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Chapter 4B

Wastewater Treatment:
Primary and Secondary
1
Primary and Secondary
Treatment
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this learning activities the
students are expected be able to;
1. Recognize the function of primary
treatment
2
treatment
2. Apply knowledge on secondary
treatment on wastewater
3. Apply different treatment methods on
wastewater
3
Flow equilization is done after the wastewater
passed through screens and grit chambers
The objectives of flow equilization are:
To equalize the flows to minimize flow surge
Flow Equalization
4
To equalize the organic loads to dampen fluctuations
To neutralize the pH variations to bring it to the range
6.5-8.5
To provide a continuous wastewater flow to the plant
To control of high toxicity loads.
Example of Flow Equilization
5
Flow Equalization
Flow equalization is needed to overcome the
variation in flow rates into a w/w treatment plant
The purpose of flow equalization is to dampen
this variations so that the wastewater can be
treated at near constant rate
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treated at near constant rate
Flow equalization can significantly improve the
performance of existing plant and increase its
useful capacity
Flow equalization is achieved by constructing
large basin that collect and store the wastewater
flow and from which the wastewater is pumped
to treatment plant.
Flow equalization is achieved by reducing the variations
in flow rate and/or concentrations of the wastewater
being fed to the treatment facility by using equalization
basins.
Flow equalization
Flow Equalization
7
Flow equalization
Common in industries that operate a 5 day week.
The flow is balanced or spread out equally over 7 days so that
the flow arriving into the plant is the same for each of the 7 days.
Organic equalization
Industries may at different times during the week have a high
COD effluent, lasting only a few hours.
If this sent directly through the treatment plant it may cause a
shock load with consequent problem.
Then balancing the high load should be done by retaining the
pollutant load in a balance or equalization tank prior to treatment.
Nutrient Balancing
Where nutrient will be added to the influent wastewater if the
wastewater be deficient in nutrient.
pH Balancing
Should be required for influent of wastewater treatment plant
Flow Equalization
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Should be required for influent of wastewater treatment plant
which too high or low in pH for secondary treatment.
It is desirable that the pH be in range 6.5 -8.5 for activated
sludge treatment system.
Many industrial wastewater not within the range therefore need
to be balance.
Primary Treatment
(Physical Treatment)
Primary treatment is to provide protection to
WWTP equipments
Primary treatment remove large objects by bar
racks and screens
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racks and screens
Grits (sand, broken pebbles, broken glass and
silt) are also removed in grit chambers to protect
expensive equipments such as pumps
After going through screens and grit chambers,
wastewater is then kept in the primary settling
tanks for a suitable period of time (retention
time) to remove other settleable solids
Primary Settling Basins
(Rectangular)
10
Rectangular Primary Settling
Tank
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Circular Primary Settling Tank
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Circular Primary Settling Tank
13
Primary Settling Tank Design
(typical values)
Size
rectangular: 3-24 m wide x 15-100 m long
circular: 3-90 m diameter
Detention time: 1.5-2.5 hours
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Detention time: 1.5-2.5 hours
Overflow rate: 25-60 m
3
/m
2
.day
Typical removal efficiencies
solids: 50-60%
BOD
5
: 30-35%
15
Using an overflow rate of 26 m/d and detention
time of 2 hrs, find the size of primary
sedimentation tank for average flow of 0.4 m
3
/s.
Example of Primary
Tank Design
16
sedimentation tank for average flow of 0.4 m
3
/s.
What would be the overflow rate? Assume 15
sedimentation tanks with length to width ratio of
4.7.
Solution
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18
19
Unit Processes of
Secondary Treatment
Conventional aerobic secondary biologic treatment
are the availability of many microorganisms,
organic material, oxygen and favorable
environment (temperature and sufficient time)
The stabilization of organic material (pollutant) is
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The stabilization of organic material (pollutant) is
accomplished by microbes which convert colloidal
and dissolved organic matter into gases and
protoplasm
Example
C
5
H
7
O
2
N + 7O
2
4CO
2
+ 3H
2
O + HNO
3
Aerobic Decomposition (AD)
of Wastewater
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Occurs in the presence of oxygen
Organic material oxidized aerobically by microbes resulting in large
production of new cells generating sludge (dead and living cells)
AD is only suitable for low strength wastewater (ie < 500 mg/l BOD).
For high strength w/w (>1000 mg/l BOD), AD not suitable because of
difficulty in supplying of enough oxygen and also because of the amount
of sludge produced
Organic Matter + O
2
new cells + energy + CO
2
+ H
2
O
(CHONSP)
22
Aeration Tanks in Aerobic Treatment
Anaerobic Decomposition (AnD)
Occurs in the absence of oxygen. This
process is also called fermentation
It is a two step process;
First, complex organic compounds
are fermented to low-molecular
weight volatile fatty acids (VFA)
Secondly, the organic acids are
convened to methane (CH )
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convened to methane (CH
4
)
AnD yields CO
2
, CH
4
and H
2
O as
major end products
Because of small amount of energy
released, the amount of cell production
is low, thus sludge production is also
low.
Organic Matter (CHONSP) + Combined O
2
(from organics)
new cells + energy + CH
4
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O + other end products
Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical
containment.
Anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than
oxygen gas. These acceptors can be the organic material itself or
may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material.
When the oxygen source in an anaerobic system is derived from the
organic material itself, the 'intermediate' end products are
Anaerobic Digestion
organic material itself, the 'intermediate' end products are
primarily alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids, plus carbon
dioxide.
In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are
converted to the 'final' end products of methane, carbon dioxide, and
trace levels of hydrogen sulfide.
In an anaerobic system, the majority of the chemical energy
contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic
bacteria as methane.
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There are two conventional operational temperature
levels for anaerobic digesters, which are determined
by the species of methanogens in the digesters:
Mesophilic which takes place optimally around 30-
38C or at ambient temperatures between 20- 45C
with mesophiles
mesophilic archaea are the primary
Anaerobic Digestion
25
mesophilic archaea are the primary
microorganism present
Thermophilic which takes place optimally around
49- 57 at elevated temperatures up to 70C with
thermophiles
thermophilic archaea - are the primary
microorganisms present
Anaerobic WW Treatment Facility
26
Comparing AD and AnD
27
Comparing AD and AnD
28
AEROBIC:
More sludge to manage (60%)
often causing problems
Main product CO
2
and H
2
O
No odor
ANAEROBIC:
Less sludge to manage(10%)
Main product CH
4
, CO
2
and H
2
O and
Bad odor due to H
2
S and NH
3
gases
Biological Treatment
Main agent of biological treatment is the
microorganisms (microbes) that thrives in the
municipal wastewater
These microbes consumed the organic
pollutants in the wastewater as their food pollutants in the wastewater as their food
The degradation of organics (pollutant) is done
aerobically or anaerobically
The microbes reproduce and multiply in the
wastewater resulting in more numbers to
continue degrading pollutants until the
wastewater rendered clean
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Bacterial Growth Requirements
1. Terminal electron acceptor
2. Macronutrients
a. carbon
b. nitrogen
c. phosphorus
3. Micronutrients
a. trace metals
b. vitamins
4. Environment
a. moisture
b. temperature
c. pH
Bacteria Growth in Pure
Cultures
Phases of Growth (Wikipedia)
During lag phase, bacteria adapt themselves to growth conditions.
It is the period where the individual bacteria are maturing and not
yet able to divide. During the lag phase of the bacterial growth
cycle, synthesis of RNA, enzymes and other molecules occurs.
So in this phase the microorganisms are not dormant.
Exponential phase (sometimes called the log phase or the
logarithmic phase) is a period characterized by cell doubling. The
number of new bacteria appearing per unit time is proportional to
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number of new bacteria appearing per unit time is proportional to
the present population. Exponential growth cannot continue
indefinitely, however, because the medium is soon depleted of
nutrients and enriched with wastes.
During stationary phase, the growth rate slows as a result of
nutrient depletion and accumulation of toxic products. This phase
is reached as the bacteria begin to exhaust the resources that are
available to them. This phase is a constant value as the rate of
bacterial growth is equal to the rate of bacterial death.
At death phase, bacteria run out of nutrients and die.
Mathematics of Growth
log growth phase
.... 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
+ + + + = P P P P P
n
P P ) 2 (
0
=
2 log log log
0
n P P + =
Example
Bread yeast cells divide and form 2 cells every
5 minutes. If you place 10
5
cells in a suitable
environment, how many cells will you have in
30 minutes?
s generation 6
neration minutes/ge 5
minutes 30
= = n
( ) cells 10 x 4 . 6 2 10
6
6
5
= = P
How is this accomplished?
Create a very rich
environment for
growth of a diverse
microbial community
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Most Abundant Microbes in W/W
Aerobic treatment
36
Amoeba Rotifer
Filamentous
Ciliated Protozoa
Flagellated Protozoa
Vorticella
Secondary Treatment
Provide BOD removal beyond what is achieved
in primary treatment
removal of soluble BOD
additional removal of suspended solids
Basic approach is to use aerobic biological
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degradation:
Organic Matter + O
2
New Cells + CO
2
+
(CHONSP) H
2
O + NO
2
+ PO
4
Objective is to allow the BOD to be exerted in
the treatment plant rather than in the stream
Monod Equation
38

max
= maximum growth rate, t
-1
S = concentration of limiting food in solution, mg/L
K
s
= half saturation constant, mg/L
= concentration of limiting food when, =
max
In the log growth phase;
Monod Equation;
X
dt
dX
=
S K
S
s
m
+
=

dX/dt = growth rate of biomass


= growth rate constant
X = concentration of biomass

m
= maximum growth rate, t
-1
S = concentration of limiting food in
solution, mg/L
K
s
= half saturation constant, mg/L
= concentration of limiting food when,
= 0.5
m
..1
.2
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Taking into account natural
die-off;
= 0.5
m
X k
S K
SX
dt
dX
d
s
m

+
=

k
d
= endogenous decay
3
Rate of food utilization dS/dt would equal rate of biomass production
dt
dX
Y dt
dS 1
=
Combining equation 1, 2 and 3
SX dS
=
1
Y = decimal fraction of food mass converted
to biomass
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S K
SX
Y dt
dS
s
m
+
=
1
Basic Ingredients
High density of microorganisms (keep
organisms in system)
Good contact between organisms and
wastes (provide mixing)
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Provide high levels of oxygen (aeration)
Favorable temperature, pH, nutrients
(design and operation)
No toxic chemicals present (control
industrial inputs)
Dispersed growth vs
Fixed Growth
Dispersed Growth suspended organisms
Activated sludge
Oxidation ditches/ponds
42
Oxidation ditches/ponds
Aerated lagoons, stabilization ponds
Fixed Growth attached organisms
Trickling filters
Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs)
Activated Sludge
Process in which a mixture of wastewater and
microorganisms (biological sludge) is agitated
and aerated (disperse growth)
Leads to oxidation of dissolved organics
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Leads to oxidation of dissolved organics
After oxidation, separate sludge from
wastewater
Induce microbial growth
Need food, oxygen
Want Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
(MLSS) of 3,000 to 6,000 mg/L
Activated Sludge
Mixed Liquor
Aeration Tank
(X,S,V)
Air
w/w
influent
R
e
t
u
r
n

A
c
t
i
v
a
t
e
d

S
l
u
d
g
e
(
R
A
S
)
Air
Q,S
o
44
(X,S,V)
Secondary
Clarifier
Waste Activated
Sludge (WAS)
R
e
t
u
r
n

A
c
t
i
v
a
t
e
d

S
l
u
d
g
e
(
R
A
S
)
Treated
w/w Discharged to
River or Land
Application
(Q+Q
r
)
X,S
(Q-Qw),
S,X
e
Q
r
,X
r
,S
Q
w
,X
r
,S
Activated Sludge Process
r
X
w
Q
e
X
w
Q Q X
d
k
S
s
K
SX
m
V
o
QX + =

+
+ ) ( ) (

Q = wastewater flowrate, m
3
/d
X
o
= microbes concentration (VSS) entering aeration tank, mg/L
V = volume of aeration tank, m
3
Eq. 8.10
(pg 491)
45
V = volume of aeration tank, m

m
= maximum growth rate, d
-1
S = soluble BOD
5
in aeration tank end effluent, mg/L
X = microbes concentration (MLVSS) in aeration tank, mg/L
K
s
= half velocity constant, mg/L
= soluble BOD
5
concentration at one half the maximum growth rate
k
d
= decay rate of microbes, d
-1
Q
w
= flow rate of liquid containing microbes to be wasted, mg/L
X
e
= microbes concentration in effluent from settling tank, mg/L
X
r
= microbes concentration (VSS) in sludge being wasted, mg/L
At steady state
( )
( )
( ) S Q S Q Q
S K Y
SX
V QS
w w
s
m
o
+ =


Food in
influent
Food
consumed
Food in
efffluent
Food in
WAS
+
+ =
Eq. 8.13
(pg 493)
46
Combining Eq. 6.10 and 6.13
( )
d o
r w
k S S
X
Y
V
Q
VX
X Q
=
Eq. 8.17
(pg 493)
The inverse of left side of Eq. 8.17 defines
the mean cell residence time
c
r w
X Q
VX
=
The concentration of BOD
5
in the effluent (S) is fixed,
Eq. 8.19
(pg 493)
47
( )
( ) 1
1

+
=
d m c
c d s
k
k K
S


Eq. 8.21
(pg 494)
From Eq. 6.17, the concentration of microbes in the tank,
( )( )
( )
c d
c
k
S S Y
X

+

=
1
0
Eq. 8.23
(pg 494)
Activated sludge
48
Activated Sludge Vid
Secondary Clarifier
49
East Lansing WWTP
Example 1
Ex. A wastewater treatment plant to treat wastewater to meet
effluent standard of 25 mg/L BOD and 30 mg/L suspended
solids. The treatment plant flow rate is 0.029 m
3
/s. The effluent
from the primary tank has BOD of 240 mg/L. Using the
following assumptions, estimate the required volume of the
aeration tank;
50
aeration tank;
1. BOD of effluent suspended solids is 70% of the allowable
suspended solids concentration
2. Growth constant values are estimated to be;
Ks = 100 mg/L BOD, kd = 0.025 /d, m = 10/d,
Y = 0.8 mg VSS/mg BOD removed
3. Design MLVSS is 3000 mg/L
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( )
( ) 1
1

+
=
d m c
c d s
k
k K
S


( )( )
c
S S Y
X

=
0
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( )( )
( )
c d
c
k
S S Y
X

+

=
1
0
Food to Micro-organism Ratio
(F/M Ratio)
The F/M ratio is one of the major design parameter
0
=
VX
QS
M
F
53
(MLVSS) solids suspended
atile liquor vol mixed
volume
BOD soluble initial
rate flow where
5 0
=
=
=
=
X
V
S
Q
VX M
F/M Ratio
Low F/M (low rate of wasting)
starved organisms
more complete degradation
larger, more costly aeration tanks
more O required
54
more O
2
required
higher power costs (to supply O
2
)
less sludge to handle
High F/M (high rate of wasting)
organisms are saturated with food
low treatment efficiency
F/M Ratio
F/M Ratio is controlled by
wasting part of the biomass
thereby reducing MLVSS
High rate of wasting causes
high F/M ratio (meaning more
food than organism) thus
causing poor treatment
Parameters Tank A Tank B
F/M

c
Sludge
Oxygen
Low
Long
Little
High
High
Short
Much
Low
55
causing poor treatment
Low F/M Ratio causes microbe
to starve thus resulting in more
complete degradation of waste
(pollutant)
Long cell mean residence time
(
c
) is not always used
because this would result in
bigger tank and longer
aeration time (thus would
increase power consumption)
Oxygen
Power
High
High
Low
Low
F/M values typically range
from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mg
F/M Ratio Example
Flow = 0.15 m
3
/s, BOD5 = 84.0 mg/L
Volume of reactor = 970m
3
, MLVSS = 2000 mg/L
Calculate F/M Ratio in mg/mg.day
Total mass of subsrate (Food) = Q x BOD concentration
= 0.15 m
3
/s x 84 mg/L x 86,400 s/d
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= 0.15 m
3
/s x 84 mg/L x 86,400 s/d
Mass of MLVSS = Volume of tank x Concentration of MLVSS
= 970 m
3
x 2000 mg/L
Therefore F/M ratio = 0.15 m
3
/s x 84 mg/L x 86,400 s/d = 0.56 mg/mg.d
970 m
3
x 2000 mg/L
Typical F/M Ratio values are 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mg
QS F
0
=
57
VX
QS
M
F
0
=
Sludge Volume Index (SVI)
SVI is used to control the rate of sludge return to the reactor
basin in activated sludge process
SVI can be used as an indication of the settling
characteristics of the sludge, thereby impacting on the return
rate and MLSS
SVI is defined as the volume in ml occupied by 1 g of
activated sludge after the aerated liquor has settled 30
58
activated sludge after the aerated liquor has settled 30
minutes as calculated below;
g
mg
x
MLSS
SV
SVI 1000 =
SVI = Sludge Volume Index, mL/g
SV = Volume of settled solids in one liter graduated
cylinder after 30 minutes settling, mL/L
MLSS = Mixed liquor suspended solids, mg/L
SVI
One sample of wastewater contain 4000 mg/L of MLSS. After settled
for one hour the volume of sludge in the 1L cylinder after 30 minutes
is 400 mL. Calculate SVI
SVI = SV x 1000 mL
MLSS
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MLSS
SVI = 400 mL x 1000 mL = 100 mL/g
4000 mg/L
Typical values of SVI is 80 150 mL/g for activated sludge
operating with concentration 2000 3500 mg/l of MLSS
Activated Sludge Design
t
d
= approximately 6 - 8 hr
Long rectangular aeration basins
Air is injected near bottom of aeration
tanks through system of diffusers
60
tanks through system of diffusers
Aeration system used to provide
mixing
MLVSS and F/M controlled by wasting
a portion of microorganisms
Tutorials
Refer to text book page 495, Example 4
Please do this example as well as questions
from page 561 564
Nos. 8.8, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.18, 8.22, 8.24
61
A Trickling Filter is a fixed bed, biological filter that operates under
(mostly) aerobic conditions. Pre-settled wastewater is trickled or
sprayed over the filter. As the water migrates through the pores of
the filter, organics are degraded by the biomass covering the filter
material.
Advantages
Small land area required compared to Constructed Wetlands.
Trickling Filters
62
Small land area required compared to Constructed Wetlands.
Can be operated at a range of organic and hydraulic loading
rates.
Disadvantages/limitations
- High capital costs and moderate operating costs
- Requires expert design and construction.
- Requires constant source of electricity and constant w/w flow.
- Flies and odours are often problematic.
- Not all parts and materials may be available locally.
- Pre-treatment is required to prevent clogging.
- Dosing system requires more complex engineering.
Trickling Filter Plant Layout
63
Trickling Filters
Rotating distribution arm sprays primary
effluent over circular bed of rock or other
coarse media
Air circulates in pores between rocks
Biofilm develops on rocks and micro-
64
Biofilm develops on rocks and micro-
organisms degrade waste materials as
they flow past
Organisms slough off in clumps when film
gets too thick
65
Trickling Filters
66
67
Slime growth on rocks in trickling filter
High Density Polyethelene
Latest Technology
Trickling filter medium
68
High Density Polyethelene
(HDPE)
Polypropelyne (PP)
High Density Polyethelene
(HDPE)
Trickling
Filters
69
Trickling Filters
Not a true filtering or sieving process
Material only provides surface on which
bacteria to grow
Can use plastic media
70
Can use plastic media
lighter - can get deeper beds (up to 12 m)
reduced space requirement
larger surface area for growth
greater void ratios (better air flow)
less prone to plugging by accumulating slime
Trickling Filter
Example
A trickling filter has diameter of 15 m and
depth of 5 m, if flow is 3000 m
3
/day, calculate
the surface overflow rate (SAR)
71
the surface overflow rate (SAR)
Answer : SOR = Q/A
= 3000/(D
2
/4)
= .? m
3
/day.m
2
Rotating Biological Contactors
Called RBCs
Consists of series of closely spaced
discs mounted on a horizontal shaft
and rotated while ~40% of each disc is
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and rotated while ~40% of each disc is
submerged in wastewater
Discs: light-weight plastic
Slime is 1-3 mm in thickness on disc
Rotating Biological Contactors
73
RBC
74
Rotating Biological Contactors
Aeration
75
Shearing of excess
microorganisms
Attached microorganisms
pick up organics
Film
mixes with
wastewater
RBC On Site
76
Rotating Biological Contactors
Primary
Settling
77
Sludge
Treatment
Secondary
Settling
Sludge Treatment
Low-tech solutions
Aerobic ponds
Facultative ponds
Anaerobic ponds
On-site Treatment
78
On-site Treatment
(Septic Tanks)
Waste or Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) are artificial
man-made lagoons in which blachwater, greywater or faecal
sludge are treated by natural occurring processes and the
influence of solar light, wind, microorganisms and algae. The
ponds can be used individually or in series of an anaerobic,
facultative and aerobic (maturation) pond. WSPs are low-cost
WW Stabilization Ponds
facultative and aerobic (maturation) pond. WSPs are low-cost
for O & M and BOD and pathogen removal is high. However,
large surface areas and expert design are required.
The effluent still contains nutrients (e.g. N and P) and is
therefore appropriate for the reuse in agriculture (irrigation)
or aquaculture (e.g. fish- or macrophyte ponds) but not for
direct recharge in surface waters.
79
WW Stabilization Ponds
80
Aerobic ponds
Shallow ponds (<1 m
deep)
Light penetrates to
bottom
Active algal
81
Active algal
photosynthesis
Organic matter con-
verted to CO
2
, NO
3
-
,
HSO
4
-
, HPO
4
2-
, etc.
Anaerobic Ponds
Primarily used as a pretreatment process
for high strength, high temperature wastes
Can handle much high loadings
2 stage:
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2 stage:
Acid fermentation: Organics Org. acids
Methane fermentation Org. Acids CH
4
and
CO
2
Facultative ponds
Ponds 1 - 2.5 m deep
HRT = 30 - 180 d
Not easily subject to
upsets due to Aerobic
83
upsets due to
fluctuations in Q,
loading
Low capital, O&M
costs
Facultative
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Facultative Ponds
84
Facultative zone
85
86
Septic Tanks
In locations where sewers and a centralized
wastewater treatment system are not available,
on site disposal must be used
Septic systems most common for individual
87
Septic systems most common for individual
residences
Engineered systems used for unfavorable site
conditions
Larger systems required for housing clusters,
rest areas, commercial and industrial facilities
Septic Systems
88
Septic Tank settling, flotation and anaerobic degradation
Septic
Systems
89
Septic Systems
Soil must pass percolation test
soil type
rate of water infiltration
depth to water table
Design specifications
Tank volume and number of chambers
90
Tank volume and number of chambers
Drain field size
Drain field materials
Basis for design is empirical
Tank must be pumped to remove solids every
1-3 years
Drain field replacement may be required
Example
Design a septic tank and tile field system
for highway rest area. Use the following
assumptions;
Avrg daily traffic = 6000 vehicle/d
Percent turn in = 10%
91
Percent turn in = 10%
Use rate = 20 liters/turn in
Maximum use rate = 2.5 x average
GWT = 4.2 below GL
Soil percolation = 5min/cm
92
93
Oxidation Ditches
Oxidation ditch is an extended aeration activated sludge process.
An oxidation ditch is a large holding tank in a continuous ditch with oval
shape similar to that of a racetrack. This allows the waste water to have
plenty of exposure to the open air for the diffusion of oxygen.
The liquid depth in the ditches is very shallow, 0.9 to 1.5 m, which helps to
prevent anaerobic conditions from occurring at the bottom of the ditch.
The oxidation ditch effluent is clarified in a secondary clarifier and the
settled sludge is returned to maintain a desirable MLSS concentration.
The MLSS concentration in the oxidation ditch generally ranges from 3,000
mg/ L to 5,000 mg/ L
Longer retention time within the ditch will allow for a greater amount of
organic matter to be broken down by the aerobic bacteria.
After treatment, the waste water is pumped to a secondary settling tank
where the sludge and the water are allowed to separate
94
Oxidation Ditches
95
Oxidation Ditch
96
Land and Wetland Application
Constructed Wetlands
Spray irrigation and infiltration
Overland flow
97
Wetlands
Use of natural or artificial wetlands
Floating plants act as filters and support
(From: http://www.city.pg.bc.ca/finished.htm)
98
Floating plants act as filters and support
for bacteria
(From: Environmental Science, 4th ed., B.J. Nebeland R.T. Wright, Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1981)
Constructed Wetland
99
Constructed Wetland
100
Reed bed filtration system
101
Facility Options
Considerations for wastewater treatment
facility options
costs
capital
102
capital
operation and maintenance (including energy)
availability of space
degree of treatment required by DOE
permit
municipal or municipal plus industrial
flow rate
Facility Options
Considerations for wastewater
treatment facility options
distance from residential properties
103
distance from residential properties
problems with: odors, flies, other nuisances
agricultural usage or land application
options
presence of pathogens
experience of design engineers
The inverse of left side of Eq. 8.17 defines
the mean cell residence time
c
r w
X Q
VX
=
The concentration of BOD
5
in the effluent (S) is fixed,
Eq. 8.19
104
( )
( ) 1
1

+
=
d m c
c d s
k
k K
S


Eq. 8.21
From Eq. 6.17, the concentration of microbes in the tank,
( )( )
( )
c d
c
k
S S Y
X

+

=
1
0
Eq. 8.23
END OF
CHAPTER 4B
105
CHAPTER 4B