You are on page 1of 29

Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes

HSC Core 1: HEALTH PRIORITIES


IN AUSTRALIA
Critical Question 1 - How are priorit issues !or Australia"s #ealt#
i$enti!ie$%
&easurin' Healt# Status
Role o! Epi$e(iolo'
The collection and analysis o the data used to make this assessment is kno!n as
Epidemiology"
#easures o Epidemiology
#orbidity$ The rates% distribution and trends o illness% disease and in&ury in a gi'en
population"
#ortality$ The number o deaths or a gi'en cause in a gi'en population% o'er a set time(
period"
)nant #ortality$ The number o deaths in the irst year o lie per 1000 li'e births"
*ie E+pectancy$ ,n estimate o the number o years a person can e+pect to li'e at any
particular age"
I$enti!in' Priorit Healt# Issues
Social )ustice Principles
E-uity
Di'ersity
Supporti'e en'ironments
Priority Population .roups
Pre'alence o condition
Potential or pre'ention and early inter'ention
Costs to the indi'idual and community
Direct indi'idual costs include the inancial burden that is associated !ith illness and
disability such as ongoing medical costs /hospital charges% medical proessional ees%
medications% tra'el etc"0 and loss o employment
)n(direct indi'idual costs include persistent pain and loss o -uality o lie% possible e+clusion
rom social acti'ities% increased pressure on amilies to oer support and the emotional toll o
chronic illness
Direct community costs include the 'ast unding o the ,ustralian health care system /!hich
is pro&ected to markedly increase !ith an ageing and gro!ing population0" #ost o this
supports primary health care and pharmaceuticals% and the nature o chronic illness tends to
re-uire high degrees o medical inter'ention to manage them
)n(direct community costs include the premature loss o contributing and 'aluable members
o society and the cost or employers in absenteeism% decreased producti'ity and re(training
Critical Question * - +#at are t#e priorit issues !or i(pro,in'
Australia"s #ealt#%
These determinants can be categorised as either$
Sociocultural determinants /E"g" amily% peers% media% religion and culture0
Socioeconomic determinants /E"g" education% employment and income0
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
En'ironmental determinants /E"g" geographical location and access to health ser'ices
and technology0
-roups e.periencin' #ealt# ine/uities
,boriginal and Torres Strait )slander peoples
Socioeconomically disad'antaged /*o! SES0
People li'ing in rural and remote communities
4'erseas(born people
Elderly
People !ith disabilities
Hi'# le,els o! pre,enta0le c#ronic $isease1 in2ur an$ (ental #ealt# pro0le(s
Car$io,ascular 3isease
Nature
Cardio'ascular Disease /C5D0 reers to all diseases o the heart and blood 'essels%
caused by a build up o atty tissue inside the blood 'essels /i"e" atherosclerosis0 and the
hardening o the blood 'essels /i"e" arteriosclerosis0
6 types o C5D include Coronary heart Disease% Cerebro'ascular Disease% Peripheral
5ascular Disease
E+tent
The leading cause o death and sickness
7oth mortality and morbidity is decreasing or males and emales
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Protecti,e 5actors
( ,ge$ rates increase sharply
o'er :; years o age
( 7eing male
( 9amily history
( Smoking and alcohol abuse
( Diet high in at% salt and
sugar
( *o! physical acti'ity le'els
( High blood pressure and
cholesterol le'els
( 7eing o'er!eight
( Nutritious and balanced diet
( Daily physical acti'ity
( 8esponsible use o alcohol
( No smoking
( #aintain healthy !eight
( Control stress le'els
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( 9amily history
( )ndigenous$ higher rates o
all risk actors
( #ales$ less likely to engage
in pre'entati'e health
measures
( *o! le'els o disposable
income
( 1nemployed
( *o! le'el o education
( People !ho li'e in rural and
remote communities
.roups at 8isk
)ndigenous ,ustralians
Socioeconomically disad'antaged communities
People !ho li'e in rural and remote regions o ,ustralia
Elderly
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Cancer
Nature
, group o diseases leading to the uncontrolled gro!th o abnormal body cells"
Skin% 7reast and *ung cancers are o most concern to health authorities
E+tent
#ortality and morbidity rates are both increasing"
The most commonly occurring cancer is non(melanoma skin cancer /!hich is mostly non(
lie threatening0" The most common lie threatening cancers include$ #en$ prostate%
colorectal% lung and melanoma and <omen$ breast% colorectal% lung and melanoma
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Protecti,e 5actors
( .ender$ speciic cancers
( ,ge$ leads to increased risk
( 9amily history
( .enetic makeup e"g" being
air skinned
( E+posure to carcinogens
/cancer causing agents0%
such as smoke% asbestos%
15 radiation rom the sun
( *iestyle beha'iours% such
as smoking% alcohol misuse
and poor dietary habits
( ,'oid carcinogen e"g" Slip%
Slop% Slap% <rap
( Personal screening habits
e"g" breast and testicular
( Public screening e"g" breast
mammograms and prostate
blood test
( Seeking early medical
inter'ention
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( Smoking amongst young
emales
( Tanning habits% such as
e+cessi'e sun e+posure
( 1nemployed$ higher rates
o smoking
( *o! le'els o education e"g"
a!areness o !arning signs
and personal testing
( People !ho !ork outdoors
( People !ho li'e in rural and
remote communities
( E+posure to chemicals in
the !orkplace
.roups at 8isk
)ndigenous ,ustralians
Socioeconomically disad'antaged communities
People !ho li'e in rural and remote regions o ,ustralia
#ales and 9emales
4ther minor groups include smokers% outdoor !orkers% young adults and people !ith air
skin
3ia0etes
Nature
, disease that aects the body=s ability to take glucose rom the bloodstream to use it or
energy
Caused by a malunctioning o the pancreas leading to insuicient insulin le'els% the
hormone responsible or regulation o blood glucose le'els /7.*0
6 types$
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 6 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
1" )nsulin Dependent Diabetes /)DD#0 > ?no!n as Type 1 > usually presents early in lie
and patients re-uire insulin in&ections and must monitor diet and physical acti'ity to
maintain a sae 7.*
2" Non()nsulin Dependent Diabetes /N)DD#0 > ?no!n as Type 2 > usually presents later in
lie% as a result o long(term poor health beha'iours related to diet and e+ercise" 8e-uires
medication and liestyle modiications
6" .estational Diabetes /.D0 > occurs during pregnancy
The long(term eect s o each type include 'ision problems% kidney disease% circulatory
issues in arms and legs and a strong link to C5D /similar risk actors0
E+tent
<orld=s astest gro!ing disease > similar issues are e'ident in ,ustralia
Pre'alence increases !ith age% especially N)DD# Type 2
The age o onset is decreasing !hich is a gro!ing concern% especially or young people"
Due to unhealthy liestyles
6";@ o all ,ustralians ha'e Diabetes
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
Protecti,e 5actors
( High blood pressure
( Ha'ing C5D or its risk
actors
( Ha'ing diabetes in
pregnancy
( 7eing o'er!eight
( 4'er ;; years o age
( 9amily History
( 4'er A; years !ith C5D
risk actors
( 4'er 6; and being o
,boriginal% Chinese% )ndia or
Paciic )slander descent
( #aintaining a healthy
!eight
( , balanced and nutritious
diet% ull o *o! .) oods"
Eating ;(: smaller meals per
day
( Healthy use o alcohol
( Daily physical acti'ity
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( )ndigenous > 10(60@ may
ha'e diabetes > much is
undiagnosed
( 7eing Chinese% )ndian or
Paciic )slander
( Social acceptance o binge
drinking
( ,geing population
( 7eing Btime poor= > leads to
increased reliance on
Bcon'enient= ood
( *o! SES > more likely to
ha'e poor diet% drink
e+cessi'e alcohol% be
physically inacti'e and be
o'er!eight
( *o! education > less
a!areness o pre'ention
strategies and health liestyle
beha'iours
( Technology has lead to a
more passi'e society e"g"
popularity o 'ideo games
( People rom rural and
remote and )ndigenous >
ha'e diiculty in accessing
medical ser'ices
( Cunk ood ad'ertising to
children
.roups at 8isk
Elderly
)ndigenous ,ustralians
Socioeconomically disad'antaged
People rom rural and remote regions
&ental Healt# Pro0le(s
Nature
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press A 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
,ny illness that negati'ely aects a person=s emotional stability% perceptions% beha'iour
and social !ell(being% such as depression% an+iety% addictions% obsessi'e compulsi'e
disorder% bipolar disorder% eating disorders and dementia
E+tent
20@ o people suer orm a mental health problem at some stage o lie
Pre'alence is increasing and much is unreported
1D(2A years olds ha'e the highest rates% especially substance abuse and depression
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
Protecti,e 5actors
( Drug use
( Chronic disease e"g"
arthritis
( Percei'ed sel(!orth and
sense o identity
( Coping skills
Stressul situations e"g"
amily breakdo!n and
occupational stress
( .rie
( ,ge > increased risk o
dementia
( #ales suer mostly
depression and addictions
/substance abuse0
( 9emales suer mostly
depression and an+iety
( 1ncontrolled lie changes
e"g" death or abuse
( 9amily history
( Social acceptance as
legitimate health concerns
( ,!areness o social support
structures e"g" .P% online
help% telephone counseling
( Strong sense o
connectedness !ith amily%
riends% !ork mates and
neighbours
( Personal resiliency skills
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( 9amily breakdo!n > lack o
support
( Diicult lie circumstances
e"g" abuse
( ,7TS) > )ncreased alcohol
and drug abuse% and diicult
lie circumstances
( Elderly people > increased
social isolation and grie
( 1nemployed > higher rates
o depression
( *o! education > risk actors
( People in inancial distress
e"g" armers during a drought
( *i'ing in remote regions >
lack o support and medical
ser'ices
( Stigma amongst males as
!ell as common stoical
attitudes
( *ack o emotional support
e"g" amily breakdo!n
.roups at 8isk
Elderly
)ndigenous ,ustralians
Socioeconomically disad'antaged
People rom rural and remote regions
People born o'erseas% especially reugees
People !ith a disability
Respirator 3iseases
Nature
Common diseases that aect the respiratory system include$ ,sthma% Chronic 4bstructi'e
Pulmonary Diseases% Hay e'er
E+tent
: million ,ustralians ha'e a long(term respiratory disease
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press ; 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
#orbidity rates are no! decreasing% a result o reduced smoking
#ortality is also decreasing% due to eecti'e education programs
,sthma is the leading burden o disease amongst children
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
Protecti,e 5actors
( 1se o pre'entati'e
medication or asthma
( E+posure to en'ironmental
haEards% e"g" chemicals
( Stress
( Passi'e smoking in homes
and cars
( En'ironmental changes e"g"
pollen in spring and cold and
dry !eather patterns
( ,!areness o personal
asthma triggers e"g" e+ercise
( Education about personal
pre'ention strategies and
plans or asthma attacks
( No smoking
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( )ndigenous ,ustralians >
higher rates o smoking
( 9amily history
( )ncreased smoking amongst
lo! SES
( *o! income > less money
or pre'entati'e medication
( *o! SES > more likely to be
e+posed to occupational
haEards
( Higher rates o pollution in
cities
( People !ho li'e in remote
region are urther rom
emergency ser'ices
( Children=s e+posure to
passi'e smoke
.roups at 8isk
)ndigenous ,ustralians
Socioeconomically disad'antaged
People rom rural and remote regions
Smokers
In2ur
Nature
There are many types o in&uries% !hich aect all stages o lie" They oten result in ling(
term harm o one=s physical% emotional and social !ell being" E+amples include$
1" 8oad in&uries and #otor 5ehicle ,ccidents /#5,=s0
2" Suicide and sel(harm
6" )n&uries around the home e"g" poisonings% alls% dro!ning% cuts% ires
A" <orkplace accidents
;" ,cts o 'iolence
:" Sports and recreational in&uries
E+tent
*eading cause o death in 1(AA years age group /particularly #5,=s and suicide amongst
males0
.reatest cause o potential lie lost under :; years
#a&or cause o hospitalisation
Deaths rom in&uries are decreasing in re-uency% especially #5,=s
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press : 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
The elderly are prone to in&uries such as alls% !hich has a signiicant impact on their
-uality o lie
8isk 9actors and Protecti'e 9actors
&o$i!ia0le Ris4 5actors Non-&o$i!ia0le Ris4
5actors
Protecti,e 5actors
( Dri'ing beha'iour and
attitudes
( )nade-uate super'ision o
children
4ccupational haEards
1nsae home en'ironment
e"g" chemicals% pool encing
and trip haEards
( Sae roads and eecti'e
road la!s
( Sae use o alcohol
( ,ge > elderly are more at
risk o alls
( .ender > higher rates o
risk taking beha'iour and
suicide
( #inimising dri'ing
distractions e"g" #obile
phones and .PS
( Eecti'e dri'er education
( Positi'e attitude to!ards
road and 4HS rules and
regulations
( Home modiications or the
elderly
( Strong social support to
pre'ent suicide
Determinants
Sociocultural
3eter(inants
Socioecono(ic
3eter(inants
En,iron(ental
3eter(inants
( )ndigenous people suer
more in&uries
( ,ttitudes to!ards dri'ing
and risk taking amongst
males
( 9amily breakdo!n% leading
to social isolation o young
people
( Societal pressure or
tougher road la!s e"g" P
plate regulations
( Societal a!areness o
haEardous en'ironments
( *o! SES > higher rates o
hospitalisation rom in&uries
( *o! education > less
a!areness o dangers
around the home
( *o! income > makes it
harder to purchase saety
e-uipment
( #5,=s are highest amongst
lo! SES populations
( <orkplace in&uries are most
common in agricultural
settings
( Suicide is highest amongst
males rom rural and remote
regions
( 1nsae home en'ironment
o elderly people and children
can lead to increased risk o
in&ury
.roups at 8isk
Elderly /9alls0
)ndigenous ,ustralians /#5,=s and sel(harm0
People rom rural and remote regions /occupational in&uries0
Children /poisoning and dro!ning0
Foung ,dults /#5,=s% sport and recreational in&uries and sel(harm0
#ales /Suicide and #5,=s0
A 'rowin' an$ a'ein' population
, number o signiicant trends ha'e been obser'ed in ,ustralia=s population in the last ;0
years$
, decrease in the birth rate o'er this time
, decline in mortality rates% along !ith an increase in lie e+pectancy
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press G 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Sustained rates o immigration rom o'erseas
The percentage o people aged o'er G0 years is set to double to 20@ o'er the ne+t orty
years" ,lso% the total population is e+pected to double to A0 million people in the same time"
Healt# A'ein'
Enabling and empo!ering people to li'e a healthy% producti'e and contributing lie or as
long as possible% is a key strategy o the go'ernment"
Increase$ Population Li,in' wit# C#ronic 3isease an$ 3isa0ilit
, larger elderly population ine'itably leads to more people li'ing !ith chronic disease and
disability"
3e(an$ !or Healt# Ser,ices an$ +or4!orce S#orta'es
To meet the demands placed upon our go'ernment and society by a gro!ing and ageing
population% the ull range o health ser'ices !ill need to e+pand dramatically" This increase
needs to includeH more specialist health proessionals and .P=s% more primary and
emergency health ser'ices such as ambulances and public hospitals and more housing and
accommodation or people !ho re-uire assistance !ith basic li'ing needs"
A,aila0ilit o! Carers an$ 6olunteers
Carers pro'ide inormal care o people li'ing !ith chronic diseases and disability" The
contribution o 'olunteers is also recognised as essential in meeting the demands o our
ageing population" They assist !ith acti'ities such as transport% shopping% meals on !heels
and social acti'ities"
Critical Question 7 - +#at role $o #ealt# care !acilities an$ ser,ices
pla in ac#ie,in' 0etter #ealt# !or all Australians%
Healt# care in Australia
Ran'e an$ tpes o! #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices
Cate'or E.a(ples
Public health ser'ices Cancer screening
)mmunisation programs
Primary and community health care .P=s
,mbulance ser'ices
8oyal 9lying Doctor Ser'ice
Dental
Hospitals Public
Pri'ate
#ental
Specialised health ser'ices Specialised medical practitioners
8eproducti'e health
#ental health
Palliati'e care
Responsi0ilit !or #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices
Healt# care pro,i$er 5acilities an$8or ser,ices pro,i$e$
Common!ealth .o'ernment 9ormation o national health policies
Collection o ta+es to inance the health system
Pro'ision o unds to stateIterritory
go'ernments
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press D 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Special concern or ,TS)
Pharmaceutical unding
StateITerritory .o'ernment Hospital ser'ices
#ental health
Home and community care
9amily health ser'ices
Dental health
<omen=s health
Health promotion
8egulating health industry pro'iders
*ocal .o'ernment 5ary rom state to state
En'ironmental control
,ntenatal clinics
#eals on <heels
Pri'ate organisations Pri'ate hospitals
Dentists
,lternati'e health ser'ices /physiotherapy%
chiropractor% etc0
Community groups *ocal needs basis
Cancer Council% Dads in Distress% Diabetes
,ustralia% etc
E/uit o! access to #ealt# !acilities an$ ser,ices
,ll ,ustralians should ha'e e-ual access to health care acilities and ser'ices" This is
achie'ed in ,ustralia through #edicare"
Healt# care e.pen$iture ,ersus e.pen$iture on earl inter,ention an$ pre,ention
Health(care e+penditure incorporates pri'ate health insurance% households% indi'iduals and
all le'els o go'ernment" )n 200G(0D Health(care e+penditure !as J106": billion /,ustralia=s
Health 2010% ,)H<0" *ess than 2@ o this igure !as spent on pre'entable ser'ices or health
promotion"
8easons or increasing unding or pre'entati'e health strategies include$
Cost eecti'eness
)mpro'ement to -uality o lie
Containment o increasing costs
1se o e+isting resources
8einorcement o indi'idual responsibility
#aintenance o social e-uity
8educed mortality and morbidity
I(pact o! e(er'in' new treat(ents an$ tec#nolo'ies on #ealt# care1 e9'9 cost an$
access1 0ene!its o! earl $etection
Ne! treatments and technologies ha'e the potential to signiicantly impro'e the health status
o ,ustralians" E+amples o de'elopments in emerging treatments and technologies include$
de'elopment o ne! machinery% image technology in keyhole surgery% impro'ement in
materials% drug ad'ancements% prosthetic limb de'elopment% artiicial organs and transplant
technology"
Healt# insurance: &e$icare an$ pri,ate
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press K 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Health care in ,ustralia is pro'ided by the public sector /#edicare0 or through pri'ate health
insurance" #edicare is the health(care system or all ,ustralians" )ts aim is to pro'ide e-uity
in terms o cost and access or health care ser'ices"
9unding or #edicare comes rom income ta+ /1";@ o ta+able income0 and the #edicare
le'y surcharge /1@ or high income earners0"
E'ery ,ustralian is co'ered or D;@ o the scheduled ee"
7ulk 7illing allo!s patients to pay nothing and the doctor recei'es the scheduled ee rom
#edicare"
People ha'e the option o increasing the health insurance they ha'e by taking out pri'ate
health insurance" The e+tra insurance co'ers pri'ate hospital and ancillary or e+tras /dental%
physiotherapy% naturopathy% etc0"
8easons or choosing pri'ate health insurance include$
- Shorter !aiting times
- Hospital choice
- 4!n doctor o choice
- ,ncillary beneits such as physiotherapy
- Peace o mind
- Pri'ate rooms in hospital
- Health co'er !hile o'erseas
- ,'oiding increase ta+
To combat alling pri'ate health insurance numbers the Common!ealth .o'ernment has
implemented se'eral schemes"
- 60@ ta+ rebate or people !ith pri'ate health insurance
- 1@ #edicare le'y surcharge
- *ietime health(care incenti'e !ith lo!er premiums to those !ho &oin beore age 60
&e$icare Pri,ate #ealt# insurance
Payment Common!ealth .o'ernment
Ta+payers
Common!ealth .o'ernment
)ndi'iduals and amilies
Payment type )ncome ta+
*e'y surcharge
,nnual% monthly% ortnightly
premiums
7eneits 7asic public hospital ser'ices
7asic medical ser'ices
Some specialist ser'ices
D;@ o scheduled ee
,'ailability o bulk billing
Hospital co'er
- Hospital ser'ices
- Choice o doctor
- Choice o hospital
- Pri'ate or public hospital
,mbulance co'er
,ncillary co'er
- Physiotherapy
- Chiropractor
- Naturopathy% etc
Some special beneits such
as gym membership
4'erseas co'er
Co(ple(entar an$ alternati,e #ealt# care approac#es
Reasons !or 'rowt# o! co(ple(entar an$ alternati,e #ealt# pro$ucts an$ ser,ices
<orld Health 4rganiEation recognition
8ecognition o Eastern cultures
#arketing strategies
Pro'en results or many !hen traditional medicine had ailed
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 10 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Desire or natural medicines
Holistic nature
,ddition to ancillary beneits by pri'ate health insurers
Societal changes !ith multiculturalism
Societal changes !ith globalisation
Societal changes !ith demographics
9ormal -ualiications enhancing credibility
Ran'e o! pro$ucts an$ ser,ices a,aila0le
Alternati,e #ealt#-care approac# 3escription
,cupuncture )n'ol'es inserting needles into skin
,romatherapy 1se o pure essential oils to inluence the
mind% body or spirit
7o!en therapeutic techni-ue System o muscle and connecti'e tissue
mo'ements that realigns the body and
balances energy lo!
Chiropractic ,d&ustments are made to the spine to realign
correct body unction
Herbalism 1ses plants and herbs
Homeopathy System that recognises the symptoms are
uni-ue to an indi'idual
)ridology ,nalysis o the human eye to detect signs o
!ellbeing or other!ise
#assage )ncludes remedial% S!edish% sports
#editation State o inner stillness
Naturopathy Holistic treatment aiming to treat the
underlying cause as !ell as the symptoms o
the illness
How to (a4e in!or(e$ consu(er c#oices
)t is important to in'estigate and criti-ue health(care pro'iders and ser'ices" This can
include$ !hat is it they oer% !hat are the beneits% e+perience% -ualiications% go'erning body
and cost"
Critical Question : - +#at actions are nee$e$ to a$$ress Australia"s
#ealt# priorities%
Healt# pro(otion 0ase$ on t#e !i,e action areas o! t#e Ottawa C#arter
The i'e action areas o the 4tta!a Charter are$
- De'eloping personal skills
- Creating supporti'e en'ironment
- Strengthening community action
- 8eorienting health ser'ices
- 7uilding healthy public policy
Le,els o! responsi0ilit !or #ealt# pro(otion
The ,ustralian go'ernment% state and local go'ernments% non(go'ernment organisations%
communities and indi'iduals are all responsible or promoting health"
T#e 0ene!its o! partners#ips in #ealt# pro(otion
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 11 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
The chance o successul health promotion is greatly increased !hen all le'els o
go'ernment% non(go'ernment organisations% communities and indi'iduals !ork together
to!ards one common goal"
How #ealt# pro(otion 0ase$ on t#e Ottawa C#arter pro(otes social 2ustice
Health promotion to be eecti'e needs to address the social &ustice principles /e-uity%
di'ersity and supporti'e en'ironments0"
E/uit 3i,ersit Supporti,e
en,iron(ent
De'eloping personal skills #andatory PDHPE
? ( 10
,ccess to #edicare
Community based
support
#edia campaigns
Creating supporti'e
en'ironments
Pro'ision o health
enhancing items
Destigmatising
health conditions
*egislati'e bans
Pro'ision o health
enhancing items
Strengthening community
action
*obby groups *obby groups *obby groups
8eorienting health ser'ices Health ser'ices or
,TS)
*anguage
assistance
Partnerships !ith
the community
7uilding healthy public
policy
7ulk billing
P7S
,bstudy
Health care card
Health campaigns
T#e Ottawa C#arter in action
,pplication o the 4tta!a Charter re-uires critical analysis o the ; areas o the 4tta!a
Charter$ de'eloping personal skills% strengthening community action% creating supporti'e
en'ironments% reorienting health ser'ices% building healthy public policy"
E+amples o health promotions that are based on the 4tta!a Charter to an e+tent include$
Closing the .ap% 9resh Tastes L School% National Tobacco Strategy% National ,ction Plan
on #ental Health% #easure 1p and S!ap )t > Don=t Stop )t"
HSC Core *: 5ACTORS A55ECTIN-
PER5OR&ANCE
Critical Question 1 - How $oes trainin' a!!ect per!or(ance%
Ener' Sste(s
Alactaci$ sste(
;ATP8PC<
Lactic Aci$
sste(
Aero0ic sste(
Source o! !uel Creatine phosphate Carbohydrate
.lycogen
Carbohydrate
9at
Protein
E!!icienc o! ATP
pro$uction
*ess than 1 ,TP
molecule
,ppro+imately 2
,TP molecules
.lucose > 6: ,TP
molecules
9atty acid > 160
,TP molecule
3uration ; ( 10 seconds 60 ( A; seconds 1nlimited
depending upon
intensity
Cause o! !ati'ue Depletion o PC )ncreased
accumulation o
hydrogen ions
Depletion o uel
sources
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 12 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
=-pro$ucts None *actic acid Carbon dio+ide
!ater
Process an$ rate o!
reco,er
PC replenishment
in
2 > ; minutes
8emo'al o lactic
acid !ith acti'e
reco'ery in 1; > 60
mins
8estoration o
glycogen > up to AD
hours
Tpes o! trainin' an$ trainin' (et#o$s
Aero0ic
,erobic training generally ollo!s the 9)TT principle"
9 M re-uency > at least 6 sessions per !eek are re-uired or aerobic training to be eecti'e"
Serious athletes may complete 12 sessions"
) M intensity > usually measured using heart rate" ,erobic training usually occurs bet!een
G0@ and D;@ o ma+ H8"
T M time > !ill depend upon the intensity but needs to be at least 20 minutes duration"
T M type > there are a range o training types one can utilise to de'elop aerobic capacity
Continuous training > re-uires training !ithout rest or at least 20 minutes"
9artlek training > or Bspeed play= in'ol'es continuous e+ercise !ith sprints or a higher
intensity eort /e"g" Hill climb0 interspersed throughout the session"
,erobic inter'al training > in'ol'es alternating repetitions o an e+ercise and a period o rest
or reco'ery"
Circuit training > in'ol'es a series o e+ercises that are perormed one ater the other !ith
little or no rest in bet!een each e+ercise"
Anaero0ic
,naerobic training in'ol'es e+ercise o high intensity and thereore short duration"
)nter'al training is a 'ery common orm o anaerobic training usually re-uiring ma+imal
eort" .enerally the reco'ery rate ratio !ill determine the type o training and aims o the
sessions"
Speed% acceleration and agility are components that can be de'eloped through anaerobic
training"
Plyometrics is a 'ery common training style to de'elop anaerobic po!er" Plyometrics
in'ol'es e+ercises that produce an e+plosi'e muscular contraction"
5le.i0ilit
9le+ibility is the ability to mo'e a muscle through its ull range o motion" .ood le+ibility !ill
assist$
( Pre'ention o in&ury
( )mpro'ed coordination
( #uscular rela+ation
( Decreasing muscle soreness
Static stretching > the muscle is slo!ly and smoothly taken to the end o its range o motion
and held or appro+imately 60 seconds" This method is useul or rehabilitation% !arm up and
cool do!n"
Dynamic stretching > in'ol'es a series o mo'ements that replicate game mo'ements and
take the muscle through its ull range o motion" )t is popular or !arm(ups"
7allistic stretching > in'ol'es a bouncing action at the end o the range o motion" This orm
o stretching acti'ates the stretch rele+" The orce o the mo'ement takes the muscle
beyond its preerred length" Thereore% this type o stretching has risks and is only
recommended or elite athletes"
PN9 stretching > propriocepti'e neuromuscular acilitation in'ol'es lengthening a muscle
against a resistance" .enerally it in'ol'es a static stretch% ollo!ed by an isometric
contraction then a period o rest beore being repeated" 1sed oten during rehabilitation"
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 16 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Stren't# trainin'
Strength is the ma+imal orce generated by a single muscular contraction"
Hypertrophy > an increase in the siEe o the muscle ibres and connecti'e tissues
)sotonic > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the muscle shortens and lengthens
)sometric > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the muscle does not change length
)sokinetic > in'ol'es e+ercises !here the load remains constant throughout
#achine !eights > 'ery popular method allo!ing or isotonic contractions and are 'ery
simple to use" )t is 'ery easy to isolate muscle groups using this method o training"
9ree !eights > include dumbbells% barbells% medicine balls and kettlebells" ,llo! a !ide
range o e+ercises% muscle groups and types o contractions to be catered or" .ood
techni-ues are needed to a'oid in&ury"
8esistance bands > are oten used in rehabilitation but ha'e become a popular orm o
training lately due to their con'enience" They allo! or a range o contractions and a !ide
range o muscle groups"
Stability balls > ha'e become popular o late" Their ocus is to de'elop the core muscles and
ma&ority o ree !eight e+ercises can be adapted to be perormed incorporating the stability
ball"
Hydraulic resistance > eort is made against an opposing orce" 8esistance is constant
through the entire mo'ement"
Principles o! trainin'
Pro'ressi,e o,erloa$
To continue to ha'e training impro'ements% progressi'e o'erload needs to occur" The body
adapts to the training it undergoes" <hen this adaptation occurs the training needs to be
increased to stress the body beyond its current capabilities to achie'e urther training gains"
)t also needs to be progressi'e so that the stress placed on the athlete does not cause in&ury
or atigue" 4'erload can be achie'ed by increasing intensity% resistance% repetitions%
duration% re-uency% etc"
Speci!icit
E+ercise needs to be speciic or the energy systems% muscles% mo'ement patterns% etc
re-uired or the athlete=s sport"
Re,ersi0ilit
Training adaptations are lost once training ceases or lo!ers belo! the current capacity o
the athlete" , detraining eect results in the physiological adaptations gained through
training being Bre'ersed="
6ariet
Completing the same or similar acti'ities can lead to boredom !hich in turn may result in a
reduced training eort" Thereore it is important or training sessions to incorporate a range
o training types% settings% acti'ities and drills"
Trainin' t#res#ol$s
Training thresholds are the upper limits o a training Eone and !hen passed take the athlete
to a ne! le'el"
The aerobic threshold /*actate transition 10 is appro+" G0@ o #H8" This le'el is suicient to
cause a training eect"
The aerobic training Eone is !hen athlete is !orking abo'e the aerobic threshold and belo!
the anaerobic threshold"
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1A 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
The anaerobic threshold /*actate transition 2 or 4nset 7lood *actate ,ccumulation 47*,0 is
appro+ D;@ o #H8" E+ercise beyond this point !ill see a marked increase o lactic acid
build up and thereore atigue and the cessation o e+ercise"
+ar( up an$ cool $own
9or most sports a !arm up !ill last appro+imately 20 minutes" This !ill incorporate a general
!arm up ollo!ed by a more speciic !arm up" The aim o the !arm up is to prepare the
body both physically and mentally or optimal perormance"
The general !arm up !ill contain some running or aerobic acti'ities and dynamic stretching"
The speciic component o the !arm up !ill contain acti'ities relating to the sport"
The cool do!n is recommended to orm part o the acti'e reco'ery or the athlete" .enerally
this !ill in'ol'e lo! intensity e+ercise" The aim o the cool do!n is to decrease blood lactate
le'els and to minimise muscle soreness"
P#siolo'ical a$aptations in response to trainin'
A$aptation
Restin' #eart rate Decreased resting heart rate due to more
eicient stroke 'olume
Stro4e ,olu(e )ncreased at rest and throughout e+ercise
Car$iac output )ncreased ma+imal cardiac output
O.'en upta4e )ncreased due to an increase in capillaries%
myoglobin% mitochondria and enEyme
acti'ity
Lun' capacit )ncreased ma+imal 'entilation but remains
relati'ely unchanged
Hae(o'lo0in le,el )ncreased due to an increase in blood
plasma and 87C numbers
&uscle #pertrop# )ncreased siEe !ith resistance training
E!!ect on slow-twitc# (uscle !i0res No change to percentage
)ncreased hypertrophy% capillary supply%
mitochondrial unction% myoglobin content
enEymes and glycogen stores
E!!ect on !ast-twitc# (uscle !i0res No change to percentage
)ncreased ,TP and PC supply% enEymes%
hypertrophy and lactic acid tolerance
Critical Question * - How can psc#olo' a!!ect per!or(ance%
&oti,ation
Positi,e an$ ne'ati,e
Positi'e moti'ation is the desire to be successul in a pursuit that !ill result in happiness%
satisaction and pleasure" ,n e+ample o this is or a high &umper to hope to compete at the
4lympics"
Negati'e moti'ation is the desire to be successul !ith the aim o a'oiding unpleasant
conse-uences" The moti'ation is to a'oid something Bbad= happening as opposed to a
positi'e outcome" ,n e+ample is training hard and playing trying to a'oid being dropped rom
the team"
Intrinsic an$ e.trinsic
)ntrinsic moti'ation is internal moti'ation" )t is emphasised by eelings o satisaction and
en&oyment" )t is sel(sustaining and is usually associated !ith an orientation to!ards the task"
This type o moti'ation promotes longe'ity as e+ternal actors are not dri'ing the athlete% or
e+ample continuing to play ootball despite regularly being in a lo!er grade and losing"
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1; 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
E+trinsic moti'ation is moti'ation that comes rom e+ternal sources" This includes things like
trophies% money and praise" )t tends to ha'e an outcome orientation" This generally does not
promote longe'ity as the money and praise are not oten sustainable" E+trinsic re!ards can
deter rom intrinsic moti'ation"
An.iet an$ arousal
Trait and state an+iety
,n+iety is a negati'e emotional state" )t is the result o percei'ing situations as threatening"
State an+iety is eelings o tension related to a speciic e'ent or moment in time" 9or
e+ample an athlete prior to the start o a 100m race eels ner'ous and an+ious" The tension
and an+iousness is related to the e'ent% the bigger e'ent the bigger the an+iety"
Trait an+iety is a beha'ioural or personality disposition to display an+iety and to percei'e
'arious situations as threatening" , person !ith high trait an+iety oten displays high state
an+iety in competiti'e situations"
Sources o! stress
Stress is the imbalance bet!een !hat is e+pected o a person and their percei'ed ability to
meet those e+pectations" <hen there is a large imbalance then the person becomes
stressed" There are many sources o stress and these include$ inancial concerns% selection
concerns% in&ury concerns% contract concerns% cro!ds% preparation and e+pectations"
Opti(al arousal
4ptimal arousal is the physical and emotional response related to a speciic moment or
e'ent" ,rousal is important or successul sporting perormance% ho!e'er% not all athletes or
sports re-uire the same le'el o arousal" ,n archer re-uires a dierent le'el o arousal /calm
and -uiet0 compared to a !eightliter /pumped up0"
4ptimal arousal is generally described utilising the in'erted u hypothesis" ,s arousal
increases so does perormance until optimal arousal and this perormance is reached" )
arousal continues past this point /o'er arousal0 then perormance declines"
High
Perormance
*o!
*o! High
*e'el o arousal
Psc#olo'ical strate'ies to en#ance (oti,ation an$ (ana'e an.iet
Concentration8attention s4ills ;!ocusin'<
The ability to ocus on appropriate cues is essential or an athlete" Shutting out distractions
and irrele'ant cues !ill assist the athlete to perorm at a higher le'el"
Strategies or ocusing or regaining ocusing can include music% cues% set routines% training
or distractions and ocus training" ,thletes oten train to replicate as much as possible the
same en'ironment as Bgame day= to ensure their ocus is on the important cues at the crucial
time"
&ental re#earsal8,isualisation8i(a'er
This in'ol'es creating mental images or pictures o the upcoming e'ent% action or skill" This
allo!s the athlete to e+perience /success0 prior to the actual e'ent" This allo!s the athlete to
eel conident due to the act that it is as i the athlete has been in this position pre'iously
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1: 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
and thereore kno!s ho! to eel and react and more importantly can picture a successul
outcome"
,thletes may use 'arious methods o mental rehearsal" 4ne method is as spectators
!atching them sel(perorm the skill and the other is rom their internal 'ie! as they are
actually perorming the skill"
#ental rehearsal needs to be as realistic as possible or it to be eecti'e" Thereore the
detail% timing and settings all need to replicate the real e'ent"
Rela.ation tec#ni/ues
4'er(aroused and an+ious athletes beneit greatly rom ha'ing a range o rela+ation
strategies a'ailable to them" 8ela+ation !ill lo!er breathing rates% heart rate% blood pressure
and muscle tension leading to greater control and ocus"
E+amples o rela+ation include listening to music% massage% !atching T5 or a mo'ie%
controlled breathing e+ercises% yoga% Pilates% meditation and hypnosis"
-oal-settin'
Setting long term and short term goals can assist an athlete greatly to remain ocused" The
goals o an athlete can be about the outcome o their perormance /e"g" !inning gold at the
4lympics0 or the process /e"g" s!imming a personal best at the 4lympics0"Short term goals
should contribute to achie'ing the long term goal"
Critical Question 7 > How can nutrition an$ reco,er strate'ies
a!!ect per!or(ance%
Nutritional Consi$erations
,ll athletes must ensure that the ood and drink they consume !ill support ma+imum
perormance" These considerations are as important or both training and actual competition"
They also apply to both beore and ater intense physical acti'ity" The primary aims o good
nutrition are$
,de-uate uel reser'es% such as ma+imum glycogen stores or triathletes
8epair o damaged body tissue rom training% such as increasing protein intake or
strength training
Pre'ention o dehydration% through ade-uate luid intake
4ptimal unctioning o all body systems /e"g" )mmune System0% by meeting the
recommended dietary intakes or all nutrients% such as 'itamins and minerals
Pre-per!or(ance Nutrition
Changes to an athlete=s regular diet may be necessary in the days and hours leading up to
an intense training session and competition" This is to ensure the re-uired uel reser'es are
ull and the athlete is !ell hydrated" ?no!ing !hat and ho! much to eat% as !ell as !hen to
eat% !ill enable the body to perorm intense physical acti'ity"
The last signiicant meal should be eaten 6(A hours prior to the e'ent" )t should contain at
least 100 grams o carbohydrates% be lo! in at and ibre and ha'e a small amount o
protein" ,t least ;00 m* o !ater should also be consumed" , light meal can also be eaten 1(
2 hours prior% !hich should consist o some high .) Carbohydrates% as !ell as more luid"
Carbohydrate *oading
Endurance athletes re-uire more carbohydrates than other athletes% and may need to
increase their intake or 6(A days leading up to an e'ent" 7y ma+imising muscle and li'er
glycogen reser'es% they ensure that glycogen is used as a primary uel or as long as
possible"
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1G 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
H$ration
To a'oid the negati'e eects o dehydration on sporting perormance% athletes should o'er(
compensate or their pro&ected luid needs" 9or a normal person% 2 litres o luids should be
consumed dailyH thereore a person !ho is e+pecting to perorm intense physical acti'ity
should drink at least 6 litres in the 2A hours leading up to an e'ent"
3urin' Per!or(ance
Continued hydration is the main priority during physical acti'ity" Small amounts o luid
should be consumed at all possible times% such as time(outs% hal time and stoppages
/1;0m* per 1; minutes0" 9or endurance e'ents% lasting longer than :0 minutes% reuelling
may also be necessary" This is best achie'ed by eating concentrated orms o glucose such
as energy gels% bananas% sports bars or sports drinks"
Post-Per!or(ance
The primary aim o post(e+ercise reco'ery is to return all body systems as -uickly as
possible to their pre(e'ent condition" The speciic details o !hat to eat and !hen !ill depend
on the duration and intensity o the acti'ity itsel" The primary aims o the irst 12 > 2A hours
ater intense e+ercise are$
8estore depleted glycogen
8epair damaged muscle tissue
8ehydrate the athlete
Supple(entation
Supplementation is the process o eating additional nutrients= to account or a deiciency in
an athlete=s diet" )n most cases% sports nutritionists generally preer to make regular dietary
modiications"
6ita(ins an$ &inerals
5itamins are chemical compounds% !hich can only be sourced through dietary intake" They
enable the normal unctioning o the body and promote gro!th and de'elopment" 5itamins
are a'ailable in a !ide range o oods% !hich is !hy a di'erse range o ood is needed to
meet the 8D)=s o each one"
#inerals are also chemical compounds% !hich play a similar role in the body" They are also
normally sourced through the ood eaten in a regular diet% but can be supplemented i
needed" Deiciencies o some minerals can ha'e a direct and ad'erse eect on the health
and perormance o certain athletes" #inerals o signiicance include$
)ron
Calcium
Protein
Protein is re-uired or the gro!th% repair and maintenance o muscle tissue" ,thletes must
ensure they eat suicient amounts o protein to aid reco'ery and promote gro!th o muscle
tissue" This is especially important or athletes !ho are undertaking strength training or high(
intensity inter'al training" .ood ood sources o protein include lean meat% dairy products%
nuts and eggs"
Ca!!eine
Caeine is a stimulant% !hich speeds up the Central Ner'ous System" )t is normally
consumed through chocolate% coee% cola drinks and ad'ertised energy drinks" )t is also
a'ailable in the orm a caeine tablets" The supposed beneits o caeine or athletes include
increased alertness% decreased perception o atigue and the mobilisation o at cells leading
to Bglycogen(sparing=" Possible negati'e side eects include an ele'ated heart rate% o'er(
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1D 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
arousal and uncontrolled muscle t!itches leading to decreased ine(motor control" )n high(
doses% it also acts as a diuretic% leading to dehydration"
Creatine
Creatine is a uel source% !hich is stored in skeletal muscles" )t is produced partly in the
body cells% but regular intake o protein% especially rom meat sources% ensures the 8D) or
Creatine is achie'ed" )ts role is to assist in the production o Creatine Phosphate% !hich is
the uel source or the replenishment o ,DP back into ,TP" This is commonly kno!n as the
,TP(CP Energy System% !hich pro'ides or ,TP regeneration during short bouts o po!erul%
high(intensity e+ercise% such as 100m sprints or shot(put" ,thletes !ho either train or these
types o sports or undertake a hea'y resistance(training program% may achie'e training
beneits such as increased lean muscle mass and impro'ed perormance le'els"
Reco,er Strate'ies
P#siolo'ical Strate'ies
7oth acti'e reco'ery e+ercises and appropriate nutrition are important actors in restoring the
body to a pre(e'ent condition% allo!ing the athlete to prepare or the ne+t training session or
game as -uickly as possible" E+amples include$
Hydration
Nutrition
Cool Do!n
Stretching
Neural Strate'ies
)ntense physical acti'ity is 'ery ta+ing on the muscular system% but also the Central and
Peripheral Ner'ous System" These neural strategies are aimed at rela+ing the body and
muscles% reducing the perception o localised muscle atigue as !ell as decreasing general
mental atigue"
Hydrotherapy
#assage

Tissue 3a(a'e Strate'ies
9ollo!ing intense physical acti'ity and competition% it is common or athletes to suer rom a
'ariety o le'els o tissue damage" This can range rom microscopic muscle tears as a result
o hea'y resistance training% to bruises and minor sprains and strains% right through to more
signiicant sot(tissue in&uries"
Cryotherapy

Psc#olo'ical Strate'ies
The pressure in'ol'ed in participating in elite sport can be immense% and this can come rom
both internal and e+ternal sources" 9or an athlete to maintain good mental and emotional
health% as !ell as manage their le'els o moti'ation and an+iety% a range o personal
strategies can be employed to achie'e this
8ela+ation
Sleep
Critical Question : - How $oes t#e ac/uisition o! s4ill a!!ect
per!or(ance%
Sta'es o! S4ill Ac/uisition
Co'niti,e Sta'e
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 1K 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
This stage is characterised be the learner de'eloping an understanding o the task
re-uirements"
Associati,e Sta'e
This stage is characterised by the need or the athlete to practise the skill% until a correct
motor pattern is established in the mind and body"
Autono(ous Sta'e
)n this stage% the athlete is able to perorm the skills automatically% !ithout intentional thought
about the task re-uirements"
C#aracteristics o! t#e Learner
Personality
)nnate personality traits can ha'e a signiicant eect on an athlete in all stages o skill
ac-uisition" E+amples o rele'ant traits include conidence% moti'ation% a positi'e outlook%
sel(discipline% ocus% enthusiasm% competi'eness and !hether you are an intro'ert or an
e+tro'ert"
Heredity
Certain genetic eatures can pro'ide a 'arying degree o ad'antage !ith regard to the
potential or success" Speciic inherited actors% !hich may be inluential% include$

#uscle 9ibre Type

7ody Shape

.ender
Conidence
<hilst this is a personality trait% it stands alone as making a signiicant contribution to
sporting success at the elite le'el
Prior E+perience
Certain sports ha'e common characteristics% !hich can enable a person to transer their
ability rom one sport% and -uickly adapt and learn the speciic skills and tactics in another
sport" Some actors that can be transerred rom one sport to another include$

#otor patterns

Tactics and strategies

Skills

Components o 9itness
,bility
Some people seem to ha'e a natural ability at sport% !hich is most e'ident in the rate that
they mo'e through the stages o skill ac-uisition" They almost seem to be dominant in any
game they play" Some o the actors that may underpin this phenomenon include spatial
a!areness /a!areness o !ho and !hat is around them0% kinaesthetic sense /a!areness o
the body=s position in space0% tactical a!areness /a!areness o !hat e-uipment should eel
like as it makes contact !ith the body0% coordination /ability to mo'e multiple limbs !ith
timing and precision e"g" hand(eye or oot(eye coordination0% ast reaction time and
percepti'e senses /enhanced sensiti'ity o the senses% especially during ast(paced sports0
T#e Learnin' En,iron(ent
T#e Nature o! S4ill
Skills can be categorised based on the ollo!ing"
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 20 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes

Closed Skills are perormed in a leaning en'ironment !hich is unchanging% stable and
predictable

4pen Skills are perormed in a leaning en'ironment !hich is changing% less stable and
some!hat unpredictable

.ross #otor Skills re-uire the use o large muscle groups to produce a less reined
mo'ement

9ine #otor Skills re-uire the use o small muscle groups to produce a precise and
accurate mo'ement

Sel(paced skills are perormed !hen the athlete chooses to% such as !hen to bo!l the
cricket ball or !hen to commence a high &ump attempt

E+ternally paced skills are not at the discretion o the athlete% and they must perorm the
skill based on orces out o their control% such as hitting a baseball or being a goalkeeper
in hockey

Discrete skills ha'e a clearly deined beginning and end% such as a gol shot% a 100m
sprint or a pass in ootball

Serial Skills are a combination o a range o discrete skills into one !hole mo'ement"
Team sports are re-uire serial skills as an athlete is constantly using a 'ariety o skills in
competition

Continuous Skills ha'e no clear beginning or end% and the point at !hich they start or
end is at the discretion o the athlete% such as going or a run or s!im
T#e Per!or(ance Ele(ents

Decision making

Strategic and tactical de'elopment


T#e Practice &et#o$

#assed Practice is characterised by periods o continuous practice !ith short rest


inter'als" This is suitable or acti'ities that are un% o moderate intensity or or highly
moti'ated athletes" Suitable e+amples include gol putting or goalkeeping

Distributed Practice is characterised by shorter periods o !ork !ith more regular periods
o rest" This is suitable or monotonous or diicult acti'ities% or high(intensity acti'ities
that cause e+cessi'e or !here moti'ation is lo!" This !ould suit acti'ities such as !ater(
skiing or tackling in rugby league

<hole Practice in'ol'es practicing the complete skill in its entirety" This suits ad'anced
learners or or skills that cannot be broken do!n into sub(components that can be
practiced in isolation% such as archery or sailing

Part Practice in'ol'es isolating the 'arious sub(components% practicing each and then
combining it all together in a complete mo'ement" This is suitable or 'ery comple+ skills
such as pole 'ault% or or beginners !ho are in the cogniti'e stage
5ee$0ac4

)ntrinsic 9eedback > inormation that is recei'ed internally through the senses by the
perormer" ,s a learner continues to impro'e% they should be de'eloping the ability to
detect and correct their o!n errors" , 8eined kinaesthetic sense is critical in enabling
them to analyse the eel o the mo'ement

E+trinsic 9eedback > inormation that is recei'ed rom an e+ternal source% such as a
coach% the cro!d or 'ideo analysis

Concurrent 9eedback > is eedback that is recei'ed during the perormance% and is
closely aligned !ith intrinsic eedback" The athlete may be able to ad&ust the current
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 21 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
mo'ement as it is being e+ecuted% such as a batter ad&usting their shot selection as the
ball s!ings une+pectedly" 4r they can ad&ust the skill the ne+t time it is e+ecuted

Delayed 9eedback > is eedback that is recei'ed ater the completion o the skill" )t can
be either intrinsic% 'ia 'ideo analysis% or through an e+trinsic source such as a coach"
Sometimes this eedback can arri'e days later during a 'ideo analysis session

?no!ledge o 8esults > inormation concerning the outcome or success o the skill% such
as !hether ball !as in or not" This inormation can then be used to analyse !hy the skills
!as successul or not" This is most useul or beginners as the de'elop their basic motor
patterns

?no!ledge o Perormance > inormation concerning the actual techni-ue or the patterns
o play" This is used more so by learners in the autonomous stage and can arri'e rom
both e+trinsic and e+trinsic sources" Coaches o elite athletes must be 'ery competent in
careully analysing perormances to detect and help correct e'en minor errors" ,lso in
team sports% the coach must be 'ery good at analysing the play and identiying areas o
strengths and !eakness in both teams% and communicating rele'ant eedback and
strategies or the team
Assess(ent o! S4ill an$ Per!or(ance
C#aracteristics o! a S4ille$ Per!or(ance
There are a number o obser'able dierences bet!een a skilled and unskilled perormance"
?inaesthetic Sense
,nticipation
Consistency
Techni-ue
#ental ,pproach
O02ecti,e an$ Su02ecti,e Per!or(ance &easures
There are a range o tests that can be used in order to make a measurement or an appraisal
as to the -uality o perormance"
4b&ecti'e #easurement > <here an assessment is not based on human interpretation or
analysis% the test is described as ob&ecti'e" Sporting e+amples include high &ump% the
100m sprint and the score in a team sport" These measurements are the most air and
reliable in terms o !ho the !inner !as" Ho!e'er% they may not pro'ide enough
inormation or a complete analysis o the techni-ue or perormance
Sub&ecti'e #easurement > ,ssessment that relies on personal opinions and &udgment is
described as sub&ecti'e" Some sports rely solely on a sub&ecti'e measurement% such as
in di'ing or gymnastics" The analysis o techni-ue or tactical perormance also relies on
sub&ecti'e measures% as the coach makes a personal interpretation
6ali$it an$ Relia0ilit o! tests
The assessment o sporting perormances must measure !hat it actually intends to measure
/'alidity0 and also ensure the same results are achie'ed regardless o !ho% !here or !hen
the test is administered /reliable0"
Personal ,ersus Prescri0e$ )u$'in' Criteria
<hen a sub&ecti'e measurement is to be made o any sporting perormance% some degree
o criteria is used !hich enables a more complete and air appraisal" To increase the
ob&ecti'ity re-uired or oicial competition% prescribed criteria are de'eloped by the &udges or
go'erning body" These in'ol'e rating scales% checklists and scoring systems that minimise
the chance o error or bias aecting the results" Commitment and degree o diiculty
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 22 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
HSC Option 1: THE HEALTH O5 ?OUN-
PEOPLE
Critical Question 1 > +#at is 'oo$ #ealt# !or oun' people%
T#e Nature o! ?oun' People"s Li,es
How t#e 3e,elop(ental Sta'e can ,ar in &oti,ations1 6alues1 an$ Sociocultural
=ac4'roun$
The )nluence o 9amily and Peers
The )nluence o Pre'ailing Fouth Cultures
The )nluence o .lobal E'ents and Trends
The )nluence o Technology
Epi$e(iolo' o! t#e Healt# o! ?oun' People
Patterns o #orbidity and #ortality
Comparisons o Health Status !ith that o 4ther ,ge .roups
T#e E!!ects o! t#e 3eter(inants o! Healt# on ?oun' People
)ndi'idual 9actors
Sociocultural 9actors
Socioeconomic 9actors
En'ironmental 9actors
3e,elop(ental Aspects t#at A!!ect t#e Healt# o! ?oun' People
8e'ising roles !ithin relationships
Clariying sel(identity and sel(!orth
De'eloping sel(suiciency and autonomy
Establishing education% training and employment path!ays
Determining beha'ioural boundaries
Critical Question * > To w#at e.tent $o Australia"s oun' people
en2o 'oo$ #ealt#%
T#e &a2or Healt# Issues t#at I(pact on ?oun' People
&ental #ealt# pro0le(s an$ illnesses
,lcohol consumption
5iolence
8oad saety
Se+ual health
7ody )mage
4ther rele'antIemerging health issues that impact on the health young people include
gambling% cyber(bullying% party crashes and drink spiking"
Critical Question 7 > +#at s4ills an$ actions ena0le oun' people
to attain 0etter #ealt#%
S4ills in Attainin' =etter Healt#
=uil$in' Sel! Concept
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 26 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
De'eloping Connectedness and Support Net!orks
De'eloping 8esilience and Coping Skills
De'eloping Health *iteracy Skills
De'eloping Communication Skills
,ccessing Health Ser'ices
7ecoming )n'ol'ed in Community Ser'ice
Creating a Sense o 9uture
Actions Tar'etin' Healt# Issues Rele,ant to ?oun' People
Social ,ction
*egislation and Public Policy
Health Promotion )nitiati'es
HSC Option *: SPORT AN3 PH?SICAL
ACTI6IT? IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIET?
Critical Question 1 > How #a,e (eanin's a0out sport an$ p#sical
acti,it c#an'e$ o,er ti(e%
T#e 0e'innin's o! (o$ern sport in 1@
t#
centur En'lan$ an$ colonial Australia
*inks !ith manliness% patriotism and character
The meaning o amateur and proessional sport
<omen=s historical participation in sport
Sport as a co((o$it
The de'elopment o proessional sport
Sport as big business
Sponsorship% ad'ertising and sport
The economics o hosting ma&or sporting e'ents
Conse-uences or spectators and participants
Critical Question * > +#at is t#e relations#ip 0etween sport an$
national an$ cultural i$entit%
Australian sportin' i$entit
National and regional identity through sporting achie'ements
.o'ernment unding
Politics and sports
T#e (eanin' o! p#sical acti,it an$ sport to In$i'enous Australians
Traditional acti'ities and sports
*inks bet!een community and identity
P#sical acti,it1 sport an$ cultural i$entit
The role o competition
*inks to cultural identity
8elationships to health
<ays o thinking about the body
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2A 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Critical Question 7 > How $oes t#e (ass (e$ia contri0ute to
people"s un$erstan$in'1 ,alues an$ 0elie!s a0out sport%
T#e relations#ip 0etween sport an$ t#e (ass (e$ia
T#e representation o! sport in t#e (e$ia
Economic considerations o media co'erage and sport
3econstructin' (e$ia (essa'es1 i(a'es an$ a(ount o! co,era'e
Dierences in co'erage or dierent sports across 'arious print and electronic media
The emergence o e+treme sports as entertainment
Critical Question : > +#at are t#e relations#ips 0etween sport an$
p#sical acti,it an$ 'en$er%
Sport as a tra$itionall (ale $o(ain
Sport an$ t#e construction o! (asculinit an$ !e(ininit
)mplications or participation
Sponsorship% policy and resourcing
The role o the media in constructing meanings around emininity and masculinity in sport
HSC Option 7: SPORTS &E3ICINE
Critical Question 1 > How are sports in2uries classi!ie$ an$
(ana'e$%
+as to Classi! Sports In2uries
3irect an$ In$irect
Sot and Hard Tissue
4'eruse
So!t Tissue In2uries
Tears% Sprains and Contusions
Skin ,brasions% *acerations and 7listers
)nlammatory 8esponse
Har$ Tissue In2uries
9ractures
Dislocations
Assess(ent o! In2uries
T4T,PS
Critical Question * > How $oes sports (e$icine a$$ress t#e
$e(an$s o! speci!ic at#letes%
C#il$ren an$ ?oun' At#letes
&e$ical Con$itions
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2; 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
4'eruse )n&uries
Thermoregulation
,ppropriateness o 8esistance Training
A$ult an$ A'e$ At#letes
Heart Conditions
9ractures and 7one Density
9le+ibility and Coint #obility
5e(ale At#letes
Eating Disorders
)ron Deiciency
7one Density
Pregnancy
Critical Question 7 > +#at role $o pre,entati,e actions pla in
en#ancin' t#e well0ein' o! t#e at#lete%
P#sical Preparation
Pre-Screenin'
Skill and Techni-ue
Physical 9itness
<arm(up% Stretching and Cool Do!n
Sports Polic an$ t#e Sports En,iron(ent
8ules o Sports and ,cti'ities
#odiied 8ules or Children
#atching o 4pponents
1se o Protecti'e E-uipment
Sae .rounds% E-uipment and 9acilities
En,iron(ental Consi$erations
Temperature 8egulation
Climatic Conditions
.uidelines or 9luid )ntake
,cclimitisation
Tapin' an$ =an$a'in'
Pre'entati'e Taping
Taping or )solation o )n&ury
7andaging or the )mmediate Treatment o )n&ury
Critical Question : > How is in2ur re#a0ilitation (ana'e$%
Re#a0ilitation Proce$ures
Pro'ressi,e &o0ilisation
.raduated E+ercise
Training
1se o Heat and Cold
Return to Pla
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2: 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
)ndicators o 8eadiness or 8eturn to Play
#onitoring Progress
Psychological 8eadiness
Speciic <arm up Procedures
8eturn to Play Policies and Procedures
Ethical Considerations
HSC Option :: I&PRO6IN- PER5OR&ANCE
Critical Question 1 > How $o at#letes train !or i(pro,e$
per!or(ance%
Stren't# trainin'
Resistance trainin'
<eight training
)sometric training
Aero0ic trainin'
ContinuousIuniorm
9artlek
*ong inter'al
Anaero0ic trainin' ;power an$ spee$<
De'eloping po!er through resistanceI!eight training
Plyometrics
Short inter'al
5le.i0ilit trainin'
Static
Dynamic
7allistic
S4ill trainin'
Drills practice
#odiied and small(sided games
.ames or speciic outcomes
Critical Question * > +#at are t#e plannin' consi$erations !or
i(pro,in' per!or(ance%
Initial plannin' consi$erations
Per!or(ance an$ !itness nee$s
Schedule o e'entsIcompetitions
Climate and season
Plannin' a trainin' ear ;perio$isation<
Phases o competition
Subphases
Peaking
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2G 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
Tapering
Sport(speciic subphases
Ele(ents to 0e consi$ere$ w#en $esi'nin' a trainin' session
Health and saety considerations
Pro'iding an o'er'ie! o the session to the athletes
<arm up and cool do!n
Skill instruction and practice
Conditioning
E'aluation
Plannin' to a,oi$ o,ertrainin'
,mount and intensity o training
Physiological considerations
Psychological considerations
Critical Question 7 - +#at et#ical issues are relate$ to i(pro,in'
per!or(ance%
Use o! $ru's
T#e $an'ers o! per!or(ance en#ancin' $ru's
9or strength
9or aerobic perormance
To mask other drugs
7eneits and limitations o drug testing
Use o! tec#nolo'
Training inno'ation
Some training inno'ations include$
E-uipment ad'ances
HSC Option A: EQUIT? AN3 HEALTH
+# $o ine/uities e.ist in t#e #ealt# o! Australians%
5actors t#at create #ealt# ine/uities
3ail li,in' con$itions
Qualit o! earl ears o! li!e
,ccess to ser'ices and transport
Socioeconomic actors
Social attributes
.o'ernment policies and priorities
Critical Question * > +#at ine/uities are e.perience$ 0 population
'roups in Australia%
Populations E.periencin' Healt# Ine/uities
,boriginal and Torres Strait )slander Peoples
Homeless
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2D 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012
Cambridge Checkpoints 2012 HSC PDHPE Complete Study Notes
People *i'ing !ith H)5I,)DS
)ncarcerated
,ged
Culturally and *inguistically Di'erse 7ackgrounds
1nemployed
.eographically 8emote Populations
People !ith Disabilities
Critical Question 7 > How (a t#e 'ap in #ealt# status 0e 0ri$'e$%
5un$in' to I(pro,e #ealt#
9unding or Health
9unding or Speciic Populations
*imited 8esources
Actions t#at I(pro,e Healt#
Enable /1sing ?no!ledge and Skills or Change0
#ediate /<orking or Consensus0
,d'ocating /Speaking up or Speciic .roups% their Needs and Concerns0
A Social )ustice 5ra(ewor4 !or A$$ressin' Healt# Ine/uities
Empo!ering )ndi'iduals in Disad'antaged Circumstances
Empo!ering Disad'antaged Communities
)mpro'ing ,ccess to 9acilities and Ser'ices
Encouraging Economic and Cultural Change
C#aracteristics o! E!!ecti,e Healt# Pro(otion Strate'ies
<orking !ith the Target .roup in Program Design and )mplementation
Ensuring Cultural 8ele'ance and ,ppropriateness
9ocusing on Skills% Education and Pre'ention
Supporting the <hole Population !hile Directing E+tra 8esources to those in High 8isk
.roups
)ntersectoral Collaboration
Cambridge 1ni'ersity Press 2K 2 Ha!good 3 Ponsen 2012