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USB FILE COPIER

___________

A Thesis Proposal

Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Engineering, LSPU-SCC

Santa Cruz, Laguna

___________

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

Engineering Research I

1st Semester, A.Y. 2009-2010

___________

Submitted By:

Calma, Carlito Jr. M.

Dela Torre, Don Michael C.

Male, John Kenneth M.

Date Submitted:

July 24, 2009


Introduction

Universal Serial Bus (USB) is the newest bus designed by an ATX

class system; it is intended to connect peripheral devices like keyboards,

mouse, a modem, and sound cards to the microprocessor through a serial

data path and a twisted pair of wires. It is also designed to allow peripherals

to be connected without the need to plug expansion cards into the computer

sockets and also to improve plug-and-play capabilities by allowing devices to

be hot-swapped, meaning that the systems do not need to be powered down

before connection or disconnection. (Wikipedia,2009)

Universal Serial Bus came into life when a group of 7 companies:

Compaq, Digital Equipment, IBM, Intel, Microsoft and Northern Telecom

decides to form a specifications to merge legacy connectivity such as RS232,

Printer port, PS2 port into a single common connector to the Personal

Computer. These improvements include offering devices the option to be

powered by the host (with a maximum power consumption of 500mA per

physical connector) and releasing of Version 1.0 of the USB specifications

delivered on 15 January 1996. Version 1.0 specifies 2 forms of signaling

transfer rate: Low Speed (1.5Mbits/sec) and the Full Speed (12Mbits/sec).
The motivation of differentiating two transfer speed was to maintain the

low-cost implementation of computer peripherals such as keyboards and

mice, and, still allow higher speeds devices such that printers and scanners to

be able to use the same serial bus. The physical layers were layered with the

protocol layer. The protocol layer divides the bus time into several priorities of

Control, Interrupt, Bulk and Isochronous transfer. This protocol is handled

through a combination of hardware and software on the Personal Computer

as discussed in

Opening a Universal Serial Bus device that is inserted to the USB port

of a computer is an easy to learn task because it is just a plug and play

device. Having a computer, which already has drivers and guide on how to

operate USB devices can be done even by a common student, however

designing a new device with embedded drivers and display without the use of

a computer is an interesting and challenging project. Designing out of nothing

will likely be reading a several books for the first time.


Background of the Study

The flexible magnetic disk, or diskette (-ette is a diminutive suffix),

revolutionized computer disk storage in the 1970s. Diskettes, which were

often called floppy disks or floppies by English speaking users, became

ubiquitous in the 1980s and 1990s in their use with personal computers and

home computers, such as the Apple II, Macintosh, MSX 2/2+, Amstrad CPC,

Sinclair ZX Spectrum +3, Commodore 64/128, Atari ST, Amiga and IBM PC

compatibles, to distribute software, transfer data, and create backups.

Before hard disks became affordable, floppy disks were often also

used to store a computer's operating system (OS), in addition to application

software and data. Most home computers had a primary OS (and often

BASIC) stored permanently in on-board ROM, with the option of loading a

more advanced disk operating system from a floppy, whether it be a

proprietary system, CP/M, or later, DOS.

But because of a low storage capability, the Universal Serial Bus was

invented. On July 24, 2002 Netac Technology was granted a highly-contested

Chinese patent for the USB flash drive.[8]

In 2004 Trek Technology brought several lawsuits against other USB

flash drive manufacturers and distributors in an attempt to assert its patent


rights to the USB flash drive. A court in Singapore ordered competitors to

cease selling similar products[9] that would be covered by Trek's patent, but a

court in the United Kingdom revoked[10] one of Trek's patents in that country.

Modern flash drives have USB 2.0 connectivity. However, they do not

currently use the full 480 Mbit/s (60MB/s) the USB 2.0 Hi-Speed specification

supports due to technical limitations inherent in NAND flash. The fastest

drives currently available use a dual channel controller, although they still fall

considerably short of the transfer rate possible from a current generation hard

disk, or the maximum high speed USB throughput.

CPU is the one who are all liable in transferring files, but it is not

practical to the computer user to rent or go to the front of computer every time

they need to transfer their data to another storage device. Now, the new

method of transferring data will be easier and fast by using USB File Copier.
Theoretical Framework

- USB Copying Files


- Files and USB File
- Software Transferring Data Copier

Input Process Output

The figure shows the transferring of data or files from one flash drive to

another data storage device by using the USB Copier Device. The flash drive

is connected to the USB port of the device in order to transfer the files that

can be seen on the screen of the LCD. And when the data was chosen, the

USB File Copier will automatically transfer the file/files.


Statement of the Problem

The USB File Copier, using a flash memory or a flash disk is becoming

a popular device. It is used by MP3 players, digital cameras and others. The

device was carefully designed to help all flash disk users.

It has been a problem to every user of flash disk to look for a computer

to plug in their USB devices just to get the needed data. Aside from waste of

time, it consumes a bigger rate of power bill, which in fact USB device just

needs 3.3V to 5V.

And the worst, if there is an urgency to copy a certain file or files and

blackout/power interruption occurs.


Hypothesis

If there is no existing computer as a medium to copy files from the

USB, USB File Copier would be in demand device.

File Copier is a cool gadget that will be useful and that will benefit

anybody. Files can be easily transferred and copied to the desired file

storage.

This device serves and gives another convenient way in storing data

from the USB to another file storage device, by simply plugging the Flash

drive to the port and instantly copied. And using this device, anyone can

experience enjoyment in modern life.


Significance of the Study

The USB File Copier was developed to maintain the low-cost

implementation of computer peripherals and it has the capability of

transferring data that is suited for the necessity of the following:

Students

This device can help in saving files of the reports, projects and

academic requirements in easier way without the use of computer.

Instructors

This discovery can help mitigate the time of transferring records of

grades and can help to teach its function.

Computer Users

This study can help to minimize the cost of computer rentals and will

give them the opportunity to copy their files freely.

School

The functions of this newly device can help the quality of teaching in

electronic discoveries and experimentations.


Scope and Limitations of the Study

- The device transfers data from the source USB disk to its destination disk, it

also copies and deletes file individually.

- The USB host controller used was SL811hs with a capacity of 256-byte and

supports 12Mbps at full speed.

- It uses a PIC18f242 microcontroller for handling a program and processes.

USB devices, such as Source and Destination Flash, communicate its

transaction using the protocol for file system FAT 32.

- Hardware part is generally contains two pieces of USB controller

(SL811HS), one microcontroller (PIC18F242), four push button, one Liquid

Crystal Display (LCD), and power supply for microcontroller(5 Volts) and USB

controller(3.3 Volts).

- Power source is either 9 volts of adopter or 9 volts of battery, it uses LM

7805 to regulate a 5 V supply for the PIC18F242.

- Crystal oscillator is the heart of PIC18F242 and SL811HS for

communication and synchronization to the USB Flash disk.


USB DIGITAL MICROSCOPE

___________

A Thesis Proposal

Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Engineering, LSPU-SCC

Santa Cruz, Laguna

___________

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

Engineering Research I

1st Semester, A.Y. 2009-2010

___________

Submitted By:

Calma, Carlito Jr. M.

Dela Torre, Don Michael C.

Male, John Kenneth M.


Introduction

Nowadays digital technology is rapidly getting widespread. Digital

devices such as laptops, cellular phones, MP3's and other innovative gadgets

have already revolutionized the daily activities of mankind which evidently the

product of the present information era.

The word digital comes from the same source on the word digit and

digitus (the Latin word for finger, as fingers are used for discrete counting.

The word digital is most commonly used in computing and electronics,

especially where real-world information is converted to binary numeric form

as in digital audio and digital photography. Such data-carrying signals carry

electronic or optical pulses, the amplitude of each of which represents a

logical 1 (pulse present and /or high) or a logical 0 (pulse absent and/or low).

(Wikipedia,2009)

A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values

represented by high and low states known as bits. Although digital

representations are discrete, the information represented can be either

discrete, such as numbers, letters or icons, or continuous, such as sounds,

images and other measurements of continuous systems.


Digitalization has already proven its wide application to various

instruments being used in certain fields including the Biomedical Engineering,

whereas, the main objective is to apply the modern technology to medicine

either for medical, surgical or observational purposes.

Finally, the digitalized microscope or simply digital microscope has

come up with this project with portable abilities, being packed into a handy file

storage known as USB digital microscope drive. This device with digital

microscopy as its added main function could have a greater advantage and

has easier accessibility for transferring of information in observing specimen

in file format. This all purpose USB Digital Microscope provides unmatched

features and flexibility suiting a broad range of applications with advance

image processing and webcam capabilities.


Background of the Study

During the 18th and 19th centuries, the microscope went through a time

of several mechanical improvements that increased the stability and

facilitated a mooth focus and magnification. Among other things developed

during this time to improve the microscope was the creation of microscope

stages and slides in order to place and secure the sample to be examined.

Also, the development of objective lenses improved and controlled the

magnification and resolution of the sample. All these mechanical

improvements were added in conjunction with the new sampling techniques

that include the addition of water and chemicals to enhance the view of the

sample, as well as to stain the sample lead to the production of a high quality

clear image. The ability of this new microscope to create such images caught

the attention of the scientific community and society in general. The

microscope became very popular once again, but this time it underwent a

high-volume, low-cost, mass production.

The microscopes were still popular in the early 1900’s. There was not

much change in the fundamental basics of the microscopes during this time;

however there was a standardization of the parts as a result of the high

demands of supplies during the World War I. Among the first standardizations,

we find that most microscopes were made out of cast-iron with a blackened
finish and the eyepiece had been standardized into a short tube of 23mm

diameter. There were many varieties of microscope manufactured during the

1900’s, but most of them had the same general parts as seen in the picture to

the left.

Now, the first digital microscope was made by a lens company in

Tokyo, Japan in 1986. This company is now know as Hirox Co LTd. Hirox's

main industry is digital microscopes, but still makes lenses. Hirox's current

digital microscope systems are the KH-7700 and the KH-1300. The KH-7700

system has such features as 3D rotation and High Dynamic Range. Shortly

after the invention of the digital microscope, a digital sensor company in

Osaka, Japan created a digital microscope. This company is now known as

the Keyence Corporation. Keyence offers digital automated sensors, barcode

readers, industrial laser markers, laser displacement sensors, optical

micrometers, digital microscopes, and confocal laser scanning microscopes.

With the invention of the USB port, there came a flood of digital

microscopes that connected directly to the computer. This invention has

resulted in numerous companies creating some form of USB digital

microscope that range in quality and magnification. They continue to fall in

price, especially compared with conventional microscopes. The digital

microscope continues to evolve as the technology improves.


Theoretical Framework

- USB (2.0) Magnification, USB Digital


Interface Capturing of Microscope
- Software Images
- Camera

Input Process Output

This figure shows the USB Digital Microscope. This microscope is

capable of digital still image capture as well as motion digital video capture. It

magnifies of capture images by the operator which is connected to the USB

port on the personal computer of laptop.


Statement of the Problem

USB Digital Microscope is made for the user to have an easier and fast result

in terms of observing micro organisms.

When using a compound light microscope (a scope with two sets of

lenses) students frequently become discouraged after the object they are

trying to view can’t be found at all or repeatedly disappears from view every

time the scope is switch to a higher objective magnification. The following is a

troubleshooting guide for diagnosing and correcting problems commonly

associated with finding and focusing on microscopic objects. And it demand

source of light to set the right contrast which can affect the visibility of the

micro organisms.

There is no guarantee that the person who last used the microscope

properly cleaned it after use. The longer objective lenses (400xTM and

1000xTM) can easily become covered with stain or other liquid that dries and

obscures the view. And when magnification is increased by switching to a

higher power objective lens, the field of view (the area of the specimen in

view) gets smaller.


Hypothesis

If USB Digital Microscope will be used in research and observing micro

organisms, then the world of capturing and motion monitoring of micro

organisms is much easier and fun.

USB Digital Microscope allows you to capture some incredibly high

quality images and video and display them on your PC using a simple USB

connection. With only using Digital Microscope, users can zoom in the image

that they want to capture even if it is too small.

By using this device, it is not possible to see the behavior of the micro

organisms that even the young ages can experience it.


Significance of the Study

The USB Digital Microscope was developed to provide unmatched

features and flexibility suiting a broad range of applications with advance

image processing and webcam capabilities that are beneficial to the following:

Students

This project can help in performing laboratory experiments for them

whenever there is a need for microscopic digital photography image capture.

Instructors

This project can be used as a tool for teaching when in times of their

laboratory classes.

School

This project will give more quality to their educational teaching.


Scope and Limitations of the Study

- USB Digital Microscope is a handheld device with stand

- It is a portable device providing remarkable picture and video quality

- It is a cost effective and an innovative way to discover, capture and

share still images and videos.

- Allows viewing images live on the computer monitor or capturing

images.

- Consist of a color zoom CMOS video camera that is mounted in

microscope style housing.

- The system connects to the computer via the USB port and

microscope images are viewed on your computer screen or monitor.

- Uses an interface which is USB 2.0

- It has magnification range up to 200 times


PORTABLE MULTIGADGET PROJECTOR

___________

A Thesis Proposal

Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Engineering, LSPU-SCC

Santa Cruz, Laguna

___________

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

Engineering Research I

1st Semester, A.Y. 2009-2010

___________

Submitted By:

Calma, Carlito Jr. M.

Dela Torre, Don Michael C.

Male, John Kenneth M.


Introduction

Today, the primary use of projection technology is for creating large flat

displays that provide a shared viewing experience for presentations or

entertainment applications. While research projects have explored the

powerful ability for projected light to create illusions that can reshape our

perception and our interaction with surfaces in the environment, very few of

these systems have had success in terms of commercial and consumer

adoption.

A projector takes a signal and projects the corresponding image on a

projection screen using a lens system. All projectors use a very bright light to

project the image, and most modern ones can correct any curves, blurriness,

and other inconsistencies through manual settings. Projectors are widely

used for conference room presentations, classroom training, home theatre

and live events applications. Projectors are widely used in many schools and

other educational settings, connected to an interactive white board to

interactively teach pupils. (Wikipedia,2009)

Part of this limited adoption can be attributed to the lack of practicality

in the cost-of-operation due to the complexity of installation and reliability of

execution. Often these systems require expert knowledge to perform system


setup and calibration between the projected image and the physical surfaces

to make these illusions effective.

By unifying the image projection and location tracking technologies,

many of the difficult calibration and alignment issues related to interactive

projection and projected spatial augmented reality applications can be

eliminated simplifying their implementation and execution. Furthermore, by

creating a hybrid visible light and infrared light projector, a single calibration-

free device can perform invisible location tracking of input devices while

simultaneously presenting visible application content. I present a detailed

description of the projector-based location discovery and tracking technique,

a description of three prototype implementations, and a demonstration of the

effectiveness of this simplification by re-implementing, and in some cases

improving upon, several location-sensitive projector applications that have

been previously executed using external calibration and tracking

technologies.
Background of the Study

The first idea of projecting an image on a surface was envisioned in a

drawing by Johannes de Fontana in 1420. It was a sketch of a monk holding

a lantern. In the side of the lantern, there was a small translucent window that

had an image of a devil holding a lance. The image, probably drawn on a thin

sheet of bone, was projected onto a wall by the flame in the lantern. Without a

lens, the image on the wall would have been very blurry.

But the idea had provided inspiration to develop a projection model

that would really work. Several people caught that inspiration, and any one of

them could’ve been the actual inventor of the projector – it just depended who

you asked and what country you were in.

In the mid 1990s, with scientists and engineers working hard, a new

technology was created that eventually led to the first multimedia projector.

The newest technology of the day was digital processing. Applying digital

principals to projectors allowed the development of digital light processing

(DLP). DLP technology, created by Texas Instruments, takes the reflective

power of more than 1.3 million microscopic mirrors, and hinges them on a

digital micromirror device (DMD) chip. The first DLP projectors produced

grainy images, but the technology has greatly improved since then, and now
the brightest images ever can be produced in a multimedia machine.

Another demand came from the “road warrior”, a term coined for the

traveling salesman or corporate businessman. They needed a machine that

would allow them to give professional, quality presentations, wherever they

were. So their projectors needed to be very small and lightweight, while still

featuring exceptional image clarity and brightness.

And back at the home-office, there was a great demand for advanced

meeting-room technology. Professionalism was the key to a good meeting,

and professional equipment was called for. Many manufacturers heard this

call – and the battle was on! From this point on, multimedia projectors were

the battleground for many companies and their continuing technological

breakthroughs.
Theoretical Framework

-Projection of
- Files from camera, the files of diff. Portable Multi-
Mp3, Ipod and gadgets gadget Projector
laptop - LCoS method

Input Process Output

The figure shows the projection of files from different compatible devices.

Projector can easily read the files from camera, mp3, Ipod and laptop which

are compact with information that will be shown in a screen presentation.

The process of LCoS method is the primary reason of projection that

results the output light signal which are the information from different devices.

When you put the gadget on the hub of the projector, the system will

automatically processed the file and will have the output light signals shown

on the screen.
Statement of the Problem

One of the main reason of ignorance is the lack of knowledge about

the information happened either in our society or environment. Sometimes,

the person can not afford to realized things because of not motivated in

learning. However, they tend to do more things than listening to the one who

discussed the topics presented on the screen because of lack and

uninterested information.

The problem in listening existed when the visuals are not enough. This

idea is come up in order to improve the capability of the listeners especially

the students to be more updated with the knowledge.

By the use of improved projector, the listeners can have the

enthusiasm to learn because it can able to project the information on the

screen with enough knowledge.


Hypothesis

The Portable Multigadget Projector may help to contribute in more

interesting presentation and analysis of important information. If the projector

were compact of useful application, it may have to motivate the interest of the

listeners. It may also contribute to the array of gadgets and technology in

terms of its functions and compatibility.

The newly invented projector is a device which may widen the

knowledge of the students because the information can easily understand by

means of enough visuals that they seen on the screen. It may have the good

effect in the motivation of the students to learn and strive more about the

topics.

Considering the business industry, it may help the company to promote

the quality and improvement of their business transactions because they had

enough information to present about their business proposals that can

entertain their clients. If the presentation is well presented to the client, it may

have the possibility for them to accept the business proposal of the company.
Significance of the Study

The Portable Multigadget Projector was developed for the

implementations of gathering knowledge in more interesting way that is

needed for the motivation of the following:

Students

This discovery can help in presenting the reports and thesis projects. It

can help them to learn more knowledge that is necessary for understanding

the major topics discussed by the reporter or teachers.

Instructors

This device can be use in teaching and presenting information about

the topics and can help to easily understand the lesson that they discussed.

Company

This project can help in promoting their products to their clients and

presenting them the proper information that they need to advertised for

maximizing the profit and improving the business status of the company.
School

This study can help to improve the quality of teaching of education and

can able to prepare students more compact with the knowledge for their

future careers.
Scope and Limitations of the Study

- The focus of projection is manual

- The lamp source from LED is 3W

- The lamp life is over 20,000 hours

- Brightness of light is ANSI / 10-15 lumens

- Resolution of projection on the screen is 640*480 pixels (VGA)

- Screen size projection is 50 centimeter to 1.5 meter

- With built in speaker of 1watt stereo

- The color of reproduction is full 16,7 million colors

- Power source is DC 5V, 2.5 ampere, AC 100-240 V and 50 -60 hertz


Abstract

The primary use of projection technology today is for creating large flat

displays that provide a shared viewing experience for presentations or

entertainment. While the field of computer graphics has explored the power

projected light has to create illusions that can reshape our perception of and

interaction with surfaces in the environment, very few of these systems have

had success in terms of commercial and consumer adoption. Part of this

market place failure can be attributed to the lack of practicality in the cost-of-

operation due to their complexity of installation and reliability of execution.

Often these systems require expert knowledge to perform system setup and

calibration between the projected and the physical surfaces to make these

illusions effective. Additionally, costly external tracking systems may be

needed to support input. In this thesis, I present a technique for inherently

adding object location discovery and tracking capabilities to commercial

projectors. This is accomplished by introducing light sensors into the

projection area and then spatially encoding the image area using a series of

structured light patterns. This delivers a unique pattern of light to every pixel

in the projector's screen space directly encoding the location data using the

projector itself.

By unifying the image projection and location tracking technologies,


many of the difficult calibration and alignment issues related to projector-

based augmented reality applications can be eliminated simplifying their

implementation and execution. Furthermore, by creating a hybrid visible light

and infrared light projector, a single calibration-free device can perform

invisible location tracking of input devices while simultaneously presenting

visible application content. In this thesis, I present a detailed description of the

projector-based location discovery and tracking technique, a description of

three prototype implementations I created, and a demonstration the

effectiveness of this simplification by implementing several location-sensitive

projector applications.
Abstract

The Flash to Flash Data Copier device transfers and deletes any kind

of file. It comprises USB ports,

USB host controller, and microcontroller. The device transfers data from the

source USB disk to its destination disk, it also copies and deletes file

individually. The USB host controller used was SL811hs with a capacity of

256-byte and supports 12Mbps at full speed. It also uses a PIC18f242

microcontroller for handling a program and processes. USB devices, such as

Source and Destination Flash, communicate its transaction using the protocol

for file system FAT 32.

On the other hand, the main software used assembly language to

directly control the IC’s and for faster execution of commands. Aside from

copying and deleting a file individually, the Flash to Flash Data Copier is user

friendly because it has LCD to visualize the processes that occur while the

user is using the device. Also, the device has individual ports for source and

destination disks. The capacity of data that can be transferred is limited to

32KB because the memory of the device that the researchers used was not

enough to support the operation so it is suggested that as long as the file

header is less than the data to be copied else it will be corrupt, it is suggested

that a device with a higher memory should be used for freely sending back
and forth of data. Further study uses Bulk-Only Transport Protocol to

accommodate the specification of USB Mass Storage Devices.