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Rotary Bored Piling

Bored piles are often larger diameter than conventional continuous flight auger
piles and are used to support greater loads, overcome underground obstructions,
penetrate ground too hard to bore using a continuous flight auger or create pile
s with a cut-off level beneath the platform level. Because the rotary bored tech
nique enables the reinforcement to be added into the open bore rather than into
the ready poured concrete, as in CFA, it has the distinct advantage of allowing
the cage to be the full depth of the pile.
They are formed by drilling through a temporary casing to the designed depth, us
ing an auger or other tools such as drilling buckets, core barrels etc. to cope
with a variety of ground conditions. The casing gives support to the pile throug
h unstable ground and once the required depth is reached, the auger is removed,
the reinforcement is added and the concrete poured. When the concrete reaches th
e required level, the casing is removed allowing it to be reused in future. In c
ases where the ground is still unstable at depth, support fluids such as bentoni
te or polymers can be added.
Advanatages and disadvantages of bored cast-in-situ piles (after Tomlinson,1986)
Length can be readily varied to suit varying ground conditions
Soil removed in boring can be inspected and if necessary sampled Or in situ test
s made
Can be installed in very large diameters
End enlargements up to two or three diameters are possible in clays
Material of pile is not dependent on handling oor driving conditions
Can be installed in very long lengths
Can be installed without appreciable noise or vibration
Can be installed in conditions of very low head-room
No risk of ground heave
Susceptible to "waisting" or "necking" in "squeezing" ground.
Concrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be subsequently inspect
Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out cement.
Enlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials.
Cannot be readily extended above ground level especially in river and marine str
Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils. Sinking piles may cause loss o
f ground in cohesionless soils, leading to settlement of adjacent structures.
Choice between different types of bored cast in-situ piles:
The cheapest forms are the simple, mechanically augered piles sunk without any c
asing. However, they are only suitable for reasonably firm to stiff cohesive soi
ls. The cost more than doubles when casing has to be installed and withdrawn and
the slower conventional boring methods must be used. The enlarged base has adva
ntages in permitting shorter piles, so bringing them within the depth range of a
particular type of mechanical rig. However, enlarged bases to bored piles canno
t be contemplated in sands or gravels. The use of drilling under bentonite slurr
y has overcome many of the problems associated with ground water and the looseni
ng of granular soils.