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Chapter-1 Introduction


Chapter-1 Introduction to Chilled Water Systems
. What is heat?
(heat) (temperature)
(transfer) (form of energy)
(temperature) (thermal
(form of energy) (quantity)
(intensity) (heat energy)
(form of energy)
(thermal activity) (molecules)

(thermal activity)
(velocity) (thermal activity)

first law (heat energy)
first law
law of conservation of energy
HVAC (remove heat

second law (heat energy)
(temperature) (transfer)

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
.. (Heat)
(thermometer) intensity of heat
(quantity of heat) (quantity of heat)
(quantity of heat)

- 1 Calorie (4.187J) - 1 Btu

. Unit of Refrigeration

Refrigeration capacity Inch-Pound (I-P)
British Thermal Units per hour(BTU/hr) HVAC
ton of refrigeration
() (1 ton)

32F 144 Btu
(Latent heat of ice = 144 Btu/lb)
() one refrigeration ton (1RT)
12,000 Btu/hr

1C 1 Calorie [cal] (
1F 1 British Thermal Unit (BTU)

1 ton of refrigeration (RT) = 200 Btu/min = 3.517 kJ/s = 3.517 kW
Chapter-1 Introduction
Table 1-1
(/) (amount of heat)
Kilocalorie [kcal] 1 kg 1C 1 kcal
Joule [J] 1 g 1C 4.187 J
Kilojoule[kJ] 1 kg 1C 4.187 kJ
British Thermal Unit [BTU] 1 lb 1F 1 Btu
. Sensible Heat
Sensible Seat Equation:

= Rate of sensible heat added or removed from substance (Btu/hr)

= Mass rate flow of substance (lb/hr)

= Specific heat of substance at constant pressure (Btu/lb F)


= temperature change of substance (F)

Air conditioning process sensible heat equation Air con
process (temperature change)
Refrigeration process state

- chiller chilled water flow rate ()
55F (chilled water) 43F chiller
cooling capacity Btu/hr ton of refrigeration(RT) kW

m = W gpm lb/hr

= 250,000 lb/hr
(1 GPM) lb/hr 500 lb/hr

=-3,000,000 Btu/hr
() () Btu/hr ton of refrigeration
1 RT (Refrigeration Ton) = 12,000 Btu/hr = 3.517 kW

Cooling capacity

Chiller cooling capacity (amount of
heat removed from chilled
Chillers and Chilled Water Systems

. Air Conditioning System

- Air conditioning system

-() Classification of HVAC systems
Air conditioning system

(construction manager)
Chilled water circuit chiller water sensible heat (transfer)

] latent heat (transfer)
Chapter-1 Introduction
(value added options) (value-engineered options)


() (temperature)
() (humidity)
() (air motion)
() (air purity or quality)
() (air changes per hour)
() Duct pipe (air and/or water velocity requirements)
() (local climate)
() (space pressure requirements)
() Load calculation analysis capacity
() (spatial requirement)
() (security concerns)
() (first cost)
() (Operating cost,
including energy and power costs)
() (maintenance cost)
() System (reliability)
() (flexibility)
() system (life-cycle analysis)
() (sustainability of design)
() (acoustics and vibration)
() (mold and mildew prevention)

Air conditioning system decentralized cooling and heating system central cooling
and heating system Decentralized system

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems

- Multiple unit systems using single-zone unitary HVAC equipment

- Packaged terminal air conditioner
. Decentralized Cooling and Heating Systems

decentralized system
.. System Characteristics
Decentralized system HVAC unit
HVAC unit refrigeration cycle heating source air ventilation
(components) fans filters heating
source cooling coil refrigerant compressor(s) control condenser
Equipment (manufacture)
configuration decentralized system
HVAC equipment
() Window air conditioners () Water cooled packaged unit
() Multiple-unit systems () Self-contained (floor-by-floor) systems
() Outside package systems () Water-cooled heat pump systems
() Air-cooled heat pump systems () Residential and light commercial split systems
() Air-cooled packaged unit () Through-the-wall room HVAC units
Chapter-1 Introduction

- Packaged DX rooftop air conditioner

- ource heat pump

- DX unit - Packaged rooftop air conditioner
.. Decentralized System (Advantages)
() Heating cooling
() Certified rating performance data
() (quality
control) (reliability)

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
() System
() Mechanical electrical
() (first cost)
() equipment

() (tenant) air con service
() Decentralized system air side water side economizer

.. Decentralized System (Disadvantages)
() Air flow cooling coil condenser

() centralized system
diversity factor equipment
() (temperature) (humidity)
() equipment
() Central system
() Outside air economizer
() (air distribution)
() Equipment
() Equipment
() (air filtration

() On/off step control discharge temperature

() Air-conditioning unit condensate drain
() Equipment

. Central Cooling and Heating Systems
Central cooling plant chiller water (generate)
distribution HVAC application %
central cooling plant system Equipment

Chapter-1 Introduction
.. System Characteristics

equipment configuration Equipment
Primary equipment chiller boiler
capacity configuration


conditioning heating process

- Central cooling and heating system
(operating) (maintain) (first
cost) (owner) consultant

() (campus environments with
distribution to several buildings)
() (high rise facilities)
() (large office buildings)
() (large public assembly facilities,
entertainment complexes, stadiums, arenas, and convention and exhibition centers-)
() Urban centers (e.g., city centers/districts)
() (shopping malls)
() (large condominiums, hotels, and apartment complexes)
() (educational facilities)
() (hospitals and other health care facilities)
Chilled-water production system HFC HCFC refrigerant
(safety requirement) ASHRAE standard 15

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
() (Industrial facilities -pharmaceutical, manufacturing)
() (Large museums and similar institutions)
() (Locations where waste heat is readily available -
generation or industrial processes)
chilled water plant
() Chiller configuration
() Pump (efficient pumps)
() Valve
() (good piping scheme with ample valving)
System control

.. Central System (Advantages)
() Primary cooling and heating
() equipment

() Equipment servicing
() (energy-efficient design strategies)
(energy recovery) thermal storage (energy management)

() plant
() equipment (spare part)
Part-load capability efficiency
() Standby capability back-up power supply
() Load profile equipment
() Central plant distribution
() Load diversity total installed capacity
() Equipment (vibration)
(noise) (acoustical treatment

.. S Disadvantages)
() Equipment
Chapter-1 Introduction

() Centralized system

() Centralized equipment
() Equipment
() Heating plant (chimney) (emission permit) monitoring
() Equipment equipment
() Central system control logic
() (first cost)
() (permit)
() (safety)
() Distribution pipe
.. Central Plant
Central plant
() refrigerant (discharge)
() Equipment , (lifting facility)
() (maintenance
() (acoustical impact)
() (expansion)
. (Design Considerations)
.. Cooling and Heating Loads
cooling load heating
load simultaneous peak simultaneous load
( ) cooling load heating load
Design load peak load equipment diversity factor
- 5 95% diversity (university)
diversity factor % Central plant peak
load diversity factor
diversity factor

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
.. (Noise) (Vibration)

(sound and


cooling tower
S Chapter 47HVAC Applications for
more detailed information on sound and
.. Space Considerations)
(architects) (owners)
(space planners) M&E mechanical equipment

mechanical system building configuration
rules of thumb

(design concept) (space requirement)
(building floor area) Mechanical and
Electrical (M&E) system

Central system
1 kW refrigeration (plant room) 0.07 0.09
(0.07 to 0.09 m
per kilowatt of refrigeration) Chiller pump cooling tower

1.2 m equipment
Chiller evaporator condenser tube



overhead crane
(local codes)
Chapter-1 Introduction

- Chilled water distribution network



Equipment (operating weight) (structural costs)
Equipment (vibration) (noise)

Central plant switchgear motor control center transformer cable

Cooling tower makeup water tank

(cooling and heating service)
central plant
(road way) (parking)
operating environment for e
ventilation rate) 2.5 L/s per m

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
(fuel oil) propane gas coal
Electrical transformer
Cooling tower


() emergency electrical loads)
() fuel sources)

() control)

- Central cooling system
. Chilled Water System
() Constant flow systems
() Constant flow using 3-way control valves
() Constant flow using 2-way control valves and central by-pass
() Primary secondary flow system
() Primary constant /Secondary variable flow design
() Primary constant /Secondary variable flow design (with tertiary pumping)
() Variable Primary Flow chilled water systems (VPF)
() VPF with dedicated pumps
() VPF with headered pumps
Chapter-1 Introduction
. Overview of Chilled Water Plant Rooms
chiller water plant
chilled water system Chilled water system
chiller pump cooling tower AHU/FCU system
heat exchanger pump Chilled water system water cooled chiller
air cooled chiller Water cooled chiller
system plant water cooled plant (water cooled system) Air cooled chiller
system plant air cooled plant (air cooled system)
Water cooled chiller circuit () air cooled chiller circuit
() Air cooled water cooled chiller refrigerant circuit chiller

- Water cooled chiller Air cooled chiller DX packaged
Thermal energy moves from left to right through five loops of heat transfer

- (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
() Indoor air loop
() Chilled water loop
() Refrigerant loop
() Condenser water loop
() Cooling tower outdoor air loop
Chillers and Chilled Water Systems

- Heat transfer loop
Table 1-2 water cooled chilled water system and air cooled chilled water system
Water Cooled Chilled Water System Air Cooled Chilled Water System
() air distribution system Air side air distribution
() chilled water
distribution system
chilled water
distribution system
() Condenser circuit

() refrigerant circuit refrigerant circuit

- Chiller condenser water pipe chilled water pipe
. Circuit (Naming of Circuit)
Circuit (supply) (return) (entering)
(leaving) Supply return Chilled water
circuit load side (reference) Chiller
(leaving chilled water) chilled water supply (supply to building) chiller
(entering chilled water) chilled water return (return from building) Chilled
Chapter-1 Introduction
water loop/circuit chiller supply side AHU/FCU
demand side(load side)
Condenser water circuit cooling tower chiller
chiller reference Chiller (entering condenser water) condenser
water supply (supply to chiller) chiller (leaving condenser water) condenser
water return (return from chiller) Air side circuit serving area reference
AHU/FCU supply air (supply air to serving area)
(air) return air (return air from serving area)
. Chilled Water Distribution System Chilled Water Circuit/Loop
Chilled water distribution system chilled water circuit/loop chilled water pump
chiller Air Handling Unit(AHU)/Fan Coil Unit(FCU) Chilled water pump chilled
water return chiller Chilled water pump chilled water
supply chilled water pump
chilled water chiller chiller
chiller evaporator (heat exchange)

Chilled water circuit/loop Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI)
[ ARI ] (standard) chilled water supply temperature
. chilled water return temperature . (standard
chilled water flow rate) 1 RT (.)(2.4 S
chiller (standard chilled
water flow rate) - 500RT( ) chiller (standard
chilled water flow rate) 1,200GPM (500RT x 2.4GPM)
(heat) (temperature)
chilled water circuit 12.2C
chilled water return (temperature) refrigerant circuit
chiller evaporator refrigerant 12.2C chilled
water return 6.7C chilled water supply chiller
Chilled water circuit closed circuit (closed loop) Closed circuit chilled water
. Condenser Water Loop Condenser Water Circuit
Condenser water loop condenser water circuit condenser water pump chiller
cooling tower Condenser water pump condenser water supply chiller
Condenser water pump condenser water return
condenser water pump condenser water
chiller chiller chiller condenser
(heat exchange)

Chillers and Chilled Water Systems
Condenser water circuit/loop AHRI (Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration
Institute) (standard) condenser water supply temperature
(outdoor air) wet bulb
temperature (.) (.) Condenser water supply
temperature wet bulb temperature Standard condenser water
return temperature (standard condenser water
flow rate) 1 RT (.)(3.0 USGPM per RT
(electric driven) chiller standard condenser water flow rate
- 500RT () chiller
(standard condenser water flow rate) 1,500GPM(500RT x 3.0GPM)
(heat) (temperature) (temperature)
condenser water circuit (heat)
chiller refrigerant circuit condenser water supply temperature
condenser water supply refrigerant
circuit Condenser water supply refrigerant circuit
condenser water return chiller Condenser water
circuit/loop opened circuit/loop Opened circuit/loop condenser water

- AHU chilled water pipe duct
. Air Distribution System (Circuit/Loop)
Air distribution system (circuit/loop) Air Handling Unit(AHU) blower cold air (supply
air) serving area servicing area return air (warm air)
servicing area (temperature) 22C
supply air (temperature) 13C Return air temperature 24C
(outdoor air)
(air flow rate) chilled water flow rate condenser water flow rate

AHU Constant Air Volume(CAV) system
Serving area cooling load (air flow rate)
AHU Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) system