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## Design Technology 11 (TDJ3M)

Daily Calendar | Views & Sketching | Material Selection | Mechanical Design | Industrial Design | Architectural Design | Summative

Non-perspective drawing
In a non-perspective drawing there are no vanishing points therefore lines that disappear into the distance have to be treated in one of two ways - a) they don't exist (an orthographic or elevation) or b)
they exist, but no perspective will be applied to them (oblique and isometric view). We create these orthographic drawings because you can take a designed part, draw it, dimension it and then give
all the needed information to the manufacturer. In a 3D environment dimensions become burdensome.
The following diagram is a sample of the typical reference material you might expect to receive on a technical illustration project. Most major plans after being designed will be broken down into
elevation views (top view, front view and right view) built to make an isometric projection (image at upper right) to be given to the people in charge of manufacturing the product.

All objects of course are 3 dimensional and when displaying them in a 2D fashion we must include features not visible from the 2D viewer's angle (straight on in the case of an orthographic drawing,
or from an edge-view from the case of a oblique or isometric view). Therefore, hidden lines must added to show that these features DO exist.
A simple breakdown of the non-perspective types of drawing can be seen below:

## Orthographic / elevation view

Technically an Orthographic view is simply the 3 elevations combined into a page and spread so that the top, front and side views are positionned to easily convert them into an oblique or isometric
view.

Oblique view
One face is flat, the angle of the Z axis is then 45 degrees off of this.

Isometric View
The front and Z axis are both 30 degrees to the horizon.
A more visual explanation can be seen here.

## Assignment #1 - Orthographic Projection from Isometric block

Convert the following into orthographic front, RS, top views. [trick - ensure that the maximum height is maintained as well as the edges]

Try this

And this

CATEGORY 4

Orthographic Lines meet seamlessly. There are no flaws Lines meet at the edges with few flaws in
projection
in the drawing. All elevations line up
the drawing. Some alignment issues.
perfectly

## Lines meet but with much room for

improvement.

Use of Time Used time well during each class period (as Used time well during most class periods
shown by observation by teacher, and
(as shown by observation by teacher, and
documentation of progress in journal) with documentation of progress in journal) with
no reminders.
no reminders.

## Used time well (as shown by observation by

teacher and documentation of progress in
journal), but required reminders on one or more
occasions to do so.

## Used time poorly (as shown by observation

by teacher and/or documentation of
progress in journal) in spite of several
reminders to do so.

size

missing.

met

scanned in.

## Perspective Drawing For The Technical Illustrator

Tak en from Kevin Hulsey from his Tutorial Series

Perspective Basics
A thorough understanding of the principles of 1-Point and 2-Point Perspective is essential to creating an accurate, and visually appealing piece of art. A lay-person with no technical understanding of
the principles of perspective drawing will nonetheless have an intuitive negative reaction to a piece of art in which something is amiss. Using the perspective techniques shown in the preceding
tutorials, the mental impression they will make on a viewer will be so strong that once mastered, the illusion of 3-dimensional depth will remain, even when the visual trickery involved in the process
has been revealed.
Any good technical illustration starts with well executed line art. If you are working from any type of reference other than a CAD output in the desired angle, you will need to have a strong
fundamental understanding of the principles of perspective drawing. This page will cover the various types of perspective angles you will encounter. In the tutorial lessons that follow this page, you
will be given the tools needed to map out a perspective grid for any s-dimensional situation. From this grid, you will be able to create realistic three dimensional drawings from flat or "Off Angle"
reference.
The three photos below demonstrate the difference between 1-Point and 2-Point Perspective, as well as 3-Point Perspective. The first photograph (Fig. 1) is an example of one-point perspective. All
of the major Vanishing Points for the buildings in the foreground of Fig. 1 converge at one central location on the horizon line. The angle of view or Point Of View (POV) in Fig. 1 is referred to as
Normal View perspective. In Fig. 2 the vanishing points for the two opposing faces of the center foreground building project towards two different vanishing points on the horizon line. In Fig. 3 we see
that the horizontal building elements project to the left and right horizon and the vertical building elements project to a central vanishing point in the sky. This upper vanishing point is called the
Zenith. If one were looking down on the object from a Bird's Eye perspective, the vanishing point below the horizon and would be called the Nadir.

## Deconstructing "Perspective" from Photography

In the next three diagrams, you will see the same three photographs with Vanishing Point trajectory lines (magenta) and Horizon Lines (blue) traced over the subject matter. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 are
both examples of Normal View perspective. A Normal View angle places the Horizon Line at a natural height as if the viewer was looking straight forward without tilting the head/camera up or down.

In these two examples, you will notice that all of the vertical features of the buildings are straight up and down.
Fig. 6 is an example of a Worm's Eye perspective. In Fig. 6 the head/camera is tilted upward placing the Horizon below the picture. The perspective when the view is tilted in an upward direction,
creates a third vanishing point at the Zenith. All of the vertical building features will converge at this upper vanishing point. If we were looking down on a subject, the viewing angle would be a Bird's
Eye View and the vertical details would converge at the Nadir.

This technique of tracing parallel lines to their convergence point would be used to construct a Perspective Grid from exiting photographic material. Each convergence point will represent the exact
location of the Horizon, Zenith, or Nadir in that photograph.

1-Point Perspective

2-Point Perspective

Practical Exercise:
Take 15 minutes to complete perspective challenge 1
Take 15 minutes to complete perspective challenge 2

## Assignment #2 - 2D and 3D views

Given an object, you are to complete a series of sketches, then a good copy orthographic projection and a 3D 2-vanishing point drawing of one object. You are to turn in the sketches, the
orthographic projection, and the 2-point perspective drawing.

CATEGORY 4
Sketches

Superb choices in line-weights and angles Good choices in line-weights and angles that The sketches have some defects, but still

1
The sketches have many defects or are

that best illustrate the object. Drawings are best illustrate the chosen topics. Drawings
free from distracting elements
are defect-free but may contain a few
unwanted features

## portray the object

Orthographic Lines meet seamlessly. There are no flaws Lines meet at the edges with few flaws in the Lines generally meet at the edges.
projection
in the drawing.
drawing.
2 point
Lines merge seamlessly at both VPs.
perspective There are no flaws in the drawing.
drawing

## Lines merge well at both VPs. There are

generally no flaws in the drawing.

poor quality.

## Lines meet but with much room for

improvement.

Lines merge at both VPs. There are flaws in the Lines generally merge towards the VPs.
drawing.
There are multiple flaws in the drawing.

Use of Time Used time well during each class period (as Used time well during most class periods (as
shown by observation by teacher, and
shown by observation by teacher, and
documentation of progress in journal) with documentation of progress in journal) with no
no reminders.
reminders.

## Used time well (as shown by observation by

teacher and documentation of progress in
journal), but required reminders on one or more
occasions to do so.

## Used time poorly (as shown by observation

by teacher and/or documentation of
progress in journal) in spite of several
reminders to do so.

size

missing.

met

## Generally all elements are present, and

scanned in.

Tips to Sketching
from: DesignSojourn.com
One of the greatly misunderstood concepts of design is that a good designer must be a good sketcher. Sketching can be self-taught and doesn't need to be perfected in order to succeed. There
have been famous designers who have created terrible sketches but end up with great designs, and great sketchers that are hopeless designers.
Essentially you would only need to draw or sketch well enough to communicate your concept on paper without you having to explain what it is. You dont have to win the beauty contest, but you
WILL have to do well enough so that a fellow designer (or if you want it to be tougher on yourself, a non-designer) can understand what you are attempting to communicate. Notice the key word
here? Its not drawing, draw, design, or sketch, its communicate. A good sketch communicates an idea clearly and succinctly.
Sketching is also one part of the design process that makes up a successful design. Strong understanding in proportions, colors, and manufacturing processes are other important elements that
can make or break a design. So dont despair if your sketching ability, at this time, is not up to par, as you will have a chance to refine it in the downstream design process.
Before we go on lets take a look at the different kinds of sketches so as to not confuse yourself when you go crazy over somebodys apparently great work.

## Thumbnail or Napkin sketch

Source: Core77

A thumbnail sketch is a very basic sketch that has an almost child like quality to it. This type of sketch is mainly about getting your ideas down on paper as quickly as possible without too much
care about proportions and beauty. Its often pretty rough focusing only on the keybig idea. Thumbnails sketches are often the most frequently used sketch technique used to communicate ideas.

Emotion Sketch

greencab

Source:Mikedesign
These are the sketches people go ga-ga over and a main source of a designers spine tingling sensation as well as frustration. Also called Inspirational sketches, such sketches are often use to set
the tone of a design, brand language or product range.

z1_sketch_04

Source:Toyfon
Emotional sketches are also very difficult to do. Simply because an emotional sketch is extremely form orientated, and used as a means to communicate emotion. Hence the designers who create
emotional or inspirational sketches are often called form monsters and have the uncanny ability to turn an emotion or expression keyword into a line, form or silhouette.
However one if you look closely into such sketching style you would realize such sketches dont actually communicate a lot of information. If you look at the example above, can you ask yourself
how does the door open? Where is the door handle? The side mirrors?
Its because such sketches are meant to convey just the look or feel of a product and nothing more. It intentionally or unintentionally leaves out things like mechanical fixtures, part lines, or
assembly information etc. The best emotional sketch designers are actually able to convert their sketches into great products, but unfortunately you be also surprised to know most cannot and
remain in just form or concept development.

Information Sketch
The information sketch is perhaps the level at which what most designers, whom are worried about their sketching ability, should aspire to. Its the minimum type of sketch level that would allow
other designers to understand what you are trying to draw.

starlight_me_pin01

Source
There are a lot of tangent lines, exploded views, transparent layering, a little color here and there, but all in all you can easily tell almost right away what is going on. Right now so how do we do it?
How to we get to the level we are satisfied with? Or how do we just improve our sketching ability?

## Tips on how to be a sketch god! (or at least get you close!):

From DesignSojourn.com

## 1) Know how you draw

Do you draw lines by moving your wrist, elbow or shoulder? There is really no right or wrong way to draw, though most purist advice to use draw from the shoulder. The reason for this is really about
the type of sketch you want to create.
Wrist action encourages tight sketches and very good for a controlled sketch style. Drawing from the shoulder gives you a more sketchy and loose lines as you are literally firing off the lines. If you
want the create that Emotion sketch this is the technique to use, but frankly this style requires a lot of practice in controlling your lines. Drawing from the elbow gives you the middle ground. At the
end of the day pick the technique that you are most comfortable with.

2) Practice
When I started my design career, I drew everything every day. I refused to use tracing paper, rulers or erasers. If you want to improve your sketching skills you need to invest time and effort.
Practice drawing buttons, perspective cubes, and horizontal or vertical lines. I have pages full of horizontal lines of at least 15cm long.

## 3) Understand the concept of varying line weights

One of the good tricks of sketching is to use different line weights or thicknesses. Basically you use thicker lines for edges further from the eye, and thin or dotted lines for edges closer to you.

## 4) Use intentionally sketchy lines by keeping your arm loose

In other words lines dont end at the junction, keep them going and shoot them off. Creating loose sketchy looking lines is really a technique that can be easily learned.

## 5) Redraw your sketches and present them in a better light

I have seen many portfolios of designers with a few years of experience still include sketches from their school days. Now if you have been following my advice your sketching ability would have
improved, so re-draw those old and ugly sketches, there is nothing and no-one saying you should not. This time, perhaps, take the opportunity to refine it to the level that you are happy with it.

## 6) Use callouts with cool handwriting

I dont think I have to say much more about this, but the fact that annotations at strategic places does makes a sketch look cool. Oh and if your handwriting is not too good, I do suggest you pick
up a book on drafting and practice.

## 7) Use the photocopier to save redrawing a good part

I only recommend this if your sketching ability is fairly good or if you are rushed for time. Otherwise redraw it from scratch. Photocopiers work great with Liquid Paper or Correction Fluid.

## 8) Draw big, but show it small

Actually a great presentation trick is to scan in your images, touch up the lines with Photoshop, and present them in a collage. Such a presentation strategy makes average sketches look good,
and good sketches look GREAT!

## 9) Draw small, but show it big

If you have still a tough time sketching from your elbow or shoulder and if your line control is still not the best, what I suggest is to draw a thumbnail and blow it up on a photocopier or scanner. This
way you would have an underlay to redraw your sketch with the same look and feel but with thinner lines.

## 10) Use layouts created from 2D or 3D software

Talking about the use of an underlay, use this time tested trick to create your sketches with a correct perspective, or for you to create a 2D orthographic sketch in proportion.

## 11) Draw with a pen

From what Ive been told, sketching with a pen, instead of a pencil, is really about losing the ability to erase your lines, or erasing your mistakes.The idea here is that drawing with a pen forces you
to think before your draw, and as you cannot erase your work, and you will then draw with a determined solution in mind. In other words, drawing with a pen trains your mind to think the design
solution through before you actually put it on paper. It will make you a much better designer.
The other reason is that, you stop being precious with your sketches and drawings, i.e. you draw and if it does not look good, you dont get to erase and draw over, but you throw your drawings
away and start fresh. This re-setting and starting from scratch seems to help make you a better designer, so the say!

## Assignment #3 - Sketching a front elevation and a perspective view of a building

Using the following photo (link ), seen below, you are complete a sketch of the front and of the side (orthographic) of this steam powered flour mill in Upper Canada Village, taking artistic license to
complete it. Using these sketches, you are then to abstract yourself and complete a 2-point perspective of the building. This might help you .

CATEGORY 4
Sketches

Superb choices in line-weights and angles Good choices in line-weights and angles that The sketches have some defects, but still
that best illustrate the object. Drawings are best illustrate the chosen topics. Drawings
portray the object
free from distracting elements
are defect-free but may contain a few
unwanted features

1
The sketches have many defects or are
poor quality.

2 point
Lines merge seamlessly at both VPs. There Lines merge well at both VPs. There are
perspective are no flaws in the drawing.
generally no flaws in the drawing.
drawing

Lines merge at both VPs. There are flaws in the Lines generally merge towards the VPs.
drawing.
There are multiple flaws in the drawing.

Use of
Time

Used time well during each class period (as Used time well during most class periods (as
shown by observation by teacher, and
shown by observation by teacher, and
documentation of progress in journal) with documentation of progress in journal) with no
no reminders.
reminders.

## Used time well (as shown by observation by

teacher and documentation of progress in
journal), but required reminders on one or more
occasions to do so.

## Used time poorly (as shown by observation

by teacher and/or documentation of
progress in journal) in spite of several
reminders to do so.

Filetype
and size

missing.

met

scanned in.