“GRAMMAR” Grammar is an art and science of language.
Grammars enable us to speak, write, and read any language accurately in simple words grammar is base and beauty of language. “OR” Grammar is the backbone of language and vocabulary its body if backbone is defected than body is crippled. “LANGUAGE” A collection of words or sentences, which we convey our thought to an other person and what an other person convey us that is called language. “LETTER” There are 26 symbols in English alphabets, each of them we called letter. “WORD” A group of letters which make a complete sense that is called word. “SENTENCE” A group of words which make a complete sense that, is called sentence. “PHRASE” A group of words, which do not make a complete sense that, is called phrase.
Example: Under the tree, in the box, on the table, behind the chair, between the tables. “CLAUSE” A group of words, which do not make a complete sense but it, has a subject and verb that is called clause. Example: They jump, we sleep, and we eat. “VERB” A verb is a word, which shows an action that is called verb. “OR” A verb tells us the position of noun and pronoun or subject that is called verb. Example: I drink water, you read a book. There are two kinds of Verb: 1. Transitive Verb 2. Intransitive Verb “TRANSITIVE VERB” A Transitive verb is a word or verb, which requires object after it to make a complete sense, is called transitive verb. Example: He eats a food. They climb the tree. “INTRANSITIVE VERB” An Intransitive is a word or verb, which does not, requires object but it gives the meaning only from subject that is called intransitive verb.
Example: The dogs bark, Men walk “SUBJECT” The doer of an action that is called subject. Example: “Saleem” write a latter. “OBJECT” The sustained of an action is called object. “PREDICATE” The part of sentence, which tells us about, subject that is called predicate. Example: I “go to Lahore”, He “sings a song” “NOUN” A Noun is the name of person, place, thing and animal is called Noun. Example: Ali, Karachi, Pen, Cat.
There 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
are seven kinds of Noun: Common Noun Proper Noun Countable Noun Un countable Abstract Noun Collective Noun Material Noun
“COMMON NOUN” Such names, which are given to person, place, thing, animal is called common noun. Example: School, cat, cup, Ali or boy. “PROPER NOUN” Such names, which are given to person, place, thing and animal properly is called proper noun. Example: Quaid-e-Azam, Liberty statue, G.M Syed, Pale cat, Piano pen, Taj Mahel. “COUNTABLE NOUN” Such names, which we can count that is, called countable noun. Example: Table, watch etc “UN COUNTABLE NOUN” Such names, which we cannot count that is, called uncountable noun. Example: Sugar, rice, hair, oil, water. “ABSTRACT NOUN” Such names, which we cannot touch or see but we only feel that is, called Abstract noun. Example: Honesty, Poor, Steal, Rich, Lie, Truth and Sincerity. “COLLECTIVE NOUN” Such names, which we are given to collectively, that is called collective noun. Example: A Crowd: A collection of peoples.
An Army: A collection of soldiers. A Fleet: A collection of ships. “MATERIAL NOUN” Such things, which is made of any material that is called Material noun. Example: A Golden chain. A Stonewall. Wooden Door. Iron, Silver, Leather, Cotton, Plastic and Stone
“GENDER” There are four kinds of gender. 1. Masculine Gender 2. Feminine Gender 3. Neuter Gender 4. Common Gender
“MASCULINE GENDER” Such names which we may found in male and male animal that is called masculine gender. Example: Aslam/ Animals: Lion, Cock sparrow, Dog and Horse
“FEMININE GENDER” Such names which we may found in female and female animal that is called feminine gender. Example: Asma/ Animals: Hen, Bitch, Sparrow hen “NEUTER GENDER” Such names, which denotes neither male nor female that is called neuter gender. Example: Table, chair, watch
“COMMON GENDER” Such names, which we may found in male and female that is, called common gender. Example: Doctor, Parent, and Teacher. “PRONOUN” A pronoun is a word, which is used instead of a noun. Example: I, we, you, They, He, She, It Kinds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. of Pronoun: Personal Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun Interrogative Pronoun Indefinite Pronoun Emphatic Pronoun Relative Pronoun Distributive Pronoun Reciprocal Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
“PERSONAL PRONOUN” A pronoun, which is used instead of name, is called personal pronoun. Example: 1st person: I, We 2nd person: You 3rd person: He, She, They, And It “DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN” A pronoun, which indicates the side of person or thing, is called demonstrative pronoun. Example: This, That, Those, These. This is a chair. These are boys. “INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN” A pronoun asks a question is called interrogative pronoun. Example: Who, What, Whose, Where. Who are you? “INDEFINITE PRONOUN” A pronoun which refer to person or thing in generally way but it does not refer to person or thing in particular way that is called indefinite pronoun. Example: Some body, every body, no one. “EMPHATIC PRONOUN” A pronoun which we use for the sake of emphasized is called emphatic pronoun. Example: My self, Him self, Her self, them self, Your self. You can do your self.
“RELATIVE PRONOUN” A pronoun, which refers to some noun going before and it also joins, the two sentences together it there fore does the work of conjunction so it is also called the conjunction pronoun. Example: Who, Whom, Whose, Which etc. This is a boy who broke my slate. She has pen which colour is blue.
“AN ADJECTIVE” An adjective is a word, which is used to some thing to the meaning of noun or pronoun is called an adjective. Example: Ali is a brave boy. I have blue shirt. Kinds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. of An adjective: Adjective of quality Adjective of quantity Demonstrative Adjective Distributive Adjective Proper Adjective Interrogative Adjective Emphasizing Adjective
“ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY” Such an adjective, which shows the quality of noun or pronoun, is called an adjective of quality. Example: Good, dad, wise, lazy, shrewd, oracle, intelligent, poor and rich. “ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY” Such an adjective, which shows the quantity of noun and pronoun, is called an adjective of quantity. Example: Some, No, Little and Any.
She is a little intelligent. He is fast baler in cricket. ADJECTIVE” Such an adjective, which indicates the side of person or thing that is called demonstrative an adjective. Example: This, those, these, they etc. They are working near my house. He lives with me. ADJECTIVE” Such an adjective which distributive the things or persons is called distributive an adjective. Example: Each, every, either, neither etc Each of these six boys is price winner. I know each of these two girls. Every teacher should be work with sincerity. Each boy has his own pen. ADJECTIVE” Such an adjective, which we make from a proper noun, is called proper an adjective it is mostly used for cities or countries. Example: Pakistan => Pakistani Australia =>Australian Indian =>Indian America =>American ADJECTIVE” “INTERROGATIVE “PROPER “DISTRIBUTIVE “DEMONSTRATIVE
Such an adjective, which asks the question that, is called interrogative adjective. Example: What, whose, which, where and when. Where were you? When you will do this work?
“EMPHASIZING ADJECTIVE” Such an adjective, which we used for the sake of emphasizing adjective. Example: Emphasizing words are “Very and Own” I saw it with my own eyes. They cooked with their own hands. This is a very gift he wishes for. My very friend turned against me.
“The Comparison of an adjectives” There are three degrees of comparison. 1: Positive 2: Comparative 3: Superlative IVE DEGREE” It is a simple form of an adjective it shows the simple quality of noun or pronoun. Example: Ali is a intelligent boy. This is a beautiful flower. “POSIT
TIVE DEGREE” Comparative degree denotes the higher degree of a quality then positive it is used when two things of same class or kind are compared. Example: My friends are clever more then all girls who are studying with us. This house more beautiful than mine. Ali is a wiser than aslam. ATIVE DEGREE” It denotes the highest quality of person or thing it is used when more than the two things are compared. Example: Riaz is the best boy of our class. This house most beautiful. We are so simplest in our area. “SUPERL
There are two Degrees: 1: Regular 2: Irregular
“REGULAR” Positive Comparative Tall Taller Wise Wiser Able Abler Simple Simpler Brave Braver
Superlative Tallest Wisest Ablest Simplest Bravest
“IRREGULAR” Positive Comparative Superlative Good/well Better Best Bad/Evil/ill Worse Worst Little Less/Lesser Least Many More Most Much More Most Adjective more than the two syllabus from the comparative and superlative by putting “more” and “most”. Positive Beautiful Magnificent magnificent Splendid Courageous courageous Industrious Comparative Superlative More beautiful Most beautiful More magnificent Most More splendid Most splendid More courageous Most More industrious Most industrious
“SINGULAR TO PLURAL”
1: Mostly noun becomes plural when “s” added. Singular Boy Chair Pen Girl Book Actor Plural Boys Chairs Pens Girls Books Actors
2: When a noun or word end with “SH” “CH” or “O” then for a plural sense we have to add “ES” or “S”. Singular Bench Brush Watch Match Mango Buffalo Negro Plural Benches Brushes Watches Matches Mangoes Buffaloes Negroes
3: When a noun ends “Y” then we have to remove a “Y” and for a plural sense we have to add “IES”. Singular Baby Story Country Army City Poetry Plural Babies Stories Countries Armies Cities Poetries
4: When a noun or any word ends with “X” letter then for a plural purpose we have to add “ES”. Singular Tax Box Fox Pox Plural Taxes Boxes Foxes Poxes
5: When a noun ends “F” or “FE” then for a plural sense we have to remove a “F” or “FE” and we have to add “VES”. Singular Thief Wife Knife Leaf Wolf Golf Proof Gold leaf Grief Plural Thieves Wives Knives Leaves Wolves Gloves Proves Gold leaves Grieves
6: Another word or another noun end with “F” or “FE” then for a plural sense it is not necessary to remove a “F” or “FE” just we have to add “S”. Singular Chief Handkerchief Plural Chiefs Handkerchiefs
Belief Mischief Grief
Beliefs Mischief’s Grief’s
7: There are large numbers of noun which do not follow any rule and they are irregular. Singular Man Woman Foot Mouse Plural Men Women Feet Mice
“ARTICLES” In order to write and speak the correct English. It is very important for the students that he or she should be master of use definite and indefinite articles. “Jurally speaking out students comes for the following types of mistakes in the use of definite and indefinite articles” 1: They put the definite article where it is not required. 2: They don’t put the definite or indefinite article where it is required. There are two kinds of articles: 1: Definite Article => “The” 2: Indefinite Article => “A, An”
“DEFINITE ARTICLE” “The” article is used before the particular person or thing or place or we can use before some person, Places, or things, which is already mentioned.