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VNR VJIET,BACHUPALLY,HYDERABAD-500092

DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES AND SCIENCES


ACADEMIC PLANNING FOR THE YEAR 20012-2013
I B.Tech II SEMESTER

(Objectives and Academic Planning )

MATHEMATICS-II

No.of weeks: 17 TotalNo.ofperiods:55

No.of Periods per week: 5 Staff Name:K.SRINIVAS, N.POTHANNA


UNIT-I

SYLLABUS
Matrices and linear systems of equations: Elementary row transformations- Rank-
Echlon form,
Normal form Consistency- Solution of simultaneous linear homogeneous and non-
homogeneous equations.Eigen values, Eigen vectors, properties, Cayley - Hamilton
theorem - Inverse and powers of a matrix by Cayley - Hamilton theorem -
Diagonalization of a matrix, calculation of powers of a matrix - Modal and spectral
matrices


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After completion of the unit, the student must to able to
1. Define Eigen values and Eigen vectors
2. Solve problems on Eigen values and Eigen vectors
3. State and prove some properties of Eigen vectors
4. State and prove Cayley - Hamilton theorem
5. Find the inverse of a matrix by Cayley - Hamilton theorem
6. Find the powers of a matrix by Cayley - Hamilton theorem
7. Explain diagonalization of a matrix
8. Solve problems on diagonalization of a matrix
9. Define modal and spectral matrices
10. Solve problems on modal and spectral matrices


LECTURE PLAN(11 periods)
Name Of The Topic Number Of Lecture
Eigen values 1
Periods
Eigen vectors 1
Properties of Eigen values and Eigen vectors 1
Cayley Hamilton theorem 1
Inverse of matrix by Cayley Hamilton theorem 1
Power of a matrix by Cayley Hamilton theorem 1
Diagonalization of a matrix 1
Calculation of powers of a matrix 1
Calculation of powers of a matrix 1
Modal matrices 1
Spectral matrices 1

1. Find the Eigen values and the corresponding Eigen vectors of
ASSIGNMENT

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

2. Prove that the product of the Eigen values is equal to the determinant of the
matrix
3. Diagonalize the matrix

=
3 4 4
1 2 0
1 1 1
A and hence find A
4. Determine the modal matrix P of
4




=
0 2 1
6 1 2
3 2 2
vertices that P
-1
5. Find the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of
AP is a
diagonal matrix



3 4 2
4 7 6
2 6 8



TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
1. Verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix

=
1 4 3
2 3 4
2 8 8
A
2. State and prove Cayley Hamilton theorem
3. If

=
1 2 2
2 1 2
1 2 1
A verify Cayley Hamilton theorem. Find A
4
and A
-1
using
Cayley Hamilton theorem
4. Find a matrix P which transform the matrix


=
3 2 2
1 2 1
1 0 1
A to diagonal form.
Hence calculate A
5. Find the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of B =2A
4

2
A
2
1
- +3I where


=
2 2
4 8
A






UNIT-II

SYLLABUS
Real matrices: Symmetric, skew - symmetric, orthogonal linear transformation -
orthogonal transformation Complex Matrices: Hermitian, Skew - Hermitian and unitary
matrices. Eigen values and Eigen vectors of complex matrices and their properties.
Quadratic forms- Reduction of quadratic form to canonical form- Rank-Positive
,Negative definite , semi definite index-signature-Sylvester law.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1.Define symmetric, skew symmetric and orthogonal matrices
2.Solve problems on symmetric, skew symmetric and orthogonal matrices
3.Define linear transformation
4.Solve problems on orthogonal transformation
5.Define Complex matrices
6.Define Hermitian, skew Hermitian and unitary matrices
7.Solve problems on Hermitian matrices
8.Solve problems on skew Hermitian matrices
9.Solve problems on unitary matrices.
10.Define Quadratic form of a matrix
11. Solve problems on reduction of quadratic form matrix to canonical form matrix
12.Explain positive definite, negative definite, semi definite and indefinite of a matrix
13.Solve problems on positive definite, negative definite, semi definite and indefinite of a
matrix
14.Define index and signature of a matrix
15.Solve problems on index and signature of a matrix
16.Explain Sylvester law


LECTURE PLAN(10 periods)
Real matrices 1
Transformations 1
Orthogonal 1
Linear 1
Complex matrices 1
Eigen values and vectors of complex matrices 2
Quadratic forms 1
Nature of quadratic forms 1
Reduction of Quadratic form to canonical form 1



1. Show that
ASSIGNMENT

=
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2
1
A is orthogonal
2. Reduce the quadratic form x
2
+y
2
+2z
2
3. Prove that the product of two orthogonal matrices is orthogonal
-2xy+4xz+4yz to the canonical form
4. Show that

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
i
i
i
A is a skew Hermitian and also unitary . Find Eigen
values and the corresponding Eigen vectors of A
5. Show that the matrix

+
=
2 4 3
4 3 2
i
i
A Hermitian. Find its Eigen values and
the corresponding Eigen vectors



TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
1. Find the orthogonal transformation which transforms the quadratic form
6x
1
2
+3x
2
2
+3x
3
2
-2x
2
x
3
2. Define i) Spectral matrix ii) Quadratic form iii) Canonical form
to the canonical form
3. Reduce the quadratic form 3x
2
+5y
2
+3z
2
4. Identify the nature of the quadratic form 3 x
-2yz+2zx-2xy to the canonical form
1
2
+3x
2
2
+3x
3
2
+2x
1
x
2
+2x
1
x
3
-2x
2
x
5. By Lagranges reduction transform x
3

1
2
+2 x
2
2
-7 x
3
2
-4 x
1
x
2
+8 x
1
x
3
6. By Lagranges reduction transform 2 x
to canonical
form
1
2
+7 x
2
2
-5 x
3
2
-8 x
1
x
2
-10 x
2
x
3
+4x
1
x
3

to
canonical form


UNIT III:
Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree:-


SYLLABUS
Differential equations of first order and first degree- linear, Bernoulli and exact,
Applications to Newtons law of cooling, law of natural growth and decay, orthogonal
trajectories-basic circuits.

Learning Objectives: At the end of the first unit, the student must be able to:
1.Define a differential equation and classify it into its categories (O.D.E and P.D.E)
2.Distinguish between order and degree of differential equations.
3.Recognize 1st order & first degree ODE of the form: ) , ( y x f
dx
dy
= .
4.Form a differential equation by eliminating arbitrary constant from the general
solution and its derivatives
5.Apply the different methods for obtaining general solution y =g (x, c) in the
different cases.
6.Obtain solution of a first order linear differential equation.
7.Identify Bernoulli equation (non-linear).
8.Obtain the orthogonal trajectories for one parameter family of curves.
9.Apply first order differential equation- Newtons law of cooling.
10.Apply differential equation to the law of natural growth (such as growth of
bacteria) and natural decay (like radium decomposition).
11.Apply differential equation to solve basic circuits.

LECTURE PLAN 11hrs
1hr. Basic definitions of differential equation, ordinary differential equation and partial
differential equation, order of a differential equation, degree, linear and non-linear
O.D.E., with examples, Solution of a Differential equation, particular solution and
particular integral of an O.D.E.
2hr. Classification of the different standard types of first order, first degree differential
equations and methods of solution
3hr Formation of ordinary differential equation by elimination of arbitrary constants
and modeling physical problems.
4hr Define linear differential equations- first order and give method of solving linear
equation.
5hr. Define Bernoulli equation, give methods of finding solution.
6hr. Solution of Exact differential equations
7hr. Reduction of non-exact differential equations using integrating factors- problems
on case 1 case 2

8hr. Reduction of non-exact differential equations using integrating factors-
problems on case 3 and case 4
9hr.. Applications of differential equations to Newtons law of cooling, Law of Natural
growth & Decay
10hr. Define orthogonal trajectories of curves and give method of finding orthogonal
trajectories of family of curves in cartesian cooridinates, Orthogonal trajectories of a
family of curves in polar coordinates.

.
11hr. Solving basic circuit problems

Assignment I
1.Solve
3 2 2
1
+ +
+ +
=
y x
y x
dx
dy

2.Solve x y x y
dx
dy
sec tan
3
= +
3. Solve ( 3x

y
2
y
3
) dx ( 2x
2
y xy
2
4.The growth rate of a bacteria population is proportional to its size. Initially the
population is 10,000 and after 5 days it is 20,000, what is the population size after 15
days?
) dy =0


TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
1. Uranium disintegrates at a rate proportional to the amount present at any instant. If
1 1
2
1
M and M grams of uranium are present at times T
1
and T
2
respectively, show that
the half life of uranium is T
2
T
1
2. Find the orthogonal trajectory of the cardiode:
.
r =a (1 +cos )

3. For the differential equation xy y =0 which of these is not an integrating factor?
(a)
2
1
x
(b)
2
1
y
(c)
xy
1
(d)
y x +
1


Unit-IV - Linear Differential Equations of Second and Higher Order


SYLLABUS
Differential equations of higher order, homogeneous, non-homogenous linear differential
equations of second order and higher order with constant coefficients with RHS of the
type e
ax
, sin (ax), cos (ax), polynomials in x, x e
ax
. X V(x), method of variation of
parameters.

Learning Objectives: At the end of the second unit, the student must be able to:
1.Solve homogeneous and non-homogenous linear differential equation of second and
higher orders with constant coefficients
2.Apply methods of solution for solving 2
nd
order ODE which appear in their core
subjects of study.
3.Model the physical problems and be able to solve them

LECTURE PLAN 10hrs
1hr. Define linear differential equations of second and higher order. Define Wronskian
and determine when functions are linearly dependent or independent.
2hr.Obtain general solution of a homogenous second order linear differential equation
with constant coefficients.
3hr.General solution of non-homogenous linear differential equation
of second order with constant coefficients.
4hr.Different cases of non-homogenous linear differential equation
of second order with R.H.S term of types e
(ax)
5,6hr. Repeat for R.H.S terms of types: polynomials in x, xV(x). Xe
, sin(ax), cos(ax).
7hr. Solution of Cauchy-Euler differential equation, Legendre linear equation.
(ax)

8hr. Obtain general solution of any linear non-homogenous differential equation of
second order using method of variation of parameters.
9hr. Discussion on different methods.
10hr. Class Test on Second order differential equations.

1. Solve: ( D
Assignment II
2
+3D +2 )y =
x
e
2. A copper ball is heated to a temp.100oC. At time t=0, it is placed in water that is
maintained t temp. 30
+x sin(x).

o
3. A generator having emf 100 volts is connected in series with 10hm resistor & an
inductor of 2 Henry.
C. At the end of 3 min., the temp. of ball is reduced to 70oC.
Find the time at which the temp. of the ball drops to 31oC.
If the switch is closed at time t =0, find the current i at any time t in the circuit.
4 An inductor of 0.5 henry is connected in series with a resistor of 6 ohms, a capacitor
of 0.02 farads, a generator having alternating voltage is given by E=24 Sin(10t), t 0,
and a switch. Find the charge and current at any time t, if the charge on the capacitor is
zero,when the switch is closed at t=0.


TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
1. Solve: ( D
2
+5D -6 )y =
x
e
2. A copper ball is heated to a temp.100oC. At time t=0, it is placed in water that is
maintained at temp. 30
+ cos(x).

o
3. A generator having emf 50 volts is connected in series with 5hm resistor & an
inductor of 4 Henry.
C. At the end of 3 min., the temp. of ball is reduced to 70oC.
Find the time at which the temp. of the ball drops to 31oC.






UNIT V: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS


SYLLABUS
Laplace transform of standard functions; Inverse transform-first shifting theorem; Diracs
delta function; Convolution theorem; Periodic function; Differentiation and integration of
transforms; Application of Laplace transforms to ordinary differential equations.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the fifth unit, the student must be able to:
1.Recall the Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform of standard function
2.Apply the theorems of Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transorms.
3.Apply the Laplce transform to solve the initial value problems in ODE



LECTURE PLAN(12 periods)
1.Laplace transform of standard function and standard results 3

2.ILT of standard functions 3
3ILT evaluation techniques 3
4.Application to ODE 3


Assignment
1. Find the LT of
1. tsint
2. sin
at
e t
3. sin
at
e t t
2. Find the ILT of

4.
st
s
e



5.
1
( 1) s s +


6.
2
( 1)( 1)
s
S s + +





TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
1. Find the LT of
7. tcos2t
8. sin3
at
e t
9.
3 2
cos3
at
e t t
2. Find the ILT of

10.
2
st
e
s



11.
1
( 1) s +


12.
2
2
( 2)( 1)
s
S s + +