Research | Sewage | Wastewater


“Ventilation,” deriving from the Latin ventus and meaning the movement of air, is used to define air change in
buildings from fan-driven mechanical systems or from natural air flow through ventilating openings. This article
discusses natural (wind-pressure driven) air flow principles and design techniques for ventilation to satisfy human

The physics of natural ventilation
Breezes act according to the laws of nature. The designer must understand certain scientific principles before
deciding with accuracy how to control air movement.

Electric-power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants toelectrical
substations located near demand centers. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations
and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. Transmission lines, when
interconnected with each other, become transmission networks.

Electric power can also be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines.
Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, and are less affected by
bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher than overhead construction. Faults
in buried transmission lines take longer to locate and repair. Underground lines are strictly limited by their
thermal capacity, which permits less overload or re-rating than overhead lines. Long underground AC cables have
significant capacitance, which may reduce their ability to provide useful power to loads beyond 50 miles. Long
underground DC cables have no such issue and can run for thousands of miles.

Undergrounding refers to the replacement of overhead cables providing electrical power or telecommunications,
with underground cables. This is typically performed for aesthetic purposes. Undergrounding can increase the
initial costs of electric power transmission and distribution but may decrease operational costs over the lifetime of
the cables.

 Municipalities have passed laws requiring new distribution facilities to be placed underground.
„ For aesthetic reasons
„ To increase property values (5--10% according to some studies)
 Cost covered by developers and ultimately paid by property owners. Provide better protection from
storm damage and improve reliability of power supply.

Physical Limitations of Underground Lines

 The main argument against constructing underground systems is usually financial. But costs are not the
only limitation.
 The laws of physics limit how physically long a power line can be.
 These limits are relatively unimportant on overhead lines but will severely limit high voltage
underground cable systems.
„The higher the voltage the shorter the line length must be.
„The limiting effects become very important at transmission voltages, especially 100,000 Volts and above.
„Limiting effects may also be important for subtransmission voltages, 69,000 Volts and 35,000 Volts.

Physical Limitations: The Effect of Capacitance
 Capacitance causes current to flow even when no load is connected to the cable. This is called ““line
charging current””..
 Underground line capacitance for power cables is far higher than overhead line capacitance.
„Wires are closer to each other
„Wires are closer to the earth (within a few inches).
 Underground lines have 20
--75 times the line charging current that an overhead line has (depending on line voltage).
If a line is long enough the charging current could be equal to the total amount of current the line can carry. This
will severely limit its ability to deliver power.

The aerial cables that carry high-voltage electricity and are supported by large pylons are generally considered an
unattractive feature of the countryside. Underground cables can transmit power across densely populated or areas
where land is costly or environmentally or esthetically sensitive. Underground and underwater crossings may be a
practical alternative for crossing rivers.
Other advantages include:
 Less subject to damage from severe weather conditions (mainly lightning, wind and freezing)
 Greatly reduced emission, into the surrounding area, of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The electric current in
the cable conductor produces a magnetic field, but the closer grouping of underground power cables reduces
the resultant external magnetic field and further magnetic shielding may be provided at additional
cost. See Electromagnetic radiation and health.
 Underground cables need a narrower surrounding strip of about 1–10 meters to install (up to 30m for 400kV
cables during construction), whereas an overhead line requires a surrounding strip of about 20–200 meters
wide to be kept permanently clear for safety, maintenance and repair.
 Underground cables pose no hazard to low flying aircraft or to wildlife.
 Much less subject to conductor theft, illegal connections, sabotage, and damage from armed conflict.
Disadvantages include:
 Undergrounding is more expensive, since the cost of burying cables at transmission voltages is several times
greater than overhead power lines, and the life-cycle cost of an underground power cable is two to four
times the cost of an overhead power line. Above ground lines cost around $10 per foot and underground
lines cost in the range of $20 to $40 per foot. In highly urbanized areas the cost of underground
transmission can be 10-14 times as expensive as overhead.
 Whereas finding and repairing overhead wire breaks can be accomplished in hours, underground repairs can
take days or weeks, and for this reason redundant lines are run.
 Underground cable locations are not always obvious, which can lead to unwary diggers damaging cables or
being electrocuted.
 Operations are more difficult since the high reactive power of underground cables produces large charging
currents and so makes voltage control more difficult
 Whereas overhead lines can easily be uprated by modifying line clearances and power poles to carry more
power, underground cables cannot be uprated and must be supplemented or replaced to increase capacity.
Transmission and distribution companies generally future-proof underground lines by installing the highest-
rated cables while being still cost-effective.
 Underground cables are more subject to damage by ground movement. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake in
New Zealand caused damage to 360 kilometres (220 mi) of high voltage underground cables and
subsequently cut power to large parts of Christchurch city, whereas only a few kilometres of overhead lines
were damaged, largely due to pole foundations being compromised by liquefaction.
The advantages can in some cases outweigh the disadvantages of the higher investment cost, and more expensive
maintenance and management.

Water Distribution Systems
A water distribution system is the physical works that deliver water from the water source to the intended end
point or user. It is designed to deliver sufficient water quantity and quality to meet the requirements of the
Typically, this is achieved by way of pumps and motors, watermains, service pipes, storage tanks or reservoirs,
and related equipment, in a closed system under pressure.
Some of the levels of service within a community include:
 sufficient water for domestic use within a home for cooking, cleaning, and drinking
 domestic use plus water available for fire protection
 domestic use plus commercial, industrial, institutional, and agricultural use
In some cases, hauling and delivering of water by tanker truck is required.

Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality
by anthropogenic influence. Municipal wastewater is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and
treated at a wastewater treatment plant. Treated wastewater is discharged into a receiving water via an effluent
sewer. Wastewaters generated in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site wastewater
systems. These typically comprise a septic tank, drain field, and optionally an on-site treatment unit.
Sewage is the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any
wastewater. Sewage includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via
a pipe or sewer (sanitary or combined), sometimes in a cesspool emptier.
Sewerage is the physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from
its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal. It is found in all types of sewage treatment, with the
exception of septic systems, which treat sewage on site.

In some urban areas, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers and runoff from streets is carried in storm
drains. Access to either of these is typically through a manhole. During high precipitation periods a sanitary sewer
overflow can occur, forcing untreated sewage to flow back into the environment. This can pose a serious threat
to public health and the surrounding environment.
Sewage may drain directly into major watersheds with minimal or no treatment. When untreated, sewage can
have serious impacts on the quality of an environment and on the health of people. Pathogens can cause a variety
of illnesses. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low concentrations and can remain a threat for long periods
of time because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue

A water turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water.
Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical
grids. Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. Water turbines are mostly found in Embankment
dams to generate electric power from water kinetic energy.
A bicycle sharing system, or bike share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to
individuals on a very short term basis. The main purpose is transportation: bike share allows people to depart
from point "A" and arrive at point "B" free from the worries of ownership.
Bike-share has seen explosive, global growth over recent years. As of April 2013 there were around 535 bike-
sharing programmes around the world, made of an estimated fleet of 517,000 bicycles. In May 2011 there were
around 375 schemes comprising 236,000 bikes.
So those two years saw a doubling of bike share globally.
Many bike-share systems offer subscriptions that make the first 30–45 minutes of use very inexpensive,
encouraging their use as transportation. In most bike-share cities, people seeking a bicycle for casual riding over
several hours or days are better served by bicycle rental than by bike-share.

Bicycle parking involves the infrastructure and equipment (bike racks, bicycle locks etc.) to enable secure and
convenient parking of bicycles. Arrangements for this include lockers, racks, manned or unmanned bicycle parking
stations including automated facilities, roofs for weatherproofing, as well as specific legal arrangements for ad
hoc parking alongside railings and other street furniture.

Bicycle parking is an important part of cycling infrastructure and as such is studied in the discipline of Bicycle
transportation engineering. In most of the United States, bicycle parking facilities are scarce, or are so inadequate
that nearby trees or parking meters are used. The hitching post type of bicycle rack is an improvement over the
old type that had a slot for the front wheel, not the frame, but only allow for two bicycles per post.
The Netherlands, where bicycles are much in use, has two-tiered bicycle racks giving high density (the handlebars
overlap, often causing damage) and security (the bicycle is held well and is easy to lock).

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