien cy, cooperation,
and pro duc tiv i ty.
overcaring The result of caring taken to an ineffcient extreme overcaring overcaring
and cross ing the line into anxiety and worry. Overcaring is
one of the great est in hib i tors of personal and organizational
re sil ience. It has become so natural that people often do
not know they are ex pe ri enc ing it, because it pos tures itself
as caring. As individuals learn to identify and plug the leaks
in their own per son al systems caused by overcaring, they
stop draining en er gy and effectiveness, personally and
organizationally.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 248
Glossary [ 249 ]
parasympathetic The branch of the autonomic nervous
system that slows or relaxes bodily functions. This part of
the nervous system is analogous to the brakes in a car. Many
known dis eas es and disorders are associated with diminished
para sym pa thet ic function.
perception The act or faculty of apprehending by means of
the sens es; the way in which an individual views a situation
or event. How we per ceive an event or an issue underlies
how we think, feel, and react to that event or is sue. Our level
of aware ness determines our initial per cep tion of an event
and our abil i ty to extract meaning from the avail able data.
Re search is show ing that when the minds logic and intellect are
har mo ni ous ly in te grat ed with the hearts intuitive intelligence,
our per cep tion of situations can change signifcantly, offering
wider per spec tives and new possibilities.
quantum theory A mathematical theory that describes quantum theory quantum theory
the be hav ior of phys i cal systems. It is particularly useful
in studying the energetic char ac ter is tics of matter at the
subatomic level. One of the key prin ci ples of quantum theory
is that we are not merely observing reality but par tic i pat ing in
the way we create our reality.
solar plexus The large network of nerves located in the area
of the bel ly just below the sternum, named for the raylike
pat terns of its nerve fbers. This neural network is distributed
through out the tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small
in tes tine, and colon, some times called the enteric nervous
system or system system gut brain.
stress Pressure, strain, or a sense of inner turmoil resulting from
our per cep tions and reactions to events or conditions. A state
of negative emo tion al arousal, usually associated with feelings
of discomfort or anxiety that we attribute to our circumstances
or situation.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 249
[ 250 ] From Chaos to Coherence
sympathetic The branch of the autonomic nervous system that sympathetic sympathetic
speeds up bodi ly functions, preparing us for mobilization
and ac tion. The fght or fight response to stress activates the
sym pa thet ic nervous system and causes the contraction of
blood ves sels and a rise in heart rate and many other bodily
responses. This part of the nervous system is anal o gous to the
gas pedal in a car.
time shift Used here to describe the time saved when we are time shift time shift
able to dis en gage from an ineffcient mental or emotional
re ac tion and make a more effcient choice. Time shifting stops
a chain-link re ac tion of time and en er gy waste and catapults
peo ple into a new do main of time management, where there is
greater energy effciency and fulfllment.
15 Glossary FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:54 PM 250
Selected Reading
Autry, James A. Love and Proft: The Art of Caring Leadership.
New York: Wil l iam Morrow and Company, 1991.
Block, Peter. Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest. Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest
San Fran cisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1993.
Carter, Louis (editor). The Change Champion's Fieldguide: Strat-
egies and Tools for Leading Change in Your Organization. Bos-
ton, MA: Best Practice Publications, 2003.
Childre, Doc. Overcoming Emotional Chaos. San Diego, CA: Jo-
dere Group, Inc., 2002.
Childre, Doc. Transforming Anger. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Transforming Anger Transforming Anger
Press, 2003.
Childre, Doc. Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Stress Management. Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Stress Management Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Stress Management
Boul der Creek, CA: Planetary Publications, 1994; Revised edi-
tion, 1998.
Childre, Doc, and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. San
Fran cisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999.
Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. Built to Last: Successful
Hab its of Vi sion ary Companies. New York: HarperBusiness,
1994.
Collins, James C. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the
Leap and Others Don't. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. Leap and Others Don't Leap and Others Don't
[ 251 ]
16 Selected reading FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:55 PM 251
[ 252 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Conner, Daryl R. Managing at the Speed of Change: How Resilient
Man ag ers Suc ceed and Prosper Where Others Fail. New York:
Villard Books, 1993.
Cooper, Robert, and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ: Emotional
In tel li gence in Leadership and Organizations. New York:
Grosset/Putnam, 1997.
Cooper, Robert. The Other 90%. Three Rivers Press, 2002.
Covey, Stephen R. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People:
Pow er ful Lessons in Personal Change. New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1989.
Cryer, Bruce, Rollin McCraty, and Doc Childre. "Pull the Plug on
Stress." Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, July 2003. Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review
DePree, Max. Leadership Is an Art. New York: Dell, 1989. Leadership Is an Art Leadership Is an Art
DePree, Max. Leadership Jazz. New York: Dell, 1992.
Edvinsson, Leif, and Michael S. Malone. Intellectual Capital:
Re al iz ing Your Companys True Value by Finding Its Hidden
Brainpower. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Brainpower Brainpower
Frankl, Victor. Mans Search for Meaning. New York: Simon and Mans Search for Meaning Mans Search for Meaning
Schuster, 1970.
Frost, Peter. Toxic Emotions at Work: How Compassionate Man-
agers Handle Pain and Confict. Boston, MA: Harvard Business agers Handle Pain and Confict agers Handle Pain and Confict
School Press, 2003.
Galvin, Robert W. The Idea of Ideas. Schaumburg, IL: Motorola
Uni ver si ty Press, 1991.
Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can
Make a Big Difference. Boston, MA: Back Bay Books, 2002.
16 Selected reading FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:55 PM 252
Selected Reading [ 253 ]
Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter
More than IQ. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
Goleman, Daniel. Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of
Emotional Intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Publishing, 2002.
Heifetz, Ronald. Leadership on the Line. Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School Press, 2002.
Helgesen, Sally. The Web of Inclusion. New York: Doubleday,
1995.
Heskett, James L., W. Earl Sasser, Jr., and Leonard A. Schlesinger.
The Ser vice-Proft Chain: How Leading Companies Link Proft
and Growth to Loyalty, Satisfaction, and Value. New York: The
Free Press, 1997.
Hesselbein, Frances, Marshall Goldsmith, and Richard Beckhard.
The Leader of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.
Jaworski, Joseph. Synchronicity: The Inner Path of Leadership.
San Fran cisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1996.
Johansen, Robert, and Rob Swigart. Upsizing the Individual in the
Downsized Or ganization: Managing in the Wake of Reengineer-
ing, Glo bal iza tion, and Over whelm ing Technological Change.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1996.
Land, George, and Beth Jarman. Breakpoint and Beyond: Mas-
ter ing the Future Today. New York: HarperBusiness, 1992.
Locke, Christopher, and Rick Levine. The Cluetrain Manifesto.
Perseus Publishing, 2001.
O'Reilly, Charles A., and Jeffrey Pfeffer. Hidden Value: How Great
Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary Peo-
ple. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
16 Selected reading FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:55 PM 253
[ 254 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler. Reinventing Government: How
the En tre pre neur ial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector
New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
OShea, James, and Charles Madigan. Dangerous Company: The
Con sult ing Pow er hous es and the Businesses They Save and
Ruin. New York: Random House, 1997.
Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence: A Blueprint
of the Human Spirit. Inner Traditions, 2002. of the Human Spirit of the Human Spirit
Peters, Tom. The Pursuit of Wow: Every Persons Guide to Topsy-
Turvy Times. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.
Rechtschaffen, Stephan. Time Shifting: Creating More Time to
En joy Your Life. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
Schultz, Howard, and Dori Jones Yang. Pour Your Heart into It:
How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time. New York:
Hyperion, 1997.
Srivastva, Suresh, David L. Cooperrider, and Associates. Ap-
pre cia tive Man age ment and Leadership: The Power of Positive
Thought and Ac tion in Or ga ni za tions. San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass, 1990.
Taylor, Jim, and Watts Wacker, with Howard Means. The 500 Year
Delta: What Happens After What Comes Next. New York: Harp- Delta: What Happens After What Comes Next Delta: What Happens After What Comes Next
erCollins, 1997.
Tiller, William A. Science and Human Transformation: Subtle
En er gies, In ten tion al i ty En er gies, In ten tion al i t En er gies, In ten tion al i t and Consciousness. Walnut Creek, CA:
Pavior Pub lish ing, 1997.
Wheatley, Margaret J. Leadership and the New Science: Learning
about Or ga ni za tion from an Orderly Universe. San Francisco:
Berrett-Koehler, 1992.
16 Selected reading FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 1:55 PM 254
Index
[ 255 ]
500-Year Delta, The, 128
adaptability, of organizations,
167
amygdala
description of, 39
Appreciation, of teams, 198-199
Armour, J. A., Dr., 32
Asset-defcit balance sheet, 78
Authentic communication, 101-
103
Autonomic nervous system
divisions of, 41
stress and, 40
Balance
description of, 97
examples of, 97
Body language, 105
Brain
desynchronization of, 46
frst, 36
functions of, based on anato-
my, 36-37
second, 37
third, 38
Brown and Leigh study, of orga-
nizational cimate, 156
Burnout, 64, 155
Capital
human, 121-122
intellectual, 131
Cardiac coherence
defnition of, 11
Care
equation for, 170
organizational benefts of, 171
sincere, 172-173
Caregivers, 173-174
Cathay Pacifc Airways, 202-203
Challenger, 103
change
in organization, 15
Climate, of organization
boosting of, 141
defnition of, 154
ignoring of, 158
productivity and, relationship
between, 156
climate, of organization
description of, 4
Cluetrain Manifesto, The, 102,
104, 120, 127
Coaching, operationalized, 204-
205
Coherence
benefts of, 11
biomedical measurement of, 11
business success and, 34
cardiac
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 255
[ 256 ] From Chaos to Coherence
defnition of, 11
daily experience with, 10-11
effect of negative thoughts on,
10
effect of perception on, 23
entrainment and, 195
military, 207-208
progressive nature of, 12
scientifc example of, 9
Coherent communication
description of, 101
elements of, 99
principles of, 3, 6
Common sense
as form of intuition, 54
description of, 54
Communication
authentic
barriers to, 109-110
by body language, 105
description of, 101
elements of, 101
requirements for, 104
voice mail, 138
Computers
productivity effects, 130
Cooper, Robert Ph.D., xiii
Core Values
as organizational foundation,
165-166
Core values
as intelligence, 166
description of, 165
types of, 165
Cortical Inhibition, 46
Cortisol, release of, effect of
stress on, 41
Creativity, 152, 208, 220
Damasio, Antonio, 32
Decoding, 109
Delnor-Community Hospital,
197-198, 217
DHEA
description of, 43
maladaptation effects on, 61-62
DNA, 29
E-mail
organizational incoherence-
from, 123
reading strategies for, 136
Effciency
effect of listening on, 116
energy, from Freeze-Frame, 76
Einstein, Albert, 221, 227-228
Emotional hijacking, 39
Emotional Intelligence, 33
Emotional intelligence
biological origins of, 36-37
defnition of, 33
Emotional Virus
how to spot, 153-154
Emotional virus
description of, 146-147
elimination of, 146-149
globalization of, 151
individuals responsible for, 149
strengthening of organizational
immune system to p, 151
symptoms of, 154
Emotions
business success and, 35
coherence of, 49
drain of, 65
function of, 33
heart and, relationship be-
tween, 64-65
immune health and, 63
reciprocity, 48
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 256
Index [ 257 ] [ 257 [ 257
second brain processing of, 37
Encoding, 109
Energy
drain sources
description of, 83
judgmental, 94-96
unmet expectations, 89
effcient use of, 76
Entrainment
coherence and, 195
concept of, fgure, 13
defnition of, 13
examples of, 13
for teamwork success, 195
Executive EQ, xiii
Expectations
reality and, 90
sales, 91-93
unmet
destructive effects of, 89
energy expenditure for, 91
First, Break All The Rules, 49
Frankl, Victor, 23
Freeze-Frame
description of, 68-69
effect on information, 135-136
elements of, 72
energy effciency from, 76-77
for overcaring, 178
for reducing expectations, 94
heart intelligence, 71
reasons why it works, 71
steps, 69
Freeze-Framer, 140
Frequency
defnition of, 51
Frost, Robert, 101
Goleman, Daniel, 33
Gut brain, 31
Health
effect of genetics on, 62
productivity and, relationship
between, 21-22
stress and, 22
Heart
communication with brain,
44-45
entrainment of, 13
intrinsic nervous system in, 32
stress effects on, 64
survival of, 64
HeartMath
founding of, 2-3
heart intelligence defnition, 52
Heart intelligence
defnition of, 52
description of, 46
for discriminating signifcance
of events, 168-170
Freeze-Frame access to, 71
information technology and,
127-129
listening to, 102
Heart Lock-In, 181-182
Heart Mapping
applications, 212-213
description of, 208-210
teamwork improvements using,
210
Heskett, James, 189
Human capital, 130-133
Illness, in workplace, 158
Immune system
emotions and, 63
or organization, strengthening
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 257
[ 258 ] From Chaos to Coherence
to prevent emotiona, 151
Incoherence, organizational
consequences of, 35
e-mail and, 123
effect on individual coherence,
47
Incoherence, organizational
causes of, 93
Information
sharing of, intuitive intelli-
gence effects on, 134
value-added, 135
Information overload phenom-
enon, 124
Information technology
future of, 136-139
heart intelligent response to,
126-127
Inner Quality Management
development of, 3
dynamics of, 3
stress reduction, 198-199
Innovation, 112, 208, 220
Intellectual capital, 131-132
Intelligence
computing developments and
similarities between, 28
distributed, 31
distribution in human system, 2
frequencies of, 51
intuitive, 52-55
mental, 52
neural pathways of, 29
values as, 166
Internal self-management
case study of, 79-82
principles of, 5
well-being improvements,
79-80
Internet, 136, 139
Internet time, 135
Intuition
common sense as form of, 54
compassion and, 52
heart and, relationship be-
tween, 32
Intuitive intelligence
description of, 52-53
information sharing enhance-
ments using, 134
signifcance of events and, 169
Intuitive listening
description of, 110-111
elements of, 113
example of, 113
organizational applications,
117-119
Jackson, Phil, 195
Judgmentalness
causes for, 94
Kelleher, Herb, 192
laser, 9
Leadership and the New Science,
19
Listening
intuitive, 110-113
levels of, 110-111
to heart intelligence, 108
Maladaptation
description of, 58-59
hormonal, 61-62
to stress, 58-59
Management
key skills for, 193-195
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 258
Index [ 259 ]
overcaring by, 179
quantum, 222
service-proft chain approach,
189-190
Mandarin Oriental Hotel, 173
McClellan, David, 171
Medulla, 56
Memory
amygdala's role in, 39
automaticity of, 57
Mergers, 172
Military coherence, 207
Mind Mapping, 208-210
National Semiconductor, 211-
212, 214-215
Neutral
benefts of, 74
defnition of, 72
for negative reactions, 76
importance of, 74
workplace use of, 73
Organizational coherence
case study of, 20-21
effect of individual coherence
on, 12
measurement of, 12
survey to assess
description of, 159-164
Organizational incoherence
causes of, 93
consequences of, 35
e-mail and, 123
Organizations
adaptability of, 167
changes in, 15
composition of, 5
intuitive listening application
to, 117-119
Overachieving, 201
Overcare
defnition of, 174
draining effects of, 174-175
effect on effectiveness, 177
examples of, 174
Freeze-Frame for, 178
identifcation of, 175-178
in management style, 179
self-care for reducing, 180
Perception
amygdala's role in, 39
effect on coherence, 23
effect on stress-related emo-
tions, 39
or organization climate and
productivity, relation,
156-157
Personal and Organizational
Quality Assessment
(POQA), 133-134
Peters, Tom, 173
Presence, 226
Productivity
effect of computers on, 130
effect of organizational change
on, 15
health and, relationship be-
tween, 20-21
organizational climate and,
relationship between, 156
Quantum management, 222-223
Ratios, 92-94
Renewal
service-proft chain, 189-190
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 259
[ 260 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Renewal, of organization
principles of, 8
Sacred Hoops, 195
Schlesinger, Leonard A., 189
Self-care
balanced, 180
coherence and, 180-181
descripton of, 180
Self-security, 223
Service-proft chain, 189-192
Service-Proft Chain, The, 167
Signifcance, of events, 168-170
Sincerity, 172-173, 200
Skandia, 223
Southwest Airlines, 87, 192
Strasser, W. Earl, Jr., 189
Strategy, 188
Stress
annual costs associated with, 16
cortisol release and, 41
effect on cortical brain regions,
46
globalization of, 16-18
health and, 22
in workplace, 16
maladaptation to, 58-59
physiological effects of, 61-62
prevention of, 75
word origin of, 59
Teams
appreciation of, 198-199
overachieving of, 201-202
Technology
data increases, 122-123
growths in, 121-122
informatin quality increases
from, 128-129
Thorlo, 205-207
Time
convenience, 88
management of, 83-86
problem resolution after expen-
diture, 85-86
unmanageable state of, 89
wizards in use of, 87
Time shift, 84-85
Tone of voice, 105
Tzu, Lao, 199
Underachievers, 202
Value-added information, 135
Virus, emotional
description of, 146-147
eliminations of, 149
globalization, 151
how to spot, 153-154
methods of attacking, 144
strengthening of organizational
immune system to p, 151
symptoms of, 154
Voice-mail, 138
Vulnerability, 227-228
Web, 104, 114, 220
Wheatley, Margaret, 19, 204-205
17 Index FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:44 PM 260
Building a High
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For more information on HeartMaths programs call (800) 450-9111
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[ 261 ]
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 261
HeartMath Products For
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[ 262 ]
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 262
[ 263 ]
HeartMath Research
and Ed u ca tion
THE INSTITUTE OF HEARTMATH (IHM) IS A NONPROFIT RE SEARCH
and education organization thats chang ing our un der stand ing of
emotions, intelligence, and the role of the heart.
IHM offers a comprehensive range of tools, techniques, and
learn ing programs for use in ed u ca tion al and classroom set tings:
Resiliency programs designed for teachers and principals seek ing
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18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 263
Acknowledgments
DOC ORIGINALLY ESTABLISHED THE INSTITUTE TO BRING
together the felds of sci ence, health, psychology, and busi ness.
It grew very quick ly; so in 1998, we launched HeartMath LLC
to provide train ing and consulting services glo bal ly in all the
mar kets for mer ly served by the institute. In 1999 HeartMath
merged with Planetary Publications, a pub lish er of books, CDs,
CD-ROMs, and interactive software. The In sti tute con tin ues as a
lead ing-edge not-for-proft re search or ga ni za tion. Many peo ple
with in these two or ga ni za tions, as well as clients and col leagues,
played key roles in helping bring this book into ex ist ence. Sara
Paddisons editing help was cen tral to the books co her ence.
Rollin McCraty was an in valu able re search advisor, and Tom
Beckman has scoured the Internet and World Wide Web for the
last several years in search of data related to the is sues of work-
place pro duc tiv i ty, health care, stress, and cor po rate ef f cien cy.
A spe cial thanks to Dr. Karl Pribram and Dr. Lee Lipsenthal for
their con tri bu tions to the chap ter on hu man in tel li gence. Tricia
Hoffman, Christiana Bramlet, Jen ni fer Barr, Dana Tomasino,
and Veronica Yousoofan added tre men dous ly to this research
ef fort, while Bran di Barchi and Sherye Woodley were es sen tial
in keeping the pieces or ga nized and clear. Kathryn McArthur
and JJ McCraty were in valu able in book design and layout,
and Jo seph Sundrams per spec tive was a tre men dous asset to
the f nal chap ter, as was Sibyl Cryers through out the process.
Thanks also to Dan Drabek for his excellent cover design. As
ex ec u tive vice president of HeartMath LLC, Deborah Rozman
helped guide every phase of HeartMaths development. Howard
Martin, executive vice pres i dent and chief creativity offcer, also
[ 264 ]
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 264
[ 265 ]
made many valu able con tri bu tions to this work as well as as sis -
tance and di rec tion in the entire pub li ca tion pro cess. Euphrasia
Carroll and Dan Bish ops work in helping create the CD-ROM
based on the books frst edition, infuenced the creation of this
new edition.
We also want to thank our British partners, Chris Sawicki
and Lynn Adamson of Hunter-Kane Ltd.; Wendy Parker; Rob ert
Cooper, author of Ex ec u tive EQ; Vivian Wright of Hewlett-Pack-
ard; Torrey Byles of Granada Re search; Cassandra Pulig of Sil-
i con Graph ics; Peter Buecking of One World Alliance; Jim War-
ren of the War ren Fi nan cial Group; and Wolfgang Hultner of
Mandarin Ori en tal Hotels, all of whom of fered en cour age ment
and valued in put.
Enjoy!
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 265
[ 266 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Doc Childre
IN 1991 DOC FOUNDED THE INSTITUTE OF HEARTMATH
(IHM), a non proft re search and training organization dedicated
to re search ing the role of the heart in the human system, and
putting the heart back into social systems. He as sem bled a
talented team of research scientists, pro fes sion al educators,
and businesspeople who care deeply about the stress es people
face today. HeartMath tools help people systematically learn
how to utilize heart in tel li gence for greater health, well-being,
improved com mu ni ca tion skills, and job satisfaction.
Doc consults to presidents and leaders in organizations in
how to cre ate profound shifts in decision-making effectiveness,
time use, and pro duc tiv i ty, while dramatically enhancing
per son al balance and well-be ing. HeartMath provides
individuals and organizations with prac ti cal, sci en tif cal ly-
validated tech nol o gy that Doc developed to release stress in the
mo ment and fnd inner peace of mind and new hope. In 1998
IHM li censed its training and business consulting activities to
HeartMath LLC, of which Doc is chairman.
The HeartMath system has been featured in USA Today,
US News & World Report, CNN, NBCs Today Show, CBS
This Morn ing, Psy chol o gy Today, Industry Week, Army Times,
New York Times, Los Angeles Times, San Fran cisco Chronicle,
Truckers USA, and numerous other pub li ca tions that span many
facets of society.
Doc is the author of several other books that explore
ap pli ca tions of the HeartMath system:
The How to Book of Teen Self-Discovery (approved as a
text book in California)
Freeze-Frame: One-Minute Stress Management
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 266
[ 267 ] [ 267 [ 267
Teaching Children to Love: Raising Balanced Kids in
Un bal anced Times
The HeartMath Solution
Overcoming Emotional Chaos
Transforming Anger
Doc is also an acclaimed composer whose concept of
de sign er music became internationally recognized through his
frst album, Heart Zones. His second album, Speed of Balance,
is de scribed as a mu si cal adventure for emo tion al and mental
re gen er a tion. Quiet Joy is his latest release. Quiet Joy Quiet Joy
Doc founded Quantum Intech, Inc. in 2001, to develop
and license technology to enhance health, performance and
emotional balance. www.quantumintech.com.
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 267
[ 268 ] From Chaos to Coherence
Bruce Cryer
BRUCE BRINGS MORE THAN 25 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN
business man age ment, human per for mance training, and
organizational change to the position of Pres i dent and Chief
Executive Offcer for HeartMath LLC. Bruce helped launch
the In sti tute of HeartMath and is the key architect of the In ner
Qual i ty Man age ment (IQM) programs.
Bruce successfully guided HeartMath programs into
the glo bal cor po rate arena, with projects at McKinsey, Dupont,
Motorola, Hewlett-Packard, CIBC (Canadian Imperial Bank of
Commerce), Shell, LifeScan (a Johnson & Johnson company),
Liz Claiborne, and Cathay Pa cifc Airways. He has also trained
train ers who de liv er HeartMath programs in For tune 500
companies, health care organizations, the U.S. military, and
public and pri vate sector or ga ni za tions in Canada, Eu rope, and
Asia.
Bruce has edited more than 25 books on human per for mance,
stress re duction, and education. For eight years, Bruce served as
Vice Pres i dent for a biotech company, where his broad-based,
senior-level ex pe ri ence was in the areas of marketing, train ing,
distribution, project planning, logistics, and implementation.
Bruce is on the faculty of the Stanford Executive Program,
has lec tured at the Stanford Sloan Program, the University of
California at Ber ke ley Haas Busi ness School, the Santa Clara
University Leavey School of Busi ness, the Wharton Club,
and the Nanyang Poly tech nic Uni ver si ty School of Business
Management in Singapore. His views on developing a more
co her ent, effective workforce have been pre sent ed to audiences
such as the Federation of American Hospitals, Young Presidents
Organization (YPO), The Executive Com mit tee (TEC), Lessons in
Leadership Distinguished Speaker Series, several conferences
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 268
[ 269 ]
on emotional intelligence and systems thinking, and the Society
for Organizational Learning. He has also been interviewed in
or written for such pub li ca tions as Harvard Busi ness Review,
Business 2.0, New York Times, Christian Science Mon i tor,
Computerworld, CIO, Customer Service Professional, At Work,
Entrepreneur Magazine, Advance, and Ex ec u tive Excellence. He
has been a guest on hundreds of television and radio pro grams
na tion wide.
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 269
18 IHM_ACK_BIOS FCTC.ID 1/5/04, 12:07 PM 270