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“GRAMMAR”

Grammar is an art and science of language.


Grammars enable us to speak, write, and read any
language accurately in simple words grammar is base
and beauty of language.
“OR”
Grammar is the backbone of language and vocabulary
its body if backbone is defected than body is crippled.

“LANGUAGE”
A collection of words or sentences, which we convey
our thought to an other person and what an other
person convey us that is called language.

“LETTER”
There are 26 symbols in English alphabets, each of
them we called letter.

“WORD”
A group of letters which make a complete sense that
is called word.

“SENTENCE”
A group of words which make a complete sense that,
is called sentence.

“PHRASE”
A group of words, which do not make a complete
sense that, is called phrase.
Example: Under the tree, in the box, on the table,
behind the chair, between the tables.

“CLAUSE”
A group of words, which do not make a complete
sense but it, has a subject and verb that is called
clause.
Example: They jump, we sleep, and we eat.

“VERB”
A verb is a word, which shows an action that is called
verb.
“OR”
A verb tells us the position of noun and pronoun or
subject that is called verb.
Example: I drink water, you read a book.

There are two kinds of Verb:


1. Transitive Verb
2. Intransitive Verb

“TRANSITIVE VERB”
A Transitive verb is a word or verb, which requires
object after it to make a complete sense, is called
transitive verb.
Example: He eats a food.
They climb the tree.

“INTRANSITIVE VERB”
An Intransitive is a word or verb, which does not,
requires object but it gives the meaning only from
subject that is called intransitive verb.
Example: The dogs bark, Men walk

“SUBJECT”
The doer of an action that is called subject.
Example: “Saleem” write a latter.

“OBJECT”
The sustained of an action is called object.

“PREDICATE”
The part of sentence, which tells us about, subject
that is called predicate.
Example: I “go to Lahore”, He “sings a song”

“NOUN”
A Noun is the name of person, place, thing and animal
is called Noun.
Example: Ali, Karachi, Pen, Cat.

There are seven kinds of Noun:


1. Common Noun
2. Proper Noun
3. Countable Noun
4. Un countable
5. Abstract Noun
6. Collective Noun
7. Material Noun
“COMMON NOUN”
Such names, which are given to person, place, thing,
animal is called common noun.
Example: School, cat, cup, Ali or boy.

“PROPER NOUN”
Such names, which are given to person, place, thing
and animal properly is called proper noun.
Example: Quaid-e-Azam, Liberty statue, G.M Syed,
Pale cat, Piano pen, Taj Mahel.

“COUNTABLE NOUN”
Such names, which we can count that is, called
countable noun.
Example: Table, watch etc

“UN COUNTABLE NOUN”


Such names, which we cannot count that is, called
uncountable noun.
Example: Sugar, rice, hair, oil, water.

“ABSTRACT NOUN”
Such names, which we cannot touch or see but we
only feel that is, called Abstract noun.
Example: Honesty, Poor, Steal, Rich, Lie, Truth and
Sincerity.

“COLLECTIVE NOUN”
Such names, which we are given to collectively, that
is called collective noun.
Example: A Crowd: A collection of peoples.
An Army: A collection of soldiers.
A Fleet: A collection of ships.

“MATERIAL NOUN”
Such things, which is made of any material that is
called Material noun.
Example: A Golden chain.
A Stonewall.
Wooden Door.
Iron, Silver, Leather, Cotton, Plastic and
Stone

“GENDER”
There are four kinds of gender.
1. Masculine Gender
2. Feminine Gender
3. Neuter Gender
4. Common Gender

“MASCULINE GENDER”
Such names which we may found in male and male
animal that is called masculine gender.
Example: Aslam/ Animals: Lion, Cock sparrow, Dog
and Horse
“FEMININE GENDER”
Such names which we may found in female and
female animal that is called feminine gender.
Example: Asma/ Animals: Hen, Bitch, Sparrow hen

“NEUTER GENDER”
Such names, which denotes neither male nor female
that is called neuter gender.
Example: Table, chair, watch

“COMMON GENDER”
Such names, which we may found in male and female
that is, called common gender.
Example: Doctor, Parent, and Teacher.

“PRONOUN”
A pronoun is a word, which is used instead of a noun.
Example: I, we, you, They, He, She, It

Kinds of Pronoun:
1. Personal Pronoun
2. Demonstrative Pronoun
3. Interrogative Pronoun
4. Indefinite Pronoun
5. Emphatic Pronoun
6. Relative Pronoun
7. Distributive Pronoun
8. Reciprocal Pronoun
9. Reflexive Pronoun
“PERSONAL PRONOUN”
A pronoun, which is used instead of name, is called
personal pronoun.
Example: 1st person: I, We
2nd person: You
3rd person: He, She, They, And It

“DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN”
A pronoun, which indicates the side of person or thing,
is called demonstrative pronoun.
Example: This, That, Those, These.
This is a chair.
These are boys.

“INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN”
A pronoun asks a question is called interrogative
pronoun.
Example: Who, What, Whose, Where.
Who are you?

“INDEFINITE PRONOUN”
A pronoun which refer to person or thing in generally
way but it does not refer to person or thing in
particular way that is called indefinite pronoun.
Example: Some body, every body, no one.

“EMPHATIC PRONOUN”
A pronoun which we use for the sake of emphasized is
called emphatic pronoun.
Example: My self, Him self, Her self, them self, Your
self.
You can do your self.
“RELATIVE PRONOUN”
A pronoun, which refers to some noun going before
and it also joins, the two sentences together it there
fore does the work of conjunction so it is also called
the conjunction pronoun.
Example: Who, Whom, Whose, Which etc.
This is a boy who broke my slate.
She has pen which colour is blue.
“AN
ADJECTIVE”
An adjective is a word, which is used to some thing to
the meaning of noun or pronoun is called an adjective.
Example: Ali is a brave boy.
I have blue shirt.

Kinds of An adjective:
1. Adjective of quality
2. Adjective of quantity
3. Demonstrative Adjective
4. Distributive Adjective
5. Proper Adjective
6. Interrogative Adjective
7. Emphasizing Adjective

“ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY”
Such an adjective, which shows the quality of noun or
pronoun, is called an adjective of quality.
Example: Good, dad, wise, lazy, shrewd, oracle,
intelligent, poor and rich.

“ADJECTIVE OF
QUANTITY”
Such an adjective, which shows the quantity of noun
and pronoun, is called an adjective of quantity.
Example: Some, No, Little and Any.
She is a little intelligent.
He is fast baler in cricket.

“DEMONSTRATIVE
ADJECTIVE”
Such an adjective, which indicates the side of person
or thing that is called demonstrative an adjective.
Example: This, those, these, they etc.
They are working near my house.
He lives with me.

“DISTRIBUTIVE
ADJECTIVE”
Such an adjective which distributive the things or
persons is called distributive an adjective.
Example: Each, every, either, neither etc
Each of these six boys is price winner.
I know each of these two girls.
Every teacher should be work with sincerity.
Each boy has his own pen.

“PROPER
ADJECTIVE”
Such an adjective, which we make from a proper
noun, is called proper an adjective it is mostly used
for cities or countries.
Example: Pakistan => Pakistani
Australia =>Australian
Indian =>Indian
America =>American

“INTERROGATIVE
ADJECTIVE”
Such an adjective, which asks the question that, is
called interrogative adjective.
Example: What, whose, which, where and when.
Where were you?
When you will do this work?

“EMPHASIZING
ADJECTIVE”
Such an adjective, which we used for the sake of
emphasizing adjective.
Example: Emphasizing words are “Very and Own”
I saw it with my own eyes.
They cooked with their own hands.
This is a very gift he wishes for.
My very friend turned against me.

“The Comparison of an
adjectives”
There are three degrees of comparison.
1: Positive
2: Comparative
3: Superlative

“POSIT
IVE DEGREE”
It is a simple form of an adjective it shows the simple
quality of noun or pronoun.
Example: Ali is a intelligent boy.
This is a beautiful flower.
“COMPARA
TIVE DEGREE”
Comparative degree denotes the higher degree of a
quality then positive it is used when two things of
same class or kind are compared.
Example: My friends are clever more then all girls who
are studying with us.
This house more beautiful than mine.
Ali is a wiser than aslam.

“SUPERL
ATIVE DEGREE”
It denotes the highest quality of person or thing it is
used when more than the two things are compared.
Example: Riaz is the best boy of our class.
This house most beautiful.
We are so simplest in our area.

There are two Degrees:


1: Regular
2: Irregular
“REGULAR”
Positive Comparative Superlative
Tall Taller Tallest
Wise Wiser Wisest
Able Abler Ablest
Simple Simpler Simplest
Brave Braver Bravest

“IRREGULAR”
Positive Comparative Superlative
Good/well Better Best
Bad/Evil/ill Worse Worst
Little Less/Lesser Least
Many More Most
Much More Most

Adjective more than the two syllabus from the


comparative and superlative by putting “more” and
“most”.

Positive Comparative Superlative


Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Magnificent More magnificent Most
magnificent
Splendid More splendid Most splendid
Courageous More courageous Most
courageous
Industrious More industrious Most industrious

“SINGULAR TO PLURAL”
1: Mostly noun becomes plural when “s” added.

Singular Plural
Boy Boys
Chair Chairs
Pen Pens
Girl Girls
Book Books
Actor Actors

2: When a noun or word end with “SH” “CH” or “O”


then for a plural sense we have to
add “ES” or “S”.

Singular Plural
Bench Benches
Brush Brushes
Watch Watches
Match Matches
Mango Mangoes
Buffalo Buffaloes
Negro Negroes

3: When a noun ends “Y” then we have to remove a


“Y” and for a plural sense we have to add “IES”.

Singular Plural
Baby Babies
Story Stories
Country Countries
Army Armies
City Cities
Poetry Poetries
4: When a noun or any word ends with “X” letter then
for a plural purpose we have to add “ES”.

Singular Plural
Tax Taxes
Box Boxes
Fox Foxes
Pox Poxes

5: When a noun ends “F” or “FE” then for a plural


sense we have to remove a “F” or “FE” and we have
to add “VES”.

Singular Plural
Thief Thieves
Wife Wives
Knife Knives
Leaf Leaves
Wolf Wolves
Golf Gloves
Proof Proves
Gold leaf Gold leaves
Grief Grieves

6: Another word or another noun end with “F” or “FE”


then for a plural sense it is not necessary to remove a
“F” or “FE” just we have to add “S”.

Singular Plural
Chief Chiefs
Handkerchief Handkerchiefs
Belief Beliefs
Mischief Mischief’s
Grief Grief’s

7: There are large numbers of noun which do not


follow any rule and they are irregular.

Singular Plural
Man Men
Woman Women
Foot Feet
Mouse Mice

“ARTICLES”
In order to write and speak the correct English. It is
very important for the students that he or she should
be master of use definite and indefinite articles.

“Jurally speaking out students comes for the following


types of mistakes in the use of definite and indefinite
articles”

1: They put the definite article where it is not


required.
2: They don’t put the definite or indefinite article
where it is required.

There are two kinds of articles:


1: Definite Article => “The”
2: Indefinite Article => “A, An”
“DEFINITE ARTICLE”
“The” article is used before the particular person or
thing or place or we can use before some person,
Places, or things, which is already mentioned.