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Given a multi-variable function, we dened the partial derivative of one variable with respect to another

variable in class. All other variables are treated as constants.

Here are some basic examples:

1. If z = f(x, y) = x

4

y

3

+ 8x

2

y + y

4

+ 5x, then the partial derivatives are

z

x

= 4x

3

y

3

+ 16xy + 5 (Note: y xed, x independent variable, z dependent variable)

z

y

= 3x

4

y

2

+ 8x

2

+ 4y

3

(Note: x xed, y independent variable, z dependent variable)

2. If z = f(x, y) = (x

2

+ y

3

)

10

+ ln(x), then the partial derivatives are

z

x

= 20x(x

2

+ y

3

)

9

+

1

x

(Note: We used the chain rule on the rst term)

z

y

= 30y

2

(x

2

+ y

3

)

9

(Note: Chain rule again, and second term has no y)

3. If z = f(x, y) = xe

xy

, then the partial derivatives are

z

x

= e

xy

+ xye

xy

(Note: Product rule (and chain rule in the second term)

z

y

= x

2

e

xy

(Note: No product rule, but we did need the chain rule)

4. If w = f(x, y, z) =

y

x+y+z

, then the partial derivatives are

w

x

=

(x + y + z)(0) (1)(y)

(x + y + z)

2

=

y

(x + y + z)

2

(Note: Quotient Rule)

w

y

=

(x + y + z)(1) (1)(y)

(x + y + z)

2

=

x + z

(x + y + z)

2

(Note: Quotient Rule)

w

z

=

(x + y + z)(0) (1)(y)

(x + y + z)

2

=

y

(x + y + z)

2

(Note: Quotient Rule)

Aside: We actually only needed the quotient rule for

w

y

, but I used it in all three to illustrate

that the dierences (and to show that it can be used even if some derivatives are zero).

If you are forgetting your derivative rules, here are the most basic ones again (the general exponential

rule

d

dx

(a

x

) = a

x

ln(a) appears in one homework problem):

d

dx

(x

n

) = nx

n1

d

dx

(e

x

) = e

x

,

d

dx

(a

x

) = a

x

ln(a)

d

dx

(ln(x)) =

1

x

d

dx

(sin(x)) = cos(x)

d

dx

(cos(x)) = sin(x)

d

dx

sin

1

(x)

=

1

1 x

2

d

dx

(tan(x)) = sec

2

(x)

d

dx

(cot(x)) = csc

2

(x)

d

dx

sec

1

(x)

=

1

x

x

2

1

d

dx

(sec(x)) = sec(x) tan(x)

d

dx

(csc(x)) = csc(x) cot(x)

d

dx

tan

1

(x)

=

1

x

2

+ 1

(FS)

= FS

+ F

N

D

=

DN

ND

D

2

[f(g(x))]

= f

(g(x))g

(x)

There are some situations when we have an equation implicitly dening a surface (meaning it is not of

the form z = f(x, y), with z by itself on one side). In Math 124, you discussed how to nd derivatives

in this situation using what is called implicit dierentiation. The basic observation is this:

If z is an implicit function of x (that is, z is a dependent variable in terms of the independent variable x),

then we can use the chain rule to say what derivatives of z should look like. For example, if z = sin(x),

and we want to know what the derivative of z

2

, then we can use the chain rule.

d

x

(z

2

) = 2z

dz

dx

=

2 sin(x) cos(x). In real situations where we use this, we dont know the function z, but we can still write

out the second step in this process from above and then solve for

dz

dx

. So for example, if y is a function

of x, then the derivative of y

4

+ x + 3 with respect to x would be 4y

3 dy

dx

+ 1.

Here are some Math 124 problems pertaining to implicit dierentiation (these are problems directly

from a practice sheet I give out when I teach Math 124).

1. Given x

4

+ y

4

= 3, nd

dy

dx

.

ANSWER: Dierentiating with respect to x (and treating y as a function of x) gives

4x

3

+ 4y

3

dy

dx

= 0 (Note the chain rule in the derivative of y

4

)

Now we solve for

dy

dx

, which gives

dy

dx

=

x

3

y

3

.

Note that we get both xs and ys in the answer, but at least we get some answer.

2. Given y

3

x

2

y 2x

3

= 8, nd

dy

dx

ANSWER: Dierentiating with respect to x (and treating y as a function of x) gives

3y

2

dy

dx

2xy x

2

dy

dx

6x

2

= 0 (We used the product rule in the middle term)

Now we solve for

dy

dx

, which gives

(3y

2

x

2

)

dy

dx

= 6x

2

+ 2xy, so

dy

dx

=

6x

2

+ 2xy

3y

2

x

2

.

The solving step can sometimes take a bit of algebra in the end to clean up your answer.

Students who remember implicit dierentiation sometimes ask why we arent implicitly dierentiating

y when we are taking the derivative with respect to x in a multivariable function. And the answer is:

It depends on the role the variable is playing.

When we are taking a partial derivative all variables are treated as xed constant except

two, the independent variable and the dependent variable.

Lets do some examples:

1. Given x

2

+ cos(y) + z

3

= 1, nd

z

x

and

z

y

.

ANSWER: Dierentiating with respect to x (and treating z as a function of x, and y as a constant)

gives

2x + 0 + 3z

2

z

x

= 0 (Note the chain rule in the derivative of z

3

)

Now we solve for

z

x

, which gives

z

x

=

2x

3z

2

.

Note that we get zs in the answer, but, as before, at least we get some answer.

Now for

z

y

. Dierentiating with respect to y (and treating z as a function of y, and x as a

constant) gives

0 sin(y) + 3z

2

z

y

= 0 and solving gives

z

y

=

sin(y)

3z

2

.

2. Given sin(xyz) = x + 3z + y, nd

z

x

ANSWER: Dierentiating with respect to x (and treating z as a function of x, and y as a constant)

gives

cos(xyz)(yz + xy

z

x

) = 1 + 3

z

x

(Note the use of the product and chain rules)

Now we expand and solve for

z

x

, which gives

yz cos(xyz) + xy cos(xyz)

z

x

= 1 + 3

z

x

(xy cos(xyz) 3)

z

x

= 1 yz cos(xyz)

z

x

=

1 yz cos(xyz)

xy cos(xyz) 3

.

I hope this sheet reminds you of some of the ner points of dierentiating and helps to clarify partial

derivatives.

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