w ww . m a t h p or t a l.

o r g
Analytic Geometry Formulas
1. Lines in two dimensions
Line forms
Slope - intercept form:
y = mx + b
Line segment
A line segment
form by
P
1
P
2
can be represented in parametric
Two point form:
x = x
1
+ ( x
2
− x
1
)t
y − y
=
y
2
− y
1
( x − x )
y = y
1
+ ( y
2
− y
1
) t
1
x − x
1
Point slope form:
y − y
1
= m ( x − x
1
)
0 ≤ t ≤ 1
Two line segments
the numbers
P
1
P
2
and
P
3
P
4
intersect if any only if
Intercept form
x − x y − y x − x y − y
2 1 2 1 3 1 3 1
x
+
y
= 1 ( a, b ≠ 0)
x
3
− x
1
y
3
− y
1
x
3
− x
4
y
3
− y
4
a b
s =
x − x y − y
and t =
x − x y − y
Normal form:
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
x ⋅ cos σ + y sin σ
= p
x
3
− x
4
y
3
− y
4
x
3
− x
4
y
3
− y
4
Parametric form:
x = x
1
+ t cosα
y = y
1
+ t sin α
Point direction form:
x − x
1
=
y − y
1
A B
satisfy 0 ≤ s ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1
2. Triangles in two dimensions
Area
The area of the triangle formed by the three lines:
where (A,! is the direction of the line and P
1
( x
1
, y
1
)
lies
on the line"
A
1
x + B
1
y + C
1
= 0
#eneral form:
A ⋅ x + B ⋅ y + C = 0
A ≠ 0 or B ≠ 0
A
2
x + B
2
y + C
2
= 0
A
3
x + B
3
y + C
3
= 0
is gi\$en by
2
Distance
The distance from
Ax + By + C = 0 to P
1
( x
1
, y
1
)
is
A
1
B
1
C
1
A
2
B
2
C
2
A B C
K =
3 3 3
A ⋅ x + B ⋅ y + C
d =
1 1
A
2
+ B
2
2 ⋅
A
1
B
1
A
2
B
2

A
2
B
2
A
3
B
3

A
3
B
3
A
1
B
1
Concurrent lines
Three lines
The area of a triangle whose \$ertices are
P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) and P
3
( x
3
, y
3
) :
P
1
( x
1
, y
1
)
,
x
1
y
1
1
A
1
x
A
2
x
A
3
x
+ B
1
y
+ B
2
y
2 1
w ww . m a t h p or t a l. o r g
+ B
3
y
+ C
1
= 0
+ C
2
= 0
+ C
3
= 0
K =
1
x y 1
2
2 2
x
3
y
3
1
are concurrent if and only if:
K =
1
x
2
− x
1
y
2
− y
1
.
2 x − x y − y
A
1
B
1
A
2
B
2
A
3
B
3
C
1
C
2
= 0
C
3
3 1 3 1
Centroid
The centroid of a triangle whose \$ertices are
P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) and P
3
( x
3
, y
3
) :
( x, y)
=

x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
,
y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3

P
1
( x
1
, y
1
) ,
3. ircle
Equation of a circle
In an %-y coordinate system, the circle with centre (a, b!

3 3

and radius r is the set of all points (%, y! such that:
 
Incenter
The incenter of a triangle whose \$ertices are
P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) and P
3
( x
3
, y
3
) :
( x, y)
=

ax
1
+ bx
2
+ c x
3
,
ay
1
+ by
2
+ cy
3

P
1
( x
1
, y
1
) ,
( x − a )
2
+ ( y − b)
2
= r
2
&ircle is centred at the origin
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
Parametric e'uations
x = a + r cos t
y = b + r sin t

a + b + c a + b + c

 
where t is a parametric \$ariable"
In polar coordinates the e'uation of a circle is:
w!ere a is t!e lengt! o" P
2
P
3
, # is t!e lengt! o"
P
1
P
3
,
r
2
− 2rr cos (θ − ϕ ) + r
2
= a
2
and c is t!e lengt! o" P
1
P
2
.
o o
Area
Circumcenter
The circumcenter of a triangle whose \$ertices are
P
1
( x
1
, y
1
) , P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) and P
3
( x
3
, y
3
) :
A = r
2
π
Circumference
c = π ⋅ d = 2π ⋅ r

x
2
+ y
2
y 1 x x
2
+ y
2
1

Theoremes:

1 1 1 1 1 1

x
2
+
y
2
y 1 x x
2
+
y
2
1
(&hord theorem!
 2 2 2 2 2 2 

x
2
+ y
2
y 1 x x
2
+ y
2
1
 The chord theorem states that if two chords, &( and )*,
3 3 3 3 3 3
( x, y) = ,
intersect at #, then:
 x
1
y
1
1 x
1
y
1
1 
CD ⋅ DG = EG ⋅ FG
 

2 x
2
y
2
1 2 x
2
y
2
1

(Tangent-secant theorem!

x
3
y
3
1 x
3
y
3
1
 If a tangent from an e%ternal point ( meets the circle at
 
Orthocenter
The orthocenter of a triangle whose \$ertices are
P
1
( x
1
, y
1
) , P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) and P
3
( x
3
, y
3
) :
& and a secant from the e%ternal point ( meets the
circle at # and ) respecti\$ely, then
DC
2
= DG ⋅ DE
(Secant - secant theorem!
If two secants, (# and (), also cut the circle at + and *
respecti\$ely, then:
DH ⋅ DG = DF ⋅ DE

y x
x
+ y
2
1 x
2
+ y y x 1
 (Tangent chord property!

1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1

y x x
+
y
2
1 x
2
+
y y x 1
The angle between a tangent and chord is e'ual to the
 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 
subtended angle on the opposite side of the chord"

y x x + y
2
1 x
2
+ y y x 1

3 1 2 3 3 1 2 3
( x, y) = ,
 x
1
y
1
1 x
1
y
1
1 
 

2 x
2
y
2
1 2 x
2
y
2
1

x
3
y
3
1 x
3
y
3
1

4. onic \$ections
The Paraola
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from
a fi%ed point, called the focus, and a fi%ed line, called
the directri%, are always e'ual"
The standard formula of a paraola:
Eccentricit!:
a
2
− b
2
e =
a
"oci:
if a > b => F (−
a
2
− b
2
, 0) F ( a
2
− b
2
, 0)
1 2
y
2
= 2 px
if a < b => F (0, − b
2
− a
2
) F (0, b
2
− a
2
)
Parametric equations of the paraola:
x = 2 pt
2
y = 2 pt
1 2
Area:
K = π ⋅ a ⋅ b
Tangent line
Tangent line in a point D( x
0
, y
0
) of a
parabola
y
0
y = p
(
x + x
0
)
Tangent line with a gi\$en slope (m!
y = mx +
p
y
2
= 2 px
The #!perola
The set of all points in the plane, the difference of
whose distances from two fi%ed points, called the foci,
remains constant"
The standard formula of a h!perola:
x
2
y
2
− = 1
2m a
2
b
2
Tangent lines from a gi\$en point
Ta,e a fi%ed point P( x
0
, y
0
) "The e'uations of
the tangent lines are
y − y
0
= m
1
(
x − x
0
)
and
y − y
0
= m
2
(
x − x
0
)
where
Parametric equations of the #!perola
x =
a
sin t
y =
b sin t
cos t
Tangent line in a point D( x
0
, y
0
) of a hyperbola:
y + y
2
− 2 px
m =
0 0 0
and

x
0
x

y
0
y
2 x
0
y − y
2
− 2 px
− = 1
a
2
b
2
m =
0 0 0
2 x
0
"oci:
if a > b => F (−
a
2
+ b
2
, 0) F ( a
2
+ b
2
, 0)
1 2
if a < b => F (0, −
b
2
+ a
2
) F (0, b
2
+ a
2
)
The Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane, the sum of whose
distances from two fi%ed points, called the foci, is
a constant"
The standard formula of a ellipse
1 2
As!mptotes:
if a > b => y =
b
x and y = −
b
x
a a
x
2
y
2
a a
+ = 1
a
2
b
2
if a < b => y = x and y = − x
b b
Parametric equations of the ellipse
x = a cos t
y = b sin t
Tangent line in a point D( x
0
, y
0
) of a ellipse:
x
0
x y
0
y
+ = 1
1
1
a
2
b
2
%. &lanes in t!ree dimensions
Plane forms
Point direction form:
x − x
1
=
y − y
1
=
z − z
1
Equation of a plane
The e'uation of a plane through P
-
(%
-
,y
-
,.
-
! and
parallel to directions (a
-
,b
-
,c
-
! and (a
/
,b
/
,c
/
! has
e'uation
x − x
1
y − y
1
z − z
1
a b c
where P-(%-,y-,.-! lies in the plane, and the direction
(a,b,c! is normal to the plane"
a
1
b
1
a
2
b
2
c
1
= 0
c
2
%eneral form:
The e'uation of a plane through P
-
(%
-
,y
-
,.
-
! and
P
/
(%
/
,y
/
,.
/
!, and parallel to direction (a,b,c!, has e'uation
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
where direction (A,,&! is normal to the
plane"
x − x
1
x
2
− x
1
y − y
1
y
2
− y
1
z − z
1
z
2
− z
1
= 0
Intercept form:
x
+
y
+
z
= 1
a b c
this plane passes through the points (a,0,0!, (0,b,0!,
and
a b c
Distance
The distance of P-(%-,y-,.-! from the plane A% 1 y 1
&. 1 ( 2 0 is
(0,0,c!"
Ax + By + Cz
Three point form
d =
1 1 1
A
2
+ B
2
+ C
2
x − x
3
x
1
− x
3
y − y
3
y
1
− y
3
z − z
3
z
1
− z
3
= 0
Intersection
The intersection of two planes
x
2
− x
3
y
2
− y
3
z
2
− z
3 A
1
x + B
1
y + C
1
z + D
1
= 0,
&ormal form:
x cos α + y cos β + z cos γ
= p
Parametric form:
x = x
1
+ a
1
s + a
2
t
y = y
1
+ b
1
s + b
2
t
z = z
1
+ c
1
s + c
2
t
where the directions (a-,b-,c-! and (a/,b/,c/!
are
A
2
x + B
2
y + C
2
z + D
2
= 0,
is the line
x − x
1
=
y − y
1
=
z − z
1
,
a b c
where
B
1
C
1
a =
B
2
C
2
parallel to the plane"
Angle etween two planes:
The angle between two planes:
A
1
x + B
1
y + C
1
z + D
1
= 0
b =
C
1
C
2
c =
A
1
A
2
A
1
A
2
B
1
B
2
D
1
C
1
D
1
B
1
A
2
x + B
2
y + C
2
z + D
2
= 0
b − c
D C D B
is
A A + B B + C
C
arccos
1 2 1 2 1 2
x
1
=
2 2 2 2
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
D
1
A
1
D
1
C
1
A
2
+
B
2
+
C
2
A
2
+
B
2
+
C
2 c − c
1 1 1 2 2 2
The planes are parallel if and only if
D
2
A
2
D
2
C
2
y =
1 a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
A
1
=
B
1
=
C
1
D
1
B
1
D
1
A
1
A
2
B
2
C
2
a − b
D B D A
The planes are perpendicular if and only
if
z
1
=
2 2 2 2
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
A
1
A
2
+ B
1
B
2
+ C
1
C
2
=
0
If a 2 b 2 c 2 0, then the planes are parallel"