S V AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,TIRUPATI ANDHRA PRADESH , INDIA
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS
(Course No. HORT-281)
DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE ACHARYA N.G.RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY S.V. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE TIRUPATI-517 502
DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE
This is to certify that __________________________ ID.NO _____________student of B.Sc(AG), has successfully practical exercises titled VEGETABLES AND undergone of course the number MR/Ms II year
training in the HORT-281 IN the I
SEMESTER OF 2009-10.
SL. NO. DATE TITLE PAGE NO. REMARKS
EX NO:- 01
DATE :IDENTIFICATION OF VEGETABLE PLANTS
SNO COMMONNAME SCIENT
Lycope esculan Solanum malang Capsic
Brassica oleracea var.capitata
Drumhead savoy, Golden acre.
Brassica oleraceae var.botrytis
Pant gobhi3, PG26, Pusa shubhra, Snow ball16 Golith white, Sutton earliest purple Early white vienna Pusa madhavi, Hissar2, Pusa Red,VL3 Godavari,swetha, HG1,HG6 Arka komal, Bountiful,Contender, Jampa Pusa sadabahar, Pusa mausami, Pusanoubahar, Pusa early prolific, Pusa sem2, Pusa sem3 Arkel,FC1, Jawaharmatar-1 Arka garima, Cow pea263, Narendra lobia-1, Pusa barsat Kufrisindhuri, Kufri chandramukhi, Kufri muthu, Kufri jyoti Bhubansankar, Gouri,varsha, kiran Satamukhi, Sri rashmi, Sri pallavi, panchamukhi Sreekeerthi, Sree roopa, Sree latha, Sreepriya,
Knol –khol (khol rabi) Onion
Brassica oleracea Var.gongylodes Allium cepa
Garlic French beans
Allium sativum Phaseolus vulgaris
Dolichosbeans (lablab bean) Garden pea Cow pea
Pisum sativum Vigna unguiculata
Sweet potato colocasia
Ipomea batatus Colocasia esculenta Dioscorea rotundata
31 32 33 34
Beet root Amaranthus palak Leafy hibiscus
Beta vulgaris Amaranthus spps Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis Hibiscus cannabis
chenopodiaceae amaranthaceae basellaceae malvaceae
Arkanishant, Punjab safed, IHRI-1, Japanese white Golden ball, Punjab safed-4, Purple topwhiteglobe, Pusa chandrina Detroit dark red. Crimson globe, Badichaulai, Chotichaulai, Pusa kiran, Pusa harit, HS-23, Palak no51/16 ---
WORK DONE REPORT :
EX NO:- 02
PLANNING AND LAY OUT OF KITCHEN GARDEN PLAN OF A MODEL KITCHEN GARDEN ROTATIONS: PLOT NO: 1 Cluster bean July-oct Cabbage intercropped with Nov-mar Lettuce or French bean in b/n Cabbage after lettuce harvest. Radish (rainy season) Jan-May Cauliflower inter cropped Aug-Sept With knoll-kohl, cowpea Feb-May (Summer season) Cauliflower (mid season) July-Nov Radish with carrot Oct- Nov Onion July-Oct Cauliflower July-oct Pea Oct-Feb Okra Mar-June Brinjal (longs) July-Mar Amaranthus Mar-June Okra Mar-June Tomato Oct-May Okra May-Aug Chilli Sept-April Parwal (pointed gourd) Kundru (Coccinia) Karela (Bitter gourd) Cucumber Lauki (bottle gourd) Torai (sponge gourd) Tomato Garlic Turmeric Ginger Radishes – Colacasia Carrot-Colacasia Four Papaya plants Four Banana plants Two Karonda plants
PLOT NO: 2
PLOT NO: 3 PLOT NO: 4 PLOT NO: 5 PLOT NO: 6 PLOT NO: 7 ON FENCE:
ALONG PATH: RIDGE1, 2 RIDGE 3,4 RIDGE 5 RIDGE 6 FRUIT PLANTS
ADVANTAGES OF KITCHEN GARDEN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It is a source of fresh and nutritious vegetables for the family throughout the year. When market is, closed vegetables can be obtained. It reduces the expenditure in buying vegetables because vegetable sellers sell the vegetables to the consumers on price fixed by them including middle men share profit etc. It is best source of recreation and exercise. Ladies and retired person can use it as an exercise by doing field operations. Better utilization is done of the surrounding land, kitchen waste and kitchen water. Vegetables obtained from the kitchen garden are fresh, are not liable to infection with germs occurring in unsanitary markets, and can be consumed freely. MONTH JANUARY CROP Onion Melons Garlic Pea Potato Cole crops Tomato Brinjal Chillies Cowpea Okra Colacasia Melons Cucurbits French bean Cluster bean Turmeric Ginger Okra Melon, tomato Brinjal, chillies Cowpea, OPERATIONS Transplanting Sowing Weeding, Irrigation Picking Digging Weeding, irrigation, harvest. Transplanting Transplanting Transplanting Sowing Sowing Planting Sowing Sowing Sowing Sowing Planting Planting Sowing Weeding, irrigation, spraying “ “ “ “ “ “
Tomato Brinjal Chillies French bean Cluster bean Cowpea Cucurbits Melons Turmeric Ginger Colocasia
picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding picking, irrigation, weeding irrigation, weeding irrigation, weeding irrigation, weeding
Tomato Brinjal Chillies French bean Cluster bean Cowpea Cucurbits Melons Turmeric Colocasia Bhindi
picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding picking,irrigation,weeding irrigation,weeding irrigation,weeding sowing
cowpea Bhindi Cluster bean Cucurbits Sem Colocasia Brinjal Chillies Cauliflower (sowing will continue if not sown in June)
sowing sowing sowing sowing sowing sowing sowing in nursery sowing in nursery sowing in nursery
cowpea Bhindi Cluster bean Cucurbits Wem Colocasia Brinjal Chillies Cauliflower
weeding,irrigation weeding,picking,spraying weeding,picking,spraying weeding,picking,spraying weeding,picking,spraying ridiging,weeding,spraying transplanting transplanting transplanting
(above mentioned operations will continue as per need) August Cowpea Bhindi Cluster bean Cucurbits Sem Colocasia Brinjal Chillies Cauliflower Cabbage Knolkhol Palak Radish Carrot Tomato picking picking picking picking weeding weeding,spraying weeding,spraying weeding,spraying sowing in nursery sowing in nursery sowing in nursery sowing sowing sowing sowing in nursery
(above operations will continue if required)
Coriander Palak Radish Carrot Methi Onion Tomato Cabbage Knolkhol Cauliflower (late) Broad bean
sowing sowing sowing sowing sowing bulb planting transplanting transplanting transplanting transplanting sowing
(picking and other above mentioned options will continue as per need)
Pea Potato Coriander Palak Radish Methi Onion Tomato Cabbage Knolkhol Cauliflower Garlic
picking, spraying digging, spraying weeding, harvesting weeding, harvesting harvesting harvesting planting planting, picking weeding,irrigation weeding,irrigation picking, weeding, irrigation weeding, irrigation
PLANNING AND ARRANGEMENT LOCATION A good kitchen garden should be located near and back the house for convenience in working at odd times, working for women and in harvesting. The soil should preferably be loam or sandy loam. It should be well drained, not too acidic and well supplied with organic matter and nutrients. Proper exposure to light is essential for better growth and development of the plants. The location should be in the direction where the use of kitchen water can be made easily.
SIZE The size of a kitchen garden depends on the number of persons to be supplied with vegetables. By close attention to succession cropping and intercropping, 250sq meters land may be used to supply a family of five members.However, the size of village gardens may be more than that of the city garden. ARRANGEMENT OF CROPS The perennials and fruit crops should be on one side or at one end of the garden, where they do not obstruct the field preparation operations. Cucurbitaceous and other vine vegetables should be grown near the fence so that it may be used as staking. Long season’s crops or those occupying the land throughout the growing seasons should be planted together. Quick maturing crops should be planted in continuous rows so that the area may be planted with a single late crop. It is desirable to plant tall growing crops together and to locate them in northern direction so that do not shade the dwarf crops. SOIL MANAGEMENT Rich, well-drained friable, loamy soil is the best for growing vegetables. The surface should not have depressions where rain or irrigation water may accumulate. Most of the vegetables do best in slightly acidic soils. It should be free from deleterious salts such as Nacl2; Na2co3 etc.The irrigation water should also be free from these salts. Lime improves the structure of certain heavy soils, but too much of it may prove injurious to most garden crops. The plot is divided into different beds and their size may vary according to irrigation and drainage channels. Rainy seasons vegetable crops and root and tuber crops should be planted on ridges. MANURING During preparation of land, manure should be thoroughly incorporated in the soil to a considerable depth. Basal dose of fertilizer to the concerned crop may be mixed in the soil at last harrowing and top dressing done as and when recommended for the crop. PLANTING/SOWING Cauliflower, cabbage, kolkhoz, tomato, brinjal, chillies and onion do well when transplanted. Soil should be in excellent physical condition if plants are to be set in it. Sufficient moisture should be present, and if possible, the transplanting should be done in cloudy weather or in the evening in order that the plants may have the opportunity to recover before being exposed to strong sunshine. It is also desirable to irrigate the field, does transplanting after the soil is in working condition.Sowing of above seeds may be done right in time in the nursery, and later the seedlings may be transplanted in main plots.
Vegetables like peas, beans, cucurbits, carrot, beetroot, okra, cluster bean and green leafy vegetables are sown directly in the field. Distance and depth of seeds should be maintained according to the crop. INTERCULTURE Interculture is essential to the maintenance of a loose mulch of dry soil on the entire surface of a garden as long as possible in the growing season. The maintenance of this mulch is of great value in retaining moisture, in keeping the soil in good physical condition and in destroying weeds. In kitchen garden, the hand hoe and hand weeder will meet every requirement without undue labour. The operations like earthing up, blanching, staking, thinning, etc., may also be attended to whenever they are required. Earthing up consists of putting the soil around the base of the plants. Blanching is done in case of such vegetables as celery, leek, cauliflower, and asparagus to make them tender and not to allow the green coloring matter to develop since it imparts certain bitterness to them. Blanching is done by earthing up in celery, leek, asparagus and by covering the curds with leaves and tying the leaves in case of cauliflower. IRRIGATION Plants should be irrigated regularly. Flow irrigation is, however, more desirable than hand watering. In small plots, irrigation by rubber pipe is better. The plant should not suffer any set back in growth for want of water. When, how and what amount of irrigation water should be applied in the field will depend on the nature of crop, weather conditions and conservation of soil moisture in beds. HARVESTING Generally, harvesting is done according to the requirement. When vegetables are ready for harvest, they should be harvested and only those vegetables should be harvested first that are ready to be consumed and the remaining ones should be left for later harvesting. Harvesting is done at varying intervals according to the crops. Some of the vegetables like potato, garlic, onion, turmeric, ginger, colocasia can be kept in a suitable cool and dry place for future consumption. Storage place should not be air tight and hot. Excess produce of vegetables like tomato, pea, cauliflower etc., can be used for preparation of different products or for canning.
WORK DONE REPORT:
EX NO:- 03
DATE:RAISING OF VEGETABLE NURSERIES
Nursery management induced is a very important operation in successful growing of vegetables especially those which are raised through seedlings in properly managed nursery beds ADVANTAGES: Raising nursery from seed provide an easy and convenient way to nourish Tender young seedlings in a well managed small and compact area for better germination of small and costly seed. A small area can be easily provided with favourable conditions in the open area specified for the purpose or glass or poly house or any other protected area which is used for rising the healthy seedlings. Thus nursery area can be conveniently protected from natural hazards designated seed borne diseases and insect or pests as well managed economically some of the vegetable seeds are very costly and is necessary to rise nursery in the most optimum conditions . In areas (hills) where landholdings are small, nursery rising helps in making economic use of land for about one to one and half month and provides enough time for proper maturity of the previous crop harvesting, threshing etc and land preparation. The vegetables subjected for nursery rising easily tolerate transplanting shocks. The major advantages of nursery rising are 1. Judicious use of small costly vegetable seeds 2. Ease of controlling designated seed borne diseases, insects and pests effectively in the initial growth period of seedlings 3. Ease of providing intensive care like frequent irrigation,weeding,protection against inclement weather conditions etc 4. Availability of sufficient time for field preparation, manure and fertilizer mixing after harvesting the previous crop then nursery raising helps in planting the crop at proper time . PREPARATION OF SEEDBEDS; The size of the nursery plot to rise seedlings for planting a hectare of potato, brinjal and chilly would be 10 x1.2m,10 x1.2and10 x1.2m respectively. In case of cole crops like cabbage, cauliflower & knoll-khol, a plot of 50x1.2 m would be sufficient. These plots would be better made into smaller beds of 1 to 1.5m instead of single bed. The width of the bed does not exceed 1.5m so that it facilitate weeding and watering without trampling the bed
LOCATION; The site for nursery beds should be located close to the source of water supply PREPARATION; The seed should be ploughed thoroughly to get fine tilth with an excellent medium for better germination of seedlings growth
1. One cart of load of well rotten powder farmyard manure sieved compost should 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
be spread. 1kg of super phosphate applied and mixed thoroughly with the soil Application of ssp is an essential practice since seedlings require more P for root development of initial stages of their growth. Aldrin or Dialdrin wettable powder at 30g per bed should be applied to keep away the white ants . The soil should be leveled and made into raised beds of 3mx1.2m with irrigation channels between the beds. The level; of the bed surface is also slightly raised in the centre with a little slope on either sides . A week before sowing , the soil should be sterilized by drenching with commercial Formalin at 1;100 dilution at the rate of 5ltre per sq m ,against damping off disease .
SOWING; The common practice is to broadcast seeds in the nursery beds , but line sowing is preferred so as to check proper germination , uniform spacing and facilitate weeding hoeing and plant protection operation .The sows are usually kept about 8 to 10cm apart, the seeds are treated with agrosan on at one part in 500 parts of seed by weight against damping off disease and then sown in furrows , small seed should be sown mixed with a little sand and covered with soil by passing a flat wooden plank followed by light irrigation with a sprinkler AFTER CARE 1. Watering the bed is done gently to avoid packing or washing away of the soil covering the seed 2. In the beginning shade is provided by covering the bed with a thin layer of leaves thatched cover on bed 3. Better 0.2percent should be sprayed or the nursery branched capton at 2g per litre to control the spread of this disease. Racking the soil every week along with light irrigation will promote required growth of the seedlings. In the growth of seedlings is allow the bed may be irrigated with a weak solution of ammonium sulphate or
solution of Ca (NH4)2 (NO2).a week before transplanting the no of watering are reduced and the seedlings exposed to full sun shine so that they become hardy to bear the shock of transplanting HARDENING OF PLANTS ; The term hardening is any treatment that results in hardening of the tissues of the plants thus enabling them better to withstand unfavourable environmental conditions such as less intake of water, hot dry winds and low temperature 1. Hardening is also accompanied by 2. Increase in percentage of hydrophitous colloids and dry matter 3. Decrease in percentage of feasible water and transpiration per unit area of leaf
WORK DONE REPORT:-
EX NO:- 04
DATE:TRANSPLANTING OF VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS
Transplanting is a general term used to designate the removal of living of living plants where they may become established in new quarters. ADVANTAGES OF TRANSPLANTING: Through transplanting there is economy in the case of plants and there is a saving of seed in the case of expensive seed. During transplanting there is a root pruning which gives rise to many more short branch roots in the plant. When planted in the field due to shoot system in the immediate block of soil that goes with the plants. Due to transplanting shorter time for plating in the field to harvest is needed. Due to this, this can get higher prices in easy market and period of crop production can be extended. Through transplanting it is possible to grow under favourable environmental conditions. More plants of high quality can be produced through transplanting due to proper spacing, selection and protection from insect pests and diseases. Through transplanting better yields with more uniform maturity are obtained. It is a safe way to start small seeded crops in heavy soil crusts badly. DISADVANTAGES: Increase in the cost of production. May result in delayed maturity. Not all vegetable crops are fit for transplanting the following two groups separate plants as to their case of transplanting. SUCCESSFULLY TRANSPLANTED:Cabbage and other cole crops, solanaceous vegetables like tomato, brinjal, pepper etc., onion lock and calares. DIFFICULT TO TRANSPLANT:Beans, pumpkins, melons, squashes etc., Formation of new roots in plants of group B is slow and there is tendency for the roots to be suberised or cutinized in these plants, which makes them less effective in absorbing water.
WHEN TO TRANSPLANT:Transplanting should not be delayed if seedlings are allowed to grow too long, they become weak and prone to immature flowering it should be done as seedlings are 1013 cm high and have formed about 3-4 true leaves(not seed leaves or cotyledons).however age and condition of transplanting operation. Transplanting should always be done in the morning so that the plants may establish in the cool weather and when it is drizzling transplanting the seedlings for transplanting, the beds must be watered 24 hours transplanting. So that the seedlings may not suffer from dessication as their tissues will be filled with water. HOW TO TRANSPLANT:When the seedlings are in proper stage of transplanting i.e when the seedlings are 4-6 weeks old according to the season and transplanted in the thoroughly prepared field. Immediately after transplanting the soil around the plant are pressed firmly so that the roots will have good contact with the soil and do not have any air pockets.Complete the transplanting as early as possible after removing the plants from the nursery. During transplanting take care that seedlings are well protected from wilting if they are planted. This may be done by keeping the seedlings encased in moist soils wet plant leaves or by frequent sprinkling of water over the seedlings. When the transplanting is finished, irrigate the transplanted area just after transplanting. CARE DURING TRANSPLANTING:Plants are dug from the nursery with as little injury as possible. Digging of plants should be proceeded by angle watering after plants are dug. Cover them with cloth or sacks and keep them in shade, so that their will be little loss of water. Press the soil around the roots of the plants so that there is good contact with soil. Pressure should be exerted towards the plant and downward. So the soil is pressed around the entire root system to prevent air pockets near the roots. Some times leaves or portions of leaves are removed from plants to reduce the area transplanting water at transplanting time. This is done to establish a better balance between the intake of water by roots and leaves of water from leaves. Complete the process of transplanting as quickly as possible after removing the plants from nursery. CARE AFTER TRANSPLANTING:After transplanting, examine the field every day for watering whenever necessary, water them till they are well established. Those seedlings which are not doing well and also in places where the seedlings are dried are replaced from the pressed seedlings of
there is any insect pests and diseases. Plant protection measures are to be taken immediately.
WORK DONE REPORT:-
EX NO:- 05
DATE:INTER-CULTIVATION IN VEGETABLE CROPS
INTER-CULTIVATION IN CABBAGE:In cabbage for getting higher yield 2-3 intercultural operations are needed. Cabbage is a shallow rooted crop and hence, deep cultivation should be avoided. Never do hoeing when the plants start to head during morning hours hoeing operation should not be conducted because leaves are turgid and these may be broken. Weed control in cabbage:Important weed species associated with cabbage crop are : Cyperus rotundas, Trianthema monogyna, Chenopodium album, Elusine egyptiacum, Trigonella polycereta , Melilotus indica etc., Most of the above weed species can be controlled effectively with pre emergence application of oxyfluorofen 0.75 lit a.i/ha. INTERCULTIVATION IN CAULIFLOWER:Good plant environment results in better growth of plants and ultimately desired economic out turn. The intercultural operations play an important role in this regard. Shallow and frequent intercultural operations should be given to keep down weeds and to provide favourable environment for the growth and development of roots and shoots. Weed control in cauliflower:The heavy manurial and frequent irrigation requirements of the crop create conductive conditions for emergence and growth of different weed species. Hand weeding is not economic. Moreover, the root system of cauliflower plant is very shallow and there is a damage to the roots with deep hoeings. Hence chemical weed control should be taken up. Important weed species associated with cauliflower crop: Cyperus rotundus, Trianthema monogyna, Chenopodium album, Eleusine egyptiacum, Trigonella polycereta, Melilotus indica. Most of the weeds can be controlled effectively with the pre emergence application of fluchloralin at 1.20kg a.i/hac or alachlor at 2.5kg a.i/hac it persists up to 100days. Earthining up:During rainy season, due to beating of rain drops, roots do expose and slightly earthling up of individual plants becomes essential operation. It is not wise to cultivate after the plants have began to head otherwise roots may be damaged which in turn imbalance the development of curds.
INTECULTIVATION IN KNOLKHOL:Knolkhol requires interculture operations similar to cauliflower and cabbage. However care should be taken that hoeing is not done nearer to the knobs otherwise they may be injured by implements. Intercultural operations at early stage of plant growth are advisable. INTERCULTIVATION IN BRUSSELS SPROUTS:In order to provide good aeration to the root zone, one or two hoeings may be done. This operation will also help in keeping down weeds, if any growing in the field. However the weed growing very close to the plants, should be pulled out by hands. sometimes removal of terminal buds and lower leaves may result in early and good quality sprouts. INTERCULTIVATION IN SPROUTING BROCCOLI:-
Important intercultural operations are thinning, hoeing, weeding etc., Thinning: Broccoli crop raised by direct seeding will need operation which is attended to after proper germination. Weak and closer growing seedlings should be thinned to provide desired distance. Hoeing: In order to provide good aeration a hoeing is done at early stage of growing crop, deep hoeing at later part of the growing season has no merit. Weeding: A good percentage of weeds will be destroyed by hoeing, however, if some weeds left and growing very close to the plant may be pulled out by hands. INTERCULTIVATION IN FRUITY VEGETABLES:INTERCULTIVATION IN BRINJAL: Shallow cultivation will be sufficient to provide good environment to the plant and it will also help in reducing the weeds. If weed pose a problem, chemical control may also be followed .Application of basalin @ 2-3 litres/hac should be done at pre emergence. A few weed plants associated with brinjal crop are: Trianthema portulacastrum, Orobanche spp, Amaranthus viridis, Cyperus rotundus etc., INTERCULTIVATION IN CHILLIES:In order to make soil loose around root system and to keep down the weeds, intercultural operations should be done. Chemical control of weeds may be done with alachlor 50 EC 2 litres per hectare as pre plant herbicide with one hand weeding effectively control weeds. Tok granular at the rate of 5 kg per hectare is found o control weeds in chilli crop.
INTERCULTIVATION IN TOMATO:Interculture is an essential operation of weed killing and maintenance of soil mulch. As far as possible, all the intercultural operation should be shallow so that the roots which spread up to a depth of 5 cm below the surface soil may not be injured. Weeds affect growth and yield of tomato. They compete for nutrients and water, therefore, it is essential to check them before they become a problem. The early stage of the crop is the critical period for weed competition and during this period free environment is needed to ensure good growth and yield. Important weeds in tomato are: Trianthema portulacastrum, Digeria arvnsis, Amaranthus viridis, Portulaca oleracea, Chloris barbata, Echinichloa colonum, Gynandropsis pentaphylla. INTERCULTIVATION IN OKRA:Hoeing is done twice or thrice during early stage of plant growth to provide better conditions for plant growth. The most critical period of crop weed competition in okra is at 30-60 days after sowing. Hand weeding is costly and time consuming. The important weed plants are Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Dualoindica, tribulus terrestris, Cyperus rotundus. Soil application with basalin at 1-2 lit/hec or TOK-E-25 at 5 lit/hec will control the weeds effectively. INTERCULTIVATION IN PEA:Hoeing once during early stage of crop growth will suffice the purpose of providing good environment for plant growth for aeration and development of root system and reducing the weeds. If weeds pose a problem, chemical control may be adopted. Most of the weeds can be controlled by use of weed species associated with peas depending on a region of where crop is grown. They are Amaranthus viridis, Anagalis arvensis, Chenopodium album, Chichorium intybus, Convolvulus arvensis, Cynodon dactylan, Eleusine spp, Fumaria parviflora, Medicago spp, Poa annua, Trigonella polycerata etc.,
WORK DONE REPORT:-
EX NO:- 06
DATE:HARVESTING, MATURITY INDICES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE CROPS
Harvesting: The last event in the horticultural process is the harvest which is of special concern to commercial horticulturists. Some ornamentals may not be harvested unless the appreciation of their aesthetic values can be called a harvest. The oblast harvest technique is hand harvesting, which is still practiced. The home horticulturist makes expensive use of this approach for his technique when mechanized operations are not available. SOLANACEOUS CROPS: Tomato: SN: Lycopersicon esculentum The stage of maturity at which tomatoes are picked depends on the purpose for which they are grown & the distance over which they are to be transported. Immature green, mature green, turning half ripe & pink & ripe or red ripe are some recognized stages. For shipping, firm mature green fruits ripe. The yield varies from 16000 to 24000 kg / ha Brinjal : SN:Solanum imelsigena The fruit is harvested when it attains a good size & color. The surface of fruit should not lose its bright & glossary appearance. The fruits are edible from the time they are greater grown, until they are near ripe. When full ripe. The fruits become greenish or yellow or bronze. Their flash turns dry is tough. Harvesting is done by cutting the fruit from the stem. A short piece of stake is left attached to fruit. The average yield varies from 20,000 to 25,000 kg / ha Chilli : SN Capsicum Fruticums The stage of maturity at which chillies are picked depends on the type & purpose for which they grown. Chillies which are used for veg purpose are generally picked which they are still green but full grown. Those which are used for pickles are pickles are picked other green or ripe & chilies used for drying are picked when fully red ripe.
Ocra or Lady’s finger : SN: Abelmoschus esculentus (L) The okra fruits are continuously harvested every second or third day from the time the first pods are formed the best time of picking being 6-7 days after the ripening of flowers of course this depends on the variety and the season the growth and bearing of the plant are adversely affected if the fruits not harvested when young. CUCURBITACEOUS VEGETABLES Cucumber: (cucumis sativus L) Cucumbers are harvested both for fresh market and for processing. They should be picked at frequent intervals in order to seal losses due to over sized or even mature fruits. Once harvesting starts the fruits are generally picked at from two to four days intervals depending upon weather. Optimum temperatures for storage, handling and transit depend on the duration of storage & the use to be made of than 2 days temp have little practical effect. For longer storage hectare is about 8000 to 10,000 kgs. Ash Gourd or Was gourd: - SN Benicasa hispida Ash ground is harvested at full maturity when the Stan is covered with waxy bloom. Ripe fruits store will it is desirable to wax the stem end for longer storage. Bottle Gourd: - Lagenaria sicearia The fruits should be harvested when they are still tender. The fruit should be separated by cutting with a knife. The average yield per hectare is 15000 to 20000 kgs Bitter Ground or Balsau Pear: - (Memordia Charantia L) Harvesting is done when fruits are still young and tender on ripening the fruit changes its colour from green to yellow and orange. Picking may be done every alternate day. If the fruits are not picked may be done every alternate day. If the fruits are not picked when tender and allowed to riper on the virus, the bearing becomes reduced. The yield varies from 8,000 to 14,000 per kg hectare with an average of 10,000 kg. MELONS: Water Melons :- ( citrulus vulgaris) Water melons should be at the proper stage of maturity. When they are harvested size of the fruit and colour of the rind are not good indications to known the proper stage. Change of colour of the potion of the fruit which rests on the ground is a useful guide, the colour changing from white to creamy yellow at maturity. A metallic sound when the
melon is tapped with the back of the hand denotes immaturity; where as a heavy dull sound indicates ripeness. The dying of the tendril at the stem end is also a sign of maturity. The smooth appearance and the total absence of hair on the stem which attacks the melon to the vine is also taken as guide. COLE CROPS: 1. Cabbage: - Brassica Oleracea var capitata : It is harvested when the head is of suitable size form but tender. It is stored in 0 degrees at 90-95 % relative humidity. 2. Cauli flower: Brassica Oleracea var botrytis: : It is harvested when the curds attain a proper site and before they begin to ‘rice’ or discolour. It is with leaves attached can be stored for 30 days at (0) zero degree’c with 85 to 90% re humidity 3.Khol Khol: - Brassica caulorapa : When the swollen steams reach a diameter of 5 to 7cms the pts pulled out. The average yd / ha is varying from 25-30 tonnes. BULB CROPS:Onion: - (Allium cepa) Green Bunch Onions : Green onions are best when they are of the diameter of a lead pencil and until a small bulb is formed. Ripe bulbs :A well matured bulb should be harvested maturity is indicated by the tops dropping just above the bulbs while the leaves are still green. If the bulbs are mature, they are pulled out easily by hand if the soil is not hard or compact ; otherwise they may be dugout with a shovel or khurpi. 2. Garlic :- (allium sativuml) The crops get ready for harvest when the top turns yellow to brownish. The bulbs are cut, cleaned and then cured for four to five days in shade. TUBER CROPS: Potato: - Solanum tuberosum The time of harvest is very important is potato. The day of tuber continues till the vines die. Potatoes are harvested from the time they are of sufficient size, until the vines are have fully ripened. Loss in yd is taken at the time of harvest to save the tubers from injury. If tubers are stored in 15(degrees) c it helps in healing up of tubers. Suffering from sun scalding.
Colacasia : - ( Colacasia esculenta Schatt) The crop can be harvested from about three months after sowing. The crop however matures in about three months after sowing. The crop however matures in about Boto 140days and if harvested at that time gives a yield of 15,000 kg per hectare. Tapioca : - SN Manihot Escalenta The tubers become ready for harvest in 8 to 12 months, depending on the variety for can be harvested in about 6 months for home use and sale in local markets after planting as needed. Most of the tubers contain 80 to 85 % starch and this may deteriorate and the tubers may become fibrous if not harvested once they reach full maturity. The plants are cut back before, digging at the roots. The yield varies from 25,000 to 35,000 kg of tubers. The tubers can be stored for several weeks in a worm dry place and harvest the help of the knowledge of heat unit (or) degree days, is taken in order to anticipate the harvest date of given variety of peas, It is necessary to know how many heat units must be accumulated to obtain a given quality as maturity level as measured by the tenderometors. In countries where extensive cultivation of peas is taken up four supplying peas to carrying factories, harvesting is done by machines, for fresh market, the peas are graded according to the standard fixed by the country. The Indian standard installation has fixed three gardens for peas in packs. The picking should be clone either early in the morning (or) late in the afternoon. So that the quality may not clown during heat of noon. Sweet Potato: - SN (Ipomea batatus) The harvest is best done at correct stage of maturity. The indications of a mature tuber are The leaves turn to pale and later turn slightly yellow Mature tubes is cut and exposed to the air dries no moist. While the immature one remains moist & turn dark in colour. ROOTS CROPS: Carrot: - SN (Daucus carota) Early carrots for the market are pulled out when partly developed. They are normally dug out, when the soil is sufficiently moist with a spade (or) Khurpa. Roots are trimmed & washed by sending them to market. The tropical types usually give high yield. Radish: - SN Raphanus sativus It should be harvested when the roots are still tender. A few change delays in harvesting, particularly the temperature types may make the roots pithy & quite unsuitable for the market. The roots are pulled out along with tops & wasted & then packed for the market. Turnip: SN Brassica Rapa It should be harvested when the roots are still tender. A few change delay in harvesting, particularly the temperature types may make the roots pithy & quite unsuitable for the market. The roots are pulled out along with tops & wasted & then packed for the market.
Beetroot: - SN beta vulgaris More than one seedling germinates from each seed. Thinning therefore is essential process. Many weeds in beet fields can be controlled by a spray of common salt. The spray should be applied when beet plants have three to five true leaves. The most common concentration is two pounds of salt per gallon of water. Other operations and harvesting are done as in case of carrot. LEAFY VEGETABLES: Amaranlnus: - SN Amaranthus Tricolor Harvesting usually starts in about three to four weeks after sowing. Chlroti chacelai gives about six cuttings & bodi gives about two to three more. Palak:The leaves are cut from the bare when they are 15-30 cm long. The main consideration is the tendons & succulence of the leaves. The average yield is about 8,000 to 10,000 kg of green leaves perhac. ‘Pusajyothi’ gives about 30 to 40 % highyields. Leagy hibiscus: SN Hibiscus Cannabinus Harvesting the leaves alone will keep the crop for a longer time, but it is not useful to keep it after the capsules are formed and commence to mature. Drumstick : - Moring Pterygosperm Cuttings come to bearing with in a year. Seedlings bear fruits after a year of planting old trees often got exhausted & do not bear well. Such trees are cut back to a height of 3 above ground level to make them bear fruits again. Coccinia: - Coccinia Indicum In coccinia flowering occur in two flushes, March & June. Second Flush starts with the rains & fruiting continues up to October. The fully grown fruits are harvested when they are tender on alternate days. In coccinia max yield of 10 kg per vine has been recorded. BEANS AND PEAS: French bean or kidney bean: - SN Phaseolus velgaris Green pods are usually harvested before they are full grown and while the seeds are small. Pods are usually ready for harvest 2-3 weeks at the first blossom. As harvest is delayed, the total yield increases but the quality falls rapidly. Picking is usually done by hard. Mechanical pickers have been developed in advanced agric countries. Dry beans are harvested when a large percentage of pods are fully ripe and most of the remainder has turned yellow. Harvesting is done either by hand or by machine. Beans require one to two weeks to cure, after which they are threshed either by bullock or by machine. Care should be taken that seeds are not injured even internally at the time of machine threshing and cleaning.
Peas: - (Piscum Sativum L) Garden peas must be picked at the proper stage of maturity, because they start losing their quality after reaching edible stage. The deterioration is hastened if the temperature is high at the time of harvesting. Peas in India are generally hand picked. Proper care should be exercised not to injure the virus by picking the pods with a jerk. About 3 pickings are required for harvesting most of the varieties. Cluster bean: - SN: Cyamopsis tetraganoloba These cluster beans are harvested when they are tender Non-fibrous. Pods are harvested for vegetable purpose. Dolichos bean: - SN: Dolichos Lablab Tender pods are harvested for marketing. Frequent harvesting should be encourage before the pods become fibrous. They give a yield of about 50-75 kg / ha.
WORK DONE REPORT:-
EX NO:- 07
DATE:SEED PRODUCTION IN VEGETABLE CROPS:-
BOTTLE GOURD: It is a cross –pollinated crop and requires 400 and 800 metres isolation distance for certified and foundation seed production respectivetly.Off type plants should be removed ,first before flowering,second at the time of flowering and last at the time of fruit.Maturity .the anthesis starts form 5 to 7.30pm .the staminte and pistillte flowers open at the same time .the dehiscence takes place between 12noon and 10.30pm when the maximum temperature ranges between 16 to 20 .the stigma retains acceptivity 36hours before and 48 hours after anthesis(71). Better control measures against insect pests and diseases should be adopted. BITTER GOURD: It is a cross- pollinated crop and requires 400 and 800 met isolation distance for certified and foundation seed production respectively. minimum three rouging should be done.Flower start opening at 5am up to completely open between 9.30am to 10am.flower Take more than 2 hours to open .they wither away up to 7am .Dehiscence of anthers takes place about 2 hours before blooming.Male flower drop in the evening the pollens become non-viable as the day advances and after 12noon not a single pollen grain is found to germinate and the stigma remains respective for a much longer period.Fruit setting is normal after crossing between varieties, fruit set better through hand pollination than open pollination. SNAKE GOURD:It can be self pollinated : a female flower can be fertilized by pollen coming from a female flower of the same plant.however,crosspollinations are predominant: a female flower is fertilized by pollen coming from different plants of the same variety or of a different variety. The insects are the vectors of these cross pollinations. To ensure the varietal purity ,some botanists specify a distance of 1 km between two varieties. undoubtedly this distance can be reduced according to the biotopes and the type of pollinator insects in the region. Infact the white flowers of this species blossom late afternoon and early evening: the pollinator insects are thus night time insects, which supposedly travel shorter distance than daytime insects. When several varieties are grown in the same garden you can employ the technique of manual pollination.
CUCUMBER: Botanical name : Cucumis sativaus Family : Cucurbitaceae It is a cross pollinated crop and requires 400 and 800 meters isolation distance for certified and foundation seed production, respectively. During crop period sufficient sprayings at insecticides and fungicides should be done to control the insect pests and diseases. Plants affected by virus should be removed regularly. Three readings should be done, first before flowering, second at the time of flowering and third at the time of fruits should be harvested. Seeds are removed after cutting the fruits. The seeds should be washed immediately by clean water and dried properly. RIDGE GOURD: Botanical name : Luffa acutangula Family: cucurbitaceae It is a cross pollinated crop and requires 400 and 800 meters isolation distance for certified and foundation seed production respectively. Off type plants should be removed, first before flowering, second at the time of flowering and finally at the time of fruiting. Heavy rouging should be done before and at the time of flowering. Control measures against insect pests and diseases should be adopted. When the colour of fruit turn brown, they should be harvested and kept in sun light for about a week for complete drying. Seed can be extracted very easily only by removing the tip at the time of fruits. About 3 to 5 quintals of seed is obtained from one hectare. ASH GOURD: Botanical name : Benincasa hispida Thumb.cong Family : Cucurbitaceae It is cross pollinated crop. NANDPUR & SINGH (1967) reported that anthesis takes place between 5.45a.m. And 7.15 a.m., dehiscence starts from 3.15a.m. And stigma remains receptive 12 hours before and 36 hours after anthesis. The staminate and pistillate flowers open at the same time. About 800 and 800 meters isolation distance is required for foundation and certified seed production respectively. Rouging should be continued till harvesting and at last time rouging should be done, first before flowering , second at the time of flowering and third at the time of harvesting. Ripened fruits are harvested and seeds are taken out by the fruits. Seeds are washed, dried and stored at cool and dry place.
SEED PRODUCTION IN FRUIT CROPS TOMATO: BOTANICAL NAME:Lycopersicon esculentum Family:Solanaceae. Seed production of tomato can be undertaken in any part of the country .It is a self pollinated crop and an isolation distance of 50 and 25 m should be maintained forndation and certified seeds. The best time for planting the seed crop is January to mid February in plains since it is not affected by the viruses due to low temperature. All recommended cultural practices should be followed for crop cultivation. The crop should bed inspected thrice during growth period . Firstly, before flowering on the basis of growth characters.Offtypes should be removed. Secondly ,at the time flowering on the basis of flower characters.Offtypes mshould be removed .Thirdly,at the time of fruit ripening on the basis of fruit characters.Plants affected by viruses and other diseases should be removed when ever observed in the crop . The complete ripened fruits should be harvested and crushed under feet in wooden boxes and allowed to ferment for 24 to 48 hours. In winter, the fermentation takes place in 72 hrs.Later on the seeds are washed with water through a sieve and dried in the sun. On the large scale Hcl can be used for fermentation at rate of 1lit per quintal of fruits. On average to produce 1 Kg of seed 150 to 200kg fruits will be required depending upon the variety. Normally pear shaped varieties have less seeds than round or oval varieties. The average yield of seed varies from 110 to 200kg per hec. At present ,seed is also being extracted in processing factories.The pulp is used by factory for preparation of various tomato products whereas seed is returned to the growers .This seed is supplied by farmers to organizations like UPS&TDC (or)NSC. BRINJAL: BOTANICAL NAME: Solanum melongena FAMILY:solanaceae. It is a normally self pollinated crop , but cross pollination some extent does take place through insects .To get pure seeds ,an isolation distance of 100 and 200m is certified and foundation seed plots ,respectively should be maintained.During crop period atleast three times the crop should be rogued off .First rouging is done before flowering
and on the basis of foliage characters ,the off types are removed .second rouging is done at the time of flowering on the basis of flower characters and off types are removed .At all the stages,plants affected by viruses and phomopsis blight should also be removed.At ripening the fruits become light yellow in colour and at this stage they are harvested and seeds are extracted properly.At small scale the fruits are pressed by stick (or) stone etc.To make the flush loose,cut into pieces and wash in clean water .The seeds settle down in the bottom of pan .The seeds should be dried completely and kept in cool and dry place. CHILLI BOTANICAL NAME: Capsicum annum FAMILY:Solanaceae Chilli is an often cross-pollinated crop and requires 200and 400m of isolation distance for certified and foundation seeds, respectively.The off types and disease affected plants are taken out atleast thrice during the crop field.Frist ,before flowering on the basis of external plant characters.Offtypes are taken out , second ,at the time of flowering on the basis of flower characters; off types are removed;and finally at the time of pod maturity.At this stage off types are removed on the basis of pod characters .At all the stages virus affected plants have to be taken out .Normal cultural practices have to be followed for the seed crop but more attention has to be paid against the control of insect pests and diseases .Complete ripe pods are harvested and dried properly for 15 to 20 days in sunlight or for 2 to 3 days in drier at 55c.Later on the seeds can be extracted from the dry chillies . OKRA(BHENDI) B.N:Abelmoschus esculantus FAMILY:Malvaceae It is often cross-pollinated crop and to get pure seed isolation distance of 400 and 200m should be maintained for foundation and certified seeds,respectively some cultural practices should be allowed as recommended for normal crop .However ,rainy season crop is good for seed.All recommended control measures for insect pests and diseases should be followed strictly.crop should be inspected thrice during the crop period .First before flowering and on the basis of foliage characters ,off types and diseased plants should be removed .Secondly at the time of flowering and on the basis of flower characters off types and diseased plants should be removed. When pods are brown they should be considered for harvesting.Harvest them at 4 to 6 days interval depending upon maturity .keep them in sun for drying and thresh them.clean the seed and dry it upto 10% available moisture.Keep it in cool and dry place.The average seed yield is about 10 to 15 quintals per hec.
TUBER CROPS:SEED PRODUCTION IN POTATO S.N: SOLANUM TUBEROSUM FAMILY: SOLANACEAE With the help of seed plot technique a healthy seed crop may be raised as below Whole virus- free tubers treated with Aretan 0.25% solution should be planted from 10 October to 20 October. Sow the tuber at distance of 60cm from row to row and 15-20cm with in the row apply lower dose of nitrogen that is 80-100kg/hec to avoid excessive growth the crop should be carefully examined at least thrice and all diseased plants removed and burnt to wards mid December when the crop has tuberized well restrict irrigation and later with hold it completely. So that haulms dry up and consequently escape aphid build- up towards mid January. Remove tops between 10&15 January. Leave the tuber under ground till the end of January .So that they mature and the skin hardens. Take all precautions against blight and aphids. SEED PRODUCTION IN SWEET POTATO: S.N: IPOMEA BATATUS FAMILY: CONVOLVULACEAE True to the type tuber should be selected for producing the vines. At the time of planting. Selection of cuttings on the basis of leaf and stem characters should be made for the specific variety off types should be removed as and when observed in the field. Finally at the time of harvesting off types should be sorted out control measures s FAMILY should be followed for controlling pest and diseases. SEED PRODUCTION IN TOPIOCA: S.N: MANIHOT ESCULENTA FAMILY: EUPHORBIACEAE The best method of its multiplication is by stem cuttings . Hence seed production is not a problem . true to the types , healthy and disease-free desirable plant material is selected and cuttings are prepared from them. SEED PRODUCTION IN COLOCASIA: S.N: COLOCASIA ESCULENTA FAMILY : ARACEAE Select true to the types , based on the external characters of corms . The selected corms are multiplied with recommended agronomical cultural practices. Proper spraying of fungicides should be done to control the blight, off types and diseased plants should be removed from time to time during its growing period. During harvesting, the true to the type’s corms should be selected for seed purpose.
ROOT CROPS SEED PRODUCTION IN CARROT: S.N: DAUCUS CAROTA FAMILY :UMBELLIFERAE Only the Asiatic types can produce seeds in the plains of the country while in European types seed can be produced only in hills. It is across pollinated crop hence every care should be taken to keep the two varieties away from each other about 100mt and 800mt isolation distance should e maintained for foundation and certified seeds respectively. True to the type roots are selected when they are at the marketable stage. The selected roots are prepared for planting by cutting two thirds of the tops and one third lower root portion .These roots are trans planted in the well prepared field at the distance of 60x60 cm some growers leave the plants the field and allow them to produce the seeds this method is not successful because the seeds produce by this method produce poor quality root and result in early blotting. Off types are removed at the time of root selection and at the time of flowering .A yield of 300 -500 kg of seed per hectare is obtained. SEED PRODUCTION IN RADISH: S.N:RAFANUS SATIVUS FAMILY :CRUCIFERAE It is a cross pollinated crop the pollination being done through the insects mainly and hence required 1600&1000mts as isolation distance to produce foundation& certified seeds. This way the contamination from other varieties can be avoided only the Asian varieties produced seeds in the plains, while European varieties do not produced seed in the plains. Hence their seed production is restricted to the hills only the true to types root s of a particular variety are picked up at the normal stage from the nursery grown for this purpose the selected rots are prepared for planting by cutting two third to &one third roots these prepared roots are transplanted in the well prepared field at the distance of 70x60 cm. Some growers leave the plants with roots in the fields and allow them to produce seed stalks. This method is not recommended because the selection of true to the type roots is not done and off types plants can not be removed, also the seed quality and yield is affected adversely. On an avg 4-6 quintal per hectare MELON CROPS SEED PRODUCTION All melons are highly cross pollinated. Snap melon, Musk melon and Long melon are highly cross pollinated. Water melon and Round melon how ever do not cross pollinate with any other melon. Different varieties of any one of the melons should not be put together. An isolation distance of 800m should be maintained ripe melons are good for seed extraction. Seeds may be dried in the sun or in the mechanical driers.
COLE CROPS This group includes cabbage, cauliflower, knoll khol, etc. SEED PRODUCTION OF CABBAGE The cabbage is a cross pollinated crop and it readily crosses with he other members of the cole crops.proper isolation distance between varieties is to be maintained. In India the seed is produced only in the hills.Three methods are been used. HEAD INTACT METHOD Only a cross cut is given to facilitate the emergence of the flower stalk. CORE INTACT METHOD The outside leaves are removed and only the central portion is left from where the flower stalks come out. STUMP METHOD The head is removed and only the stump left.The last two methods given higher yield of seed. But The flower stalks become decumbent and pods nearly touch the ground.The seed yield per hectare is about 500 to 650 kg. SEED PRODUCTION OF CAULIFLOWER Since it is a temporate crop it requires temporate climate for flowering and seed production. Seed production is therefore vested in the plains of north India and in the hills.the seeds of early and mid season varieties are produced in the plains of north India. The seeds of late variety are produced in the Kulu valley, Kashmir vally, Himachal Pradesh etc. the best method of seed production is to leave the plants in situ.The plants with good curds will later produce flower stalks.the flowers open and develop and ripens during April-may. This method occupies lot of area, because selected plants, for seed production are left here and there in the field. It is there fore that the selected plants with the best curds are transplanted well manured soil blocks for seed production but the seed yield is highly reduced in transplanted plants. Early varieties can withstand transplanted with a ball of earth. While transplanting the seedlings may be placed 90×90 or 70 × 70 cm. The seed yield is about 5 to 6 quintals per hectare. In late varieties the sowing or transplanting time is to be adjusted for proper seed production. Chilling is required after the full vegetative phase. If the temperature falls below freezing before full vegetative growth it results in very low yields of seed. If the transplanting is done early curds form before freezing set in and the whole plant may be damaged.the sowing and transplanting should be adjusted such that the plants put forth maximum vegetative growth before the temperature goes low and the plants go in to dormancy.The seed yield of late varieties range between 2.5 to 4 quintals per hectare. Since cauliflower is a cross pollinated crop special isolation of atleast one km should be observed.
WORK DONE REPORT:-
DATE:SEED EXTRACTION IN TOMATO
BOTANICAL NAME : Lycopersicon esculentum FAMILY: SOLANACEAE Tomato is one of the important vegetable crops of India and Andhra Pradesh. It is the leading crop of our district i.e., Chittoor. It occupies third position after Potato and sweet potato in its importance. Seed can be extracted from the tomato fruit by one of the following three methods : FERMENTATION METHOD ALKALI TREATMENT METHOD QUICKEST METHOD OR ACID TREATMENT METHOD 1.FERMENTATION METHOD: This method is employed when tomato fruits are generally not very big and they possess a large no. of seeds. In this method the fruits selected for seed are completely lost and nothing can be used as food or otherwise. The selected ripe fruits are harvested from the plants and allowed to ripe further for a day or two in a heap or in an earthen pot. They are then crushed well in an earthen pot by hand or by any mechanical method to make a paste. No fruit juice should be allowed to drain out. Now the entire mess is kept in the vat for a day or two to ferment. It may be complete in one or two or more days according to high or low temp. Profuse foam formation on the top and no adhering of seed to the tomato flesh on stirring the mass vigorously with a wooden stick or hand, indicates that the fermentation is complete. Now the flesh will float on the top, while the seeds will settle down at the bottom of the vat. Remove all the fermented mass on the top and then decant off gently all the liquid. The seeds resting on the bottom of the vat are collected and washed 8 – 10 times with clear water and then they are spread in the sun to become dry. When they are perfectly dry in the sun store them in air tight containers in a cool dry place. It is the simplest method and can be adopted by any layman. They should not be left too long, other wise they may germinate in it. ALKALI TREATMENT METHOD: When fruits are big enough but the no. of seeds is small, we adopt this method. Cut the selected ripe fruits into halves and then scoop out the slimy mass containing the seeds into an earthen or porcelain vessel with the help of the handle of a stainless steel, tea spoon or wooden stick. The flesh thus separated can be easily used for eating raw or for any other purpose.
Treat the slimy mass with an alkali mixture (150 grams of ordinary washing soda is added to 5 liters of boiling water) in equal volumes. When the alkali mixture is cooled, allow it all to stand over night in an earthen or porcelain vessel. Next day, all the seeds settled down at the bottom of the container. Now decant off the clear liquid at the top. Seeds thus obtained are washed thoroughly with clear water and allowed to dry in the sun and are preserved as described above. QUICKEST METHOD OR ACID TREATMENT METHOD: This method is followed where seed production is done on large scale. It can also be adopted on the home scale. In this method, too, the flesh of the fruit can be saved. Slimy seed mass is separated as mentioned above and kept in an earthen or a porcelain or glass vessel. This is done treated with commercial hydrochloric acid in the proportion of 30 ml of fluid per 12kg of the material. The seeds are separated from the slimy mass within 15 – 30 min., if acid is thoroughly mixed. The acidified liquid is then decanted off and the seeds remaining at the bottom are immediately washed well with clear water and allowed to dry in the sun. They are then preserved as usual. In this method the seeds can be extracted and dried on the same day and any discoloration of seeds, resulting from the fermentation process, is entirely eliminated. There is also no possibility of seed germination during this process. TOMATO SEED EXTRACTOR
Function Specification (a) Overall dimension
: : :
To extract seed from tomato fruits 500 x 450 x 1000 mm
(b) Capacity (c) Power required General Information
: : :
180 kg of fruit (1.8 kg of seed) per hour. 1 hp for electric motor and 0.5 hp for pump The unit consists of a feed hopper, fruit crushing chamber, seed separation unit, water recycling system and seed collecting trough. In the crushing chamber the tomato fruits are crushed and squeezed by the rotating screw auger. In the seed separation unit, water separates the seed from the flesh and collected in a container placed at the bottom of seed separation unit. The water collected in the trough is recycled by means of a pump. The flesh coming out of the seed separation unit is collected separately. Rs. 15,000 Rs. 10 per hour Seed extraction is faster compared to the manual method
4. 5. 6.
Cost of the unit : Cost of operation : Salient features :
SEED EXTRACTION IN BRINJAL BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY OTHER NAME : SOLANUM MELANGENA : SOLANACEAE : EGG FRUIT
Brinjal is important vegetable crop after tomato. It is used in the preparation of curries, squashes etc., Since cross pollination has been reported to the extent of 20 % an isolation distance of 100 – 200 meters is to be maintained, between any two varieties grown for seed production in brinjal. Cultural practices are same as that of commercial fruit production. The ripe fruits, when turned yellow are harvested, crushed and stored over night by soaking in water for softening the pulp and subsequent separation of seeds. They are washed with water and sieved. After separation, seeds floating in water should be rejected and sound seeds are dried in partial shade before storing. BRINJAL SEED EXTRACTOR
Function Specification (a) Overall dimension (b) Capacity (c) Power required General Information
: To extract seed from well ripe brinjal : : 500 x 450 x 1000 mm : 120 kg of fruits per hour : 1 hp electric motor : The brinjal seed extractor consists of a fruit crushing chamber and a seed separation unit. In the fruit crushing chamber, radially arranged crushing rods crush the fruit into pulp with the addition of water. The pulp is conveyed to the bottom of the seed separation unit. The seed separation unit houses a sieve placed horizontally, seed outlet, agitator, pulp outlet and drain. In the agitator, radial arms are fixed to separate good seeds from the pulp and helps to move the pulp to move to top of the seed separation unit. The good seeds settle on the sieve and collected along with water by opening the valve.
4. 5. 6.
Cost of the unit : Rs. Rs.15,000/-. Cost of : Rs. 10 /h operation Salient features : The extraction of seeds if faster than the manual method. Water requirement is less.
WORK DONE REPORT:-
DATE:GRADING AND PACKING
Grading and packing: Cabbage: The tendency for better grading of cabbage as the market wants a firm, uniform head of high quality. Prevailing grade and size standards, and regulations can be obtained from the U.S. Department of agriculture. The cabbage is hauled from the from the field to a central packing house while in some areas the crates are filled in the field or on the head lands. The heads should be arranged in orderly layers in the crates with the stem ends to the outside. They should be packed firmly, but not tightl7 enough to cause bruising.. The mesh bag and 13/4 bushel carton are std containers for cabbage. In warm weather it is desirable to place crushed ice in (or) around the containers while in transit to prevent deterioration. In cool weather, cabbage should be transported in containers with open vents. Carrots: Most carrots for market are topped, washed, graded and packaged in transparent film bags. Roots are sorted into various sizes for packaging. They should be carefully handled to avoid bruising which causes them to be very susceptible to strong diseases. Prompt removal of field heat and protection from freezing are important. Onion : After tops have been removed, the onions are cleaned and graded. Onion grades depend some what on the cultivar involved, Bermuda and domestic onions. Are being classified on different bases. 50 pound open much bags have practically replaced all other containers. Onions are packed in smaller mush bags of 3 to 10 pound sizes for direct use in retail trade. Potatoes: Long rooted cultivars are bunched in fours and gives which round and globular rooted cultivars are tied in bunches of 6-12 Baskets, hampers and crates are the principle containers. For long distance shipments, cracked ice is placed in the middle and stoop of the containers. Sweet potatoes: Since sweet potatoes require care in harvesting and marketing and field grading reduces the amount of handling, the marketable potatoes are picked up first, the will and strings being garnered later. The U.S. Department of Agricultural will supply slandered grading for this.
Hampers, bushes baskets and bones are popular commercial packages, while baskets are in common use on local markets. Regarding of the container it should be clean, neatly packed and the product should free from bruises. Garlic: The mature buds are cut with 1 to 11/2 inches of the stem attached they are graded for size and quality and packed in large paper lined bones carrying 48 to 125 buds. Jug bones are used for local markets. Tomatoes: Different systems of grading are followed in different parts of the country. The U.S. Department of Ag has established U.S. grades numbers 1,2, and 3 which have been adopted in many localities the essentials of grading injured fruits and to separate the sound fruits according to their grade, maternity and size. Methods of packing very in different parts of the country. Regardless of the pack, uniformity always makes it more attractive and commands a better price . Peas: As peas come from the field to a central packing shed they are placed in a grading machine which has a blower attachment to remove the trash. Since peas are very perishable and heat easily, a shallow or flat container is desirable. The field heat should be removed as soon as possible often harvest. The container should be well filled. Bell pepper: Bell peppers are graded either by hand of machinery various kinds of containers are used for marketing. The crop is packed in 1 and ½ bushed crates which are easier to handle than standard 1 – bushed hamper peppers are sold commercially in 4 grades. 1. U.S. Fancy 2. U.S. No.1 3. U.S. No. 2 4. Unclassified Brinjal: The Indian standards institution has recommended three grades of brinjal viz.super , Rancy and commercial. The fruits should be handled with care in transit. Before transporting, the fruits should be wrapped in paper and packed in cartons or any packing material locally available. However, they all packed loose in bulk or in containers like loosely woven gunny bags or net bags or plastic/wooden crates for trading and transport.
Chilllies: Green chilly fruits are graded into different grades depending on the cultivar. The graded fruits are packed in baskets or cartons or plastic crates when they are fresh. The dried fruits are marketed in bags. The fruits during is done in the sun by spreading on the thrashing floor or tarpaulin in thin layer. The dried fruits can be transported or stored in gunny bags. Beans: On the basis of cultivars characteristics, the pods should be graded into A,B,and C grades according to the ISI standards. The produce after proper grading and preparing for the market should be packed in suitable containers. Water melons: Fruits are graded on the basis or variety, size, rind colour, sugar content and flavour, the chief attributes which do not increase after picking. Water melons are transported in trucks without any individual packing and are liable to braise. Gourds: Bitter gourd:- Grading of fruits should be done acc, to cultivar, fruit shape, size and colour or the recommended A,B and C grades. The fruits should be packed in bamboo. Baskets, crates, cartons etc., if they are to be transported to distant markets and for local markets and for local market onion bags can be used. Bhendi:Damaged and insect bored fruits should be separated from the healthy ones. They should be handled so carefully that their may no nabbing or pressing which terns the bruised edges of the pods black. Okra is graded according to size, maturity and general appearance pack then in baskets or gunny bad. In case of exports fruits are packed in cartons after proper grading. Corn Vegetables: Colocasia: The corns should be trimmed, cleaned and graded on the basis of shape and size according to the cultivars A,B, and C grades. The mature corms can be stored for 5-6 months in bags, baskets, heaps on the floor. Amaranthus: The larger leaves or some part of petiole with leaves in choti caulis are bundles prepared ease in handling in packaging, transit, marketing. These being highly perishable should be disposed off immediately after harvesting. Cauliflower: The harvested curds are separated into three grades, depending on size, colour, quantity and cultivar. The normal method of packing and transport of curds is in big nets, beds, tractor trolleys and trucks. Tight packing is essential to prevent shifting and bruising. At present, curds are transported in plastic crates and wire bound container/boxes.
Garden peas: The Indian standards institutions has fined three grades of garden peas in pods viz, A,B,and C. The produce being perishable in nature should be immediately send to the market under proper grades, packed in bags. Winter leafy Vegetables:- Spinach – After harvesting, damaged and yellow leaves should be removed and the soil, dirt etc., adhering to the leaf stakes is washed off and these are tied into bundles of one Kg containing about 15-20 plants. Salad Vegetables: Lettuce:- Lettuce may be washed dripped dry and stored in an airtight containers in the refrigerators. The harvested heads/plants are graded and neatly packed in baskets of crates or cartons. Herbs: Coriander:The harvested leaves are washed can small bundles are tied which ease handling and selling these are taken to shade to avoid withering in direct sun. Proper graded bundles will earn more price in the market. The produce should be packed in baskets, cartons or crates and sometimes in bags with proper ventilation, so that bundles are not damaged. Miscellaneous crops:Ginger:- The rhizomes prior to selling / storage all graded on the basis of shape, size, number of fingers colours, scales etc., Select only healthy, plumpy rhizomes of uniform size, free from rhizomes rot disease and insect attack.
WORK DONE REPORT:-
IDENTIFICATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS (TREES, SHRUBS, CLIMBERS, INDOOR PLANTS AND PALMS). FLOWERING ANNUALS
BOTANICAL NAME Ageratum Althea rosea Alyssum sp. Amaranthus tricolor Antirrhinum majus Callistephus hortensis Calliopsis Celosia Centaurea cyanus Centaurea moschata Chrysanthemum Cosmos sps. Dianthus Digitalis Gallardia putchella Gomphrena globosa Helianthus annus Helichrysum sps. Impatiens balsamina Liberis sempervirens Delphinium sps. Linum sps. Lobelia sps. Petunia gradiflora Phlox drummandii Portulaca sps. Salvia splendens Tagetes sps Tithonia speciose Torenia sps. Verbena Zinnia elegans Zinnia linnearis COMMON NAME Floss flower Holly hock Madwo Joseph’s coat Snapdragon China aster Calliopsis Cockscomb Corn flower, bachelor button Sweet sultan Chrysanthemum Cosmos, Mexican aster Fairy queen Fox glove Blanket flower Globeamaranth, bachelor button Sun flower Straw flower Gamlytu ft Gamlytu ft Larkspur, knnul delphium Flax Lobelia Phlox Twelve o’ clock plant Scarlet sege Marigold Mexican sunflower Torenia Verbena Youth & old etc. Perennial zinnia COLOR Blue and white Mixed Yellow, pink and white Crimson, gold and bronze Mixed Mixed Yellow to crimson mixed Blue and mauve Mixed Mixed White pink and yellow Mixed Purple and white Red and yellow Pink, purple and white Yellow and golden shades dwarf Mixed Mixed White crimson Pink and lilly mixed Red and blue Blue Mixed Mixed Mixed Scarlet red Yellow, orange and golden seeds Reddish orange Yellow and white Mixed Mixed Orange
S.No. Name of the Family 1 Color of flower Flowering period June-sept Other description
Aganosma caryophillata White star yellow (syn.Echites caryophyllat) Apocynaceae (malati)
8 9 10
A twinning climber leaves reddish marking veins. Clove like scented flower. Alimanda cathartica Yellow Round the Beautiful ever green (Apocynaceae) year shining leaves can be grown as creeper/ shrubbery by training Alimanda grandiflora Light yellow Round the Beautiful ever green year shining leaves can be grown as creeper/ shrubbery by training Beaumontia grandiflora Large white trumpet Jan-mar A large climber suited flower to grow with trees or heavy arches having faint scent Adeno-calymma alliceum Pink-mauve Mar-jun Heavy beautiful (Bigoniaceae ) climber with scented flowers, leaves smells like garlic Acalycina Yellow Mar-jun Heavy beautiful climber with scented flowers, leaves smells like garlic Tecomaria capensis Orange- scarlet Round the A glabrour climber or (Bigoniaceae ) (honey year near upright shrub, suckle) suited for planting in lawns as specimens Tecoma jasminoides White with pink or Aug – oct Very green climbing (Bigoniaceae) red shrub with bright green leaf let Bignonia gracilis Yellow Mar – apr A heavy creeper (Biogoniaceae) suitable for fermery & shade purpose Bignonia venusta Golden/ orange Jan – feb Very beautiful climber (syn. Pyrostegia venusta) yellow Aug - sep known as golden shower. Suitable for trelliser & over compound wall or walls of houser/archer
Arrabibaea magnifica (syn. Bignonia magnifica)
Delicate mauve to Cold rich purplish season crimson
Congea tomentosa (verbenaceae) Coloden-dron splendens (verbenaceae) Aristalochia A. degans A.grandiflora A. ornithocephala (Aristalochiaceae)
Pinkish bracts Dec – mar flower insignificant Crimson Several times tube in Rainy green season white &
Solitary yellow bloched purple
Asparagus A. africanus densiflorus (sperengeri) plumohus pyramidalis A. meyrell (lilliaceae ) Gloriosa superba (climbing lilly , glory lilly)
Open primose July – Sep yellow turn to orange red to dark red Antigonon leptopus Rose Round the A beautiful tuberous guatemalense year rooted quick growing (Polygonaceae) climber with profuse flowering. Commonly grown for purpose of screening by pruning can be limited to the requirement Ipomea , I. acuminate, Lilar/ purple/ A group of handsome I. bonobox, I. cairiea , yellow/ wood climbers with I.carnea, I. horsefalleae I. rose(flowers are attractive foliage & panniculata , I. tearli, I. ornamental even flowers of wide range tuberosa after drying of colors suitable for I(convolvulaceae) covering pillars, screening, trelliser, compound
Very beautiful climber known as golden shower. Suitable for trelliser & over compound wall or walls of houser/ archer A strong woody fairy quick growing climber with flowers in clusters Comparatively dwarf growing beautiful climber with dazzling cluster of flowers A group of climber which bears peculiar duck shaped flowers. Quick growing creepers suitable for trelisers, compound wall etc., A group of beautiful foliage with drooping climbing plants, suitable for wide utility in gardens including pot culture Flowers last long suitable for growing in ground/ pot
Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper) (Comberetaceae) Tristellateia australasiea (malphigiaceae)
White open reddish
Hippage benghalensis (Malphigiaceae) Thunbergea T. alata T. fragrance T. coccinea T. gibsonli T. granadiflora T. harsli T. mysorensis (acanthaceae) Lonicera japonica (Japanese honey suckle) (caprifoliaceae) Solanum jasminoides (solanaceae) Stephanotis floribunda (Ashlepe-deaceae) Strongy-lodon Macrobotrys(jadevine) Hoya comosa(aschepediaceae) Hedera heteix (Araliaceae )
24 25 26 27 28
Passiflora coerulea (passifloraceae
Avery, bardy, quick growing huge climber suitable for training on trees in garden, trelliser Yellow Round the A small handsome year creeper with star shaped flowers in raceamer , suitable for arches, trellisers, pots. Scented white and Winter A heavy ever green yellow climber grows without much care Orange/ yellow A large group with white with black eye hardy vigorous free white fragrance red flowering climbers. with orange throat. These are useful for Bright orange blue growing arbours, with yellow shade trellisers, trees, deep blue yellow porches etc.,. purplish tube flowers like in chair White tinged Winter A quick growing climber with sweet scented flowers. It likes light shade Greenish white turn Round the to brownish yellow year Pure white fragrant SummerSlender highly fragrant rainy flowering creeper suitable for arches. Blue green The most beautiful ( drooping) large woody creeper Yellow and white Small beautiful foliage climber suitable for pots /porches A wide range of variations & shapes of foliage beautiful climber for shade garden or house plant or with bright light also for indoor Pale pink Through The flowering bracts out the are large & green with year pale pink petals
S.NO. NAME OF THE PLANT , COMMON NAME AND FAMILY FLOWERING SEASON AND COLOR DESCRIPTION
Allamanda nerifolia Apocyanaceae Artabotrys odortesimus (manoranjini) Annonaceae Barleria cristata (spatica) Acanthaceae
Aug-sep Golden – yellow Greenish yellow, fragrant flower All- round year Blue the
Bewhinia galpini (galpins All around the bewhinea) year Leguminaceae Bright scarlet Beloperone guttata Acanthaceae
All- round the year,Terracottared orderly arranged bracts very showy Buddlea asiatica (butterfly Feb- Apr A tall shrub with fragrant small bush) White / buff flowers. Even the stem and Loganiaceae leaves colored with whitish tinged lower surface of leaves are silvery suitable for planting in groups, clogs corner of lawns Buddlea lindenil Feb –Apr A tall shrub with fragrant small Purplish violet flowers. Even the stem and flowers leaves are colored with whitish tinged lower surface of leaves are silvery suitable for planting in groups, edges corner of lawns Caesalpinea pulcherina All- round the A beautiful bushy shrub suitable (peacock flower) year for growing as screen hedges and Leguminosae Orange scarlet adds color to shrubbery. and yellow
An evergreen shrub with attractive colored flower, suitable for planting at slopes and as background for lawns A large shrub with flowers of fine fragrance, suitable for planting at corners of lawn mixed shrubbery A shrub with beautiful bell shaped flowers suitable for planting in groups or in mixed shrubbery The leaves resembles camel foot, beautiful shrub suitable for planting in footpath of lawn, groups & even trimmed to required size A small shrub very ornamental grown in pits, groups or as mixed shrubbery like semi-shade
Calliandra haematocephala Leguminosae Cassia alata Leguminosae
Autumn and winter Bright crimson color (appears as powder puff) Winter, yellow
A bushy shrub extensively spreading habit. suitable for planting individual/ shrubbery/ sides of lawn A quick growing erect shrub, with beautiful inflorescence. Also used for medicines such as ring worm / skin diseases. Grown for its fragrance a quick growing shrub can be grown in mixed shrubbery A quick growing shrub shrub with scented flowers grown in mixed shrubbery A group of small evergreen shrub can be grown as shrubbery or cultivated for flowers A group of large shrubs with foliage is not attractive but once it flowers is very attractive suitable for shrubbery or as specimen shrubs with pruning can maintain good shape
11 12 13
Cestrum nocturnum (night Creamery yellow queen) or greenish Solanaceae yellow Cestrum diurnum White Crossandra (varieties) All- round the (kana-kambara) year Acanthaceae Yellow, pale orange Dombeya (species) Nov – Jan Sterculiaceae Red, bright pink, white with rose tinged Also fragrant Brufelsia (yesterday-today- Feb – Mar tommorrow) Open as violet Solanaceae with yellow center, then change to purple finally fade in to white Gardenia jasminoides Jul – Aug White or cream Hamelea patens Rubiaceae All- round year Orange red
A group of handsome free flowering, evergreen shrub. Flowers are scented can be grown in semi-shaded condition, also suitable to plant in shrubbery/ all along the foot path etc., Very popularly grown for its fragrant flowers. Suitable for specimen planting in and around lawn. the A perpetual flowering shrub with shinning leaves, it with stands pruning, can be maintained any shape for hedges, groups of shrubbery.
Hibiscus Through out the H. mutabilis year H. rosasinensis and other Wide range of varieties spectacular color Malvaceae and size
Jasmine, J.sambac J.grandiflorum J. asborescens J. pubiscens J.humile others (mallige) Oleaceae Lagestromia indica var. Jun – Aug rosea, var. alba Lythraceae
A group of beautiful flowering shrubs consisting of several species with beautiful foliage green/ variegated. Suitable for planting solitary, grouping, mixed shrubbery including pot culture. It mixes and adds beauty for gardens in flexible manner. Feb – Mar A wide range of beautifully White or purplish perfumed flowering shrub. tinge / yellowish Suitable to grow in any part of garden, also in arches/ as shrubbery/ in groups. A pretty deciduous shrub, growing erect with profuse flowers terminally. The petals are nicely frilled. Suitable for planting in groups, mixed shrubbery, in edges of lawn. the A large evergreen shrub growing vigorously with drooping branches grown as hedge plant Except grandiflora, a group of highly fragrant evergreen shrubberies. Suitable for large group of shrubberies, specimen/ edges of lawn A tall evergreen shrub with very attractive shinning leaves. A beautiful attractive foliage shrub suitable for planting in groups, mixed shrubbery, specimen and as spectacular eyespot known for bright display of bracts.
Digustrum. α. japanicum All- round α.robustum year Yellowish white /white Magndia , M. fucata, M. All- round the grandiflora , M. mutabilis, year M. pumila Yellowish green / Magnoliaceae stained with purple / buff Murraya extica (orange Aug – sep jasmine ) White scented Rutaceae flowers Mussaenda, M. corybosa, Pale orange Merythophylla, M. sepals , white frondosa, M. leuteola, M. sulphur yellow phillippicarosea. sepals , white Rubiaceae bright, yellow light, yellow large colored sepals ,greenish white pink and red
Pentas lanceolata (syn. All- round the P.carnea) & other varieties year Rubiaceae White , pink , orange, red and other shades Petrea volubillis
Adenium obessum Apocyanaceae
A dwarf erect or decumbent shrub, flower clusters are very attractive as ixora. Suitable for groups, specimens and mixed shrubbery. Preferably in semi shade also. Summer A scandent woody long corners/ Purplish blue large mixed shrubberies/ specimen planting will be suitable. Jun – Sep A erect shrub with succulent like Pinkish crimson stem and branches. yellow inside and other shades.
FLOWERING TREES S.NO. 1 BOTANICAL NAME Albizzia lebbek POPULAR NAME East Indian walnut, woman’s tongue of west indies, yellow siris Yellow wattle NATURAL ORDER Leguminosae COLOR OF FLOWER Creamy white
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Acacia auriculiformis Amherstia nobilis Barringtonia acutangula Bauhinia monandra Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia variegate Bigonia crispa Bigonia megapotamica Bigonia undulate
Queen of Leguminosae flowering trees Samunder ki phul Mytaceae Kachnar Mountain ebony Kachnar Mountain ebony Kachnar Mountain ebony Padiri Rio grande Trumphet flower Rio grande Trumphet flower Leguminosae Leguminosae Leguminosae Bignoniaceae Bignoniaceae Bignoniaceae
Yellow and fragrant red Yellow and fragrant red Pinkish red Pinkish crimson Purplish rose and fragrant Large white variegated pale mauve Pearl white crisp edged Light pink Yellow pink Yellow orange
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Brassia actinophylla Umbrella tree Brownea ariza Bombax malabaricum Clusia rosea Cochlospermum gossypium Colvillea racemosa Cordia sebestina Couroupita guianensis Dillenia indica Elaeocarpus ganitrus Erythrina indica Guiacum officinate Gardenia lucida Gardina turgida Getonium multiflorum Ehretia acuminate Grevillea robusta Guazuma tomentosa Haplophragrea denophylta Hymenodictyon excelsum Brownea
Red cotton of silk Malvaceae tree Balsam tree Guttiferae Yellow silk cotton Bixaceae Burugada mara Leguminosae Bhokhar, lasora Boragineae Nagalinga, Myrtace cannon ball tree Chalta, kalinga, Dilleniacese uva Rudrakshi Tiliaceae Indian coral haluvana Guic tree Cape jasmine Cape jasmine Cape jasmine Silver oak Bhadrakshi Leguminosae Zygophyllaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae Ehretiaceae Proteaceae Stereuliaceae Bignoniaceae Rubiaceae
Dark scarlet red Bright red pinkish Red Large white rose centre Yellow Orange red Orange scarlet Pink maroon white White Scarlet red Blue White White Whitish yellow White Orange yellow White flowers Yellowish grey brown Grayish white
WORK DONE REPORT:-
EX NO:- 11
DATE:DEVELOPMENT OF GARDEN FEATURES
Fence : It is the outer most boundary of the garden to prevent trespass and the ensure privacy in home gardens. This may be masonry, barded wire or other non-living material or it may be a live fence. A live fence is usually reinforced by a wore fence especially in the early stages. Plants selected for a fence should be quick growing, drought resistant, should stand pruning and easy to propagate. Fence should be broader at the base and narrower at the top. Plants are pruned from the time they attained one foot height and gradually brought to a desired height (4-5ft). Eg. Casuarinas equalitelia Prosophis juliera Foliage Caesalpiniapuleherima, Tecoma stans and Thevetia nerifolia – Flowering
Hedge : These are useful to divide the garden into sections to live the drives so as to direct the visitor to a central object. They are shown and grown in the same manner as the fence. The plants are pruned to a height of 3-4 feet. Eg. Clerodendron, Duranta repens, Latana spp., lawsonia alba/ interme Jacobinie comea. Edge : Edges are rows of plants which don’t exceed I foot in height. They are grown along the path and around the flower beds. Nonliving materials like bricks and tiles are also used for this purpose, live edge are more in harmony with the garden than bricks. The foliage edges are trimmed and flowering edges are not trimmed. When the edge lines a flower bed they divide the green plants from the green lawn by contract of colour of the foliage. Eg. Alternanthera spp., Eupatorium cannbinum, Piles mucosa, Tradescanita Zebrina. Drives and paths : They should be as few as possible and should be straight. They should tale only gentle curves. The drives and paths should lead to some object but should not purposeless. The path should slightly rise over the ground level it may be laid with gravel or brick which are carefully pointed when it is called a paved path, covered with broken slabs when is known as crazy path.
Lawn : It forms the background colour in the garden picture against which the colour of the shrubberies and flower beds are brought into relief. Whether the garden is big or small a garden should have a lawn. The beauty of a garden largely depends on the condition of the lawn. The lawn should be sown only to single spices of grass so as to give a uniform colour. Eg.: Cynodon dactylon Zysoia japonica, Dichandra repens etc. Shrubberies and Shrub borders If the shrub plants are grown in a row and not trimmed the features is called a shrub border. Borders are planted with a mixture of different species of plants. The shrub borders are planted along the wall or in front of the fence or a tree and also to screen of untidy places. If number of shrubs are ground together but are not in a raw, the feature is known as shrubbery. Eg. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Acalypha spp., Cestrum nocturunm, Cestrum diumum, Poinsetiia, Pulcherrima, Gardenia jasmenodles, Codeaum variegatum etc. Flowerbeds : It is also an important garden feature. These are also known as annual flowerbeds and they are generally planted with annuals or herbaceous perennials, which are treated as annuals. A flowerbed may be of any shape preferably geometericals. They should be planted a songlike species and variety so that each bed is of a single colour. A flower bed should be behind a lawn or at lease should have stripe of lawn in front of it. The plants in a flowers bed should be close enough together so that the soil of the bed cannot be through the plants. Eg. Marigold, Zinnia, Gaillaridia, Phlox, Salvia, Celosia, Aster etc. Carpet beds : Plants of different coloured foliage which can be clipped close to the ground are chosen for planting in an intricate design on the ground. Such feature is known as carpet bed. Lettering with plants is also carpet bed. The design may be conventional, geometrical or a map or clock or a sundial. Occasionally dwarf flowering plants may also be used for carpet bedding. Eg. Casuarina, Duranta repens, Murraya exotica, Polyalthia longifolia, Thuja oreitnal, Rougainvillea spp. etc. Fern house / Fernery / Conservatory : Plants of the humid tropical, sub-tropical and temperature regions can not be grown in the open in the plains exposed to glaring sun such shade loving plants are grown in a structure called the fern house. It is usually a roofed house supported by stone pillars or any other strong frame work and may be round,
hexagonal, octagonal or rectangular tub is constructed and is filled with water to as to increase humidity inside. This also facilitates watering of potted plants. The beauty of a ternary depends on the proper arrangements of the plants. Plants like ferns, begonia, anthuriums, caladiums, dieffenbachia, dracaena, palms etc are hung from the roof. On hills and in cooler climates special construction of glass are necessary to provide warmth for the tropical and subtropical plants which can not be grown in the open. These are mainly to protect the plants from frost. These glass structures are called glass houses. Orchids : These are humid tropical and subtropical plants loving shade. These are becoming garden favorites because the flowers have gregarious colours. They often assume shapes of birds, moths, and butterflies. There are two types of orchids. Terrestrial orchids and epiphytic orchids are epiphytic orchids. Terrestrial orchids are those, which grown in soil. The epiphytic orchids grown on branches of trees having their roots exposed to air from which they absorb moisture. Most orchids develop pseudo bulbs and storage of water and food as a measure against drought. Eg. Dendrobium spp. Spider orchids, Chain Orchids, etc. Pot galleries : Circular galleries constructed of masonry. On the steps of which potted plants are arranged. The height of each step and the pot on the lower step should be the same. The plants grown should be taller than height of the steps so that the pots and the masonry structure are both hidden behind the plants. The appearance of a mound of plants. Such gallery may be either in the open or under the shade of a tree or in the fernery. On the open galleries may be kept potted flowering plants and in the fern house may be kept several shade loving plants. Lilly pool : Aquatic plants are grown in Lilly pool which may be dug in the ground as to look natural or may be constructed in cement of regular shape in cement pools there should be an inlet at the bottom and an out let below the top of the pool so that a constant level of water is materials. Fish may also be reared in these ponds to keep the water clean. Eg. Lotus, Pistia, Nymphea (water lilies), Eichornia crassipes (Water hyacinth). Rockery : Planets grown in rockery situations are grown in the garden in rockery. The rockery is constructed by heaping up mannered soil to a desired height embedding rocks to it. The plants are kept in the crevices between the rocks. It can be raised under a tree or separately. Generally both foliage and flowering succulents as well as xerophytes are grown on a rockery. Succulents are plants may more water in them and are drought resistant. Eg. Opuntia, Borophytos, Sanseveria, Kalanchoe, Agave, Tradescantia, Pedilanthus, Coleus.
Avenues trees and background trees: Trees from the tallest feature in the garden. They are plants at the periphery of the garden so that they don’t mask the other feature. These are planted in the garden as (1) avenue (2) as background and (3) as simple specimens, in formal gardens like the Moghul style they are planted at side of the central waterway as a sort of avenue. As background they may be in single row or massed. Avenue trees are provided in large gardens and on both the side of wide public roads. Eg. Acasia, Albezzia lebbeck, Azadiracta indica, Bahunia purpurea, Spathodia companulata, Peltophorum ferrugenum, Cassia, Dalbergia sisso etc. Single specimen plants : In an extensive lawn, the monotony of the lawn can be broken the single beautiful tree without blocking the view of the other features beyond. Eg. Aurucaria cook, Ravenella madagaskarensis etc.
WORK DONE REPOT :
DATE:LAYOUT OF LAWN AND MAINTAINANCE OF LAWN
INTRODUCTION: lawn has a charm on its own. It serves to enhance the beauty of a garden, be it large or small. It enhance the beauty of surrounding objects, whether they are trees, shrubs or flower beds. It is not difficult to keep a lawn from the verandah and the windows of the house should be free and uninterrupted. A spacious lawn may be provided with the beds of flowering plants. A group of shrubs or trees of attractive form or specimen shrubs or Thuja Oriental's or travelers palm or a large succulents may be planted here and there is pockets made in the lawn to form colonies of themselves and bear their beautiful flowers. n making a lawn it is essential that the ground be prepared properly, the surface being thoroughly dug and uniformly leveled, coarse stones, roots and other obstacles being removed and surface made smooth. Provision for drainage of excess rain water if the ground is not sloppy, let ground settle down during the first showers. Remove any weed that may come up. Methods of Lawn Making: Seeds : lawn from seeds is made suitable when grass roots are not available. About 30 Kg of seeds may be necessary for a hectare. The soil should be reduced to a fine tilt and given a fine rolling. The seeds should be sown on a windless day evenly and thinly and covered with fine, light soil. The ground should rolled again and watered liberally with rose tank or with a hose pipe fitted with nozzle. The seeds take 5 weeks to germinate. For the first time grass should be cut with the scythe ( big scissors ). Lawn mover may be used when the roots are well established. Turfing : Turf are pieces of earth with compact grass grown on them. Turf should be cut uniformly, thin in square from the place where the grass is grown short, compact and free from weeds. They should be spread on the prepared on the ground side by side. Gaps should be filled with the soil. The entire turf area should be rolled and watered liberally. This is the more fastest method of raising lawns Truf Blastering : The roots should be cut into 2 - 4 cm long. A mixture consisting of 2 parts of this root, one part of well decomposed horse or cow manure, 1 part of fresh cow dung, 1 part of red earth are made into a paste by adding sufficient water spread the paste evenly over the prepared ground which has been already watered. Cover the ground with litter or a
layer of coarse manure to minimize evaporation and prevent the roots from the heat of the sun. Grass will not shoot up within 15 days. Cut the grass with scythe and after 3 months use grass mower. Dibbling Roots : This is the cheapest and slowest method. Small roots are dibbled about 15 c.ms apart into the prepared ground. The roots spread and grow underground in course of 6 months. Laying lawns using turf: Using turf is the quickest way to get a lawn, but it needs careful preparation and care while it settles down. In southern UK, turves are best laid in late winter/early spring when the ground has not dried out and the growing season is approaching. They can be laid later in spring through to late summer but they will need more attention to ensure that they do not dry out. Laying them in late autumn and early winter is best avoided as the grass will be dormant and the turves can become waterlogged by winter rain. In more northern areas, the best times are early spring to mid summer. Turves should ideally be laid within 24 hours of delivery, any delay over 48 hours increases the risk of the grass turning yellow or the turf drying out before being laid - 3 days should be considered the absolute maximum in ideal conditions (not too dry, hot or sunny). Don't arrange for the turves to be delivered until the site is completely prepared and you are ready to lay them. Types of turf : Turf is usually supplied in rolled up length, 3 foot by 1 foot by 1.5 to 2 inches, they can be heavy to handle especially during wet weather. Meadow grass turf, is what it says, turf cut from an ordinary meadow. It is the cheapest type to purchase but will contain mixed grass types and weeds. It is quite hard wearing so is suitable if children or pets are going to use it. Seeded turf is a much better quality, it comprises a known type of grass suitable for lawns, it should not contain any weeds.Try to buy turves from sources using personal recommendations or after inspecting them - look for moist soil and a good colour of the soil and grass. You will only have a good quality lawn if you use good quality turves. Planning the lawn Before you start laying turf, give some thought as to what you want, as the lawn will be with you for years to come. Do you want a square lawn or a shaped one? Do you want flower beds in the lawn? Sometimes it is worth putting down a full lawn and cutting flower beds into it later when you have lived with it for a year or two. A lawn need not be flat but you'll probably want to avoid very steep slopes. If you need to flatten an area, remember not to mix top soil and sub soil. Although it may seem a lot more work, the proper way is to remove the top soil from all the area to be levelled, then flatten the
surface by redistributing the sub soil, and then replace the top soil over the whole area. Try to build up as much ground as you level down, this will mean that you won't have much soil to dispose of. If the ground is levelled up by more that about a foot (30 cm), leave it to settle for a year before laying turf. Preparing the site : The lawn area needs to be well drained. If the area suffers from water retention, it may be necessary to lay a soak away or drainage pipes. If a lawn is to be laid around a newly built house, you can expect the builders to have buried some building waste and also to have mixed top and soil soils. If there is any builders sand left, do not dig it in you need 'sharp sand' to condition soil not 'builders sand'. Start by removing all large stones, blocks and any obviously non-organic rubbish from the surface. If you are replacing an existing lawn, dig off the existing grass to about two inches. A lawn grows best on well drained medium loam, if your soil is like this, your preparation can be minimal, but if the soil is clay or sandy, you'll need to do more work. With heavy clay soils, you should add sharp sand, well decomposed manure, garden compost or rotted leaves. his will improve drainage under the lawn. With sandy soils, you should add well decomposed manure or rotted leaves. This will improve moisture retention under the lawn. The top soil needs to be prepared to give a fine, workable soil to a depth of 4 to 5 inches (10 to 12 cm) - if you are adding organic material, you should aim for a minimum depth of 6 inches (15 cm). If the area of the lawn is fairly small, it can be prepared by hand using a spade. For larger areas it is worth using a rotavator - borrowing or hiring one if necessary. When starting to prepare the soil, it needs to be not too dry and not too wet. Start by digging or rotavating the whole area to the required depth, breaking down any large clumps of soil and remove any stones or rubbish that you see. When digging, work backwards so you don't tread down the soil you've just broken up. Having turned over the whole area, add half of anything you need to dig in, and dig over or rotavate the whole area again. Add the other material to be dug in, and again go over the whole area. Rake over the area to level it (again removing any stones/rubbish which appears). Tread down the entire area - starting are one corner, walk slowly across the area placing one foot in front of the other, when you reach the other end, turn around and repeat until the whole area has been trod down (if the area is large, get help from your family and friends - I've not heard of a 'lawn walking party' but there's no reason not to have one!). The first time you do this, you'll probably find some humps and dips, remove these by giving the surface a light racking and repeat the treading down. When you are happy that you have a flat surface, it is time to get the turves delivered, think about where to stack them as you only want to move them once yet have them handy for when you lay them. If the weather is very hot, dry or sunny, try to find a place which is shaded but not too far from the new lawn. Also decide where you are going to start laying the turves, if one side is against a wall or path, start there. If a corner of the area is formed by walls or paths, start in that corner. It's better if the last turves are laid along 'flexible' edges rather than fixed edges such as walls or paths.
Laying the lawn: When the turves have arrived and you are ready to lay them, give the whole area a dressing of general purpose fertiliser (such as one handful per square yard of Growmore), and rack it in to the top surface. Use a garden line to mark out a straight edge to lay your first row of turves, don't rely on the straight edge of a wall or path - the chances are it won't be straight. Do not walk or run a wheelbarrow directly on newly laid turves, use planks on top of the turves to run the wheelbarrow, walk and kneel on (they will also have the effect of firming down the turves). Lay the first turf along the line and upto the start point of the first row. Continue to lay the turves along the line, end to end. Align each new one to the line and butt it upto the end of the previous one until the first row is complete, don't trim off the end to it's required length until the whole lawn has been laid. If it looks as if the required end edge will mean that the last piece of turf will be very small (less than 18 inches (45 cm)), use two large cut pieces for the last two turves rather than a full turf plus a small one. If you notice any humps or dips in the turves as you lay them, remove or add soil as appropriate. Start the second row by cutting a turf to half length and lay one half against the first turf of the first row. Butt it up against the start line and also the first row. This will give staggered turf joints and give a better lawn. Lay the rest of the second row using full turves, butt each turf firmly up against both adjacent turves. Adjust the two turves in the same manner as used on the first row to ensure that the last turf is not too small. As you go along, fill in any gaps between turves with a mixture of soil and sharp sand. Repeat for the remaining rows, starting off each alternatively using full or half turves. When you come to the second from last row, check the required width. If it is less than two turf widths, you will need to trim one row of turfs lengthways. Cut and lay these trimmed turfs along the second to last row and then use full width turfs for the final row. When all the turfs have been laid, pass a garden roller over it, once long the turfs and once at right-angles. You may need to trim some of the edges: If you need a straight edge, run a string line along the edge and use a half-moon edging tool to cut the turfs as necessary. If you need curved edges, a hose-pipe laid on the turfs can be used to form any curve required. Again you can use a half-moon edging tool to cut turf or you could use a sharp knife. After care: If the turfs are laid in hot weather, they will need to be watered - preferably using a sprinkler to give a gentle watering. For the first season, watering should be carried out during hot, dry periods. Any problems should be visible by the grass losing its colour. Keep playing children and pets off the lawn for the first season, turfs are transplanted plants and need time to recover their full strength. Newly laid turfs should not be mown until it starts to grow, and even then, the mowers should be set high for the first couple of cuts, and then reduced over the following three or four cuts.
LAWN MAINTENANCE: Lawn maintenance boils down to keeping your lawn healthy and attractive. Watering, mowing and removing the debris will keep the lawn in a reasonably good condition. A great looking lawn requires conscious maintenance so as to retain its natural beauty. In order to retain the velvet emerald appearance, you should adhere to good lawn practices. A good-looking, well-maintained lawn is an object of admiration, owner's pride and neighbor's envy. Your lawn requires your care and attention. A lush green lawn is not only a delight for the eyes. Oxygen conversion, absorption of air borne pollutants, erosion control, air and surface cooling are the other healthy benefits a lawn provides its owner. If you are in the pursuit of lawn maintenance tips to safeguard your lawn from weed growth, insect attacks and disease-spread, use this lawn health care guide. Conscientious effort promises that perfect patch of lawn throughout the year, irrespective of change in season. Good Mowing Practice How much of grass should be mowed? Answer to this determines the following. Amount of food the lawn can prepare by way of photosynthesis. Amount of water and time taken for maintenance. The look of the lawn Provide enough foliage fully exposed to the sun to support the process of photosynthesis. Too short a length hurts the grass and results in water wastage. Take care that you do not remove more than one-third of leaf blade per mowing. Mow the grass when it is dry. Mow cool season grasses at 2.5 to 3.5 inches high Mow warm season grasses as low as 5 inches • Adequate Watering The amount of water required for the lawn depends on the season and soil type. Make use of this simple calculation to determine the number of minutes to water the lawn. First determine the depth of the moistened soil in inches. Divide this by 120. Once you determine the length of watering period, the same can be followed for all seasons. In order to minimize evaporation and water wastage, water the lawn in the early mornings. In case of abundant rain during the day or night, be assured of adequate water supply for unto two weeks. For a medium sized lawn, you can choose the best sprinkler device oscillating, fountain type or permanent sprinklers. Infrequent heavy watering is preferred to small daily doses. Do not water lawn at night. This may lead to fungus and insect development. Dishonor, Sosa and Bermuda grasses need 2 inches depth of water. Merion, Kentucky Blue, ryes and red fescues need 3 inches of water.
• Proper Fertilizing If you care to make your lawn stronger, pest and disease resistant consider fertilizing the lawn. It provides necessary nutrients required by the lawn to remain plush green. However, it is essential to analyze the type of fertilizer that is required for your lawn. This can be done after testing the soil for its inherent nutrient content. Based on the soil test recommendation, you can determine the appropriate fertilizer. Experts recommend fertilizing lawns in spring or fall to reap total benefits. Nitrogen aids leaf growth and color Phosphorous is necessary for strong root growth and development Potassium boosts stem growth and disease resistance • Right weed control You cannot totally avoid weeds for they germinate and grow during all seasons of the year. Yet, experts recommend using weed killer in the early spring and fall. Choosing the right weed control product is critical to good lawn maintenance. Pre-emergent weed control and post-emergent weed control are the two types of weed control products that are widely used. In order to control weeds before they germinate, pre-emergent weed control products are used. On the other hand, post-emergent weed control products kill full-grown or existing weeds. It is essential to understand the status of weeds, whether they are yet to germinate or already grown to determine the right type of weed control. A lawn maintenance tip is to go for a 'weed and feed' product that works as a weed control product as well as a fertilizer for the lawn. However, the flip side of using this is that young seedlings, if any, may not be able to withstand the weed control product. Check day temperature, not above 85 degrees for weed control to be effective. Choose a still day that is not windy to prevent drifting of chemicals. AERATION TO BREATHE: Put to a variety of uses such as play, sports activities or a barefoot evening stroll. With time lawns age and soil compaction may occur. The pore space within the soil that holds air is reduced with compaction. The soil suffers as it does not receive required amount of oxygen, water and nutrients. Root growth is terribly affected. The results are poor top growth and overall health of lawn starts deteriorating. Annual machine aeration during spring or autumn helps lawn to breathe healthily. Make sure soil is moist, not too wet nor too dry Lawn aeration by hand is advantageous for small lawn Water lawns two days prior to aerating For good coverage, aerate lawns in two different directions. Another lawn maintenance tip is to rake your lawn to remove accumulated thatch so as to feel the
crisp lawn under your feet. Trim the edges of your lawn to give a neat appearance to the entire garden. WORK DONE REPORT:-
DATE:TRAINING AND PRUNING IN ROSES AND CHRYSANTHEMUM
TRAINING AND PRUNING IN ROSES Pruning not only maintains the floriferous ness of rose plant but improves flower quality and plant vigour and also removes the diseased and unproductive growth. It also results in the development of strong shoots Pruning time The best time of pruning is the period when the activity of the rose plant is least and the plant is at dormant to near- dormant stage. Pruning time is entirely dependent on climatic conditions of the region. In temperate climate, it is done in spring though some growers do it at the end of autumn. Late pruning, in general, delays flowering and also reduces the yield of flowers. In the Indo Gangetic plains, pruning is done after cessation of rains when cold season is approaching. Under North Indian conditions, particularly in Delhi, highest yield of cut- flowers in. cultivars, like Super Star, Happiness and Queen Elizabeth, was obtained when pruning at weekly intervals from 23 rd September to 16th October seems to provide regular supply of flowers throughout winter form December to March. In Kamataka, roses are pruned twice two distinct flowering seasons. In Maharashtra, pruning is done in the first week of November for winter bloom and in the first week of June for monsoon flush. In and around Chennai, pruning is done only once at the end of November or early December. In the hills, pruning is done by the end of March or in April. In R. damascene, grown for perfume, pruning during the end of December was found to be useful. Pruning of R. bourboniana during November gave maximum yield of flowers. HOW TO PRUNE: In pruning, cut is made at about half a centimeter above a vigorous bud that points to the direction one desires the new• shoot to grow. Since a bush rose is to be kept open in the centre, the cut is made at ail outer. growing bud. The cut should be slightly slanting to avoid accumulation of moisture and thereby reducing the risk of fungal attack at the cut end. The cut should always be clean and sharp and immediately be painted with a fungicidal preparation made by mixing 4 parts of red lead, 4 parts copper• carbonate, and 5 parts of linseed oil.
TYPES OF PRUNING:The intensity of pruning markedly .influences 'the growth and flowering of roses. Depending upon the extent and level of shortening of stem, there are three types of pruning' - light, moderare and hard, In light pruning, the healthy shoots,' left after thinning out diseased and unwanted portion, are cut either at the second or third bud, immediately below the flower- bearing point. Moderare pruning is done by cutting back the ripe mam and lateral shoots of the previous year's growth at an outward-_ growing eye, at about half the length of the growth. Hard pruning consists of keeping only three or. four shoots of the last year and heading them back at about three or four eyes from the base., In roses, the amount of pruning largely depends upon the cultivar and the class, health and vigour of the plant, spacing, fertility status of soil and the desired flower quality. Generally, strong and healthy plants are pruned lightly, moderate growers moderately and weak plants relatively hard. If the soil is light in texture and the nutrient status of the soil is medium to low, pruning should be light. In case of heavy and fertile soils, pruning may be little harder. Hard pruning is usually given to obtain better blooms with longer stems. Pruning of different groups of code. Rose plants are to _ be pruned after proper establishment. The actual pruning starts after one year of establishment. In the first year, pruning is done to give a definite shape to the plants and the operation varies according to the class of the rose and also the purpose for which it has been grown. The method adopted in different classes of roses are as follows: Hybrid teas: In Hybrid Tea, all the dead, weak, diseased and crossing shoots are removed from their point of origin. Only 4 to 5 healthy basal soots are retained and remaining ones removed from the base. In the climatic conditions prevailing in greater part of India, moderatrely severe pruning appears to be ideal. In order to obtain. higher yield of export quality flowers. hard pruning was found to be best for cultivars, like Super star and Happiness. Usually, the cultivars having healthy and vigorous growth need light pruning, whereas, those producing slender and less vigorous branches are cut severely. Floribundas : The main purpose of pruning Floribundas is the production of . abundant flowers with mass effect in the garden. Moderate to light pruning is the general recommendation in this class. While pruning, it is necessary to know the growth and flowering behaviour of a particular cultivar. To obtain maximum flowers, older growths are to be removed at every opportunity and young growths are to be shortened by about a third or half of their height.
Polyanthas The primary objects of pruning of this class of roses are to obtain large number of flowers and to give a good shape to the plant. Usually, very little or no pruning is given except the thinning of dead, weak and overcrowded shoots and also cutting of the en9 of branches that have already flowered. Climbers and ramblers : They hardly need any pruning because it is desirable to promote the growth of the lateral and side branches to bear flowers. Therefore, only some branches from the vase should be cut to five room for the new growths. Pillar roses and large- flowered climbers are also not pruned in the first year and thereafter pruning merely consists of removal of unwanted wood in controlling size and shape. The climbing Floribundas, polyanthas and Miniatures also need such treatments. Many Ramblers and some shrubs of Hybrid Musk Group only bloom on the new wood. The older stems which have completed flowering once may therefore, be removed. Standard: Standard roses do not need drastic pruning. Sometimes, when there are two unions, the shoots from upper one are weaker. Pruning at the lower union should, therefore, be more severe to maintain the symmetry of the plant. Wintering : In some of the rose-growing areas, wintering is done. In this practice, the base of the rose plant is exposed to sun and air by removing the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm in a diameter of 20-30 cm around the plant. After a few days, the dug-out soil, mixed with well-decomposed manure, is put back, firmed and irrigated. This treatment is usually done and found useful in the humid regions of the country but not in other places. Pinching Removal of terminal growing portion of stem, i.e, pinching reduces plant height and encourages axillary branching. Maturity of flower-bud is delayed by this practice. The blind shoots that appear healthy are pinched hard by 1 or 2 nodes to induce flowering. Disbudding: Undesirable buds are removed form time to time, keeping only the central bud intact for better quality bloom. The removal of buds of structural shoots (bottom breaks) increases the number of flowers also.
Removal of young vegetative shoots (deshooting): This practice is generally done in hybrid Tea roses. Young vegetative shoots developing from the axil of leaves of basal and lateral shoots are removed to encourage the growth of terminal shoot. The side shoots that develop .from the eyes down the stem below the terminal flower bud, if not removed at the initial stage, result in much branched plants that produce a number of smaller flower. TRAINING AND PRUNING IN CHRYSANTHEMUM Chrysanthemum can be trained for various decorative and attractive forms : Standard : For better shape of the plants and attractive extra large flower, large- flowered chrysanthemums are trained as standards producing 1-3 blooms/plant. For this, suckers are planted in January. All care is taken for proper development of the plant. The plants are transplanted several times in bigger posts and finally into 25cm posts in August. These plants bloom in November-December and are normally very tall and need care throughout the year. The lower portion of the plant looks bare as the leaves drop. According to recent cultural methods for developing better standard, plants are developed from cutting in july. It avoids unnecessary carrying of plants for about 6 months. Sen rin tsukuti : It is a Japanese style of chrysanthemum culture. It means growing thousand blooms’ In this, plant is designed to a geometric shape ( 6-10 concentric circles in stepped manner) and it is trained in such a way that about 200-300 blooms/plant are formed having an approximate height of 153-183 and a diameter of 183-244mm. varieties suitable for this should have vigorous growth habit in all directions : incurve or reflex type with medium-sized blooms, long pedicel and uniform blooming habit. The suckers are planted in December in 15cm pots filled with compost made of leaf-mould : light clay : charcoal power (10:2:1). Second potting is done into 20cm pots during February-end in a potting mixture of cow dung : leaf mould : light clay +bonemeal (4:2:2+1 table spoon full). The pot is irrigated regularly at fortnightly interval. Two table spoonfuls of oil-cake are added on the plant attains a height of 20-25 cm. for more vigorous growth, plants are shifted to beds in March. The beds are well-manufactured with rotten farmyard manure, bone-meal and oil-cake. The planning distance is kept 92cm. the main stem is made vertical with the help of a strong bamboo stake. The lateral shoots which come out after first pinching are made horizontal with the help of hooked wire inserted in the pot. Pinching is continued for profuse branching till June – end oil cakes are added to accelerate the growth rate. Disbudding is done from October maintain only one terminal bud. The plants are finally shifted into the container. He lifting of plants
from bud to container is a very important operation. It should be performed with great care to maintain beauty of the plants. The plants should be performed with great ----------when the plants are well established in pots after lifting, the plants is give the final shape “A” structure is made by split bamboo around the plant. The shape of the structure may be given according to choice but the most popular shape is hemisphere or dome shaped . then branches and individual buds are tied at definite places do as to give the plat a particular uniform shape. Before lifting of plants from bed and at the time of final typing of the branches, irrigation is stopped for 2-3 days so that the branches become soft and more flexible. Beauty, Maud Jefferies, John Weller, evening Star, shin Mei Getsu, Allahabad, Reflex and Raja are suitable chrysanthemums. Bush form : This is a specific cultural practice for small flowered chrysanthemums. The plant is given a bush appearance by specific pinching and training. The blooms are arranged compactly to give an effect of a floral carpet. Medium sized cultivars having profuse branching habit are suitable for bush. Korean, anemone, button, charm, stellate, decorative and quilled blooms are modt suitable. First pinching is started in March when the plants attain about 20cm heights. First pinching is started in March profuse branching takes place. These lateral primary branches are again soft pinched and the process continued till September. By pinching selectively and regularly, plants may be given a desired shape. The most important is use of soft pinching to outer or lower branches and pinching hared pinching to central or higher branches. Normally in this case, disbudding is not practiced. For maintaining uniform spreading bamboo stakes are used the periphery and are tried with a ring of wire or sutli. Pot – mums : In normal practice, one cutting is planted in one pot. The plant grows tall and lower portion of stem is naked. In recent times, 5-7 cuttings are planted in one pot (2025cm) during June/July . the healthy rooted cuttings are planted at equal distance around the periphery of the pot. Pos are kept in semi shade for about 7-10 days. Then optimum conditions are provided for proper vegetative growth of plants for 2 months till the initiation of flower bud. The compost mixture of clay, farmyard manures and leaf-mould in a 1:2:2 ratio is very good for proper growth of plants. Top dressing with neem-cake about a month after potting is very useful. Liquid manuring with a fertilizer mixture during early-September is recommended for vigorous growth. Pot-mums are grown as such without pinching or they may be pinched as per choice. In no-pinch pot-mums, the number of flowers are almost as many as the number of plants (5-7). The flowers are bigger in size. If large number of flowers are desired, the branching is encouraged by soft-pinching.
The height of plants of pot –mums is mostly uniform uniformly of height is maintained by selecting proper variety, right time of planting and pinching. Disbudding is adopted for better bloom size and good looks of the plant. This method has become very popular. It requires less time and it can be easily handled due to home decoration. The pots may be easily exposed to artificial lighting and shading. There fore, supply of successive batches of pot-mums are possible for a long period during the year. Varieties selected for pot-mums are Beatrice May, Kasturba Gandhi, General Petain, Otome Zakura, Pink Cloud, Pink Casket, Fish Tail, Jack Straw, Evening Star, Goldie and John Reid. Cascade form : The plants trained in cascade form give the effect of a water fall in blooming stage. This is also a Japanese art of chrysanthemum culture. The stem is made to bend down above the rim of the container. This training methid gives an excellent look of the blooms. For beautiful cascades ( small, medium and large –sized ) selected varities should have :Long internodes for large and short internodes for medium and small cascade.Thick but flexible stem.Profuse branching and prolific blooming habit.Anemone and Korean types ate also suitable. The selected varieties are planted in the bed during March in a slanting position (60 degrees angle).A strong bamboo stake is also inserted in the soil at same angle. Another vertical stake may be tied with the slanting stake to prevent damage of the plant due to wind . bamboo frames of desired shape and design are kept ready in July and planted in a large pot at 45 degrees angle. The main stem and branches are tied to the frame at several places. The frame is bent gradually downward by applying pressure taking care that by August-end. The bending process is continued for the next 2 months (September-October). Sometimes a weight is tied at the tip of the frame for gradual bending. Pinching is most critical technique in formation of a cascade. It is started at the height of 15-25cm from the ground and continued till September. Both soft and hard pinching are performed. October is most crucial period when bud initiation starts. One should keep regular vigilance of plants and buds should be arranged systematically by bending and typing to cover the entire structure. Perfecta, Modella, Jaya, Aparajita, Mayur and Flirt are most –suited chrysanthemum for cascade form. Coniform : Normally top of potted small flowered chrysanthemums is flattened in bush type. The shape of the plant may be made conical by special training. The varieties which produce profuse lateral branching form the base of main branch upward are most-suited for this. For giving a perfect conliform shape. Staking and pinching are most important. A strong , vertical, bamboo stake is used form the very beginning to keep the main stem erect. The first pinching is performed during late March. The first lateral shoots from the top are removed. Second lateral shoots are allowed to grow upwards. Subsequently other lateral shoots which develop late are pinched selectively. The longer shoots are at the base
and shorter ones at the upper level. Due to selective pinching, the base of the plant becomes broad and narrowing upward to give a coniform plant. The last pinching is most important step which is performed in four stages during September. The plant is divided into 4 regions, lower, middle, upper and tip. The branches at lower portion (one-third height) are pinched first. The middle portion is pinched after an interval of another 3-4 days. The tip is pinched at the end after about 3 days. To support the branches, additional bamboo stakes are used to maintain a perfect coniform plant. Fan form : This is also type of training form of small-flowered chrysanthemums. In final form, it looks like a hand fan. The varieties suitable for coniform are also suitably used for this form. A flat, round and vertical frame is made of split bamboo. Two identical plants are plants are planted close to each other in 10-pots. In between the plants, the bamboo structure is fixed. All the branches of both the plants are tied to the bamboo structure to give the plants a flat shape. The pinching starts during February –end or beginning of March and continues up to September. Pinching is performed selectively throughout the length of plant and both soft hard pinching are performed. The hard is done to the branches near main stem and soft pinching to those branches which are away from the main shoot. The new emerging branches are tied simultaneously to the frame for appropriate and desired shape. The last pinching is very important like coniform and it is performed in 4 stages for simultaneous blooming. The central portion of the plant is made first by hard pinching. The area is pinched after another 3-4 days. The pinching date should be calculated in such a way that last pinching is performed by mid-September.
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PLANNING AND LAYOUT OF GARDEN AND GARDEN DESIGNS FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AREAS Planning of a garden: In planning a garden, several factors like the size of the house and the space available for the garden, availability of water, cost of laying the garden and its maintenance, have to be taken into consideration. A garden is planted priority to suit the tastes of the people of the household and the locality, there is no rigid system in garden planing and each system is open to modification to suit the environments and other local factors. Essential points in planning: In all the systems of gardening certain fundamental points have to be observed while planing. The important factors to be taken into consideration are given below. A garden should invariably have as its central featured some prominent object like a building, statue fountain or main building. Relatively less important objects like a bird hath are also choosen. Though often called the central object, it need not necessary be in the middle of the garden not within the boundaries. An impressive object in the surroundings may be brought into the garden by laying accent on it. A mountain peak, church tower a tall monument such as archeological buildings, temples or huge tree or a dam or a reservoir may be the central object. If there is a vast open area it should be designed to give a mass effect. If the land in single stretch, the single level can be broken by providing terraces or sunken gardens or by making apportions with garden factures like hedger or herbaceous perennial borders. A lawn should form a green mantle or cover to cloths the garden. Flowers and flower beds should add colour, variety and the necessary finish. The trees, climbers and hedges should be situated in such places that they fit in with the situation and do not any of the other factures. The tall factures like trees fence etc. should be towards the periphery of the compound and successively dwarfed features should occupy more and more inner space till the centre is occupied by carpet beds and flower beds this helps to have a panoramic view of the garden from the centre. GARDEN DESIGNS: Garden is a place embellished with plants of valuable and pleasurable nature. In view of rising urbanization, limited availability of ground space in bungalow compound and increasing environmental pollution, garden has received priority especially in city sphere in planning of buildings, roads and public places.
Landscape gardening has been an indispensable part of architectural design. In landscape gardening emphasis given on improvement of land side using suitable gardening techniques and plants. The gardens are laid out using one of following designs. 1.Formal design: This design is very stiff and every thing is done in a straight and narrow way in symmetrical or a geometrical pattern, every thing is planted in straggly lines. The hedges, edges and topiary are maintained in proper shape by regular training and pruning, summitry is always maintained in the garden by undertaking similar type of plantation and using similar garden technique and facture on one side of the garden, the same thing should albs be repeated on the other side of the gander. 2.Informal design: In this design, the plants and factures of the garden are arranged naturally without following and hard fast rules. The plant is first laid on the ground and then it is brought on paper. The existing plant on the ground is utilized as such for the purpose of beautification. 3.Picturesque design: The idea of picturesque design of garden was expounded by William Robinson in the last decade of nineteenth century. This ideas was to naturalize plants in shrubbery. He also suggested that grass should not be mown and bulbous plants should be grown scattered in the grass to imitate wild scenary be opened in the woodland and trees, shrubs and bulbous plants should be planted in forest flora to have an effect of wild garden, this idea was to allow the creeper to climb over the tree naturally to imitate forest tipe of effect.
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DATE:PROLONGING SHELF – LIFE OF CUT FLOWERS
If u want ur cut flowers to last as long as possible, you need to be willing to give them some extra attention.Lt will only take you a few minutes and the results will be well worth. it. Read the instructions first, and then gather the materials you’ll need to prepare your flowers.Here are the keys points you need to know about the care of cut flowers. 1. Clean a vase by washing it thoroughly in water with household bleach. 2. Fill the vase with fresh water and a half teaspoon of household bleach for each liter (16) fluid ounces) of water. 3. Remove any leaves which will show below the waterline in vase. 4. Cut about 20 mm (3/4 inch) from the base of the stems immediately before placing flowers (to remove any air bubbles). 5. Do not place flowers in drafts or direct sunlight, near fruit, heaters, TVs or Refregiratoes 6. Change the water daily to extend the vase life of your cut flowers. A tip for cut gerberas 7. Do not stand gerberas in a deep vase of water as the stems are soft and hollow. 3 cm (or 11/4 inches) of water is sufficient. Flower guard investigation: Investigating a new item called Flower guard TM which is an environmentally – friendly, slow release chemical additive to prolong the shelf life of cut flowers. The product will be available in a porous tablet form and operate as a slow – release system which improves the water balance in the stems of the cut flowers, thereby strengthening the blooms and prolonging their shelf –life. The slow –release tablets suppress the development of bacteria without compromising quality of the preservative solution. Points to strengthen shelf life a) Plunging the stems of cut flowers into a solution comprising 10-95% of a linear of ramified aliphatic alcohol with 2-5 carbon atoms, and 0,01-35% of myrrh for a period of time between 10 seconds and 2 hours; b) Drying the flower stems by exposure to outer environment, so that the flowers are transported in a dry status. 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said aliphatic alcohol is ethyl alcohol. 3. The method according claim 2, wherein said ethyl alcohol is ethyl alcohol Denatured 4. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein said exposure to outer environment is performed at a temperature between 2 and 35oC, preferably preferably between 7 and 25 degree centigrade .
5. Cut flowers treated according to the method of claims 1to 4. 6. Use of hydroalcoholic solutions of myrrh to lengthen the post – harvest life of cut Flowers. Prolonging life by using alcoholic solution: The present invention relates to method to lengthen the shelf –life (hereinafter also indicated as post –harvest life) of cut flowers with a hydroalcoholic solution of myrrh. In these last years the world of floriculture has known a prolonged development phase not followed, unfortunately, by a corresponding development of the Italian floriculture. Even if the last has a very primary role as far as the innovation aspects of the products (for example in case of carnations) and quality of sold products are concerned, the difficulties in efficient and widespread distribution com up with by a production strongly delocalized on territory caused productions of other countries to be preferred, faster in providing efficient transportation to reach the sale markets. Therefore, since our floriculture cannot rely on rapid transportation and since it necessarily has to provide far away foreign markets, difficult to reach, it had to develop alternative solutions, for example by developing lengthened post –harvest life products. The problem of transportation in optimum conditions and for relatively long periods of cut flowers, substantially still living organisms, is a problem felt for a long time which has. Found several solutions, most of them addressed to the lengthening of the life of cut flower in water, that is in the step of the real utilization thereof. New varieties with particular resistance features, treatments acting on the transportation temperature and with substances able to limit the effect of degrading microorganisms, treatments with inhibitors of ethylene oxide playing a determining role in the flower senescence have been the up to now proposed alternatives. On the contrary, the inventors of the present invention have surprisingly found out that a treatment with myrrh hydroalcoholic solutions, followed by the drying of the flower, makes it possible a lengthening of post- harvest life of the flowers themselves and, at the same time, obtains the further advantage of making the transportation there of actually easier. The foregoing seems evident if only the greater easiness in transporting a substantially dry product (hereinafter designated with “dry” preserved product) compared to a product immersed in water is considered.
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