2.1 Introduction
This chapter essentially identifies and discusses scholarly publications and literature on the
subjects of Human Resource Planning and Human Resource Development. Structurally the
chapter collected definitions of the concepts, methods/processes of Human Resource Planning
and Human Resource Development and finally obstacles/challenges encountered of the activities
The chapter is introduced by sampling (albeit randomly) some definitions from diverse authors
of both Human Resource Planning and Human Resource Development with each of the
definitions immediately accompanied by an analytical commentary.
Furthermore, literature was examined to iidentify the steps in the processes of HRD and HRP. It
is conceded that are no universally agreed steps for either process, however, an attempt is made
in the chapter to harmonise the steps gathered and discussed.
A review of the suggested challenges faced with HRD and HRP, both theoretically and
practically, are collected from literature and evaluated holistically.
Finally the scholarly works were also combed to find the fundamental resources/tools needed for
a successful execution of HRD AND HRP in organisations.

2.2 The definitions of Human Resource development
The term human resource development (HRD) was first coined by Nadler (1970) and ever since
several definitions of the concept has been offered throughout its history by various scholars and
Much of the published literature on the definition of human resource development came from the
West, in the United States (Weinberger, 1998) and increasingly in Europe. This situation is
understandably so because the origins of HRD itself is traceable to the west, precisely in Europe
and the United States.
Even though there is a large collection of definitions for HRD, many scholars admit that there is
no single or universally accepted definition for HRD (see Haslinda, 2009). This situation is
partly due the fact that HRD as a dynamic concept has changed over time and continue to change
hence Weinberger (1998) concluded that HRD is rather a mosaic of multiple perspectives.

McGuire, O'Donnell, Garavan, & Murphy (2001) espoused this position when they wrote that
“HRD is undergoing an evolutionary transition. While it has arguably retained some of its roots
in the disciplines of training, development and education, the focus of HRD has broadened
considerably and the diverging purposes, which it now serves, for individuals and organisations
differ greatly” (p.1).
Below is a list of some of the definitions which appeared in literature, not organized in any
particular order

“Human Resource Development is any process or activity that, either initially or over the longer-
term, has the potential to develop adults’ work based knowledge, expertise, productivity, and
satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization,
community, nation, or, ultimately the whole humanity”
(McLean and McLean, 2001, p.1067).
HRD consists of programs and activities, direct and indirect, instructional and/or individual that
possibly affect the development of the individual and the productivity and profit of the
organisation. (Smith 1988)

HRD is the integrated use of training & development, career development and organisational
development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness (McLagan 1989)

HRD is organised learning activities arranged within an organisation to improve performance
and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual and/or the
organisation. (Gilley & England 1989)

HRD is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups,
collectives and organisations through the development and application of learning-based
interventions for the purpose of optimising human and organisational growth and effectiveness.
(Chalofsky 1992)
HRD encompasses activities and processes, which are intended to have impact on organisational
and individual learning. It assumes that organisations can be constructively conceived of as
learning entities and that the learning processes of both organisations and individuals are
capable of influence and direction through deliberate and planned interventions
(Stewart & McGoldrick 1996)
HRD is concerned with the provision of learning, development and training opportunities in
order to improve individual, team and organisational performance. It is essentially a business-
led approach to developing people within a strategic framework. (Armstrong 1999)

HRD is the creation of a learning culture, within which a range of training, development and
learning strategies both respond to corporate strategy and also help to shape and influence it
(McCracken & Wallace 2000)

As can be observed, the sampled definitions above are ordered chronologically with the first one
written in by Smith (1998) to the last one by McCracken and Wallace (2000). The first four
definitions were collected from writers from the United States of America while the remaining
three are from authors from Europe. From the sequential perspective, it can be seen that the
definition of HRD became more and more unequivocal in the latter years. For instance, Smith
(1988) fell short of identifying what activities made up the complete framework of HRD instead
he packaged every into what he called “programs and activities”. Once more, smith was not
categorical about the effects of his so called “programs and activities” when he introduced
“possibly” ahead of saying HRD enhances individual development and an organisation‟s
profitability. One possible reason for this is that as the years rolled by more and more scholars
debated the subject and so many people derived inspiration confidence from the precedents of
others so as to be more categorical.
However, those who wrote after Smith and his predecessors were less careful in indicating what
activities comprise HRD and its outcome in totality. For instance, McLagan (1989) HRD training
& development, career development and organisational development as the activities that
composes the HRD program and further stated that HRD is carried out for the purpose to
improve individual and organisational effectiveness.
Another observation from these definitions is that, unlike the definitions for latter years‟ (the last
three in from the list), early writer did not necessarily recognize HRD to be of any strategic
consequence to the firm. In Armstrong (1999), for example, it is indicated that HRD is conducted
within a strategic framework. As HRD assumes a more and more strategic position, some have
suggested that it be detached from the rest of the management functions and established as a
distinct organizational unit.
Finally and on a broader scale, the definitions summarized HRD into a three-themed continuum
as shown by Fig2.1. All the definition portrayed that HRD starts with some form of activity
(activities). These activities have been identified differently by the various writers as training,
individual development, instructional program and learning among others. For the purpose of
analysis, these initializing activities have been cocooned as “learning” (see Fig2.1). Immediately
following from learning the definitions purported, sometimes impliedly, that the learning
activities results in an enhancement of the capacity of the learner to ostensibly contribute to the
attainment of organizational goals. Finally, the enhancement of employees‟ capacity via learning
is suggested to be aimed at improving organizational performance in all forms- which for
inatance McLagan (1989) called “organisational effectiveness”

More recent definitions however, avoided merely saying that HRD is aimed at improving
organizational performance. Rather they tacitly acknowledge that HRD is primarily concerned
with enhancing organisational capacity by preparing employees to be able to assume positions of
higher responsibility in the organisation as and when the need arises (Day,2007). Therefore HRD
for all intents and purposes is not targeted at short-term gains but rather at the future benefit of
the organisation as well as the individual.

Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart& Wright (2011) defined employee development as “the combination
of formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities to
help employees prepare for the future of their careers” (p258). In this light of viewing HRD more
for its future value, position the entire concept well as a strategic matter and so Gourlay (2000)
held that HRD focuses on theory & practice related to training, development and learning within
organisations, both for individuals and in the context of business strategy and organisational
competence formation.
Summarily therefore, HRD is hereby defined as an organisation induced learning which enriches
individual capacity towards effectively succeeding in future demands of the work and the

Fig 2.1: HRD continuum

2.3 Components of Human Resource Development
As a broad and still developing concept, HRD involves the performance of some distinct but
interrelated activities so as to achieve the desired objectives. The various activities comprising an
efficient HRD system/program vary in number and kind depending on the writer in question.
Table2.1 summarises a sample of scholars and their propositions regarding the components of
HRD. While some call these activities “components”, others do not, for example Armstrong
(2006) called it “elements”.

Table 2.1: elements HDR

It can be observed from the table that all the four scholars identified “training” as part of the
components of HRD. Furthermore, each writer mentioned “development” in there components
one way or the there. A critical scrutiny of the details provided by each of these scholars revealed
that Michael Armstrong‟s list by and large synchronises the proposition of all his fellow writers.
For instance Armstrong‟s use of “Development” and “Education” caters for all the other items
that are associated with “development” by Nadler (1970), McLagan (1989) and Hu (2007).
Nadler(1970) McLagan (1989) Armstrong (2006) Hu (2007)
Training Training & Development, Learning Developing Talent
Education Career Development Training Training;
Development Organisational Development Development Developing The Organization
Education Performance Development
Leadership Development
Therefore this study adopts the components prescribed by Michael Armstrong and provides
detailed discussions on it as follows.

While is it understandable to assuming training has similar or equal implications with learning
and therefore the two should be joined together, human resource management experts are
adamant that the two are not synonymous, not least not in the context of HRD. Bass and
Vaughan (1966) defined learning as „a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a
result of practice or experience‟ while Kolb (1984) contended that learning is the major process
of human adaptation. According to Honey and Mumford (1992) learning has taken place when
someone knows something they did not know earlier, and can show it and is able to do
something which they were not able to do before.
Generally scholars seem to agree that learning should be a perpetual process in the working life
of the individual. Indeed without making learning a culture within the organisation, individuals
will not develop optimally so as to contribute fully to organistional performance. Stredwick
(2005) in this regard wrote that “learning needs to take place not just at the start of employment
life or on commencing a new job but throughout a person‟s career right up to their retirement
day” (p 371).
The method, procedures and instruments of training varies greatly among firms but there are
different models to support each.
According to Stredwick (2005) the most popular of all these learning models is the learning
cycle propounded by Kolb (1995) (see Fig 2.2).
Fig 2.2: The Learning Cycle

Source: Honey and Mumford (1992)
Kolb (1995) contended that the learning process starts from having a concrete experience. The
learner, after gathering the requisite experience, then moves on to review that experience by
observation and reflection. The review of experience is then followed the drawing of conclusions
from that experience, often with the use of abstract concepts, and finally plans the next step by
testing the concepts. A significant conclusion that could be drawn form Kolb‟s learning cycle is
that the process of learning does not come to an end: such that the final stage of the cycle only
prepares the learner to start a new phase of the same cycle.

Training consists of an organization‟s planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related
knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job. A training
program may range from formal classes to one-on-one mentoring, and it may take place on the
job or at remote locations. In his explanation for training, Armstrong (2006) created a link
between training and learning when he wrote that training is “the planned and systematic
modification of behavior through learning events, programmes and instruction that enable
individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their
work effectively”.
The training process should be systematic: in that it should be specifically designed, planned and
implemented to meet defined needs. It should be provided by people who know how to train, and
the impact of training is carefully evaluated. Training process is illustrated in a simple four-stage
model (see fig 2.3) by Michael Armstrong (2010) with the following steps:
1. Identify training needs.
2. Decide what sort of training is required to satisfy these needs.
3. Use experienced and trained trainers to implement training.
4. Follow up and evaluate training to ensure that it is effective.

Fig 2.3: The Systematic Training Model
Source: Armstrong (2010)
Training needs assessment is the process of determining the gap between what skills and
expertise are currently in available and those that are needed now and in the future. According to
Gómez-Mejía, Balkin and Cardy (2012) “the overall purpose of the needs assessment phase is to
determine if training is needed, and if so, to provide the information required to design the
training program”. Identification of training needs can be carried out for a department/unit within
the firm or for the organisation as a single unit.
Planning the training program involves deciding on a number of issues such as the appropriate
techniques to use, where training should be carried out, who the instructors should be among
Implementation of training involves practically carrying out the training schedule. According to
Ralf (2004) training implementation entails creating an interface between the trainer and trainee
by using the resources put together for that purpose. Therefore during implementation of
training, the trainee actually undergoes tutelage, apprenticeship or some form of instruction
facilitated by a trainer or trainers.

The last step in the model is the evaluating of the training. This is performed primarily to
ascertain whether the entire process has been a waste of time and/or resouces. Stredwick (2005)
identified two forms of evaluation: subjective and objective.
Subjective evaluation can be made by the trainer, who will be aware whether or not the training
went well. It will also emerge from the trainees who should be asked for their opinions at various
stages through the programme, both verbally and in written. The objective evaluation, Stredwick
(2005) said asks the questions: „How has this training benefited you in the workplace?‟, or „name
a number of areas where you will put into effect improvements that have arisen from what you
have learnt during this training. objective evaluation may also involve independent observation
of trainees for improved performance (productivity, quality, customer relations) and any
measures considered robust by the organisation.
There are various methods or techniques available for training within business organiations.
These methods are generally classified into two namely on-the-job training and off-the-job
Gómez-Mejía, Balkin and Cardy (2012) described on-the-job training as the approach in which
the trainee works in the actual work setting, usually under the guidance of an experienced
worker, supervisor, or trainer. The training methods that are categorised as on-the-job include
Job Rotation, Mentoring and Coaching. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, gives individuals
opportunities to get away from their jobs and concentrate solely on what is to be learned (Mathis
and Jackson, 2011). Some techniques used in the approach are Case Study, Role Playing, Lecture
and Seminar.

Development according to, Tan Kwong How (1995) are those activities designed to help the
individual to grow and move with the organization as it develops, changes and grows. It is aimed
at helping employees handle future responsibilities with none or little concern for the present job.
Development also entails the growth or realization of a person‟s ability and potential through the
provision of learning and educational experiences.
Stewart and Brown (2011) identified four types of programs that help employees to develop
namely formal education, assessments and feedback, work experiences and developmental
Assessments and feedback
involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their intersts,
personality, behavior, skills and preferences. Feedback enables employees understand what type
of work they should choose so they experience a good fit between their interests, skills and work
demands. Feedback can also help employees determine what type of developmental activities to
pursue. A wide range of assessments are available for purposes of helping employees better
understand their strenths and weakness, plan their developmental activities and manage their
careers. Stewart identified career assessment and multisource assessment as two of the basic
types of assessment.
Work experiences
organisations can use work experiences, such as enrichment; lateral moves; upward moves and
downward moves, to help their employees develop. Using work experiences for employee
development can be very effective, and as an added advantage to organisations pursueing cost
strategies, they are relatively low cost.
Developmental relationships
Developmental relationships are relationships that provide support and encoiuragement for
personl and professional growth. These relationships may involve formally assigned mentors,
coaches, supervisors, coworkers, subordinates or support groups
Formal education
Most of the issues advanced by Stewart and Brown (2011) for formal education feeds into the
broader discussion of “Education” which follows immediately: as such the issues here have been
moved under the heading “Education”.

Armstrong (2006) held that education refers to the development of the knowledge, values and
understanding required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to
particular areas of activity.
Formal education
Formal education is a category of development that includes formal learning experiences such as
training courses. These courses can be a single event or a series of events but the key is that they
must help employees learn a particular skill or skills that are likely to be relevant in their future
work. Courses may be organised around helping the employee gain public recognition for skills
in the form of certificates or license.
Formal education, as a form of development, includes courses specifically designed for the
companys employees; or courses offered by consultants, trade organisations, or universities; or
couses that are part of degree programs from accredited institutions like community colleges or
. Such courses may involve lectures, discussions, simulations or other learning
activirties. While some companies provide simple and broad-based tuition programs (that is they
support any courses employees take), other are moving towards focusing employee development
efforts on preffered education providers and preffered skills. Specifically, they are offereing
development through low-cost providers whose programs will help the organisation accomplish
its goals.

Certification and licensing
Employees can earn certificates and licenses by demonstrating competence in a particular area of
professional practice. Licenses are regulated by state governments. In many fields, an individual
must obtain a license in order to legally conduct business
. For example, doctors and lawyers
must have licenses to practice. In contrast, there is no legal requirement for people to obtain
certification. Certificates are still valuable, though, because a person who holds a certificate has
demonstrated a general knowlwge of, and competence to do work in, the area being certified.

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