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What Are the Different Types of Bullying Behavior

Bullying behavior is an ongoing abusive series of actions. It is done as a means for one individual to hurt, demean,
harass and ultimately gain dominance over another individual. This dominance is a form of power, which might be
physical or social. The three basic types of bullying behavior are emotional, physical and verbal.
The goal of bullies is usually some form of coercion or manipulation. The basic forms of abuses are continued to
maintain a status as dominant. Bullying is usually not an isolated incident. Persons known as serial bullies will choose
more than one target and possibly have multiple targets at once. The individual committing the bullying behavior
typically suffers from low self esteem and a lack of empathy.
The types of bullying behavior stem from the three basic abuses. Intentionally hurtful acts that involve verbal and
physical attacks as well as emotional manipulations are all part of the intimidating behavior. This harassment can
come in the form of school bullying or workplace bullying and can even exist on a national level jingoism is
considered a type of bullying.
The basic types of bullying behavior include the following actions physical abuse such as punching, slapping, kicking,
biting or any other action that inflicts harm on the target's body. Verbal abuse includes insults, mocking or degrading
talk and any statements intended to hurt the target or make other people think poorly of the target. Coercion in order
to make the target perform actions that are harmful to the target or people other than the bully is another type of
bullying behavior. This might involve self-inflicted injury, attacking others, theft, cheating, telling lies and other actions
that the target will regret or that will result in injury or damage.
Bullying behavior also includes exclusion that results in isolation so that the target suffers from loneliness and lack of
interaction as well as organized attacks either physical or verbal by several people. Cyber bullying includes the
sending of insulting and degrading messages and emails. This might include posting pictures or messages on
Internet pages that humiliate or degrade the target.
Spreading rumors that defame or insult the target is another form of bullying. This bullying activity can include
blaming the target for starting a rumor in order to direct the anger of others at the target. Setting up a target to take
blame for the action of a bully is another form of bullying, as is purposefully doing something harmful and making the
situation appear as though the target did it is another way to inflict social harm on a target.

What Is Psychological Bullying?

Psychological bullying can be defined as any kind of intentional and purposeful mental abuse. Sometimes people
may feel as though they've been abused because something happened that hurt them emotionally, but it would
generally only qualify as bullying if it were done purposefully, especially with malicious intent. People have many
reasons for bullying others, including personal gain, vengeance, and self-esteem issues. Those who endure
psychological bullying often have emotional problems that can linger for many years after the abuse happens.
One of the most common tactics used during psychological bullying is to personally attack people. When this
happens, the bully may make jokes about some weakness or physical flaw in an individual. This is often done in front
of other people for comedic purposes, or as a way to elevate the bully above his victim in the eyes of his peers.
Another thing that bullies often do is purposely make a big issue out of differences between people. For example, the
bully might make jokes about a person's religious beliefs or race. Usually, the bully will only rely on these tactics if he
can find some obvious way in which the victim is different from most of his peers.
Some bullies take a more indirect route to harming victims. They may rely on rumor and innuendo, and often may
even spread intentional lies about someone. In some cases, this may be done without the victim's knowledge, with
the bully going out of his way to keep his identity secret.
Children are generally well known for problems with both physical and psychological bullying. Among adults, physical
bullying still happens, but the psychological type is usually more common. This is partly because the punishments for
physical abuse often become much more severe for people as they mature, with jail being a possibility.
Physical and mental abuse often go hand in hand. In fact, physical abuse can almost be seen as a kind of
psychological bullying because it has a traumatic psychological effect as well. In addition, most physical bullies rely
on the same tactics as psychological bullies to further torment their victims in addition to their physical assaults. what
generally separates the two is that while physical bullying almost always includes a mental component, psychological
bullying can potentially happen without any physical component at all, and in many situations, it does.

What Is an Explanatory Style?
Explanatory style is the psychological attribute that involves how individuals explain to themselves the events that
happen in their lives. The explanations can be either positive or negative and end up having a profound effect on an
individual's personality. The mind states of cynicism, pessimism, and optimism are also greatly impacted by one's
explanatory style.
Modern psychology has pinpointed three key aspects of this attribute: personal, permanent, and pervasive. The
personal element involves how an individual views the cause of a given event; he may see the event as something
completely of his own doing, or as something caused by external stimuli, totally outside of himself. In the permanent
aspect of explanatory style, the individual explains to himself the extent of the cause; he could view it as fixed and
permanent or as transient and a product of happenstance. The pervasive component entails the extent to which an
individual explains to himself the effects of the situation; he may see it as an issue that permeates all issues in his life,
or he may see it as a fleeting result of a coincidental cause.
Everyday conversational language contains countless examples of explanatory style. Statements such as "It was all
my fault" and "Nothing ever goes my way" are prime examples of pessimistic explanatory style. Phrases like "This too
shall pass" and "Easy come, easy go" are illustrations of optimistic explanatory style.
Evidence suggests that pessimistic explanatory style plays a major role in the development of stress, mental illness,
and even physical illness. The practice of cognitive therapy seeks to remedy mental issues by changing a patient's
negative ways of thinking, often addressing head-on a patient's pessimistic explanatory style. If gone unchecked,
pessimism can lead to learned helplessness, a psychological theory in which an individual feels they have no control
whatsoever over the outcome of a situation, resulting in depression or other mental illnesses. Conversely, an
individual with an optimistic explanatory style can cultivate learned optimism, which entails an individual challenging
any negative explanations he gives himself.
Explanatory style is largely a product of an individual's locus of control, a social psychological term meaning how
thoroughly an individual believes he controls events that impact him. People who have a high locus of control view
the events in their lives as products of their own thinking or behavior. Those with a lower locus of control believe they
have no power in the events of their lives and are victims of circumstance.
What Is a Victim Mentality?
A victim mentality is a state of mind a person can often find himself in after dealing with abuse or unfortunate events.
This state of mind typically causes a person to believe that he has little control over his life and that the events that
occur are the result of what someone else does. While there is legitimacy to the fact that some things that happen in
a persons life are due to the actions of someone else, this type of thinking usually broadens that perception well
beyond what is reasonable. A victim mentality can often make it difficult for a person to move forward in his life and
may cause a number of secondary issues as well.
While a victim mentality can manifest differently for each person, in general it is a state of mind in which a person
typically puts responsibility for what occurs in his life onto someone else. This is often caused by abuse or tragedy in
a persons life that causes him to feel a lack of control. Someone physically or emotionally abused as a child, for
example, feels powerless to stop the abuse as a child, and once an adult may continue to feel that type of
powerlessness through a victim mentality.
It is important to note that a victim mentality develops after abuse or tragedy has struck, but continues into normal or
healthy life. Someone who is a victim of abuse, but is no longer in an abusive situation, may blame his abuser for a
speeding ticket he receives, rather than accepting responsibility for driving too fast. Other problems that occur, such
as getting sick, children behaving inappropriately, losing a job, and a relationship ending will all typically be blamed
on someone else. When someone has a victim mentality, he cannot take responsibility for what occurs.
This type of victim mentality typically stems from actual helplessness, such as the loss of a loved one due to a natural
disaster or act of violence that was beyond a persons control. The extension of that helplessness into other parts of a
persons life, however, can be extremely damaging and make it difficult for the person to move beyond the events
that caused the victim mentality. One of the first steps many people must take to break free of this mentality is to
forgive the source of the abuse or tragedy and to forgive himself for not being able to stop it. This can help a person
begin to move past what occurred and to start to see how he can take control over what is happening in his life.
What Is a Psychological Contract?
A psychological contract is an economic and psychological concept that generally explains the relationship dynamics
between a company and the workers. The basic concept can also be used to describe the dynamics in many kinds of
relationships where people expect to mutually benefit from each other. On the simplest level, a psychological contract
with an employer usually involves some set of expectations regarding the work that the employee is supposed to
provide, while the employer is often expected to supply a particular work environment and some kind of security
about the future. Whether or not an employee or employer feels comfortable with a psychological contract can have
big implications for the work relationship going forward.
The first vestiges of the psychological contract are formed in the very early stages of the interview and hiring process.
The employer and employee will generally both let each other know what they expect the future relationship to be
like. In many cases, the employer might explain the kind of work the person can expect and may mention unwritten
benefits that come with the job.
Once a person starts working for a company, he might discover that the real psychological contract is very different
than the perception that was given in the interview. For example, the employer may have said that everybody at a
company was expected to pull their own weight, but once the person starts working, it may become apparent that
some people aren't doing their fair share, and the company might be allowing it without punishment. These
experiences will usually change the person's perception of the psychological contract terms, and in these cases,
perception often becomes reality.
Other changes to the psychological contract are also likely to occur because of alterations to the business. For
example, if a company switches to a different product, that process will usually change many people's jobs in a
variety of ways. As businesses change, the contract will normally evolve. Eventually, the changes may become large
enough to make the employee or employer become dissatisfied with the whole relationship.
A psychological contract can also exist in other kinds of relationships. For example, two friends might have a
relationship with a variety of underlying psychological expectations about certain things that they will provide for each
other. When those ties of mutual benefit are broken, it is possible for a friendship built along these lines to suffer
What Is Bullycide?
When an individual, primarily a child or teenager, has been harassed or bullied by another and becomes despondent
enough to end his life, this type of suicide is known as bullycide. The expression is taken from two words: bully and
suicide. The growing concern over bullycide has prompted action from support groups and school administrators
whose objective is to bring awareness to this issue. Bullycide also claims the lives of adults, although it is not as
prevalent as cases involving minors.
Every year, statistics show escalating incidence of suicide among victims of harassment. In a large percentage of
bullycide cases, the victims are children and adolescents. Children who find the constant teasing, threats, or other
bullying impossible to cope with and consequently take their own lives have become the subject of great concern.
The connection between suicide and bullying has been documented in diaries. A suicide note left behind is often the
evidence of a case of bullycide. Stories have also been told in books and interviews, often by victims' parents.
Neil Marr and Tim Field first contrived the phrase bullycide in a book their book, which chronicl ed the account of a
victim who had been traumatized by bullying and resorted to suicide. Following that account, a large number of cases
in the United States have been highly publicized by the media, in hopes of bringing about awareness of a growing
issue among school-aged children.
The connection between suicide and bullying is not limited to school-aged children, however. There have been many
reported incidents of adults who have committed suicide as a result of constant harassment in the workplace or in
their private lives. Many of these victims had endured years or nearly a lifetime of bullying before choosing to end
their lives.
According to the experts, bullies come from all walks of life. They are not limited to any age group or economic or
social status. Bullies are present in every race and religion as well. The victims are also from all walks of life. Experts
concur that bullies target those who are most susceptible and defenseless.
Many schools and college campuses have implemented awareness programs aimed at stopping bullying before it
escalates into bullycide. By coordinating a program into a school's curriculum, teachers and administrators hope to
exercise better control and supervision. There are also organizations and programs that can be found online. These
coalition groups are organized as a means of support for parents and youngsters. They are also meant to educate
the public on recognizing the warning signs of bullycide, and steps they can take to stop it.
What Are the Characteristics of Victims of Bullying?
Victims of bullying will often display signs of distress that indicate they are being bullied. Such signs may include
depression, withdrawal, anxiety, a drop in school performance, or even a drop in regular attendance. Certain types of
people often become victims of bullying, and these people are generally a minority in some fashion. Ethnic minorities,
religious minorities, people of lower social or economic status, homosexuals, or simply physically smaller people are
often targeted for bullying, though anyone can be victims of bullying without falling into one of these categories.
Identifying behaviors and warning signs associated with bullying quickly is vital to preventing it from occurring
The characteristics of bullying victims can vary on a case by case basis, but very often, bullying is focused on
children who are in some way different than others. This may mean a socioeconomic difference it is known that a
particular student is receiving food stamps or free lunch vouchers, for example or a difference in race, ethnicity,
gender, sexual preference, or physical build. Students who are physically and mentally handicapped are often
targeted for bullying, and in many cases, the victims of bullying suffer insult, ridicule, or even physical violence from
more than one bully. It is not uncommon for groups of people to bully only one or two people.
The indicators victims of bullying will exhibit will vary from person to person, but some common behaviors one might
exhibit include a change in eating habits, a drop in school or work performance, a change in daily routines walking
to school by a different route, for example depression, anxiety, and withdrawal. A person who is ostracized by
classmates or colleagues is likely to feel threatened, thereby encouraging him or her to withdraw from groups and
become isolated. In some cases, the bullies may create a situation in which isolation is the victim's only option. The
victim may become more introverted, melancholy, and in severe cases, suicidal.
Another common indicator of bullying is the loss of personal possessions. When a victim's possessions go missing, a
version of physical bullying may be taking place. A bully may be stealing or destroying the victim's items, or he may
be threatening to take or destroy those items, prompting the victim to hide them or leave them at home. A threat of
physical violence against one's person or possessions is a serious and usually quite noticeable version of bullying
that commonly takes place among boys, though girls may participate in this type of behavior as well.