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Concrete sleepers

Concrete sleepers were used for the


entire length of the Adelaide-Darwin
railway line
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A concrete sleeper is a railroad tie made out of steel reinforced concrete.
1 History
2 Types
3 Advantages
4 Under Sleeper Pads
5 Disadvantages
6 Alternatives
7 Characteristics
7.1 Gauge and weight
7.2 Axleload
7.3 Sharp curves
7.4 Guard Rails
8 Manufacture
8.1 Ingredients and components
9 Transport
10 Installation
11 Oldest
12 Turnouts
13 Problems
14 Examples
14.1 Pakistan
14.2 United States
15 List of plants
15.1 Angola
15.2 Australia
15.3 Azerbaijan
15.4 Bangladesh
15.5 Botswana
15.6 Bulgaria
15.7 China
15.8 Democratic Republic of Congo
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15.9 Ethiopia
15.10 Germany
15.11 Ghana
15.12 Greece
15.13 India
15.14 Iraq
15.15 Kenya
15.16 Korea, North
15.17 Korea, South
15.18 Libya
15.19 Malawi
15.20 Malaysia
15.21 Mozambique
15.22 Namibia
15.23 New Zealand
15.24 Pakistan
15.25 Poland
15.26 Romania
15.27 Russia
15.28 Saudi Arabia
15.29 Sierra Leone
15.30 South Africa
15.31 Sudan
15.32 Switzerland
15.33 Syria
15.34 Tanzania
15.35 Thailand
15.36 Togo
15.37 Turkey
15.38 United Arab Emirates
15.39 United Kingdom
16 Damaged or obsolete sleepers
17 Inventors
18 See also
19 References
20 External links
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In 1877, J oseph Monier, a French gardener, suggested that concrete reinforced with steel could be used for
making ties for railway track. Monier designed a tie and obtained a patent for it, but it was not successful.
Concrete sleepers were first used on the Alford and Sutton Tramway in 1884. Their first use on a main line
railway was by the Reading Company in America in 1896, as recorded by AREA Proceedings at the time.
Designs were further developed and the railways of Austria and Italy used the first concrete ties around the turn
of the 20th century. This was closely followed by other European railways.
Major progress was not achieved until World War II, when the timbers used for ties were scarce due to
competition from other uses, such as mines.
[1]
Following research carried out on French and other European
railways, the modern pre-stressed concrete tie was developed. Heavier rail sections and long welded rails were
also being installed, requiring higher-quality ties. These conditions spurred the development of concrete ties in
France, Germany and Britain, where the technology was perfected.
Interest in concrete railroad ties increased after World War II following advances in the design, quality and
production of pre-stressed concrete.
Concrete sleepers can be one piece of uniform or variable dimensions. They can also consist of two separate
blocks connected by a steel tie rod. Exceptionally, the concrete can be poured as two separate longitudinal slabs
as has been used in Namibia.
Slab track consists of a continuous concrete roadbed without division into separate sleepers, and these are most
often used in tunnels.
Austrak (http://www.austrak.com/) has developed a concrete Timber Replacement Sleeper
(http://www.austrak.com/content/sleeper-technology/timber-replacement-sleepers/) that can be interspersed with
timber sleepers. These sleepers have a similar profile to the timber but have the benefits of concrete - especially
when it comes to holding gauge.
Do not rot like timber sleepers.
Extra weight makes track more stable, particularly with changes in temperature.
Withstand fire hazards better than wooden sleepers.
Longer life than wooden sleepers.
Less maintenance means lower ongoing costs and fewer track closures.
The date (or at least the 2-digit year) of manufacture is usually molded into the top surface.
Concrete sleepers lack the elasticity of wooden sleepers and therefore ballast tracks with Concrete sleepers
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BNSF line north of Yakima,
Washington
usually have a much quicker degradation of the ballast when loaded.
This is especially true in bends and turnouts/switches. To reduce the
wear on the ballast and in some cases offer vibration isolation pads are
fitted to the base of the sleeper. The pads are usually manufactured of
polyurethane foams with a stiffness tailored to meet the elasticity
requirements of the track.
To reduce the wear of the ballast only, the best material to use is a very
stiff semi-plastic polyurethane foam which mimics the plastic behaviour
of wooden sleepers (the ballast stones are pressed into the surface of the
sleeper, increasing contact area) typically these pads are 710 mm thick.
In order to achieve vibration isolation as well the elastic layer needs to be softer and in many cases thicker as
well. A vibration isolation of 5-12 dB can be achieved, but the results will depend on many factors such as axle
load, velocity, subsoil stiffness, ballast thickness, ballast quality and more. Therefore it is very difficult to
predict the results exactly.
When trains derail and the wheels hit the sleepers, timber sleepers tend to absorb the blow and remain
intact, while concrete sleepers tend to shatter and have to be replaced.
Gives more retentivity to the track.
Initial costs are greater.
Unsuitable for change of gauge, unless this is already taken into account.
Concrete sleepers are up to 300 lbs heavier than their wooden counterparts. As a result, larger sized
ballast is required to both support and hold in place the sleepers on the roadbed.
They do not absorb as much vibration from passing trains as wooden ties do. This can cause degradation
of the ties themselves ranging from small cracks to complete failure over time. This problem is most
prevalent when the ties are located next to joints in the rails. For this reason, most railroads do not use
concrete sleepers on turnouts and interlockings.
Sleepers made of recycled plastics, which are less brittle than concrete, where reported to be under development
in 2007.
[2]
Fibre glass is also an option.
Gauge and weight
Concrete sleepers are heavier with wider gauges, and also with heavier track.
1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in) - 335 kg heavy duty Pilbara Railways, Australia
[3]
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1,435 mm - 282 kg ordinary New South Wales, Australia
[4]
1,668 mm (5 ft 5
21

32
in) - 300 kg in Spain
Axleload
Fortescue - 40t
[5]
Sharp curves
Special sleepers may be necessary on extremely sharp curves, such as the new triangle at Newmarket,
New Zealand on the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge of radius 95 m (312 ft). Here the sleepers are extra heavy,
about 250 kg, and may include gauge widening with transitional gauge widening.
[6]
Guard Rails
Special measures are needed to support guard rails.
Concrete sleepers are made upside down in moulds, several sleepers long. Pandrol clip bases or other fittings
are inserted into the moulds. Pretensiled steel wire are installed in these moulds, and then the concrete is
poured. It takes several days for the concrete to cure, after which the sleepers are removed from the moulds and
cut into individual sleepers. The bottom of the mould is marked with the logo of the manufacturer and a
datestamp.
Occasionally sleepers are made with conduits for track circuit wiring, or extra fixtures for guard rails.
Sleepers can be made using a Long Line method or a Short Line method; each method has its advantages and
disadvantages (http://www.austrak.com/content/production-technology/long-line-vs-short-line/).
Ingredients and components
Portland cement made into suitable concrete.
Steel wire usually galvanised, and pre-tensioned.
Railclips such as Pandrol.
When transported in small piles, pieces of timber are interposed between the layers of concrete sleepers.
The sleepers are laid either using manual methods or using various sleeper laying machines.
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The 1 ft 11
1

2
in (597 mm) gauge Lynton and Barnstaple Railway (1898 to 1935) in North Devon, experimented
with concrete sleepers at a number of locations along the line. Currently unknown why experiment was not
continued.
Some concrete sleepers can now be seen on display at Woody Bay Station.
[7]
Chaired bullhead concrete sleepers have been around since at least the 1950s.
[8]
Concrete sleepers for turnouts are much longer than normal sleepers, have gaps for switch motors, have sleepers
individually designed, and are generally made by a small number of specialist manufacturers. If a turnout is
needed in a hurry, it may be made with timber sleepers which can simply be drilled to suit.
German rails have experienced cracking of their sleepers on high speed lines.
[9]
Pakistan
Line: Karachi - Lahore main line.
Gauge: 1676 mm gauge.
Cost per km: Rs3385m
Rail: UIC-54 rails
Number per km: 1,640
Fastenings: Vossloh
United States
On November 8, 2011, the US Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) put into effect new regulations on
concrete ties, with notices published by the FRA in the April 1 and September 9, 2011 U.S. Federal Register.
The FRA notices said that the need for the new rules was shown by the derailment of an Amtrak train near
Home Valley, Washington on April 3, 2005, which according to the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board
was caused in part by excessive concrete tie abrasion. To be counted as a good tie under FRA regulation
213.109(d)(4), concrete ties shall not be deteriorated or abraded under the rail to a depth of one-half inch or
more. Limits on other types of concrete tie deterioration are also given.
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Austrak concrete sleeper factory in
Wagga Wagga
Angola
(Three plants needed)
North - Bengo Province
Centre - Liangongo - Benguela
South - Caraculo
[10]
South - Namialo - concrete sleeper plant.
[11]
Australia
(clockwise)
Townsville Austrak - 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) - defunct
[12]
Mackay Austrak - 1,067 mm - defunct
[12]
Rockhampton Austrak - 1,067 mm
[12]
610 mm are also made for cane tramways.
Mittagong - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in)
Taree - 1,435 mm
Denman - 1,435 mm
Mittagong - 1,435 mm
[13]
Grafton - 1,435 mm
[13]
Wagga Wagga - 1,435 mm (Bomen) Austrak - 1,435 mm
Geelong (Avalon) Austrak - 1,435 mm & 1610 mm (2 ft)
Port Hedland Austrak - 1,435 mm
Wedgefield Austrak - `610 mm, 1,067 mm, 1,435 mm
[14]
Wickham - 1,435 mm
Katherine Austrak - 1,435 mm - defunct
[12]
Tennant Creek Austrak - 1,435 mm - defunct
[12]
Austrak (http://www.austrak.com/) - Australia's largest manufacturer of concrete railway sleepers
[15]
Azerbaijan
Sleeper Factory Baku
[16]
Bangladesh
Chhatak
[17]
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Botswana
Gaborone - Kwena Concrete Works
[18]
Bulgaria
Svishtov
[19]
ZPSV-Varna
[20]
China
China United Railway Logistics
[21]
Democratic Republic of Congo
Due 2012
[22]
Ethiopia
Dire Dawa - 1,000 mm (3 ft 3
3

8
in)
[23][24]
Germany
1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in)
[25]
DW Schwellen Gsen sleeper production plant - see http://www.thosti.com.de/guesen-sleeper-production-
plant.html and http://dw-schwellen.de/unternehmen/werke/guesen/index.html
DW Schwellen Neuss sleeper production plant - see http://dw-schwellen.de/unternehmen/werke/neuss
/index.html
DW Schwellen Augsburg sleeper production plant - see http://dw-schwellen.de/unternehmen/werke
/augsburg/index.html
Ghana
Huni Valley - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in)/1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) dual gauge (?)
[26]
Number: 2 m
Cost: Euro 85m
Cost each: Euro 42.5 per sleeper.
Cost of plant: Euro 7
J obs: 130
Output: 400,000 per annum
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Output: 1096 per day (about 0.5 km of track).
Makers: Kampac and Rail.One
Gauge: possibly dual gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in)/1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
1,000 mm (3 ft 3
3

8
in) gauge.
In 2014, a new siding from Lom across the border from Togo to a cement works in Ghana opened using
concrete sleepers.
[27]
Greece
Sleeper Factory Trikala - Strotires
[28]
India
[29]
First use in 1977
[30]
Hindustan Prefab Limited
[31]
PCM Group - 3 plants - first in 1991
[32]
Patil Group - 8 plants - first in 1971
[33]
Nandgaon, Maharashtra
Madhepura
[34]
Kathua
[35]
Vishal Nirmiti
[36]
Iraq
Abu Ghraib
[29]
Kenya
2005 - proposed
[37][38]
Korea, North
Rahung
[39]
Korea, South
Pusan
[40]
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Libya
Khoms
[41]
by Walterbau,
[42]
Germany.
Ra's Lanuf - for Russian contract
Malawi
plant supplied earlier by same maker as plant for Mozambique (Nacala).
[43]
Malaysia
Malaysia - 1,000 mm (3 ft 3
3

8
in) - proposed
[12]
Mozambique
Namialo for northern line of Caminhos de ferro do Moambique (CFM) of Nacala to the Malawian
border.
[43][44]
Dondo
[45]
Sena - 600 per day
Namibia
Tsumeb
[46][47]
New Zealand
Te Rapa, Hamilton, North Island
[48]
Pakistan
Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
[49]
Khanewal, Punjab
Sukkur, Sindh
Kotri, Sindh
Poland
Goczalkow sleeper production plant
[50]
Romania
Metabet (http://gulfbusiness.tradeholding.com/default.cgi/action/viewcompanies/companyid/166508/)
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Dunapref -Blejoi
[51][52]
Dunapref -Giurgiu
[52][53]
Russia
Viazma
[54]
Saudi Arabia
Ha'il - Transport in Saudi Arabia 32.5T axleload - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1

2
in)
[55]
Rail. one
[56]
PCM Strescon Overseas Ventures Ltd, Manufacturers of Heavy Haul Concrete Sleepers with capacity of
100,000 sleepers a month
[57]
Hofuf sleeper production plant
[58]
Sierra Leone
Racegroup
[59]
South Africa
Infraset
[60][61]
Sudan
Sudan - north Khartoum, producing 1,200 concrete sleepers a day.
[62][63]
by Shanghai Hui Bo Investment
Co (SHIC)
[64]
Cost of factory - $5m
[62]
Switzerland
Tribeton
[65]
Syria
Sleeper Factory Homs
[66]
Tanzania
Tanzania called tenders in 2008 for sleeper plant.
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Thailand
Wihan Daeng in Saraburi Province
[67]
Togo
In 2014, a new siding from Lom across the border into Ghana to a cement works opened using concrete
sleepers.
[27]
Turkey
Sleeper Factory Denizli
[68]
United Arab Emirates
Mirfa - Etihad Rail
United Kingdom
Trackwork Moll Ltd.
[69]
Damaged concrete sleepers cannot be repaired. Old concrete sleepers can be used for things like retaining walls,
else they might be crushed to recycle gravel and the steel reinforcing.
[70]
1877 J oseph Monier, France
1912 Bonnet (diagram)
[71]
1929 Stent
[72]
Timms
Sleeper
Ladder track - longitudinal sleepers
Tubular Modular Track
Bi Block sleepers
[73]
Cement in Africa
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Ballast
^ Hay 1982, p. 470 1.
^ Railway Sleepers Made from Recycled Plastic
(http://www.azom.com/news.asp?newsID=8437)
2.
^ http://www.railpage.com.au
/f-p1907729.htm#1907729
3.
^ http://www.railpage.com.au
/f-p1907789.htm#1907789
4.
^ [1] (http://www.fmgl.com.au
/irm/ShowStaticCategory.aspx?CategoryID=213&
HideTopLine=True)
5.
^ Railway Gazette International March, 2012, page
23
6.
^ http://www.lynton-rail.co.uk 7.
^ ndrailusers Mag09
(http://ndrailusers.wikispaces.com/Mag09)
8.
^ :: View topic - German track in big trouble
(http://railuk.forumup.co.uk/about1924-railuk.html)
9.
^ Railways Africa - NAMIBE RAILWAY
INSPECTED (http://railwaysafrica.com
/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&
id=3055&Itemid=35)
10.
^ RailwaysAfrica 5/2013 p20 11.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f
Austrak: Factories - Overview
(http://www.austrak.com/factories.asp)
12.
^
a

b
Rocla 13.
^ Laing O'Rourke - Intelligent Thinking Intelligent
Construction (http://www.laingorourke.com.au
/Specialist/Austrak.aspx)
14.
^ Austrak: In Profile (http://www.austrak.com/) 15.
^ Baku sleeper production plant - Thosti-International
(http://www.thosti.com.de/baku-sleeper-production-
plant.html)
16.
^ Chhatak concrete sleeper plant idle for months :
Dhaka Mirror (http://www.dhakamirror.com
/?p=2376)
17.
^ RailwaysAfrica (http://railwaysafrica.com
/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&
sectionid=4&id=15&Itemid=35)
18.
^ Svishtov sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/svishtov-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
19.
^ ZPSV-Varna sleeper manufacturing palnt
(http://zpsv.bg/)
20.
^ Concrete Sleeper - Trains and Railroads Product -
from China Railway United Logistics Co., Ltd. |
asiaproduct.net (http://www.asiaproduct.net
/Showroom/product/104418/Concrete_Sleeper.aspx)
21.
^ Our projects | SNCC: La Socit Nationale des
Chemins de Fer du Congo (http://sncc.cd/en/sncc
/projects/)
22.
^ EthioBlog - Archives for: J anuary 2008, 22
(http://nazret.com/blog/index.php?m=20080122)
23.
^ Consta (http://allafrica.com/stories
/200802252066.html)
24.
^ Walter Beton Concrete Sleepers Germany
(http://www.walter-beton.com/references.html)
25.
^ [2] (http://www.railone.com/en/top-navigation
/news/press/news-single-view/browse/3/article
/railone-beteiligt-sich-an-der-erneuerung-der-western-
and-central-line-in-der-republik-ghana/90.html)
26.
^
a

b
Cement siding opened. (http://graphic.com.gh
/news/general-news/18126-rail-line-linking-diamond-
cement-lome-port-completed.html)
27.
^ Trikala sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/trikala-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
28.
^
a

b
Manufacturer of Prestressed Concrete Railway
Sleepers from India, Prestressed Concrete Monoblock
Railways Sleeper (http://www.indianhumepipe.com
/rsleeper.html)
29.
^ IRFCA (http://www.irfca.org/faq/faq-history5.html) 30.
Concrete sleeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete_sleeper
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^ Hindustan Prefab Limited (A Government of India
Enterprise) (http://www.hindprefab.org/)
31.
^ PCM GROUP of Industries
(http://www.pcmgroup.co.in/)
32.
^ Patil Group Of Industries (http://www.123eng.com
/forum/viewtopic.php?t=35719)
33.
^ [3] (http://www.ircon.org/railways.asp) 34.
^ RAILWAYS PLANS TO SET UP CONCRETE
SLEEPER PLANT AT KATHUA - Hindustan Times
(New Delhi, India) | HighBeam Research
(http://www.highbeam.com
/doc/1P3-1000014461.html)
35.
^ Vishal Nirmiti Pvt. Ltd. - Concrete sleeper Plant
(http://wikimapia.org/10924305/Vishal-Nirmiti-
Pvt-Ltd-Concrete-sleeper-Plant)
36.
^ Sudan Tribune (http://www.sudantribune.com
/spip.php?article12871)
37.
^ September 2004 Panapress 24 J une 2004
(http://www.panapress.com
/newslatf.asp?code=eng057705&dte=24)
38.
^ Past news (http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2001
/200109/news09/17.htm)
39.
^ Pusan Industrial Co (http://www.taemyung.com
/e-introd.htm)
40.
^ Walter-Beton (http://www.walter-beton.com
/references.html)
41.
^ Parts and Components - Image Gallery - Railway
Technology (http://www.railway-technology.com
/contractors/rail/gallery.html)
42.
^
a

b
SLEEPERS FOR NACALA | Railways
AfricaRailways Africa
(http://www.railwaysafrica.com/blog/2013
/08/sleepers-for-nacala/)
43.
^ SLEEPERS FOR NACALA | Railways
AfricaRailways Africa
(http://www.railwaysafrica.com/blog/2013
/08/sleepers-for-nacala
/?utm_source=Railways+Africa&
utm_campaign=3fd2d2d34d-
RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email&
utm_term=0_a785c99d84-3fd2d2d34d-
386816265#sthash.CsgM89pr.dpuf)
44.
^ allAfrica.com: Mozambique: Reconstruction of
Sena Line Behind Schedule (Page 1 of 1)
(http://allafrica.com/stories/200803210738.html)
45.
^ Railway to new opportunity
(http://www.africasia.com/archive/ab/00_02
/abcf0201.htm)
46.
^ Namibia Archives | Railways AfricaRailways
Africa (http://www.railwaysafrica.com/blog/category
/africa-update/sadc/namibia-sadc/)
47.
^ Track & Signal Winter 2012, pg 54 48.
^ http://www.railpage.com.au
/f-p1908358.htm#1908358
49.
^ Goczalkow sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/goczalkow-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
50.
^ Blejoi sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/blejoi-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
51.
^
a

b
References - Thosti-International
(http://www.thosti.com.de/references.html)
52.
^ Giurgiu sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/giurgiu-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
53.
^ Viazma Concrete Sleeper Plant
(http://www.kompass.com/uk/RU010874)
54.
^ RailwaysAfrica 2007/6 p36 55.
^ [4] (http://www.railway-technology.com/contractors
/engineering/pfleiderer2
/Press27.html?WT.mc_id=DN_PR&
mxmroi=15093578/2651435/false)
56.
^ PCM Strescon Overseas Ventures Limited :: Home
(http://www.pcmstrescon.com)
57.
Concrete sleeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete_sleeper
14 of 16 7/23/2014 3:36 PM
^ Hofuf sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/hofuf-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
58.
^ Grindrod Rail Construction | Group Companies |
Grindrod Limited (http://www.racecgroup.com
/our-services/rail-construction/)
59.
^ INFRASET (http://www.railway-technology.com
/contractors/rail/infraset/)
60.
^ INFRASET SLEEPERS FOR ORE LINE |
Railways AfricaRailways Africa
(http://www.railwaysafrica.com/2009/11/infraset-
sleepers-for-ore-line/)
61.
^
a

b
Sudan Vision Daily - Details
(http://news.sudanvisiondaily.com
/details.html?rsnpid=206913)
62.
^ Winne.com - Report on Sudan, Beyond Common
Perceptions (http://www.winne.com/sudan/to06.html)
63.
^ Sudan / Africa / Forums / Railpage
(http://www.railpage.com.au/f-t11328857-s25.htm)
64.
^ [5] (http://www.tribeton.ch/uploads/media
/We_re_right_on_track.pdf)
65.
^ Homs sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/homs-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
66.
^ ITALIAN-THAI Development Public Company
Limited (http://www.itd.co.th/en/complex.php)
67.
^ Denizli sleeper production plant - Thosti-
International (http://www.thosti.com.de/denizli-
sleeper-production-plant.html)
68.
^ Trackwork MOLL :: Pre-stressed concrete railway
sleepers (http://www.trackwork-moll.co.uk)
69.
^ concrete sleeper crusher - YouTube
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrkgMQ5ppyg)
70.
^ "ENGINEERING." (http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-
article10498135). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848
- 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of
Australia). 12 December 1912. p. 10. Retrieved 20
December 2011.
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^ "Concrete Railway Sleepers." (http://nla.gov.au
/nla.news-article22919615). The Queenslander
(Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 - 1939) (Brisbane, Qld.:
National Library of Australia). 17 October 1929.
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^ Wallonia (http://www.sectors.wallonia-export.be
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73.
Concrete sleeper research URL http://ro.uow.edu.au/
Media related to Concrete sleeper at Wikimedia Commons
Concrete Sleeper Manufacturers Association (http://www.britishprecast.org/associations/concrete-
sleeper.php)
ARTC (http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/aa/releases/2011/November/AA218_2011.aspx)
Freeze-thaw Performance Testing of Whole Concrete Railroad Ties, Phase 1 Report (http://purl.fdlp.gov
/GPO/gpo46594) Federal Railroad Administration
Gallery (https://www.google.com.au/search?q=concrete+sleeper+kenya&client=firefox-a&hs=YvM&
rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=sb&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=ubM_U-
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