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Competencies (Page 1 of 2)

• Discuss connectivity, the wireless revolution, and


communication systems
• Describe physical and wireless communications
channels
Chapter 9 • Discuss connection devices, including modems, T1,
DSL, cable modem, satellite, and cellular
connections
Communications and • Describe data transmission factors, including
bandwidths and protocols
Networks

9-2
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Page 246

Competencies (Page 2 of 2) Introduction


• Discuss networks and key network
terminologies. Cell phones and other wireless
• Describe different types of networks, technologies are allowing us to stay
including local area, metropolitan area,
and wide area networks. connected in today’s world like never
• Describe network architectures, before. Increased connectivity
including configurations and strategies. potentially means increased
• Describe organizational uses of Internet productivity especially in the business
technologies, including intranets,
extranets, and firewalls. world. You will learn more about the
concept of connectivity and the impact
of the wireless revolution in this
chapter.
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Communications Communications Today


• Numerous applications depend on
communication systems—E-mail, Instant
messaging (IM), Internet telephone, and
Electronic commerce
• Connectivity uses computer networks to link
people and resources
• Going wireless has been the most dramatic
change

The process of sharing data, programs, and


information between two or more computers
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1
Communication Systems Communication Channels
• Four basic elements
– Sending and receiving devices • Channels carry data from one computer
– Communication channel
to another
– Connection devices
– Data transmission specifications • Two categories of communication
channels
– Physical connection
– Wireless connection

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Wireless Connections
Physical Connections
• Telephone lines
• Infrared
(Twisted pair cables)
• Broadcast radio
– Wi-FI (wireless
• Coaxial cable fidelity) 802.11 Microwave dish
• Microwave
– Stations
– Bluetooth
• Fiber-optic cable
• Satellite Satellite
– GPS
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Communication Channels
Connection Device Signals
Summary
• Types of signals

– Analog

– Digital

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2
Connection Device Types and Connection Service
Transfer Speeds • Dial-Up services
• Leased lines – T1, T2, T3 and T4
• Types of modems • Digital subscriber line (DSL)
– External – Uses existing phone lines
– One type widely used is ADSL
– Internal
• Cable modems
– PC Card – Uses existing TV cable
– Wireless – Provides speeds as fast as DSL at a lower cost
• Satellite/air connection services
– Seven times faster than dial-up
– Slower than DSL & cable modem
• Cellular Services
Transfer Speeds – Alternative for mobile devices and laptops
– Current service areas limited
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Typical User Connection Costs &


Bandwidth
Speeds
• Measurement of the capacity of the
channel
• Categories
– Voiceband also known as low bandwidth
– Medium band
– Broadband
• Used for high capacity transmission
• Used by DSL, cable, and satellite

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Protocols Networks
• Set of communication rules • A computer network is a
• Standard for Internet: TCP/IP communication system
(Transmission control protocol/Internet • Connects two or more computers
protocol) • Allows information exchange
– Identification
– Reformatting

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3
Computer Networks Network Types
Computer Networks Connect Computers
Common network terms • Local area networks
• Node • Home networks
• Client – WLAN
• Server • Metropolitan area
• Hub networks
• Network interface cards (NIC) • Wide area networks
• Network operating system LAN
(NOS)
• Distributed processing
• Host computer
• Network administrator
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Network Architecture Star Network


• Architecture describes how a network • Smaller computers
is arranged linked to a central
unit
• Arrangement is called topology
• Central unit is called
• Types of network topology the network hub
– Star • Control is
– Bus maintained by
– Ring polling
– Hierarchical

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Bus Network Ring Network


• Each device handles its own communication
control • Each device is
connected to two
• There is no host computer
other devices
• Has a common connecting cable called a
• No central file
backbone
server or computer
• Useful in a
decentralized
environment

Return
Return
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4
Hierarchical Network Principal Network Configurations
• Several computers
linked to a central
host
• Computers are
hosts to other
computers
• Useful in centralized
organizations

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Strategies Organizational Internets


• Intranets
– Private network within an
• Strategy is a way of
organization
coordinating the
– Provides information to
sharing of employees
information and
• Extranets
resources
– Private network that connects
• Common network organizations
strategies – Used to allow suppliers and
– Terminal others access
– Client/server • Firewalls
– Peer-to-peer – Security system
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Careers In IT A Look to the Future


Cars that Monitor and Respond
• Network Administrator • Pod car (Personalization on Demand)
– Manage a company’s
LAN and WAN networks • Predicts and responds
– Maintain hardware and
software • Designed to learn and adapt to an
– Diagnose and repair
problems individual's driving needs and habits
– Candidates usually have
a bachelor’s degree in
computer science and
practical experience
– Annual salary is typically
between $43,000 and
$68,000

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5
Discussion Questions (1 of 2) Discussion Questions (2 of 2)
• Define and discuss connectivity, the • Define and discuss the four principal
wireless revolution, and network topologies.
communications.
• Define and discuss the three most
• Identify and describe the various common network strategies.
physical and wireless communication
channels.

• Identify the standard Internet protocol


and discuss its essential features.
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