Trust " Space Power ", It Works !

Not many are aware of the events of January 11, 2007 when China shot down a satellite weather
(weather satellite) mark. Glance like there is no problem with the actions taken by the Chinese,
especially for people in developing countries or friendly with him, like a normal thing that destroyed
kaerna set is its own assets. He was the United States that take this seriously because this incident
shows that China 's capabilities could threaten any time one of the aspects that make the United
States the power of today's superior, space power. The U.S. military relies heavily on its space -based
assets outside, and perhaps the most important component of their abilities is a military
communications satellite that allows command and control of combat forces globally (Kreisher,
China does not have a positive relationship with the United States. In the field of space technology
alone, China can cooperate with the European space program and Russia, but not with the United
States (Sheehan, 2007). For example, China was not invited to participate in the International Space
Station (Ibid, 2007: p.164). Even in the annual report made to the Board in the United States is done
by Macdonald (2008), China's space program is considered the most challenging U.S. dominance in
space. The attitude of the United States has established China to continue to improve the
capabilities of its space power ¬, not merely because they feel excluded, but China increasingly
convinced that through this space technology capabilities the United States can be more suppressed.
One way to " beat " the United States is to utilize one of the " tradition of military history and
strategic thinking " such as focusing on a more asymmetric way to rid the United States and its allies
through " tulung soft ribs " of their military and economic power : based systems space. (Tellis, 2007
in Stone, 2013).
U.S. Steps in Pressure
In the written report, there are two types of recommendations that can be executed by the United
States to respond to the challenges arising from the increasing capabilities of China's space
technology, especially by shootings Chinese weather satellite in January 2007, the military advice
and recommendations diplomacy.
Options military recommendation consists of :
• Improved space situational awareness (keawasan improvise on space assets themselves) : SSA
(Space Situational Awareness) is the ability to track and understand the objects that are in orbit and
what their abilities. By providing the location and status information on spacecraft in real -time or
near real -time, SSA enables better management in the operation of these assets and provide
warnings of potential hazards - natural or man-made, intentional or unintentional - to allow
preventive measures or mitigation to be taken. In addition, the accuracy of the SSA is required to
determine with certainty whether the satellite operations have been deliberately compromised by
the enemy.
• Space deterrence
One option is a common form of deterrence regime (prevention). Under this option, the United
States will agree to use most of the space for military purposes by other countries as long as they do
not interfere with the U.S. military use of outer space, and will take prudent measures to maintain
its own space systems against attack, although asset - these assets are not vulnerable. The United
States will maintain the capability to attack satellites of other countries but will look to use this
capability as a last resort, and will pursue a doctrine, programs, negotiation, and aerospace
contingency plans aimed at suppressing any country in starting the conflict in outer space.
The concept of deterrence in this space is a bit different from the concept of nuclear deterrence.
Both for prevention and fighting in war, every offensive space force the United States to be
developed or paired must meet strict criteria, including :
- Effectiveness ;
- Viability ;
- Resilience ;
- Credibility ;
- Reversibility of effects ;
- Cost-effectiveness at the margin, and
- Damage minimum side when in use.
• Space Dominance
The third option is supported by the doctrine of offensive U.S. space dominance. In this case, the
United States will maintain the offensive and defensive counterspace capabilities are strong that no
other nation could compete with him. Such a capability would be highly sensitive to the motivation
and response from China. Even if China adopted the policy of minimum deterrence outside its
airspace, outer space dominance would be unstable due to U.S. efforts to maintain it would be
tantamount to weaken China 's ability to prevent. This strategy is very susceptible to the United
States alone, but can be done if necessary.
Recommendations diplomacy itself consists of :
• Department of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Defense should expand dialogue with China
to establish rules of the road, a code of ethics, and the steps to build confidence in others, and to
build - to - military dialogue on military space issues at this time.
• Department of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Defense shall enter into discussions with
China on the KE - ASAT testing ban (anti-satellite weapon -based kinetic energy), as the main short-
term need is to address the KE - ASAT on both sides, especially in geosynchronous orbit, where space
debris (debris) will turn off last forever.
• Chinese President Bush should offer at least a moratorium on further mutual KE - ASAT testing, if
not in the form of a formal agreement, and invite other countries to join.
• As a confidence-building measures, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Ministry should
review the limitations of commercial space and scientific activity with China, but with as much as
possible reduce them wise (depending on national security warning) in return for greater
transparency of China's military program outside its airspace.
Anticipatory measures the United States above indicates a very serious concern to the space power
capabilities of each country. The steps the United States military terms alone shows how China has
passed the limits of normality in the development of space technology conciliatory according to U.S.
interests. Diplomatic measures recommended concentration also showed U.S. diplomatic continually
emphasize the military aspects of China's space program involving the Department of Defense and
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (State Department).
One More Weak Point
In addition to the financial crisis that happened (Shah, 2013), it turns out the U.S. has another weak
point : a very large dependence on the system and its assets outside of his space. China realizes that
the real direct action to increase the capability of space power is even unclear as to what the
concept intact, even though its practices have been around a long time. Even for a country Amerikat
seadidaya States, he was confused in his space conceptualize foreign policy.
Space power itself does not have a steady conception compared with other dimensions is first
known to man, namely land (land power), the ocean (sea power), air and sky (water power). Jon
Sumida (2012) tried to adapt the power of the sea thinking Tayer Alfred Mahan but still tend to be
economical. Another idea from Benjamin S. Lambeth (2012) emerges through the concept of cross -
domain where space power and cyber power affects water power. Both of these konsepi still can not
be separated from the concepts that already exist.
It also became one of the weaknesses of the study of International Relations where always late in
the conceptualization of the phenomena exist. Is it because it is a conceptual framework in the Study
of International Relations should always borrow from other disciplines ? Is it because it is not
sensitive to the penstudinya symptoms are there?
Finally I realized that, in writing this I, " space power " has uncovered two weak points : the U.S.
weak points in the real world and the weak point in the study of International Relations in our
thoughts. As the people of Indonesia, a weak point in space to be one I hirauan. However, no less
important, as penstudi International Relations, a weak point in mind the development of
international relations typical of Indonesia is still very weak. The lesson of this power must be space
for us to prod more sensitive again in capturing the phenomena of international relations.
Terrific, right, outer space ? Trust " space power ", it works!