EPLRS NETWORK

PLANNER GUI 3−1
NETWORK
PLANNING 2−1
NET
SERVICES 7−1
IP
INTERFACES 8−1
OVERVIEW
OF EPLRS 1−1
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
PLANNER’S MANUAL
NET CONTROL STATION AN/TSQ−158A (NSN: 5895−01−495−5977) (EIC: N/A)
NET CONTROL STATION AN/TSQ−158B (NSN: 5895−01−567−2097) (EIC: N/A)
ENHANCED POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM (EPLRS)
ENM Software Version 4.4.0.9.9.5
EPLRS Radio Software Version 11.4.0.9.9.5
Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and U.S. DOD contractors only, for official use or for
administrative or operational purposes. This determination was made on 15 June 1995. Other requests for this
document will be referred to Commander, U.S. Army Communications−Electronics Life Cycle Management Command
(C−E LCMC) and Fort Monmouth, ATTN: AMSEL−LC−LEO−E−ED. Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703−5006.
This information is furnished upon the condition that it will not be released to another nation without the specific
authority of the Department of the Army of the United States, that it will be used for military purposes only, that
individual or corporate rights originating in the information, whether patented or not, will be respected, that the
recipient will report promptly to the United States, any known or suspected compromise, and that the information will
be provided substantially the same degree of security afforded it by the Department of Defense of the United States.
Also, regardless of any other markings on the document, it will not be downgraded or declassified without written
approval of the original United States agency.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE−− Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the
document.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
15 January 2009
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
A
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES / WORK PACKAGES
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES FOR FRONT AND REAR MATTER IS 7 AND
TOTAL NUMBER OF CHAPTERS IS 15 CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
Page
No.
* Change
No.
* Zero in this column indicates an original page.
Cover 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/(B blank) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1 (22 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2 (34 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3 (34 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4 (18 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 5 (20 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6 (6 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 7 (78 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 8 (62 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 9 (8 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 10 (6 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 11 (16 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 12 (8 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 13 (6 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 14 (12 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 15 (82 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix A (2 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B (2 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C (2 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix D (2 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix E (26 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary (14 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index (10 pgs) 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTE: This manual supersedes TB 11−5825−298−10−3 dated 15 August 2004.
Date of issue for the revised manual is: 15 JANUARY 2009.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
B
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
*TB 11−5825−298−10−3
i
* This technical bulletin supersedes TB 11−5825−298−10−3 dated 15 Aug 2004
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 15 January 2009
TECHNICAL BULLETIN
PLANNER’S MANUAL
FOR
NET CONTROL STATION AN/TSQ−158A (NSN: 5895−01−495−5977) (EIC: N/A)
NET CONTROL STATION AN/TSQ−158B (NSN: 5895−01−567−2097) (EIC: N/A)
ENM Software Version 4.4.0.9.9.5
EPLRS Radio Software Version 11.4.0.9.9.5
REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS
You can help improve this bulletin. If you find any mistakes, or if you know of a
way to improve the procedures, please let us know. We’d prefer that you sub-
mit your recommended changes electronically, either by e−mail (AMSEL−LC−
LEO−PUBS−CHG@mail1.monmouth.army.mil) or online (http://edm.mon-
mouth.army.mil/pubs/2028.html). Alternatively, you may mail or fax your letter,
DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms),
located in the back of this manual, directly to: Commander, U.S. Army Commu-
nications−Electronics Life Cycle Management Command (C−E LCMC) and
Fort Monmouth, ATTN: AMSEL−LC−LEO−E−ED, Fort Monmouth, NJ
07703−5006. The fax number is 732−532−3421, DSN 992−3421.
In any case, we will send you a reply.
*TB 11−5825−298−10−3
ii
* This technical bulletin supersedes TB 11−5825−298−10−3 dated 15 Aug 2004
Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and U.S. DOD contractors only, for official use or for
administrative or operational purposes. This determination was made on 15 June 1995. Other requests for this
document must be referred to Commander, U.S. Army Communications−Electronics Life Cycle Management
Command (C−E LCMC) and Fort Monmouth, ATTN: AMSEL−LC−LEO−E−ED, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey
07703−5006.
This information is furnished upon the condition that it will not be released to another nation without the specific
authority of the Department of the Army of the United States, that it will be used for military purposes only, that
individual or corporate rights originating in the information, whether patented or not, will be respected, that the
recipient will report promptly to the United States, any known or suspected compromise, and that the information will
be provided substantially the same degree of security afforded it by the Department of Defense of the United States.
Also, regardless of any other markings on the document, it will not be downgraded or declassified without written
approval of the original United States agency.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the
document.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
iii
Table of Contents iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document Conventions Used xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 OVERVIEW OF EPLRS
1.1 Introduction 1−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 EPLRS RS 1−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 ENM 1−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 EPLRS NETWORK Overview 1−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 EPLRS Resources 1−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 EPLRS Time resources 1−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.1 Time Division Units of Measure 1−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.2 Timeslot Length Options 1−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 EPLRS Frequency resources 1−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.1 Channel Set Selection 1−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.2 Active Channel Selection 1−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.3 Frequency Hopping 1−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 LTS and Channel resource Allocation 1−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Interference Between RSs 1−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.1 Time Separation 1−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.2 Frequency Separation 1−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.3 Code Separation 1−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.4 Geographic Separation 1−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.5 Antenna Placement Optimization 1−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 eplrs networks 1−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Communication Network 1−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Coordination Network 1−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.13 host interfaces 1−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.14 ADDSI 1−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.15 ETHERNET 1−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.16 RS−232 1−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 NETWORK PLANNING
2.1 Introduction 2−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Planning and Management Responsibilities 2−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 The Planning Process 2−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Maintaining and Modifying an Existing Plan 2−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Designing and Developing a New Plan 2−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.1 Determining the Initial Deployment Strategy 2−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.2 Analyzing EPLRS Assets and Preliminary Requirements 2−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.3 Assigning RSs as Reference Units 2−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.4 Assigning Rolenames and Developing the UTO Structure 2−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.5 Designing Needlines and Allocating Resources 2−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.5.1 LTS/CN Needline Matrix 2−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.5.2 Allocating Resources for LDR Duplex Needlines 2−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.5.3 Allocating Resources for HDR Duplex Needlines 2−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.5.4 Needline Resource Allocation Worksheets 2−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.6 Planning for CONOPS 2−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.6.1 Relay RSs 2−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.6.2 RF Silence 2−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.7 Defining System Parameters 2−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.7.1 Frequency Allocation 2−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.7.2 Frequency Hopping 2−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.7.3 Power Level 2−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.8 Planning for COMSEC 2−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.9 Generating the Deployment Plan 2−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.10 Distributing the Deployment Plan 2−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Siting Requirements 2−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 How Features in the Area Affect Radio Communications 2−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1.1 Elevating the ENM RS Antenna 2−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1.2 Losses for Various Antenna Cable Lengths 2−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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2.4.1.3 Cable Losses Versus Antenna Height 2−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Positioning Reference Units 2−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 How Good Siting Can Improve RS Operations 2−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Tactical Internet Communications 2−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 TI Structure 2−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.2 SADL RS Operations 2−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.3 Land Warrior Operations 2−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.4 Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD) Operations 2−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Planning Examples 2−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 Example 1: Developing a Needline to Support User Data Requirements 2−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2 Example 2: Allocating EPLRS RS Assets for a Tactical Movement 2−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.3 Example 3: Allocating Needline Resources for a Brigade 2−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 EPLRS NETWORK PLANNER
3.1 ENP GUI Description 3−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 ENP Startup 3−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1.1 Creating a Deployment Plan File 3−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1.1.1 Starting With No Existing Plan 3−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1.1.2 Starting With a TI Plan 3−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1.2 Opening an Existing Deployment Plan File 3−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 ENP Main Window Components 3−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 ENP Menu Area 3−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1 ENP File Menu 3−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.1 New... 3−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.2 Open... 3−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.3 Save... 3−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.4 Save As... 3−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.5 Analyze Plan... 3−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.6 Print... 3−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.7 Console 3−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.8 Preferences... 3−30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.1.9 Exit 3−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.2 ENP Edit Menu 3−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.3 Help Menu 3−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.3.1 ENP User’s Manual 3−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.3.2 Radio User’s Manual 3−33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.3.3 Deployment Plan Description 3−33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.3.4 About ENP 3−33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 ENP Function Tabs 3−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 SYSTEM TAB
4.1 System Tab 4−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Deployment Version 4−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Radio System Parameters 4−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Position Distribution Deployment Defaults 4−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Duplex Deployment Defaults 4−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.5 HDR and LDR Duplex DAP LTS and Channel Window 4−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 UTO TAB
5.1 UTO Tab 5−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 UTO Tree 5−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 UTO Tab Edit Menu 5−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.1 Add Radio... 5−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.2 Add Deployed ENM... 5−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.3 Add UTO... 5−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.4 Rename UTO... 5−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.5 Delete 5−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.6 Find 5−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2.7 Rebuild Tree 5−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Description Area 5−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
v
5.1.3.1 Description of Unit (RS) 5−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3.2 Description of Deployed ENM 5−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3.3 Description of UTO 5−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 REF UNIT TAB
6.1 Ref Unit Tab 6−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 NET SERVICES TAB
7.1 Net Services Tab 7−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 Introduction 7−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Needlines 7−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Needline Resources 7−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Needline Waveform Modes 7−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Needline Types 7−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 Net Services Edit Menu 7−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.5 Description of Needline Display 7−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6 Needlines Tree 7−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.1 CSMA Needlines 7−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.1.1 CSMA Needline Creation Checklist 7−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.1.2 ENM PVC DF Needline 7−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.2 MSG Needlines 7−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.2.1 MSG Needline Creation Checklist 7−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.3 Duplex Needlines 7−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.3.1 Duplex DAP and PVC Needlines 7−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.3.2 System Wide settings for LDR and HDR needlines 7−40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.3.3 Duplex Needline Characteristics 7−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.4 HDR Duplex Needlines 7−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.4.1 HDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist 7−52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.5 LDR Duplex Needlines 7−52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.5.1 LDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist 7−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.6 SMSG Needlines 7−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.6.1 SMSG Needline Creation Checklist 7−67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.7 TAMA Needlines 7−67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.6.7.1 TAMA Needline Creation Checklist 7−71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.7 LTS/CN Needline Matrix 7−71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.8 Needline Identification 7−73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.8.1 Logical Channel Number (LCN) 7−73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.8.2 Needline Identification Number 7−73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.9 Needline Constraints and Priorities 7−74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.10 Needline Attribute Overview 7−74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 IP INTERFACES TAB
8.1 Ip Introduction 8−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1 EPLRS Internet Protocol 8−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2 IP Addresses 8−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.3 Subnet Masks 8−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.4 Basic IP Planning for an EPLRS Network 8−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 IP Interfaces Tab 8−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 IP Message Routing 8−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 IP Assignments Tree 8−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 IP Interfaces Edit Menu 8−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 IP Interface Functions 8−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.1 Configuring the Ethernet Interface 8−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2 Configuring the DAP Interface 8−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2.1 Setting the DAP Interface as the Default Interface 8−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2.2 Adding and Deleting DAP Network Routes 8−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2.3 Adding and Deleting DAP Host Routes 8−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.2.4 Configuring an RS to Proxy for Other Networks 8−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.3 Configuring the PVC DF Interface 8−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.4 Configuring an IP PVC Interface 8−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
vi
8.2.4.5 Configuring an Additional Ethernet LAN Route 8−37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.6 Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface 8−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.7 Configuring a PPP Interface 8−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.8 Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway 8−53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.9 Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Routes 8−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.10 Setting a Default Interface 8−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.11 Enabling IGMP to Support Multicast Routing 8−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.12 Setting Up a Multicast Group 8−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 AGENT TAB
9.1 Agent Tab 9−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 NETWORK MANAGEMENT
10.1 Introduction 10−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Pre−Deployment Management PLANNING 10−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1 ENM−to−RS Communications 10−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 RS Configuration 10−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 EPLRS Communities 10−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3.1 Size of the RS Community 10−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3.2 ENM Management Levels 10−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 KEY PLANNING
11.1 Introduction 11−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 COMSEC Hardware 11−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Key Descriptions 11−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 Activation and Production Keys 11−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 Keys Generated and Loaded into EPLRS RSs 11−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4 Key Generation and Distribution 11−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Key Process Overview 11−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 Quad Key and Seed Key Tape Loading 11−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.3 Red Key Generation 11−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.4 Black Key Generation 11−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.5 Advancing the Seed Keys in the KOK−13 11−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.6 Guidelines for Generating and Managing Keys 11−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 Network Key Operations 11−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1 Network Entry 11−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2 Key Distribution 11−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2.1 Key Distribution From a BKF 11−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2.2 Key Distribution From a KOK−13 11−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.3 Network Rekey Operations 11−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4 Network Advance Operations 11−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4.1 Weekly Advance 11−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4.2 Monthly Advance 11−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4.3 Yearly Advance 11−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5 Emergency COMSEC Operations 11−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5.1 Emergency Network Advance 11−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5.2 Compromised RS in the Network 11−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 COMSEC GUIDANCE 11−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.1 Corps−Wide Common Key Distribution 11−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.2 Corps COMSEC Guidance 11−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.2.1 Multi−Divisional Deployment 11−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.2.2 Corps Key Distribution 11−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.3 Division COMSEC Guidance 11−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 POSITION LOCATION
12.1 Introduction 12−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Position Location Data Sources 12−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Reference Units 12−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
vii
12.4 Planning for Reference Unit Sites 12−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 Reference Unit Geometry 12−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 Guidelines for Placing Reference Units 12−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Reference Unit Configuration 12−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6 Position Distribution 12−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 EPLRS ENHANCEMENTS
13.1 Introduction 13−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 ENM Simplification 13−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1 Planning Process using ENM Simplification 13−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2 Operating ENM with ENM Simplification 13−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 LCN Expansion 13−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.1 Planning Limitations with LCN Expansion 13−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.2 Operating using LCN Expansion 13−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.3 Requesting and Setting Up Needline Data 13−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 RSID Expansion 13−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1 RSID Expansion and Unplanned Radios 13−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2 RSID Expansion and Planned Radios 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.3 Backwards Compatibility 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.4 Duplicate RSIDs / Radio Name 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 Ad Hoc Routing 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Selective IP Circuit Activation 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7 GPS Based Network Timing 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.8 Manet Mode 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.9 Over−the−Air Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.10 Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) Messages 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 FREQUENCY MAPPING TOOL
14.1 Frequency Mapping Tool 14−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1 Introduction 14−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.2 Creating a new Frequency Channel Set 14−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.3 Loading a Frequency Channel Set 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4 Deleting a Frequency Channel Set 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.5 Modifying a Frequency Channel Set 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.6 Setting a Frequency Channel Set 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.7 Default Frequency Channel Set 14−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.8 Retrieving the RS Frequency Set 14−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.9 Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range 14−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.10 Retrieving the RSs Channel Set 14−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.11 Exiting WBIRA Utility 14−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 EPLRS PLANNER PROCEDURES
15.1 Network Planning 15−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1 Starting ENP 15−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1.1 Starting ENP from the Desktop 15−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1.2 Starting ENP from ENM 15−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.2 Creating a New Deployment Plan File 15−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.3 Importing Data from a TI Plan File 15−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.4 Opening an Existing Deployment Plan File 15−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.5 Saving a File 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.6 Saving a File in TI Plan Format 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.7 Importing a Deployment Plan File From an External Media Source 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8 Printing ENP Data 15−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.1 Printing ENP System Tab Information 15−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.2 Printing ENP UTO Tab Information 15−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.2.1 Printing UTOs 15−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.2.2 Printing Radios 15−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.2.3 Printing Radio Cutsheets 15−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.2.4 Printing Blank Radio Cutsheets 15−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.3 Printing ENP Ref Unit Tab Information 15−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
viii
15.1.8.4 Printing ENP Net Services Tab Information 15−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.5 Printing ENP IP Interfaces Tab Information 15−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.8.6 Printing ENP Agent Tab Information 15−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.9 Setting ENP Display Preferences 15−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10 Modifying System Parameters 15−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10.1 Modifying Deployment Plan ID Number 15−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10.2 Modifying Network RS Parameters 15−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10.3 Modifying Position Distribution Default Parameters 15−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10.4 Modifying Default Duplex LTS and Channel Allocations 15−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11 Building a UTO Organization Tree 15−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.1 Adding a UTO 15−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.2 Renaming a UTO 15−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.3 Deleting a UTO 15−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.4 Adding an RS 15−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.5 Modifying an RS: Standard RS Unit 15−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.6 Modifying an RS: Pos Distribution 15−24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.7 Modifying an RS: Ref Unit 15−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.8 Deleting an RS 15−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.9 Adding an ENM 15−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.10 Modifying a Deployed ENM 15−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.11 Deleting a Deployed ENM 15−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.12 Moving Units 15−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.11.13 Finding Units in the UTO Tree 15−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.12 Modifying Reference Units 15−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13 Adding and Modifying Needlines 15−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.1 CSMA Needlines 15−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.1.1 Adding a CSMA Needline 15−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.1.2 Modifying a CSMA Needline 15−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.1.3 Deleting a CSMA Needline 15−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.2 MSG Needlines 15−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.2.1 Adding an MSG Needline 15−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.2.2 Modifying an MSG Needline 15−38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.2.3 Deleting an MSG Needline 15−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.3 HDR Duplex Needlines 15−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.3.1 Adding an HDR Duplex Needline 15−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.3.2 Modifying an HDR Duplex Needline 15−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.3.3 Deleting an HDR Duplex Needline 15−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.4 LDR Duplex Needlines 15−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.4.1 Adding an LDR Duplex Needline 15−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.4.2 Modifying an LDR Duplex Needline 15−46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.4.3 Deleting an LDR Duplex Needline 15−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.5 SMSG Needlines 15−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.5.1 Adding an SMSG Needline 15−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.5.2 Modifying an SMSG Needline 15−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.5.3 Deleting an SMSG Needline 15−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.6 TAMA Needlines 15−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.6.1 Adding a TAMA Needline 15−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.6.2 Modifying a TAMA Needline 15−52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.6.3 Modifying a TAMA Needline 15−53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.6.4 Deleting a TAMA Needline 15−53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.7 Finding a Needline in the Needline Tree 15−54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14 Adding and Modifying IP Services 15−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.1 Configuring an Ethernet Interface 15−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.2 Adding DAP Network Routes 15−56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.3 Adding DAP Host Routes 15−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.4 Configuring an RS to Proxy ARP for Other Networks (Radio’s Proxy ARP) 15−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.5 Configuring the PVC DF Interface 15−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.6 Configuring an IP PVC Interface (Adding PVC Routes) 15−60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.7 Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface 15−62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.8 Configuring a PPP Interface 15−64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.9 Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway 15−66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.10 Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Route 15−67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.10.1 Adding a Unicast Route 15−67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.10.2 Deleting a Unicast Route 15−68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.10.3 Adding a Multicast Route 15−68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
ix
15.1.14.10.4 Deleting a Multicast Route 15−69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.11 Setting a Default Interface 15−70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.12 Enabling Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) to Support Multicast
Routing 15−70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.13 Setting Up a Multicast Group 15−71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.14 Finding an RS in the IP Assignments Tree 15−72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.15 Adding and Modifying Agents 15−74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.15.1 Adding an Agent 15−74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.15.2 Modifying an Agent 15−75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.15.3 Removing an Agent 15−75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.15.4 Finding an Agent in the EPLRS Agent Tree 15−76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.16 Analyzing a Planning File 15−77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.17 Running ENP Help Functions 15−77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.17.1 Running ENP On−Line User Manual 15−77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.17.2 Verifying ENP Software Version Number and Release Date 15−78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.18 Exiting ENP 15−78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19 Starting WBIRA Utility 15−79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.1 Creating a new Frequency Channel Set 15−79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.2 Loading a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.3 Deleting a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.4 Modifying a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.5 Setting a Frequency Channel Set into the RS 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.6 Retrieving a Frequency Channel Set from the RS 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.7 Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.8 Retrieving the RSs Channel Set 15−82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19.9 Exiting WBIRA 15−82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX A
HEXADECIMAL CONVERSION TABLE A−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX B
NEEDLINE WORKSHEET B−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX C
RS PARAMETERS CHECKLIST C−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX D
PLANNER TROUBLESHOOTING D−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX E
EPLRS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GLOSSARY
GLOSSARY Glossary 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDEX
INDEX Index i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF FIGURES
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
x
1 OVERVIEW OF EPLRS
1−1. Basic Components of EPLRS RS 1−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−2. EPLRS RS Connected to Host Computer 1−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−3. Basic ENM Operational Platform 1−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−4. Example of Basic EPLRS Network Hierarchy 1−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−5. EPLRS TDMA Architecture 1−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−6. EPLRS Channel Set Options 1−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−7. Channel Activation Window: Frequency Translation 1−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−8. Eight−Channel Set Allocation Options 1−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−9. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels 1−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−10. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels, Ch3 and Ch5 set to Inactive 1−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−11. EPLRS Network Time and Frequency Relationship 1−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−12. Time and Frequency Resource Allocation Example 1−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−13. Allocation of Timeslot Resources for EPLRS Networks 1−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 NETWORK PLANNING
2−1. LTS/Channel Needline Matrix Display 2−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2. SA Needlines in the TI Architecture 2−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3. C2 Needlines in the TI Architecture 2−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4. Using ENP to Configure a CSMA Needline 2−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5. Map Showing Planned Tactical Movement 2−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−6. Simplified EPLRS Network Diagram for Tactical Movement 2−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−7. SBCT Example Showing C2 and SA CSMA Needlines 2−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 EPLRS NETWORK PLANNER
3−1. ENP Desktop Icon 3−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2. ENP Selection Under ENM Manager Functions Menu 3−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−3. ENM and ENP Title Window 3−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4. ENP Startup Window 3−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−5. ENP Main WIndow 3−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−6. First Planner Assistance Wizard: No Existing Plan 3−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−7. Second Planner Assistance Wizard: No Existing Plan 3−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−8. Channel Activation Window: 8 Channels 3−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9. Channel Activation Window: Frequency Translation 3−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels 3−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−11. Channel Activation Window: 5 Channels 3−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−12. Channel Activation Error Message Window 3−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−13. First Planner Assistance Wizard: TI Plan 3−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−14. Second Planner Assistance Wizard: TI Plan 3−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−15. File Open Window for Locating TI Plan Files 3−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−16. File Name Selected in Planner Assistance Wizard 3−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−17. Change Option in Planner Assistance Wizard 3−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−18. File Name Change Window 3−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−19. File Name Overwrite Confirmation Window 3−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−20. Deployment Plan Selection Window 3−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−21. ENP Main Window Components 3−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−22. ENP File Menu 3−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−23. New... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−24. Open... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−25. Save... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−26. Save As... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−27. Save Window for Exporting File in TI Plan Format 3−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−28. Analyze Plan... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−29. Analyze Plan Window 3−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−30. Print... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−31. Print UTOs, Radios or Radio Cutsheets Data Window for UTO Tab 3−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−32. Print the Radio Report Window for UTO Tab 3−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−33. Print Radio Report Warning Window for UTO Tab 3−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−34. Print Radio Cutsheets Window for UTO Tab 3−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−35. Print Radio Cutsheets Warning Window for UTO Tab 3−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
xi
3−36. Print Net Services Window 3−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−37. Print IP Interfaces Window 3−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−38. Console Selection under ENP File Menu 3−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−39. Console Window 3−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−40. Preferences... Selection under ENP File Menu 3−30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−41. Preferences Window 3−30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−42. Exit Selection under ENP File Menu 3−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−43. ENP Exit Window 3−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−44. ENP Help Menu 3−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−45. About ENP Window 3−33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 SYSTEM TAB
4−1. System Tab Display 4−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2. Change Deployment Version Window 4−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3. System Parameters Modifying Dialog Window 4−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−4. Pos Distribution Settings Window: Global Settings 4−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−5. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, Host 4−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−6. Host Time Filters Window 4−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, ADDSI Host
Interface 4−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, RF, IP Host
Interface 4−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−9. RF Time Motion Filters Window 4−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−10. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, Misc 4−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−11. Pos Distribution Settings Window: SADL RS Settings 4−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−12. Change Deployment Version Window 4−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−13. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window 4−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 UTO TAB
5−1. UTO Tab Display 5−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2. Symbols Used in UTO Tree Diagram 5−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−3. Edit Menu Selections for UTO Tab 5−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4. Edit Menu Selections from Right−Clicking in UTO Tree Area 5−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5. Adding New Unit Window 5−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−6. Add/Modify ENM Deployment Window 5−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−7. Add/Modify UTO Window 5−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−8. Add/Modify UTO Window 5−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−9. Deleting Confirmation Window 5−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10. Find Window 5−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−11. Find Window with Search Results 5−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12. Deleting Confirmation Window 5−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−13. Example of Description Area for a Selected RS 5−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−14. Modifying Unit Window 5−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−15. Example of Position Distribution Settings Window 5−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−16. Example of Unit Reference Data Window 5−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−17. Example of Description Area for a Selected ENM 5−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−18. Example of Description Area for a Selected UTO 5−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 REF UNIT TAB
6−1. Ref Unit Tab Display 6−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−2. Example of Unit Reference Data Window 6−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−3. Modify Ref Unit... Sub−Menu 6−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 NET SERVICES TAB
7−1. Many−to−Many Communications Concept 7−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2. Few−to−Many Communications Concept 7−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3. Point−to−Point Communications Concept 7−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4. EPLRS 2−Msec and 4−Msec Waveform Modes 7−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
xii
7−5. Net Services Tab Display 7−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6. Net Services Edit Menu 7−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−7. Add CSMA Needline Wizard 7−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−8. Adding a Needline Error Window 7−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−9. Modifying the Generated Needline Number Window 7−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−10. Add−Delete Needline Sub−Menu 7−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−11. Delete Needline Window 7−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−12. Find Window 7−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−13. Find Window with Search Results 7−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−14. Description of Needline Display 7−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−15. View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−16. Needline Symbols Used in Net Services Tree Diagram 7−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−17. Add CSMA Needline Wizard 7−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−18. Second Add CSMA Needline Wizard 7−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−19. CSMA Advanced Window 7−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−20. First Add MSG Needline Wizard 7−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−21. Second Add MSG Needline Wizard 7−24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−22. MSG Advanced Window 7−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−23. MSG Potential Source Endpoint Window 7−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−24. MSG Endpoint Advanced Window 7−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−25. Error Message Window if No Endpoint Selected 7−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−26. Error Message Window if Endpoint Already Assigned 7−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−27. Error Message Window if Allowed Number of Shares is Exceeded 7−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−28. Description of MSG Needline Parameters and Modify Button 7−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−29. View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−30. MSG Sub−Menu in View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−31. MSG Modifying Endpoint Window 7−37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−32. Adding MSG Endpoint Window 7−38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−33. Deleting Endpoint Window 7−38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−34. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window 7−40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−35. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window 7−41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−36. Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−37. Second Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−38. HDR Advanced Window 7−46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−39. Third Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−40. Endpoint Selection Error Message Windows 7−48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−41. Fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−42. HDR View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−43. Sub−Menu for HDR View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−44. HDR Modifying Endpoint Window 7−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−45. Add Another HDR Duplex Relay Window 7−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−46. Deleting Endpoint Window 7−51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−47. Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−48. Second Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard: 2−Msec Timeslot 7−54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−49. Second Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard: 4−Msec Timeslot 7−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−50. LDR Advanced Window 7−56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−51. Third Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard 7−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−52. LDR View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−53. Sub−Menu for LDR View/Modify Endpoints Window 7−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−54. LDR Modifying Endpoint Window 7−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−55. Add SMSG Needline Wizard 7−60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−56. Second Add SMSG Needline Wizard: 2−Msec Timeslot 7−62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−57. Second Add SMSG Needline Wizard: 4−Msec Timeslot 7−63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−58. SMSG Advanced Window 7−65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−59. SMSG Needline Example 7−66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−60. Add TAMA Needline Wizard 7−68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−61. Second Add TAMA Needline Wizard 7−69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−62. TAMA Advanced Window 7−70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−63. LTS/Channel Needline Matrix Display 7−72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 IP INTERFACES TAB
8−1. IP Interfaces Tab Display: Ethernet Interface Selected 8−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−2. IP Interface Sub−Menu 8−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3. IP Interfaces Tab Display: PVC Interface Selected 8−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
xiii
8−4. Example of IP Interface Modification Window: Ethernet Interface 8−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−5. IP Interfaces Tab Display: RS Selected 8−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−6. Multicast Setup... Selection Under Edit Menu 8−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−7. First Multicast Wizard 8−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−8. Second Multicast Wizard 8−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−9. Third Multicast Wizard 8−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−10. Find Window 8−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−11. Find Window with Search Results 8−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−12. Ethernet Interface Selected in IP Assignments Tree 8−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−13. Ethernet Interface Modification Window 8−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−14. DAP Interface Selected in IP Assignments Tree 8−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−15. DAP Interface Modification Window 8−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−16. Sub−Menu for Adding a Route to DAP Interface 8−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−17. Modify DAP Interface Window 8−22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−18. New Network Routes Added to DAP Interface 8−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−19. Unicast Modification Sub−Menu for DAP Interface 8−24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−20. Add DAP Route Window with New Values Entered 8−24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−21. New Host Route Added to DAP Interface 8−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−22. Sub−Menu for Adding and Deleting Radio Proxy ARP Entries 8−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−23. Radio Proxy ARP Data Entry WIndow 8−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−24. New Radio Proxy ARP Entry in Table 8−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−25. Example Network Requiring PVC Interfaces 8−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−26. Sub−Menu for Adding PVC Interface to RS−0001 8−30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−27. Add Interface Window 8−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−28. Add PVC Interface Window 8−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−29. Second Add PVC Interface Window 8−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−30. Selections Made in Second Add PVC Interface Window 8−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−31. New PVC Interfaces Added to RS−0001 8−36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−32. Unicast Table for RS−0001 Showing New Static Routes 8−37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−33. Ethernet LAN Route Example 8−38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−34. Sub−Menu for Adding Ethernet LAN Route to RS−00A4 8−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−35. Add Ethernet Route Window 8−40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−36. Added Ethernet LAN Route Window 8−41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−37. IP Over ADDSI Example 8−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−38. Sub−Menu for Adding IP Over ADDSI Interface to RS−0005 8−43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−39. Add Interface Window 8−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−40. Add IP ADDSI Interface Window 8−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−41. Sub−Menu for Adding IP Over ADDSI Route to Unicast Table 8−46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−42. Add IP/ADDSI Route Window 8−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−43. IP Over ADDSI Route Added to Unicast Table 8−48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−44. PPP Example 8−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−45. Sub−Menu for Adding PPP Interface to RS−0005 8−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−46. Add Interface Window 8−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−47. Add PPP Interface Window 8−51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−48. PPP Interface Added to RS−0005 8−53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−49. Example Network with Next−Hop Gateway to Another Network 8−54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−50. Example Showing Unicast Table for 1BN_CSMA 8−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−51. Unicast Sub−Menu 8−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−52. Add PVC Route Window with New Values Entered 8−56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−53. Next−Hop Gateway Added to Unicast Table for 1BN_CSMA 8−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−54. Unicast and Multicast Modification Sub−Menus 8−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−55. First Multicast Group Wizard 8−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−56. Second Multicast Group Wizard 8−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−57. Third Multicast Group Wizard 8−60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−58. RSs Assigned to Multicast List 8−61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 AGENT TAB
9−1. Agent Tab Display 9−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2. Agent Tree Sub−Menu in EPLRS Agent Tree Area 9−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−3. Agent Tab Edit Menu Selections 9−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−4. Add Agent Window 9−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−5. Agent Tab Selection Message Windows 9−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6. Modify−Remove Sub−Menu 9−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−7. Modify Agent Window 9−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
xiv
9−8. Remove Agent Window 9−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−9. Find Window 9−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−10. Find Window with Search Results 9−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 NETWORK MANAGEMENT
10−1. ENM Functional Resources and Ability to Reach to Remote RSs 10−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 KEY PLANNING
11−1. Key Generation and Distribution Diagram 11−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−2. ENM Management of Key Generation and Distribution 11−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 POSITION LOCATION
12−1. Good Reference RS Geometry 12−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−2. Poor Reference RS Geometry 12−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−3. Setting Up an RS as Ref Unit Capable 12−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−4. Example of Unit Reference Data Window 12−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 FREQUENCY MAPPING TOOL
14−1. Starting WBIRA.exe 14−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−2. Connection to Radio Failed error 14−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−3. Wide Band IRA Main Window 14−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−4. Edit Frequency Set Name 14−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−5. Wide Band IRA Edit FQ Set Name 14−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−6. Saving Frequency Channel Set Success 14−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−7. Frequency Translation Set File 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−8. Delete Table Entry Window 14−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−9. Overwrite Frequency Channel Set 14−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−10. Setting a Frequency Set 14−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−11. Load Frequency Set 14−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−12. Default Channel Set to Load 14−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−13. Default Channel Set Successfully Loaded 14−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−14. Default EPLRS 8 Channel Set 14−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−15. Confirm Get Rs FQs dialog box 14−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−16. Retrieve Frequency Set Success 14−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−17. Get RS Frequency Range 14−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−18. Get RS Channel Set 14−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14−19. Exit WBIRA Confirmation 14−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX B
B−1. Graphic Needline Worksheet B−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF TABLES
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
xv
1 OVERVIEW OF EPLRS
1−1. Network Management Functions 1−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−2. Time Resource Definition Table 1−8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−3. Timeslot Allocation in EPLRS Frame 1−10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−4. Sample Resource Allocation Template 1−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−5. Sample Resource Allocation Template with Resource Conflict 1−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 NETWORK PLANNING
2−1. Planning Personnel Roles and Responsibilities 2−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2. EPLRS Planning Process 2−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3. Planner’s Resource Allocation Worksheet: 6−Channel Deployment 2−11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 1 2−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 2 2−30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−6. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 3 2−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−7. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 4 2−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−8. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 5 2−33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 REF UNIT TAB
6−1. Reference Unit Configuration by ENM 6−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 NET SERVICES TAB
7−1. Waveform Modes 7−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2. Needline Types Summary 7−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3. CSMA Needline Types 7−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4. CSMA 6 Hop (5 Relay) Latency Values (ms) 7−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−5. MSG Needline Endpoint Definitions 7−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6. MSG Needline Advanced Features 7−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−7. MSG Needline Advanced Endpoint RS Features 7−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−8. Needline Attributes Summary 7−75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−9. Needline Attribute Comparison 7−76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 IP INTERFACES TAB
8−1. Characteristics of Common Subnet Masks 8−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 NETWORK MANAGEMENT
10−1. Management Functions and their ENM−to−RS paths 10−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2. Functional Capabilities of ENM Levels of Access 10−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 KEY PLANNING
11−1. EPLRS COMSEC Hardware 11−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−2. Activation and Production Key Descriptions 11−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−3. Seed Key Descriptions 11−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−4. Descriptions of Keys Loaded into EPLRS RSs 11−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−5. Alternate Key Nomenclatures and Seed Key Sources 11−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−6. Example of Changes in Seed Keys after Weekly Advance 11−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−7. Example of Changes in Seed Keys after Monthly Advance 11−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 POSITION LOCATION
12−1. Reference Unit Configuration by ENM 12−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)
xvi
APPENDIX A
A−1. Decimal−to−Hexadecimal Conversion A−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX B
B−1. Sample Needline Tabular Worksheet B−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Document Conventions Used
xvii/(xviii blank)
Convention How it’s Used in Document Examples
Bold <text convention> Placarded equipment labels Set power switch to ON+AUDIBLE.
OUT NET LED will go out.
Software buttons with text displayed
on button face
Click OK button.
Click Cancel button.
Key strokes Press Ctrl+D keys.
Press X key.
Press Page Up key.
Italics <text convention> Window names from window title bar Time Master Initiate window.
Tab names Radio Status tab.
Menu names Under the Edit menu, click...
Menu selections Click Add UTO selection.
Check box names Auto Configure check box.
Software radio button names Click to set Host Time button...
Data entry field names Type RSID number into RSID: field.
Displayed status messages Mode displayed is Net Sync.
File names or software names The logfile.txt file.
Windows 98 software...
The ENM icon...
First use of important new terms in
text
Keys are described according to
their encryption as either red or
black keys.
Click <action> Procedural steps requiring operator
to click once with left mouse button.
Click OK to save changes.
Right−click <action> Procedural steps requiring operator
to click once with right mouse
button.
Right−click on RS to be restarted.
Double−click <action> Procedural steps requiring operator
to click rapidly twice with left mouse
button.
Double−click ENM icon to start...
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CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW OF EPLRS
1.1 INTRODUCTION.
This technical bulletin provides information and instructions on how to plan and design an EPLRS network and
create a deployment plan database using EPLRS Network Planner (ENP) software.
EPLRS is a wide−band direct sequence spread spectrum waveform using Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA),
frequency hopping, and embedded error correction encoding. These capabilities provide for secure, high−speed
data communications networked between ground units and between ground units and aircraft.
EPLRS has automatic relay capabilities to support beyond line−of−sight (LOS) coverage. These capabilities are
automatically and continually adapted to the changing environment faced by a mobile communications system.
The Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) is a network of wireless tactical radios and provides
time of arrival based position location operating in concert with or independent from GPS. The EPLRS network
distributes digital data from many mobile users to many other mobile users. The EPLRS network consists of
many EPLRS radio sets (RSs) managed by one or more EPLRS Network Manager (ENM) computers. The RSs
automatically route and deliver user messages and provide multiple concurrent communication paths known as
needlines. The host connected to an EPLRS RS may be any device with an interface conforming to the Army
Data Distribution System Interface (ADDSI) [ACCS−A3−407−008E], IEEE Standard for Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) or
serial (RS−232) specifications.
For any changes or updates to this manual, please see the Single Interface to the Field (SIF) at
https://sif.kc.us.army.mil/.
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1.2 EPLRS RS.
The EPLRS RS consists of a radio receiver/transmitter (RT), power supply, antenna, a user readout (URO)
device, and an installation kit for mounting the RS in a vehicle. Figure 1−1 shows the basic components of the
RS.
Figure 1−1. Basic Components of EPLRS RS
ANTENNA
POWER SUPPLY
RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER
WITH INSTALLATION
HARDWARE
USER READOUT DEVICE
The RF network consists of many EPLRS RSs connected to host computers. The network provides secure
host−to−host data communications.
Most of the RS attributes are programmable. This programmability lets the planner set up the best possible
anti−jam performance and data rate for the unique battlefield environment and mission.
The RS also supports position location and identification capabilities. Position location allows users to determine
precisely where the user is. It is similar to but independent of the global positioning system (GPS). Using
position location data from the RSs, some hosts may have the capability to determine where other RSs are and
can perform navigation functions.
Wideband radios or extended frequency (XF) RSs are now available which allow the user to custom map
frequencies to each channel. The supported frequency on these extended frequency radios are between 225
MHz and 450 MHz. A separate utility program is used to map individual channels on these XF radios. XF radios
have model numbers starting from RT−1915.
1.3 ENM.
The ENM is a collection of software applications that run on a rugged host computer. The ENM software can run
on Windows or Linux platforms. The ENM performs automated network management and control of the EPLRS
network. The ENM assigns configuration parameters to RSs to allow them to perform their missions. The ENM
manages the generation of cryptographic keys from a key generator (e.g., KOK−13) to load into the RSs.
The ENM application is installed on a rugged laptop computer and is used to configure RSs and to plan, monitor
and manage an EPLRS network. Hosting ENM on a laptop computer also enables the ENM to be carried into the
field for direct connection to RSs for configuration and troubleshooting. The connection between the ENM laptop
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computer and the EPLRS RS is Ethernet. The EPLRS RS and a representative host computer are shown in
Figure 1−2.
Figure 1−2. EPLRS RS Connected to Host Computer
EPLRS RS
ENM OR HOST
COMPUTER
The ENM software application is made up of two major tools: ENM and the EPLRS Network Planner (ENP).
ENM is used for network management, while ENP is used for creating the deployment plan database that
contains the RS configuration parameters. The ENP application can be run directly from a desktop icon on the
ENM computer or called from within the ENM application.
The ENM software configuration covered in this manual is the Windows−based program. The ENM computer
physically connects to an assigned EPLRS RS called the ENM RS. The ENM communicates with other RSs in
the EPLRS network via the ENM RS. The basic environment for the ENM and ENM RS is the ENM operator’s
vehicle, as shown in Figure 1−3. The ENM vehicle is usually a High−Mobility Multi−Purpose Wheeled Vehicle
(HMMWV) that contains the ENM, ENM RS, antenna mast, a cryptographic key generating device (e.g.,
KOK−13) and other communications equipment.
ENM vehicles are generally fielded in a sparse manner to units (typically two per Army Brigade Combat Team
[BCT]). This sparse fielding, combined with the requirement to cover larger areas, led to the development of
another configuration of ENM called ENM Range Extension Support. This configuration is a basic ENM computer
connected to an EPLRS RS and is used to help expand the EPLRS management functions of the ENM over a
larger area than can be covered by a single ENM vehicle. The ENM Range Extension Support configuration can
perform all ENM and ENP related tasks except controlling a cryptographic generating device. ENM Range
Extension Support configurations are typically located at Battalion levels within Army BCT organizations.
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Figure 1−3. Basic ENM Operational Platform
ENM RS
ENM
COMPUTER
ENM OPERATOR’S VEHICLE
1.4 EPLRS NETWORK OVERVIEW.
EPLRS RSs are primarily used as jam−resistant, secure data radios that transmit and receive tactical data that
typically includes the following:
D Operations orders
D Fire support plans
D Logistics reports
D Situation Awareness (SA) data
D Cryptographic keys for RSs
D Configuration files for RSs
D E−mail
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EPLRS RSs automatically route and deliver tactical data using multiple concurrent communication paths called
needlines. A needline is the fundamental line of communication set up between individual or groups of EPLRS
RSs. A needline is a common set of time and frequency resources shared among two or more RSs to exchange
data. Figure 1−4 shows a conceptual illustration of how EPLRS needlines are set up within and between levels of
command on the battlefield.
Figure 1−4. Example of Basic EPLRS Network Hierarchy
EPLRS NEEDLINES
(BRIGADE TO BATTALION)
1ST BATTALION 2ND BATTALION 3RD BATTALION
BRIGADE
C COMPANY
B COMPANY
A COMPANY
EPLRS NEEDLINES
(BATTALION TO COMPANY)
EPLRS NEEDLINES:
(COMPANY TO COMPANY)
EPLRS NEEDLINES:
(BATTALION TO BATTALION)
NOTE:
NEEDLINES MAY BE POINT−TO−POINT (SET UP
BETWEEN TWO RSs) OR MANY−TO−MANY
(SET UP FOR A GROUP OF RSs)
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ENM management stations set up, maintain, and manage the EPLRS network. ENM supports the six functional
areas of network management shown in Table 1−1.
Table 1−1. Network Management Functions
Functional Area Description
Network Planning Network Planning is the creation of the EPLRS network RS configuration data
required to manage the network. The role of ENM in the planning process is to
provide a computer−based tool for data entry and deployment plan file generation.
The EPLRS Network Planner (ENP) is that tool.
Key Management Key Management consists of key generation and distribution. This includes
controlling and configuring the key generation device (e.g., KOK−13), generating the
cryptographic keys to initialize the RSs, distributing the keys prior to deployment,
updating the keys in the RSs as needed for operational continuity, and supporting key
updates (advances) for the entire network.
Network Initialization Network Initialization is the process of starting up the EPLRS network. This includes
ENM RS configuration and the timing synchronization of the network. Initialization
requires distribution of cryptographic keys and operational parameters to the network
RSs. Cryptographic keys protect data. Operational parameters define the RS’s
configuration and setup for individual radios or the entire network. When the network
has been activated and all RSs have been properly configured, the RSs begin
reporting status to ENM and become visible to the ENM operator.
Network Monitoring Network Monitoring includes acquiring and displaying network performance data and
status from individual RSs. This gives the operator a view of the network’s
operational health. ENM continuously updates the operational status of each network
RS and generates Alert messages to the operator whenever abnormal conditions
arise.
Fault Management Fault detection includes automatic identification and processing of faults in the
network and in individual RSs. ENM automatically detects faults and identifies them
for the ENM operator.
Fault isolation varies according to the type of fault. For some faults, the cause is
obvious from status message information received by ENM. Other faults require
additional information before the cause can be isolated. When reporting RS status
and fault conditions to the ENM operator, ENM provides recommended actions to
resolve the fault if corrective action can be performed.
Fault resolution consists of taking corrective actions or making the required changes
to the system to correct a fault. This includes reconfiguring individual RSs and
initiating other corrective actions such as hardware replacement or relocation.
Network Updating Network Updating includes updating deployment plan files and distributing them to
other ENMs, sending messages to other ENMs via ENM chat, updating system
(network−wide) parameters, and resynchronizing the network.
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The EPLRS network is designed to maintain Continuity of Operations (CONOPS). If a specific ENM is disabled,
control of the assets assigned to that ENM is automatically transferred to another ENM. Once an ENM is used to
initiate the network, the existing network will continue to function even if all ENMs were disabled.
1.5 EPLRS RESOURCES.
EPLRS resources consist of time and frequency. EPLRS uses virtual circuits called needlines to support RF
communications between EPLRS RSs. One of your primary jobs as the system planner is to assign time and
frequency resources to needlines. Once complete, the network automatically allocates small slices of time on
various frequencies to each RS, similar to a multi−tasking computer that appears to be running multiple programs
at the same time. This allows many users to simultaneously communicate with each other.
1.6 EPLRS TIME RESOURCES.
The EPLRS network is organized into a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) structure. This means that each
RS in a network is assigned small slices of time called timeslots in which the RS can transmit while other RSs can
receive. Each RS has an internal clock and maintains synchronization with the EPLRS network by exchanging
timing information with other members of the network.
The network is formed automatically by disseminating the network time from RS to RS. The ENM operator starts
the process by sending the Time Master Initiate (TMI) command to the ENM RS. The ENM RS spreads network
time in net support messages at specific times. An RS that does not have network time remains in net entry
mode and continuously listens for these net support messages. When it hears these timing messages, it picks up
the network time. The RS adjusts its own timing to synchronize with the network time. Then it can start
spreading network time in net support messages to other RSs. Net support messages are also used to maintain
consistent network timing between RSs. RSs share their timing via net support messages and adjust their clocks
to an average of each other’s clocks.
It is possible to slave an entire networks timing to a common standard (based on GPS). This allows multiple
independent networks to share common timing. GPS maintained timing requires a small number (5 + 5%) of RSs
have GPS attached. For example, in a 100 RS deployment, there will be a need for at least 10 RSs with GPS
attached.
GPS maintained timing is initiated when GPS time is selected when performing a TMI. It uses GPS at the TMI
RS and a few other RSs in the network to keep all the RSs clock synchronized to GPS time. This prevents time
drift from occurring when the network becomes fragmented (e.g., due to mobility, jamming, terrain, etc.) and
allows the network to seamlessly recombine even after a long separation. Sufficient RSs must have GPSs
attached in each of the separated groups of RSs.
The ENM RS (normally the timing master) must have the GPS attached during the initial TMI. The network as a
whole will still need the 5 + 5% of RSs with GPSs attached, but it doesn’t matter which RSs have GPS attached
at this point. However, having the RSs with GPSs attached somewhat dispersed throughout the network is a
good idea.
NOTE
If a group of RSs will be out of communications for an extended period of time, then
there must be (5 + 5%) GPSs attached to RSs in that group.
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1.6.1 Time Division Units of Measure.
Three time division units of measure are used to define time resources in the EPLRS network, these are the
timeslot, frame, and epoch. Table 1−2 illustrates and defines each of these terms.
Table 1−2. Time Resource Definition Table
Term Definition
Timeslot The fundamental (smallest) division of time in the EPLRS network. The transmission and
reception of encrypted data between RSs take place within a single timeslot. EPLRS can
be set up to use either two−millisecond or four−millisecond timeslots.
Frame A sequential group of 128 timeslots. The frame is used as the basis for planning a
network.
Epoch The largest time division used in EPLRS; consists of 256 frames.
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The interrelationship between the epoch, frame, and timeslot is shown in Figure 1−5. Not all of the timeslot time
period is available for sending encoded message data. The encoded data transmission accounts for some of the
time within a timeslot, and the balance of the remaining time is required for setup, RF propagation and
processing.

Figure 1−5. EPLRS TDMA Architecture
1 EPOCH
(256 FRAMES)
64 OR 128
SECONDS
1 FRAME
(128 TIMESLOTS)
0.25 OR 0.5
SECONDS
EACH RS CAN
TRANSMIT OR RECEIVE
ONCE PER TIMESLOT
SETUP TIME
PROPAGATION DELAY AND
PROCESSING TIME
ENCODED DATA
1 TIMESLOT
EITHER 2 OR 4
MILLISECONDS
Table 1−3 shows a detailed view of how the 128 timeslots (numbered 0 through 127) are arranged in the frame.
The timeslots are numbered such that the data assigned to Timeslot 0 is broadcast first, then Timeslot 1, then
Timeslot 2, etc. Timeslots within a frame can be viewed as blocks of timeslots in horizontal or vertical groups.
Referring to Table 1−3, the sixteen vertical groups of timeslots in a frame are labeled with Timeslot Index (TSI)
numbers from 0 through15, and the eight horizontal groups timeslots are labeled with Logical Timeslot (LTS)
numbers from 0 through 7.
To simplify the process of allocating time resources to needlines, the ENP software graphic user interface (GUI)
lets you allocate time resources on an LTS−by−LTS basis (instead of by individual timeslots). With ENP, you
neither see nor need to deal with the 128 individual timeslots; you select logical timeslots (LTS0 through LTS 7) or
fractions of LTSs to assign to specific needlines.
As many as eight LTSs or as little as a quarter−LTS may be assigned to a needline.
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Table 1−3. Timeslot Allocation in EPLRS Frame
LTS0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120
LTS1 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121
LTS2 2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 66 74 82 90 98 106 114 122
LTS3 3 11 19 27 35 43 51 59 67 75 83 91 99 107 115 123
LTS4 4 12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124
LTS5 5 13 21 29 37 45 53 61 69 77 85 93 101 109 117 125
LTS6 6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 78 86 94 102 110 118 126
LTS7 7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 79 87 95 103 111 119 127
TSI0 TSI1 TSI2 TSI3 TSI4 TSI5 TSI6 TSI7 TSI8 TSI9 TSI10 TSI11 TSI12 TSI13 TSI14 TSI15
<−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−Frame−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−>
1.6.2 Timeslot Length Options.
You must select the timeslot length when first setting up the deployment plan file in ENP. Note that it cannot be
changed once selected.
The two−millisecond timeslot is usually associated with the ARMY Tactical Internet ground communities and was
the standard timeslot used with previous versions of the EPLRS RS software. The four−millisecond timeslot
offers expanded data capacities (higher data rates).
The two−millisecond timeslot is useful for bursty type communications that does not have a lot of data to transfer
at any one time, but have lots of small packets that need to be transmitted frequently. The four−millisecond
timeslot is useful for large packets of data, as the burst size is roughly three times the amount of the
two−millisecond timeslot. Use the four−millisecond timeslot for video feeds, as it would cause less choppiness in
the video because it can transfer larger amounts of data per TU (transmission unit). One of the tradeoffs of this
higher throughput is that the maximum power level is limited to medium−high, so the effective range would
typically be less than the two−millisecond timeslot.
Each timeslot length has a different group of communication waveform modes associated with it. The signal
mission determines which timeslot length and which specific waveform modes to select for the deployment. The
various waveform modes offer a wide range of bandwidth, range performance, and anti−jam capabilities.
1.7 EPLRS FREQUENCY RESOURCES.
The EPLRS network is also organized into a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) structure. FDMA
increases the capacity for information transfer in the network and minimizes mutual interference. Using different
frequencies allows you to set up multiple needlines that use the same timeslot and operate in the same
geographical area. You assign the frequency (channel) to each needline during the planning stage and
implement the assignments when building the needlines via ENP.
1.7.1 Channel Set Selection.
You, the planner, select the maximum number of usable channels by selecting one of three available channel
sets. For wideband RSs, check the Use Frequency Translation checkbox when starting ENP and this will make 8
channels available for use with RSs that have the wideband frequency option. Figure 1−6 graphically shows the
three different channel sets and Figure 1−7 shows the Use Frequency Translation option.
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1−11
Figure 1−6. EPLRS Channel Set Options
Figure 1−7. Channel Activation Window: Frequency Translation
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NOTE
When checking the Use Frequency Translation checkbox, the channel activation window
shows 8 channels, but does not identify the physical frequencies associated with them.
A separate utility program maps the 8 channels to physical frequencies. The channel
activation window for this option lets you select which of the 8 channels will be active in
the network. See Chapter 14.1 for more information on the Frequency Mapping Tool.
Note the overlap of the frequencies in the eight−channel set shown in Figure 1−6. This overlap makes it unwise
to set up needlines on adjacent channels because it can result in mutual interference between collocated RSs.
To prevent such interference, the recommended practice with the eight−channel set is to use either the four even
or four odd (non−adjacent) channels as shown in Figure 1−8. Using four non−adjacent channels prevents mutual
interference but also reduces the number of available channels by 50%. However, the channel separation
designed into both the five−channel and six−channel sets prevents interference among adjacent channels, so all
channels become available. Using the six−channel set is recommended for most deployment plans because it
offers the most usable spectrum.
Figure 1−8. Eight−Channel Set Allocation Options
8 CHANNEL SET SHOWING
OVERLAP OF ADJACENT
CHANNELS
8 CHANNEL SET SHOWING
EVEN CHANNEL ALLOCATION
AND ELIMINATION OF
ADJACENT CHANNEL OVERLAP
8 CHANNEL SET SHOWING
ODD CHANNEL ALLOCATION
AND ELIMINATION OF
ADJACENT CHANNEL OVERLAP
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1.7.2 Active Channel Selection.
Once a channel set is chosen, you can further modify the channel set by deselecting individual frequencies
(channels) within the channel set to meet the special requirements of the deployment. EPLRS operations, just
like other communications systems, may require permission to transmit. The job of the local frequency manager
is to balance the frequency spectrum usage amongst the local consumers. As a result, the frequencies EPLRS is
permitted to use may be restricted. ENP allows the planner to restrict the EPLRS channel usage to conform to
local requirements. For example, you can deselect (deactivate) Channel 1 in a deployment where EPLRS use of
the Channel 1 frequency would interfere with other FM equipment in the area. If you have compatible RF
hardware, you can also use Frequency Translation to customize your frequencies. The channels you select are
called the active channels. Figure 1−9 shows an example of a six−channel deployment with all channels set
active. Figure 1−10 shows an example of a six−channel deployment with channels 3 and 5 set inactive.
Figure 1−9. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels
Figure 1−10. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels, Ch3 and Ch5 set to Inactive
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1.7.3 Frequency Hopping.
You can set EPLRS to run in either frequency hopping or non−frequency hopping mode. In non−frequency
hopping mode, the RSs transmit and receive only on their assigned channels. In frequency hopping mode, RSs
randomly use all of the active channels within the channel set. For example, in Figure 3−10 channels 3 and 5 are
inactive, then the RS would hop only on channels 0, 1, 2, and 4.
You set up the network to use (or not use) frequency hopping in the initial stage of building the deployment plan,
however this can be switched on and off at any time.
Frequency hopping mode helps to counteract jammers. Frequency hopping mode (hop set on) is the normal hop
setting because most of the time you will want to take advantage of the anti−jam capability that hop mode offers.
1.8 LTS AND CHANNEL RESOURCE ALLOCATION.
When allocating resources, remember that LTSs are the time portion and the channels are the frequency portion
of the EPLRS resources. The total time and frequency resources available can be represented by the cube
shown in Figure 1−11. Time is divided into eight segments called Logical Time Slots (LTSs) numbered zero
through seven. In Figure 1−11, six different frequencies (channels) are available in the channel set.
Figure 1−11. EPLRS Network Time and Frequency Relationship
LOGICAL
TIMESLOT
(LTS)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
THE CUBE REPRESENTS THE COMPLETE
SET OF TIME AND FREQUENCY RESOURCES
AVAILABLE TO THE NETWORK
CHANNEL
(FREQUENCY)
(6−CHANNEL SET)
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Figure 1−12 shows a simplified example of how you might allocate the time and frequency resources for an Army
Division using this structure. The example shows the following allocations:
NOTE
The following example is just a sample allocation of resources. Actual deployments can
have different allocations of LTSs and frequencies than what is shown.
D LTS 0 is allocated to the ENM Broadcast needline. The ENM Broadcast needline supports ENM functions
such as ENM status reporting and RS configuration. You can allocate a different LTS to the ENM Broadcast
needline, if desired.
D LTS 2 is used for the coordination network. The coordination network handles various coordination tasks
such as setting up DAP needlines, position calculation, and relay coordination for duplex needlines. It’s
possible to allocate LTS 2 to support RS−to−RS communications (needlines), but generally this is not
recommended. Doing so means that you will lose the services provided by the coordination net because it is
designed to use only LTS 2. Therefore, the recommended practice is to leave LTS 2 for the coordination
network.
D LTS 7 is allocated to HDR DAP needlines.
D All other LTSs (besides LTSs 0, 2 and 7) are assigned to support division, brigade and battalion needlines.
These include situation awareness (SA) and command−and−control (C2) functions.

Figure 1−12. Time and Frequency Resource Allocation Example
CHANNEL
(FREQUENCY)
6−CHANNEL SET
LTS 0
LTS 1
LTS 2
LTS 3
LTS 4
LTS 5
LTS 6
LTS 7
0
1
2
3
4
ENM BROADCAST NEEDLINE
HDR DAP NEEDLINES
EPLRS COORDINATION NET
BRIGADE−WIDE SA NEEDLINE
BATTALION−LOCAL C2 NEEDLINES
BRIGADE−WIDE C2 NEEDLINE
BATTALION−LOCAL SA NEEDLINES
THE CUBE REPRESENTS THE COMPLETE
SET OF TIME AND FREQUENCY RESOURCES
AVAILABLE TO THE NETWORK
LTSs ARE ASSIGNED
BASED ON UNITS
AND MISSION
REQUIREMENTS
HDR DAP NEEDLINES
5
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You can increase a needlines bandwidth by assigning it additional LTS’s. Conversely, you can decrease its
bandwidth by assigning it a 1/2 LTS or 1/4 LTS. The LTS works as a multiplier when determining bandwidth. For
example, if you assign a needline 4 LTS’s, the bandwidth is effectively quadrupled. If you assign a needline a 1/2
LTS, the bandwidth is cut in half.
Table 1−4 shows the same information as Figure 1−12 but in a planner’s resource allocation worksheet.
Worksheets like the one in Table 1−4 allow you to easily lay out and view all of the LTS and channel resources for
a deployment in a concise two−dimensional table. It is recommended that you plan your needlines using this
table format. Note that each of the needlines used by all RSs in the Brigade are given their own LTS.
Conversely, needlines that are used only by local, independent groups of RSs (e.g., the Battalion−Local needlines
on LTSs 5 and 6) may be overlapped on the same LTS as long as they are assigned to different channels. This
technique is called Resource Overlap.
For example, the RSs that use the 1st Battalion−Local SA needline on LTS 5 will never use the Local SA
needlines for the 2nd Battalion or 3rd Battalion. Therefore, this overlap is permissible because no RS would be
called on to support two different needlines during the same LTS. The 1st Battalion RSs support only the 1st
Battalion−Local SA needline, the 2nd Battalion RSs support only the 2nd Battalion, etc.
Table 1−4. Sample Resource Allocation Template
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4
LTS0 ENM Broadcast
Needline
LTS1 Brigade−Wide SA
Needline
LTS2 Coordination Network
LTS3 Brigade−Wide C2
Needline
LTS4 HDR DAP Needlines
LTS5 1st Battalion−Local SA
Needline
2nd Battalion−Local
SA Needline
3rd Battalion−Local
SA Needline
LTS6 1st Battalion−Local C2
Needline
2nd Battalion−Local
C2 Needline
3rd Battalion−Local
C2 Needline
LTS7 LDR DAP Needlines
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Resource Conflict, shown in Table 1−5 can only be used when there is a terrain blockage or a very long distance
between RSs. Take a look at LTS 5 and LTS 6, the 1st Battalion−Local needlines are in conflict with the 2nd
Battalion needlines because they share the same time and frequency. However, if the 1st Battalion was in a
different geographical location that was very far from the 2nd Battalion, then this conflict is permissible because
the 2nd Battalion needline could not reach the 1st Battalion. This is an advanced technique and should not be
used often unless you have completely run out of resources to put a needline, or you can guarantee that there will
always be a large distance between the units or something that completely blocks line−of−sight.
Table 1−5. Sample Resource Allocation Template with Resource Conflict
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4
LTS0 ENM Broadcast
Needline
LTS1 Brigade−Wide SA
Needline
LTS2 Coordination Network
LTS3 Brigade−Wide C2
Needline
LTS4 HDR DAP Needlines
LTS5 2nd Battalion−Local SA
Needline
1st Battalion−Local SA
Needline
LTS6 2nd Battalion−Local C2
Needline
1st Battalion−Local C2
Needline
LTS7 LDR DAP Needlines
1.9 INTERFERENCE BETWEEN RSs.
Interference between EPLRS RSs is called mutual interference. There is a possibility of mutual interference
when two or more RSs are collocated (their antennas are located within 100 meters). Mutual interference may
degrade communications for the hosts using the needlines that share the resources. If many users on the
EPLRS network are using the same LTS and channel resource in the same geographic area, the probability of
mutual interference increases. Effective network planning requires careful selection of time and channel
resources to support needlines and minimize mutual interference between the RSs.
There are five factors that prevent or reduce mutual interference:
D Time Separation
D Frequency Separation
D Code Separation
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D Geographic Separation
D Antenna Placement Optimization
The EPLRS radio is embedded with coding that reduces the effects of mutual interference, which help recover
from bits that were received in error. If a transmission is not received, the radio has a chance of recovery it if it is
within the range of a radio that is acting as a relay for that needline.
1.9.1 Time Separation.
You can avoid mutual interference between collocated RSs by allocating a different time slice to each needline. If
this is not possible, different channels should be assigned to needlines sharing an LTS. A dedicated LTS is
necessary for needlines that will be used by all RSs in the deployment. If the deployment mission calls for more
needlines than you have LTSs, you should try to do the following:
D Determine which needlines actually need a separate LTS; examples include needlines for the aviation units
and for the wide−area services because those needlines may be used by all RSs in the network.
D Coordinate with the host device operators to determine their data loads and the EPLRS bandwidth they will
need; using half an LTS or a quarter of an LTS may be more than enough for some hosts to operate
satisfactorily.
D Determine whether some needlines may be able to share an LTS because the RSs that use them are
separated by RF−blocking terrain or by very long distances, making mutual interference unlikely.
1.9.2 Frequency Separation.
As previously discussed in Section 1.7, EPLRS provides three different channel sets (five, six, or eight channels).
When you use the five−channel or six−channel set, all channels are usable. When you use the eight−channel
set, you realistically have a maximum of four usable channels because the adjacent channels overlap and can
cause mutual interference. (Refer to Figure 1−8.) To avoid this interference, you should use only non−adjacent
channels (two−channel separation) to prevent mutual interference. The best way to ensure a two−channel
separation when using an 8 channel set, is to use either the four odd or four even channels when assigning active
channels. In most cases, the best use of time and frequency resources is to use the six−channel set for the
deployment.
Mutual interference also arises when RSs in the same geographic area are assigned to support different
needlines that use the same channel and the same LTS. This is referred to as reusing resources and is a
resource conflict. Note that the ENP GUI alerts you when you define needlines in a way that produces a
resource conflict. ENP does not prevent the allocation, but it warns you (via a red X symbol in the needline
matrix) when you allocate the same time and frequency resources to more than one needline.
To prevent mutual interference, you should avoid allocating the same LTS and channel resources to multiple
needlines used by RSs. By assigning the needlines to different channels, you will prevent mutual interference.
However, there is still a problem meeting the mission requirements if some or all of the RSs will use more than
one of the needlines. An RS can only do one thing at a time and can only support one needline during an LTS. If
an RS is transmitting on a needline assigned to LTS 1 and Channel 4, the RS cannot also transmit on a needline
assigned to LTS 1 and Channel 6. An RS can only perform one task (use one needline or the other, but not both)
during a given timeslot. As discussed in Section 1.8, needlines can be assigned to different channels on the
same LTS if they are used by separate groups of RSs that each use only one of the needlines. This is referred to
as a resource overlap and is not considered to be a resource conflict. The needline layout shown for LTS 5 and
LTS 6 in Table 1−4 illustrate resource overlap.
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1.9.3 Code Separation.
When different RSs reuse common time and frequency resources with different needlines, an internal code for
each needline automatically ensures that an RS expecting a message on one needline won’t decode (receive)
messages from the other needline. This feature of the EPLRS waveform is called Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA). CDMA reduces but does not prevent mutual interference.
1.9.4 Geographic Separation.
Geographic separation is the use of long distance or RF−blocking physical obstructions to reduce mutual
interference between RSs. RSs communicate with other RSs using Line−of−Site (LOS), so a hill or a great
distance between the two RSs will block the LOS. When time and frequency resources are limited and must be
reused, reusing resources among groups of RSs separated by great distances is a better choice than reusing
resources among RSs that are collocated. It is sometimes difficult to plan for reusing resources based on
geographic separation because many RSs are mobile. If you know that some RSs will never be near each other
(e.g., RSs from different Brigades), then those RSs would be good candidates for reusing resources. Generally,
distance is a better choice than terrain for ensuring geographic separation because RSs are rarely stationary.
1.9.5 Antenna Placement Optimization.
If RSs must be collocated (antennas within 100 meters) and if they have to support different needlines at the
same time (e.g., on the same LTS), then the antennas should be separated as far as possible. Alternately, the
antennas should be placed vertically, right on top of one another (always pointing straight up). This will reduce
the impact of the other antenna, since there is a natural null above and below the antenna. If neither of these
options are available, then separating the antenna by a large metal object (e.g., large truck) can help.
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1.10 EPLRS NETWORKS.
There are two types of networks used within EPLRS. They are:
D The communication network
D The coordination network
Figure 1−13 shows an example of the way timeslot resources are allocated to the two networks. The figure
shows examples of how the communications network resources may be allocated for specific needlines (e.g.,
HDR COMM). Note that the communications network resource allocations in the figure are discretionary and are
determined by the planner. However, the allocation of LTS 2 for the coordination network is not discretionary.
The coordination network is always operated on LTS 2.
Figure 1−13. Allocation of Timeslot Resources for EPLRS Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
THE REMAINDER OF THE TIMESLOTS ARE
AVAILABLE TO THE COMMUNICATION NETWORK
FOR NEEDLINES AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT
LOGICAL
TIMESLOT
(LTS)
LDR−HDR COMM
COORD NET
LDR−HDR COMM
HDR COMM
LDR−HDR COMM
HDR COMM
HDR COMM
HDR COMM
LTS 2 IS ALLOCATED TO
THE COORDINATION
NETWORK
1.11 COMMUNICATION NETWORK.
The communication network is the group of resources that supports communications between the computer
systems (or hosts) connected to the EPLRS RSs. The communication network operates like a wireless internet.
Unlike the coordination network, the communication network passes data from external sources (the hosts), not
from the RSs themselves. The RSs provide the RF paths for this host−generated data using the resources
allocated to the communication network.
1.12 COORDINATION NETWORK.
The coordination network is a group of resources used by the RSs to handle network coordination tasks and
other network support. When using a 2−msec timeslot, the coordination waveform mode is set to 3 and when
using a 4−msec timeslot, the coordination waveform mode is set to 9 and this is not user configurable.
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The five network management services supported by coordination network resources include the following:
Relay Coordination Relay path−finding for duplex needlines. This path−building process uses the
coordination network’s resources to establish and build a RS relay path for
duplex needlines. (Refer to Chapter 7 for additional information on duplex
needlines.)
ARP Support Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the mechanism used by a source RS to
discover a data path through the network to a specific destination RS; used to
set up DAP needlines. ARP request and response traffic is sent over the
coordination net; datagrams sent from host to host are addressed via IP
address (not EPLRS Radio Name) which creates a situation where the IP
address must be correlated to an EPLRS Radio Name before a needline can
be set up to deliver the datagram. This process is informally called ARPing.
ENM Support The EPLRS RS supports ENM by transmitting and relaying network
management and support messages on the coordination network. These
messages include status messages from RSs locally connected to ENMs and
trap messages generated by all other RSs and sent to ENMs via local RSs
connected to those ENMs.
Broadcast Messaging In all broadcast message situations, the source RS depends on the general
broadcast relay support to deliver the message to as many RSs as possible.
The structure provides either one−way broadcast capabilities per frame, or a
single round−trip negotiation from the sourcing RS to the destination and
back in a single frame. The coordination network is used to locate the
destination RS and is used as a path for the response.
Position Location Position calculation for Situation Awareness (SA) data (Pos data); RSs
exchange RS position information with each other.
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1.13 HOST INTERFACES.
This section describes the different host data interfaces built into the EPLRS RS. The EPLRS RS supports the
following host/computer interfaces:
D ADDSI
D Ethernet
D RS−232
1.14 ADDSI.
The Army Data Distribution System Interface (ADDSI) supports transmission of ADDSI packets between a host
device and the EPLRS RS. The ADDSI protocol is a subset of the X.25 protocol, and the physical interface used
to support this protocol is RS−422. This is the Interface used to connect to the US Army Tactical Internet (TI)
Internet Controller (INC) routers.
1.15 ETHERNET.
The Ethernet interface supports transmission of Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams between a host device (host
router) and the EPLRS RS. An EPLRS RS can connect to an Ethernet 10BaseT and Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 network. Each EPLRS RS can be assigned an IP address and can then be
connected to a network. The connection between the ENM host platform and the local ENM RS uses the
Ethernet interface.
The EPLRS RS contains a standard commercial Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack
and software that provides unicast and multicast support for an Ethernet interface. The RS software also
contains a built−in EPLRS agent functionality, a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent, and
SNMP processing applications that enable you to configure hundreds of RSs for unicast as well as multicast
communication, multiple networks, etc. The EPLRS agent functionality provides unicast/multicast transport of
many types of data such as situation awareness (SA) messages. This enables higher throughput for data
updates between hosts.
The EPLRS Ethernet host interface allows data transfer between a host device and the EPLRS RS via IP
datagrams. The RS Ethernet Interface provides Ethernet−based hosts with the ability to communicate
host−to−host via the EPLRS RF network as well as with ADDSI and Point−to−Point Protocol (PPP) hosts.
1.16 RS−232.
The RS−232 Interface, also defined as the Electronic Industries Association (EIA)/Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA)−232−C, supports PPP and is used as the interface for the Global Positioning System (GPS).
The TCP/IP stack and EPLRS software provide unicast and multicast support for the PPP interface.
The EPLRS RS can interface with a GPS receiver via its RS−232 interface. Generally, a Precision Lightweight
GPS Receiver (PLGR) or Defense Advanced GPS Receiver (DAGR) is used to periodically receive GPS time,
three−dimensional position and velocity, plus horizontal and vertical uncertainty. With good satellite coverage, a
PLGR directly connected to an RS can provide a dynamic reference RS with accurate position data.
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CHAPTER 2
NETWORK PLANNING
2.1 INTRODUCTION.
The objective of network planning is to develop a detailed plan for an EPLRS deployment. The plan must be
flexible enough to support users throughout a dynamic digitized battlefield. This chapter discusses the network
planning process and the interaction between the personnel who are involved in the planning and management of
the EPLRS network.
2.2 PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES.
System planning and control requires coordination between the functional EPLRS users and the signal
community. Division−level and Corps−level organizations assign EPLRS RSs to the community of operational
units to create the data backbone required for secure battlefield communications. Table 2−1 identifies the key
planning personnel and defines their roles and responsibilities in planning and managing the EPLRS network.
Table 2−1. Planning Personnel Roles and Responsibilities
Personnel Primary Responsibilities
Assistant Chief of Staff G6
(Corps Signal Officer)
Provides corps−level guidance to the system planner and coordinates
with the NOSC; interfaces with signal battalion; issues Corps
COMSEC keying material via COMSEC custodian; coordinates
Corps−wide EPLRS configurations.
Assistant Chief of Staff G6
(Division Signal Officer)
Liaison that helps the unit develop EPLRS requirements and
consolidates the input into the NOSC; interfaces with signal battalion.
Brigade/Battalion signal officer
(BSO) S6
Brigade BSO is the principal system planner of the EPLRS network;
studies the situation, gathers inputs, and validates requirements;
forwards information to DSO.
Battalion BSO assists units in developing input and passes these
comm requirements to the Brigade BSO.
Tactical Internet Manager
(TIM)
Manages .csv files; coordinates Radio Names, URNs, rolenames,
UTO names, LCN numbers, types of circuits, and SA distribution.
EPLRS Network Planner
(System Planner)
Validates and verifies submitted communication requirements;
performs initial planning based on OPLAN and RS assets; interfaces
directly with DSO; enters data via ENP; builds ENM deployment plan
database; supports ENM operators, monitors network, and modifies
database as required.
ENM Operator
(Network Level)
Technical communication manager for the EPLRS community;
manages and configures network, coordinates with other ENM
operators; interacts with SYSCON; downloads electronic keying
material; interfaces with maintainers.
Table continued on next page.
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Personnel Primary Responsibilities
ENM Operator (Range
Extension Level)
Technical communication manager for the EPLRS community;
manages and configures network, coordinates with other ENM
operators; interacts with SYSCON; interfaces with maintainers.
EPLRS User Community
Personnel
Installs, operates, and maintains EPLRS assets; defines specific
requirements with help of BSO and signal community.
Signal Corps soldiers are responsible for the installation, operation, and maintenance of the ENMs. The ENMs
are placed in areas that can best support the communications needs of the operational units. The Corps and
Division Signal Battalions install, operate and maintain the ENMs. The ENMs are assigned to, installed by, and
operated by US Army Signal Corps personnel supporting the major maneuver units.
The Grid Reference RSs are installed and operated by Signal Battalion soldiers but maintained by the supported
units. The SYSCON or the ENM operators direct the deployment of reference RSs, as appropriate. The
reference RSs are installed and operated by soldiers assigned throughout the Brigade as directed by the
commander. Supported units maintain the ENM and reference RSs.
ENM Range Extension configurations are usually hosted on a vehicle within the BN S−6 sections. Depending on
the unit, they may be placed within vehicles or configured to operate out of TOC locations in tents. They can
perform all the functions of a stand alone network ENM vehicle except managing a KOK−13.
Network ENMs are equipped with KOK−13 key generating devices. All Network level ENMs support over−the−air
rekeying (OTAR) via a black key file (BKF). One Network ENM is designated to serve as the time master and
perform all system−related updates. The time master ENM is also usually assigned to initiate each cryptographic
advance.
2.3 THE PLANNING PROCESS.
The US Army deployment planning process includes the following:
D Maintaining and modifying an existing plan supplied by a civilian contractor
D Designing and developing a new deployment plan
2.3.1 Maintaining and Modifying an Existing Plan.
The deployment planning process currently involves a significant amount of support from civilian contractors.
Contractors design and develop the EPLRS deployment plan databases for the Infantry Division, Cavalry, Stryker
Brigade Combat Teams, and some ADA units with special missions. If you as the planner are working with a
contractor−designed deployment plan, your primary planning responsibilities will be to thoroughly understand the
data in the plan, ensure its accuracy, assist in network management, and modify the plan as required by the
on−going tactical situation. Although you may not be building a whole new plan, thoroughly study the process
described in Section 2.3.2. The best way to maintain and modify a contractor−supplied plan is to understand as
much as possible about the data that goes into it. By knowing what is in the plan and how the plan was designed,
you will be able to modify the plan, as well as detect such things as data entry errors that may occur when the
plan is modified.
2.3.2 Designing and Developing a New Plan.
Planning for a new EPLRS deployment is an iterative process. Some actions, such as the preliminary
assignment of time and frequency resources, will require you to go back and revise or fine−tune the initial
allocations to best meet the requirements of the signal mission. You should expect to go back and revise,
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reallocate, and adjust parameters and resources as the plan is developed. This is a normal part of the process of
developing a good plan that makes the best possible use of available resources.
Table 2−2 shows the sequence of actions required for the planning process. This table serves as a guide that
gives you the big picture of the process. It is possible to perform some of the actions in a slightly different
sequence or concurrently, so use common sense and plan the best use of time when performing the required
actions.
Table 2−2. EPLRS Planning Process
Step Activity Input Sources Outputs
1 Determine initial EPLRS deployment strategy,
timeslot, and channel set; study Operational
Plan (OPLAN).
OPLAN, Signal
operations order.
ENP data entry.
2 Analyze EPLRS assets and preliminary
requirements; determine what assets are
available for deployment; issue, collect, and
validate EPLRS user requirements forms.
Determine whether or not to do pre−planning
of RSs, or a mixture of both pre−planned and
unplanned RSs, or a network comprised of
completely unplanned RSs.
Asset list and completed
user requirement forms;
include Radio Names, RS
interfaces to be used, and
units RSs belong to.
3 Assign RSs as reference units; define
positions of fixed reference RSs(if any); these
can be units such as artillery, engineers, and
headquarters with only one RS in the area, or
any other unit that will be relatively stationary
and can determine its location from outside
sources such as GPS.
OPLAN, Signal
operations order.
Input may be Military Grid
Reference (MGR) for
URO entry and
LAT/LONG for ENP entry.
ENP and RS data entry.
4 Assign rolenames and develop UTO structure,
if required; define Network−level and Range
Extension level ENMs; build UTO structure in
ENP, if required; enter UTOs, RSs, ENMs,
and set up reference−capable RSs, if
required; assign IP addresses if required.
ENP and RS data entry.
5 Design needlines and allocate resources; lay
out LTSs for comm network; design all
needlines; allocate LTSs and channels to
needlines; identify resource conflicts and
overlaps; resolve problems; build needlines in
ENP; complete IP interface/route planning if
required.
Completed user
requirement forms.
ENP and RS data entry.
Needline resource
allocation worksheet;
ENP data entry; RS
Parameter Checklist
entries.
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Table 2−2. EPLRS Planning Process (Continued)
Step Activity Input Sources Outputs
6 Plan for CONOPS; contingency planning for
ref units, relays, ENMs, division gateways,
and TMI plan.
OPLAN, Signal
operations order.
CONOPS plan.
7 Define system parameters; finalize: system
power level, hop/no−hop, and guard channel.
OPLAN, Signal
operations order.
ENP and RS data entry.
8 Plan for COMSEC; develop COMSEC plan
and order seed keys.
OPLAN, Signal
operations order.
COMSEC plan.
9 Generate the deployment plan; enter
remaining data into ENP; run ENP analysis to
verify results.
ENP data entry; ENP
analysis; deployment plan
database file.
10 Distribute the deployment plan. ENM Database Files; via
FTP, Flash drive, or CD to
ENM operators.
2.3.2.1 Determining the Initial Deployment Strategy.
The first step in the planning process is to determine the initial deployment strategy for the network. Make a list
of the organizations that have EPLRS−equipped assets from the OPLAN. Based on the organizations involved in
the deployment, determine the number of RSs to be deployed and where they will be deployed. Use this
information to determine if a Unit Task Organization (UTO) structure for the deployment is required. The UTO
structure consists of a group of folders organized around the units in the deployment (e.g., brigades, battalions, or
task−oriented groups of RSs). The UTO structure is used to organize the RSs when building the deployment plan
in ENP and managing the network in ENM. The ENM Simplification capability will help you with the planning of
RSs and/or a UTO structure.
ENM supports preplanned RSs that have parameters assigned specifically for them and unplanned RSs that have
a default parameter set. The default parameter set includes items such as the power level of the RS, whether or
not it is reference capable, if it will automatically relay and position distribution information. If you decide to have
all RSs in your plan fall under a default configuration, you will not need to define a UTO structure.
Study the map of the area of the deployment, and consider the effects of curvature of the earth and the terrain.
You must plan for radio frequency connectivity between all needline endpoints either by direct LOS or via relaying
RSs. You may have little information on some parts of the terrain; if so, try to plan for redundant communication
paths around probable RF−blocking terrain features. Also, minimize resource conflicts of sharing the exact same
LTS and channel resources by groups of RSs unless you are fairly sure that they will be masked from each other
by RF−blocking terrain features or extremely long distances. Resource overlap, or the sharing of the same LTS,
but different channel resources is fine if no RS will ever need to activate two or more needlines in the same LTS.
See section 1.8 for more information on resource overlapping and conflict.
The curvature of the earth, combined with the height of source and destination antennas, imposes range
limitations. In general, if you raise the antenna height for source or destination RSs, it will increase the maximum
achievable RF range. Conversely, placing RSs in depressed terrain or with antennas masked by terrain features
can cause severe degradation in RF range performance because RF energy cannot penetrate terrain. When the
source−to−destination path is blocked, RF transmission is limited unless you have planned for relay RSs to
provide LOS paths around the RF−blocking terrain features.
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2.3.2.2 Analyzing EPLRS Assets and Preliminary Requirements.
The second step in the planning process is to continue building, organizing, and refining the list of EPLRS
RS−equipped platforms based on the organizations involved in the deployment and the information gathered
about the deployment. You should determine if there will be co−location of RSs, determine RS area coverage,
and check to see what RS movement is planned. It’s a good idea to develop and use some kind of user
requirement form to help with obtaining RS information. A user requirement form is given to and filled out by the
signal personnel in the subordinate operational units. You, the planner, can develop a form that works best for
you and your parent unit. The form should capture as much information as possible about the subordinate unit’s
EPLRS RSs, general organization, and the specific host devices used (e.g., FBCB2, FAAD, etc.). Based on the
inputs provided by the users, you then assign or record Radio Names and Unit Reference Numbers (URNs),
record the RS interfaces and host platforms, and continue to refine the UTO structure, if required. Some or all
data may be predefined for you. When working within the constraints of the Tactical Internet, some data such as
Radio Name and LCN numbers are predefined to be consistent with the TIM and its database.
The URN is inserted into position messages to ensure that the SA data is reported to the correct destination.
Allowable numbers range from 0 through 16777215. The general allocation of URNs is as follows:
US Army Block: 0000000 through 1999999
US Marine Corps Block: 2000000 through 2999999
US Air Force Block: 3000000 through 3999999
US Navy Block: 4000000 through 4999999
Continue refining the preliminary UTO structure as you collect more information about the network RS assets.
RSs will choose the ENM closest to them as their responsible ENM. This is an automated process and requires
no operator input. ENM provides configuration data to remote RSs, including operational parameters from the
deployment plan and cryptographic keys from a black key file. It is recommended that you reconfigure RSs prior
to deployment to minimize delays when bringing up the operational RS network. You should also begin to identify
or collect information about the following:
D The communication service (needline) requirements
D The data source and destination endpoint RSs
D The message traffic requirements (types and sizes of messages, data throughput requirements)
This information will help you begin to determine the types and rates of the needlines to use and will support the
design of the net services as described in Section 2.3.2.5.
2.3.2.3 Assigning RSs as Reference Units.
The third step in the planning process is to define reference RS positions to support the deployment. A reference
unit is an EPLRS RS that is set up at a precisely known location so that it can serve as a reference from which
other network RSs determine their positions. Reference units are set up at specific locations and generally do not
move. The exception to this is when an FBCB2 or a GPS unit is connected to a reference unit. The EPLRS RS
will now act as a mobile reference unit.
Reference units help compute accurate position data for network RSs that need to determine their positions for
SA reporting. The signal organization controls the placement and movement of reference RSs. An RS is an
excellent candidate for a reference unit when its location is accurately known and it is occupying a fixed position.
Examples usually include the field artillery RSs and signal unit RSs that are located near surveyed benchmarks.
It is recommended to make all RSs references capable when loading a plan, since unplanned RSs default
settings configure the radio as reference capable.
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A reference unit is defined in terms of horizontal position (latitude and longitude) and vertical position (altitude
above mean sea level). A reference unit may provide latitude and longitude, altitude, or both. Network RSs use
multiple reference units to compute their own positions. Each reference unit has an uncertainty value that is
based on the accuracy of the stored reference position. When computing its position, an RS takes the
uncertainty values of the reference units into account and gives the position data from the more accurate
reference unit more weight in the calculation. Refer to Chapter 12, Position Location, for more information on
planning for and setting up reference units.
2.3.2.4 Assigning Rolenames and Developing the UTO Structure.
The fourth step in the planning process is to assign role names for the UTOs, ENMs, and RSs to be used in the
deployment and develop the UTO structure itself. This step is only required for preplanned RSs and UTOs. If
you choose to leave all your RSs as unplanned, you can skip this step. However, it is recommended that all
Ethernet connected RSs, including ENM RSs be preplanned.
You should place network and monitor ENMs in subordinate unit folders within the UTO structure to best support
the deployment. Consider preliminary relay placement and RS loading along with the placement of the ENMs.
ENMs are usually assigned to Brigade and Battalion Tactical Operations Centers (TOCs). This effort requires
study of the mission requirements, the terrain, and LOS to best implement required communications services.
When working within the constraints imposed by the TI, you should know and use the TI naming conventions to
help identify different TI platforms.
Each network ENM is assigned to a specific organization (Division, Brigade, Battalion, etc.) and is placed in a
UTO based on the task origination. RSs choose the closest network ENM as their responsible ENM. However,
network ENMs can assist one another by monitoring, manually reconfiguring, or manually rekeying RSs that are
not under their command. Some functions such as Auto Configuration and Auto Rekey are limited to the RSs
responsible ENM.
At this point in the planning process, it’s a good idea to plan the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses needed in the
network. As a minimum, it is recommended you assign IP addresses and subnet masks to the ENM PCs and the
ENM RSs. For more information on IP planning, refer to Chapter 8.
2.3.2.5 Designing Needlines and Allocating Resources.
The fifth step in the planning process is to collect communications requirements for the network, use them to
design the required EPLRS needlines, and add the needlines to the ENM database via ENP. Creating the
database requires coordinated planning between you and the user community. This requires clear definition of
requirements by the user community and careful management by the planner to ensure that network balance and
operation within system capacity are maintained.
When allocating EPLRS resources, remember that LTSs are the time resources, and channels are the frequency
resources. You should first try to allocate needlines by assigning them to different LTSs before assigning
needlines to the same LTS resources. When you assign two needlines to the same LTS resource, an RS can
only support one of these needlines at a time, even if the needlines are assigned to different channels. This is
because an RS can only perform one task (e.g., transmit, receive, etc.) on one channel during an LTS.
Needlines using different channels can be overlapped on the same timeslot if they are used by separate,
independent RS communities. For example, different battalion−local needlines may be overlapped with each
other because an RS assigned to one battalion−local needline will not be communicating on another
battalion−local needline.
If necessary, needlines can reuse resources (assigned the same LTS and channel resources), but you must plan
to avoid mutual interference as well as ensure that the RS communities are different. As previously described, a
single RS can only actively support one of these needlines at a time. To avoid mutual interference, you must also
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ensure that the two RS communities involved in the resource reuse are separated by RF−blocking terrain or long
distance.
EPLRS provides three default channel sets (five, six or eight) and a custom channel set that can be used with
extended frequency (XF) hardware RSs. For more information on this custom channel set, see Chapter 14 for
more information. All channels are usable with the five−channel and six−channel sets. With the eight−channel
set, it’s recommended to use four non−adjacent channels (either the four odd or four even channels). The
adjacent channels overlap in the eight−channel set and can cause mutual interference. Unless there are special
circumstances such as specific frequency restrictions, use the six−channel set because it provides the most time
and frequency resources.
2.3.2.5.1 LTS/CN Needline Matrix.
The LTS/CN Needline Matrix display is one of the tools available under the Net Services tab window in ENP.
Figure 2−1 shows an example of the LTS/CN Needline Matrix display. This display is a very useful tool for
planning and defining needlines.
Figure 2−1. LTS/Channel Needline Matrix Display
The LTS/CN Needline Matrix presents a map of the network needlines showing how LTSs and channels have
been allocated to DAP and PVC needlines. The matrix uses color coding to identify the LTSs/channels allocated
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for DAP needlines and for the coordination net. DAP needline resource allocations are made under the ENP
System tab. (Refer to Chapter 4 for more information.) CSMA, MSG, and HDR Duplex needlines are shown as
X or O symbols in their assigned LTS−channel cells in the matrix. This display is very useful for planning LTS and
channel allocations for needlines because it gives you a single picture of all of the needlines and the available
resources, making it easier to see resource conflicts.
The matrix uses the following colors to identify the allocated LTSs and channels:
D Blue −− HDR DAP needlines
D Yellow −− LDR needlines (DAP and PVC)
D Green −− Both HDR DAP and LDR needlines
D Pink −− LTS 2; reserved for the coordination net
D Black −− Inactive channels; not available for needline use
The pink colored zone is assigned by ENP and shows the resources set aside for the coordination network. The
blue, yellow, and green colored zones correspond to the assignments you make for HDR and LDR DAP
needlines. These assignments correspond to the check boxes selected under the ENP System tab.
LTS−channel cells assigned to be used for DAPs are made available to all the EPLRS RSs in the network. It is
generally a good idea to assign any available unused LTS−channel cells to DAPs to maximize DAP performance.
Black−colored cells in the matrix show channels that have been set inactive (unavailable) in the deployment plan.
The example in Figure 7−63 shows an eight−channel plan in which all channels are set active, so there are no
black cells. Note that if a channel had been set inactive, the LTS−channel cells under that channel would be
black and unavailable for use.
Needline allocations made using the Net Services tab are displayed in the matrix as X or O symbols. An X
indicates an LTS−channel cell that is entirely filled. An O indicates an LTS−channel cell that is partially filled. If
there is a resource conflict, the symbol will be displayed in red instead of black text.
Below the matrix, the LTS Size Detail table shows the half−LTS or quarter−LTS allocations for a specific cell in the
matrix. Clicking on a cell in the matrix displays the LTS usage for that cell in the LTS Size Detail table. In the
example in the figure, the table shows LTS usage for the needlines that are currently assigned to use LTS 2 and
Channel 0. There are two needlines, CSMA_SA and CSMA_C2 that are assigned to the selected cell. The
selected cell has a dotted outline around it.
The LTS Size Detail table shows how the needlines are placed in the LTS. The First 1/2 consists of the first and
third LTS quadrants, while the Second 1/2 consists of the second and fourth LTS quadrants. An unused quadrant
would have a zero in it. In the example in Figure 7−63, CSMA_SA and CSMA_C2 both have a 1/2−LTS circuit
size.
Below the LTS Size Detail table, the Needlines in Matrix display presents a table of the needlines using the
selected LTS−channel cell. Clicking on a specific cell in the matrix displays the needlines using that LTS and
channel in the Needlines in Matrix table. In the example in Figure 7−63, the table shows the two needlines,
CSMA_SA and CSMA_C2 that are currently assigned to use LTS 2 and Channel 0. The Needlines in Matrix table
displays circuit allocation data for all of the needlines assigned to the selected cell. This includes needline name,
circuit size, LTS, and channel information that make it easier for you to see the cause of a resource conflict.
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2.3.2.5.2 Allocating Resources for LDR Duplex Needlines.
LDR duplex needlines include both pre−planned needlines and DAP needlines. Using ENP, you allocate LTS and
channel resources for LDR duplex needlines but do not assign a specific LTS or channel to those needlines, as
you would do for other PVC needlines. The RS selects the LTS and channel from available resources when it
builds the PVC LDR duplex or DAP LDR needlines. LDR duplex needlines can be set up to use any of the
following:
D LTS 7
D LTSs 5 and 7
D LTS 3, 5, and 7
The number of LTSs allocated to LDR needlines depends on the requirements for LDR, as well as the number of
LTSs needed for other PVC needlines. As long as there are no external frequency restrictions, all the channels
on the designated LTSs should be allocated for communications unless a channel is to be set aside for HDR.
Note that if you assign a PVC needline (e.g., CSMA, MSG, etc.) to use one of the LTSs assigned to LDR
needlines, the PVC needline has priority over DAP and LDR and will take the resources whenever the PVC
needline is activated.
2.3.2.5.3 Allocating Resources for HDR Duplex Needlines.
HDR duplex needlines can be set up to use any of the eight LTSs. However, it’s best not to use LTS 2 for HDR
duplex because you don’t want to lose the services supported by the coordination network. The coordination
network services are required to enable the network RSs to build pre−planned LDR duplex, LDR DAP, and HDR
DAP needlines.
During the process of building the needlines in the ENM database, each individual HDR duplex needline is
assigned specific LTS and channel resources. If you assign a HDR duplex needline to an LTS also allocated to
HDR or LDR DAP needlines, the DAP services will be lost whenever the overlaid HDR duplex needline is
activated. (The PVC needline has priority over DAP and LDR and will take the resources whenever the PVC
needline is activated.) When planning HDR duplex needlines, you must assign the channel to be used by the
needline. Unlike LDR duplex needlines, channels are assigned when creating the individual PVC needline.
2.3.2.5.4 Needline Resource Allocation Worksheets.
The EPLRS users are host devices, such as FBCB2, that communicate via the EPLRS network. One of your
primary jobs as the system planner is to properly assign the time and frequency resources to specific needlines to
support the communication requirements of the users. You have a finite number of resources available to service
the EPLRS community. You must analyze and consider the number of EPLRS RSs and the communication
services required to best determine how to allocate the resources.
The needlines you build into the ENM database are designed from RS or endpoint requirements that must be met
to successfully perform in the user−to−user data communications network. Some of the user requirements that
will help you plan needlines include the following:
D Bi−directional data flow required between any RSs.
D How often messages are sent.
D Throughput: How much data the needline can support from end to end.
D Speed of Service (required time for source−to−destination delivery): The time it takes for a message to be
sent and received.
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D Accessibility: The requirement for ready access. For example, a CSMA needline may not be available on
demand. An MSG needline has dedicated resources that can be assigned to a sourcing RS to guarantee that
the needline will be available.
D Message Size.
Once you determine the user needline requirements, your goal is to choose the best types of needlines and
estimate the data rates (bits per second; throughput) that the needlines must provide for the users. Some users
may know exactly what LTS and channel resources they need. With others, you may be estimating the data
throughput requirement or using previous experience as a benchmark to allocate resources.
After you write down a list of the required needlines and the required data rates, you can use ENP to compute
what LTS and channel resources are required for each needline. As you build a needline in ENP, the GUI
automatically computes and displays the data rate in bits per second so you can see if the allocation will meet the
requirements of the user. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information on needline features.
Use the LTS/CN matrix in ENP and needline resource allocation worksheets, such as the example shown in Table
2−3, to lay out all the needlines. Table 2−3 is made for a six−channel deployment plan and has the LTSs
partitioned so that you can plan down to quarter−LTS allocations. You should develop and use a worksheet
format that fits the plans you work on. You may not need quarter−LTS divisions, so set it up with half−LTS or full
LTS partitions if that makes it easier to use. The important thing is to list all the needlines and see where there
might be resource overlaps or resource conflicts. Refer to Section 2.6.3 for an example of a needline resource
allocation for a Brigade.
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Table 2−3. Planner’s Resource Allocation Worksheet: 6−Channel Deployment
Qtr Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1
2
3
4
LTS 1
1
2
3
4
LTS 2
1
2
3
4
LTS 3
1
2
3
4
LTS 4
1
2
3
4
LTS 5
1
2
3
4
LTS 6
1
2
3
4
LTS 7
1
2
3
4
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2.3.2.6 Planning for CONOPS.
Planning for Continuity of Operations (CONOPS) consists of assigning backup or alternative communication links
in case a line of communication is lost or is overloaded. To avoid loss of operational capabilities from such
problems, you should plan for redundant RS relays (additional communication paths) in the overall
communication plan if you have the available assets. Redundancy also helps to eliminate loading on a particular
RS when it is already supporting many communication links and new RSs need support. The mobility of the
system and a changing hostile environment make it impossible to rely on any one particular RS for support unless
there are few RSs and terrain is not an issue. Planning for redundancy in reference RSs also helps to eliminate
position errors when reference RSs move or leave the network.
2.3.2.6.1 Relay RSs.
EPLRS provides both an integral adaptive automatic relay capability and the option to designate RSs as
dedicated static relays. The EPLRS automatic relay capability provides up to seven relays on MSG and up to 5
relays on CSMA needlines. To act as a relay, an RS must be configured with the specific needline, and the relay
capability is limited by the needline resources available in the RS. The available resources may be thought of as
the total resource capacity in the RS minus that portion that is already in use by active needlines.
Dedicated static relays are employed in areas where pockets of users may be separated by terrain, where most
users in an area have a high utilization of LDR resources, or where users may be assigned to support specific
HDR needlines. Static relays are pre−planned using ENP.
Not all HDR needlines require the assignment of dedicated relay RSs. MSG and/or CSMA needlines with
multiple destination RSs do not require dedicated relay−only RSs because destination RSs on these needlines
will automatically act as relays for the needline. Note that this automatic relay capability is only available to RSs
that are designated and activated as either source or destination RSs. RSs that are designated as destination on
MSG needlines do not act as relays.
Under normal conditions, a typical deployment of EPLRS RSs will provide sufficient relay support for LDR
communications. However, when limited by terrain, or during deployments with high levels of LDR utilization, it
may be necessary to deliberately locate RSs to support LDR relay requirements. Section 2.6.2 shows an
example of planning the use of relay RSs for CONOPS.
The adaptive automatic relay capability of the network accounts for the ability to support relatively long−range
needlines without each RS having to have LOS with every other RS. However, a sparse distribution of RSs in
hilly or heavily foliated terrain may produce isolated pockets of RS users who are unable to effectively
communicate. Good relay planning and careful placement of reference RSs can lessen the problems associated
with sparse deployments or rough terrain. For more information regarding placing reference RSs, refer to
Chapter 12, Position Location.
2.3.2.6.2 RF Silence.
To support unique covert operations, the RS operator can prevent the RS from transmitting data over the air by
setting the RS to be in RF−silent mode via the URO. RSs that are in RF−silent mode may receive messages on
non−acknowledged needlines such as CSMA or MSG. Duplex needlines, which are acknowledged, cannot be
received by an RS in RF−silent mode. If all RSs in an area are set to RF Silent, than they will fall out of net since
they cannot hear a network.
To support aviation units that don’t want to have RSs actively radiate at specific times, you can configure an RS
via ENP so it will not automatically relay for other RSs and will only transmit when needed. To do this, set Relay
Control to Disabled under the UTO tab when adding or modifying an RS.
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2.3.2.7 Defining System Parameters.
Resource allocation must be planned to complement the combined allocation for a geographical area so that
mutual interference is kept to a minimum and data flow is maximized. For resource planning, EPLRS uses five,
six, or eight frequency channels in the 420−to−450 MHz range. New RF hardware can expand this range to
225−to−450 MHz range. Frequency planning also involves selection of frequency hop or no−hop mode, whether
or not to use Frequency Translation and community RS power levels. In addition, the timeslot length is a system
parameter that is selected early in the planning process. The system parameter definitions affect other phases of
the planning. For example, needline planning depends on the timeslot length and channel set selected. Some
parameters will be set for you by higher authorities, but you may be able to have control over other ones.
Therefore, as the planner, you may need to be flexible as you develop the plan and fine tune the system
parameters to get the best possible allocation of resources.
Network Community ID is another system parameter the planner needs to keep in mind. The community ID
indicates the community of the network that the RS is currently in. This is the network that the RS will attempt to
join if the RS is not in a network. Valid values for community ID are A through G.
2.3.2.7.1 Frequency Allocation.
Allocation of frequencies in the operational planning stage is dependent upon the availability of allowable
frequencies for use by EPLRS. The NOSC of the highest echelon in the operational area must coordinate with
the appropriate frequency manager for the allowable frequency utilization. This may differ over the entire
operational area, so the NOSC must carefully plan and assign the frequencies.
In a typical deployment scenario, the Corps Frequency Manager provides each Division Frequency Manager with
a list of frequencies authorized for use in that area of operations, along with any needed instructions. The
Division G6 then generates the control and communications allocations for the particular RS community.
A common guard channel should be assigned for the entire EPLRS deployment. The guard channel enables RSs
to request entry into the EPLRS network. All RS entering the same network must use the same guard channel.
The guard channel is entered into the database via ENP and into each RS via the URO. The guard channel is
one of the active channels in the channel set. For example, if you chose an 8 channel set with the odd channels
disabled, then only channels 0, 2, 4, 6 will be available to be used as the guard channel. The guard channel is
selected through ENP under Radio System Parameters.
When using frequency translation with compatible RF hardware, you are able to define your own frequencies and
map them to each channel in an RS. For more information on this as well as procedures on doing this, see
Chapter 14.
2.3.2.7.2 Frequency Hopping.
You select one of three available channel sets for the plan. The channel set options include five, six, or eight
channels. Once a channel set is chosen, you can further modify channel set by deselecting individual
frequencies (channels) within the channel set to meet the special requirements of the deployment. The channels
you select are called the active channels.
You also set EPLRS to run in either frequency hopping or non−frequency hopping mode. Hopping mode causes
the EPLRS RS transmission and reception to hop across all the active channels. (Any inactive channels are not
used for hopping.) This provides a high degree of protection from enemy jamming or inadvertent friendly
interference. The hopping mode is system wide and is the same throughout the network. Frequency hopping
mode (hop set on) is the normal hop setting because most of the time you will want to take advantage of the
anti−jam capability that hop mode offers. Refer to Section 1.7 for more information on the EPLRS time and
frequency resources.
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The channel assignments that are discussed in this book are displayed as if the network were in a non−hopping
mode. If the system is in hopping mode then the needlines will channel/frequency hop between the available
active channels.
2.3.2.7.3 Power Level.
You can select one of four transmission power levels for the network. The power levels are as follows:
D Low (0.4 watt)
D Medium−low (3 watts)
D Medium−high (20 watts)
D High (100 watts)
You can set a default power level for the entire community. However, you can also set individual RSs to power
levels different from the system default value. The NOSC personnel normally provide direction for setting the
power level on a community−wide basis. The system−wide (default) power level can be changed at TMI or via a
system update from ENM. A system update will change the power level of all RSs assigned to have the default
power level. A system update will not change the power level of RSs that have been assigned a specific
(non−default) power level.
Consider terrain, vegetation, RS density, distances, and the Electronic Warfare (EW) threat when selecting the
power level. In most deployments, using the higher power levels will improve network performance.
2.3.2.8 Planning for COMSEC.
The purpose of COMSEC planning is to incorporate COMSEC guidance and key management doctrine into the
creation of Corps− and Division−level COMSEC plans to support the EPLRS operation. COMSEC planning
includes the following:
D COMSEC hardware
D Key descriptions
D Key generation and distribution
D Network key operations
D COMSEC guidance
The COMSEC planning process is described in Chapter 11.
2.3.2.9 Generating the Deployment Plan.
After you have collected all input data, and made a decision on whether or not to develop a UTO structure and
determined whether your RS assignments are going to be pre−planned, unplanned or a combination of both. You
can then allocate needlines, enter the data into ENP and build the ENM database. The output from ENP is a
single database (the deployment plan). The database can also be saved in a spreadsheet (Excel−readable)
format (the .csv file) via ENP. ENP can load a .csv file and convert it into a usable deployment plan file.
With the exception of crypto keys, the database contains all information necessary to manage a deployment. The
ENM uses this database to monitor the network and configure RSs as needed. Because all Network ENMs have
the same database, they have the ability to support and configure any RS within six RF hops. ENM performs
remote RS configuration by using either the ENM Broadcast needline or by setting up a DAP needline to the
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remote RS. The ENM Broadcast needline (a CSMA needline with extended relay coverage) can reach up to six
hops, and a DAP needline can reach up to five hops.
2.3.2.10 Distributing the Deployment Plan.
The ENM database can be copied onto thumb drives, compact disks (CDs), or distributed via FTP to other ENMs
as appropriate. The purpose of data distribution planning is to ensure that all ENMs in the unit are operating with
a common database, and that the most current ENM database is available to all ENMs.
NOTE
It is very important that all ENMs share the same deployment plan. This means that the
name of the plans must be the same and the timestamps of the plans must match
exactly. If ENMs do not share the same deployment plan many problems will arise. RSs
will not be configured in a uniform fashion and RSs being constantly re−configured by
ENMs with different plans are some of the problems that will occur.
2.4 SITING REQUIREMENTS.
Natural terrain features and man−made objects on the ground affect the operation of EPLRS. This section
provides information to help you select the best sites for the ENM RS, other fixed−location RSs, and their
antennas. The information is organized as follows:
D How features in the area affect radio communications
D Positioning reference units
D How good siting can improve ENM operation
2.4.1 How Features in the Area Affect Radio Communications.
Local obstructions include such things as irregular terrain, buildings, chain−link fences, vehicles, power lines, etc.
For good communications, the antenna should have a clear field of view to other units. Generally, this means that
the antenna should be positioned away from and at least two to four feet above local obstructions. Keep the
antenna as vertical as possible. Message response times and track quality give an indication of how well an RS
is in net. If an RS has communication problems, it may be better off in a different location. Often a change of
only 10 to 50 meters can make a big difference. Ensure that RF cables are as short as possible.
In some cases, local obstructions can be used to shield the antenna from jammers. To accomplish this, try to put
the obstruction between you and the jammer, five or more feet away from the obstruction, and maintain line of
sight to other units as much as possible. In general, units closer to enemy jammers need to be better shielded
than those in rear areas.
2.4.1.1 Elevating the ENM RS Antenna.
Towers are a convenient way to elevate the RS antenna. However, if the antenna is not mounted on top of the
tower, a metal tower can disrupt antenna coverage. This is usually a disadvantage but can be an advantage if
used to obtain shielding from Electronic Countermeasures (ECM). In general, two things happen when an
antenna is near metal objects, including chain−link fences, metal buildings, large vehicles, power lines, etc.
First, antenna gain is severely reduced behind the metal object. For example, if an antenna is mounted on the
side of a metal tower, coverage behind the tower will be degraded. This technique can provide some shielding
from potential ECM coming from one direction while allowing RS communications in the other direction.
Second, antenna gain is changed in the area in front of the metal object. Instead of a simple omni−directional
antenna pattern, the antenna pattern may have peaks and nulls. Overall coverage will still be good, but
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reflections from the metal tower may cause antenna nulls in front of the antenna and along the sides of the tower.
Use of frequency hop will tend to average out these effects and minimize their impact. To avoid undesirable
reflections, the antenna should be placed above the tower by a few meters. Since this is not always practical,
mount the antenna away from the tower as far as possible (a few meters, if possible) in the direction of desired
coverage, and use frequency hop to average out the effects. Do not mount the antenna inside the tower
structure.
2.4.1.2 Losses for Various Antenna Cable Lengths.
Cable lengths for an RS normally are fixed for each configuration. If a cable is installed between the RS and the
antenna, it will cause some loss of signal. This loss is typically about 5 dB per 100 feet. For example, a 200−foot
cable can reduce a 100−watt output to one−tenth of its original output. Thus, if additional antenna cable is
required, it should be used sparingly and the output power setting of the RS should be reviewed and changed if
required. When using a tower (or tree) to remotely position the RS antenna, use only enough cable to reach the
antenna. Excess cable will cause unnecessary losses in signal strength even if the cable is neatly coiled at the
base of the tower. The cable length for the RS is entered via URO and can be set up to 99 meters.
2.4.1.3 Cable Losses Versus Antenna Height.
Elevating the antenna increases coverage and is highly recommended. In general, if you cannot see the other
units from the ground but can see them from a higher elevation, it is better to use a higher antenna, even with the
unavoidable cable loss. Good planning can minimize some of the side effects of mounting the antenna on metal
towers or using excessive antenna cable length. Keep the cable as short as possible to avoid excessive power
loss.
1. When using metal towers (such as water towers, lookout towers, etc.), be aware that metal reflects RF. If
mounting the antenna on top of the tower is impractical, mount it away from the metal and toward the
side of desired coverage. Buildings, chain−link fences, and other obstructions can contribute to signal
losses.
2. Trees can also add 30 dB of loss at each end of the RF path. Mount the antenna out of the trees if
possible. Even adding a cable may be worth the signal loss if by doing so you can get the antenna out of
the trees. For example, if the cable loss is 9 dB but the antenna is now mounted above the surrounding
trees, you are still ahead by 21 dB. If all your RSs are in the trees but the ENM RS is not, you may be
better off leaving the antenna on or near the ENM rather than using a cable to elevate it.
3. Frequency hop will tend to smooth out the effects and should be used whenever possible.
Consider the following when deciding whether to elevate the antenna with a cable or to leave it mounted on or
near the vehicle:
1. Which method provides more one−hop units? How far out are those units? In general, the farther out
you can reach one−hop level units, the more flexibility you have, and the better the support you can
provide the community.
2. Does the tracking accuracy degrade from elevating the antenna rather than from leaving it on or near the
vehicle? Once you have changed the antenna configuration from one method to the other, wait 15 to 20
minutes before you start polling the community to measure the difference. Make only one change at a
time.
2.4.2 Positioning Reference Units.
Uncontrolled changes in the locations of fixed reference units can cause severe problems in system accuracy for
the whole community. The ENM operator must be informed of any changes in the position of any fixed reference
unit (horizontal, vertical, or both) so that appropriate corrections can be made to its reference position. If a fixed
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reference unit must be relocated to an alternate position, the ENM operator must revise the position data for the
reference unit in the deployment plan, and the RS operator must enter the new position data using the URO.
Dedicated relay and reference unit operators must keep the ENM operator informed of anything affecting the unit,
its siting, or configuration.
2.4.3 How Good Siting Can Improve RS Operations.
Geometric dispersal is a key to a good network. Clusters of RSs will not perform as well as the same number of
radio sets spread out. They will tend to get poorer service, and they are not conducive to good relaying
capability. A cluster tends to load down the network in a local area and does not provide geometric dispersal for
relaying.
Locate radio sets a few hundred meters apart, if possible. Once the planning for each of the relay and reference
unit sites is done, the local conditions at each site should be investigated to verify that the site is suitable. A site
that looks good during the planning phase may not be good for other reasons such as safety, logistical support,
local interference, or local obstructions.
Propagation losses tend to decrease as antenna height increases. In benign environments, the antenna should
be as high as practical. But in jamming environments, a compromise between antenna height and shielding may
be necessary. Unless otherwise indicated, site planning should assume that there will be some degree of
jamming.
The general guidelines for selecting the antenna location are as follows:
D Raise the antenna as high as possible.
D Use the Surface Vehicle Unit (SVU) antenna whenever possible because it provides a 3−dB gain over the
manpack antenna.
D Provide the maximum horizontal distance from the antenna to the nearest obstruction. A minimum of 10
meters is desirable.
D Keep the line−of−sight for the longest link as clear as possible.
D Try to separate collocated EPLRS antennas as much as practical.
D If two EPLRS antennas must be placed less than 300 meters apart, follow these co−location rules:
D When possible, provide time separation (separate LTSs) for needlines.
D If time separation is not possible, then provide as much channel separation as possible for needlines
transmitting during the same LTS (two−channel minimum separation).
D Use a single antenna mast for mounting multiple antennas.
You can also separate antennas using vertical separation using these guidelines:
D Maximize vertical separation. Minimum of 2 meters.
D Highest gain antenna should be assigned the longest link.
D Both antennas should be 12 to 36 inches out from mast.
D Never place antennas on the opposite side of mast from primary longest link.
D Ensure longest link antenna is higher than shortest link.
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2.5 TACTICAL INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS.
A common Army EPLRS environment is the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), the
Tactical Internet (TI). FBCB2 is a digital battle command information system and is a key component of the Army
Battle Command System (ABCS). FBCB2 provides mounted/dismounted tactical combat and combat service
support to commanders, leaders, and soldiers.
2.5.1 TI Structure.
The TI is the communications infrastructure that supports FBCB2. FBCB2 uses the TI to disseminate both
Situation Awareness (SA) and Command and Control (C2) data information throughout the battlefield. The
general architecture for the Army’s TI is defined at the Brigade level, so TI components within brigades are
generally similar. The TI is also broken up into two main areas: the Upper TI, and the Lower TI. The Upper and
Lower TIs come together at the Tactical Operations Centers (TOCs). Generally, communications between
Brigades and above use the Upper TI. Also, TOCs communicate with each other via the Upper TI. Except for
the TOCs, the Lower TI covers communications within Brigades and below.
ENMs are usually deployed in the G6/S6 Division and S6 Brigade TOC areas. ENM range extension units are
deployed as part of BN S6 sections. All ENMs are usually configured to operate as Network ENMs.
In general a baseline EPLRS network plan has been generated for each EPLRS equipped unit. Unit operators
can add or delete units as they see fit and change some additional parameters such as guard channel and
network community ID. Changes to other parameters, however, may not be possible because of the coupling
between the FBCB2 application and EPLRS configurations.
In a Brigade structure, EPLRS RSs in the Lower TI provide the communications backbone within Battalions and
across the Brigade. Each host connected to the TI, regardless of its communication resources, has an Internet
Protocol (IP) address that uniquely identifies it to other hosts. The EPLRS−equipped units provide a gateway
between SINCGARS−only units and the rest of the TI.
The dissemination of SA and C2 data with the Brigade and Battalions is accomplished via CSMA needlines using
multicast message addressing. Separate needlines are used for SA and C2 message traffic, as shown in Figure
2−2 and Figure 2−3. FBCB2 uses specific platforms identified in their databases to act as SA and C2 servers.
These servers function to route SA and C2 message traffic from the Battalion CSMA needlines on to the Brigade
CSMA needlines. Maintaining EPLRS connectivity within network helps the FBCB2 servers in their traffic routing
roles. DAPs are used for unicast communications among EPLRS−Equipped platforms.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Figure 2−2. SA Needlines in the TI Architecture
DIVISION AREA SA CSMA
BRIGADE−WIDE SA CSMA
BRIGADE AREA
SA CSMA
BN
LOCAL
SA CSMA
AREA COMMON USER SYSTEM (ACUS)
SINCGARS
NET
BN
AREA
SA CSMA
LOCAL AREA
SA CSMA
BRIGADE−WIDE SA CSMA
BRIGADE AREA
SA CSMA
BN
AREA
SA CSMA
SINCGARS
NET
BN
AREA
SA CSMA
Figure 2−3. C2 Needlines in the TI Architecture
DIVISION AREA C2 CSMA
BRIGADE−WIDE C2 CSMA
BRIGADE AREA
C2 CSMA
BN
AREA
C2 CSMA
ACUS
SINCGARS
NET
BN
AREA
C2 CSMA
LOCAL AREA
C2 CSMA
BRIGADE−WIDE C2 CSMA
BRIGADE AREA
C2 CSMA
BN
AREA
C2 CSMA
SINCGARS
NET
BN
AREA
C2 CSMA
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−20
To avoid mutual interference within EPLRS, each needline should be assigned to a unique frequency and timeslot
resource. Section 2.6.3 presents an example of how to plan and allocate needline resources. ENM configures
each RS with the required CSMA needlines to support SA and C2 traffic. By convention, SA needlines are
usually assigned to LTS 4 and LTS 5 to support joint operations with aircraft equipped with the Situational
Awareness Data Link (SADL) RS.
2.5.2 SADL RS Operations.
SADL consists of an airborne EPLRS RS integrated with the aircraft Operating Flight Program (OFP) to provide
information from outside the cockpit to pilot displays. SADL is installed and fully integrated on selected F−16 and
A−10 aircraft. A SADL RS, coupled with a PC map display, is used as a Forward Air Controller (FAC) on the
ground. SADL also includes a gateway to exchange data with the Link−16 theater data networks as specified in
the Joint Tactical Data Link Management Plan (JTDLMP).
SADL allows user aircraft to participate in TI network through the sharing of SA data with the ground forces and
with Link−16 net members. SADL greatly improves SA by automating identification of ground friendlies and by
providing target data from the FAC to Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft.
The SADL ground FAC provides both aircrews and FACs an integrated picture of friendly positions and target
tracks during CAS operations. The aircraft provide FACs with positions and mission status. The ground FAC
provides CAS aircraft with targeting data. This information exchange reduces the potential for air−to−ground
fratricide and increases mission effectiveness by guaranteeing that the pilot displays and FAC displays show the
same information without relying on voice communication.
A SADL network can exchange information with a Link−16 network through a gateway. Common baseline
software for the EPLRS/SADL radios ensures that interoperability is maintained with all services. SADL is a
multi−service data link that works with ground troops for CAS and communicates with other SADL−equipped
platforms and with Link 16 to perform air−to−air missions.
The air−to−ground communication mode supports transfer of VMF position data from the ground network to the
SADL platforms, as well as providing the SADL positions to the ground forces. When SADL platforms are
operating in the presence of an EPLRS−equipped ground community (e.g., the FBCB2 TI), SADL provides
pilot−selectable direct connectivity between the ground network and the CAS fighters for sharing their respective
positions. When in this mode, the aircraft joins the EPLRS ground network, providing its position to the ground
and uploading EPLRS and other FBCB2 friendly ground positions to a database within the SADL radio. The
closest five of these friendly positions to the pilot’s System Point of Interest (SPI) are displayed as X symbols on
the pilot displays. The link with the ground network coexists without interference to the independent air−to−air
network among pilots.
The SADL air−to−air network among pilots supports the exchange of position data, weapons, flight parameters,
fuel, and attack intent. The Ground FAC (GFAC), equipped with a Windows−based moving map display
application, sets up mission targeting as a member of this network.
You must ensure that the following planning details are coordinated between the appropriate members of ground
operations staff and the pilots of SADL−equipped aircraft:
D The pilots need to know the LCN for the Brigade SA CSMA needline.
D The pilots need to know the Guard Channel, Community ID, Frequency Map 6 or 8, LCNs corresponding to
Brigade and Battalion SA nets and Short title of currently loaded keys.
D The pilots need to coordinate with S3 to know the Battalion local SA needline for position reporting.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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D The pilots need to coordinate with TI manager for URN assignment.
D The system planner must ensure that there are no conflicts in needlines used by SADL aircraft for reporting
SA data and other needlines used by the supported ground units. LTS 4 and LTS 5 are usually reserved for
SA needlines.
2.5.3 Land Warrior Operations.
Land Warrior is a United States Army program, that will use a combination of commercial, off−the−shelf
technology (COTS) and current−issue military gear and equipment designed to:
D Integrate small arms with high−tech equipment.
D Make the soldier a complete combat unit.
Through EPLRS, Land Warrior provides Voice, Situational Awareness (SA), Command and Control (C2), and
Imagery data at the soldier level. CSMA and SMSG needlines are available on Land Warrior to support Voice
data.
Land Warrior has seven main subsystems:
D Weapon
D Integrated helmet assembly
D Protective clothing and equipment
D Computer
D Navigation
D Communication
D Power
The Weapons subsystem includes the weapon itself, with some modifications. It comes with thermal sight,
Multi−Functional Laser, Day Light Video Sight and alternate input devices.
The Helmet Subsystem (HSS) combined a lightweight advanced helmet with a computer and display that
provides various information from digital maps and troop locations down to his weapon−mounted video camera.
The HSS also incorporated a microphone as well as a headset.
The Protective clothing and equipment subsystem consists of the Interceptor Body Armor system and Modular
Lightweight Load−carrying Equipment (MOLLE) load−bearing system.
The Computer Subsystem (CSS) provided the processing power and storage capacity for the system. It manages
input, processing and output functions. It also stores data/information/maps.
The Navigation Subsystem (NSS) provides positional information, it integrates a GPS receiver and a Dead
Reckoning Module (DRM) that maintains accurate location when GPS signal becomes unavailable.
The Communication Network Radio Subsystem (CNRS) provided communications capabilities for the Land
Warrior. It contains the radio and antenna. The CNRS is based on EPLRS technology.
The Power subsystem consists of two rechargeable batteries on each side of soldier.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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2.5.4 Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD) Operations.
The Forward Area Air Defense Command, Control, Communications (FAAD C2I) system is a network of
components that connect command posts, weapons, and sensors of the Army’s Short Range Air Defense units.
The Ground−Based Sensor (GBS), also called Sentinel, provides air surveillance, target acquisition, and target
tracking information to the weapons in the FAAD Battalion. FAAD C2I consists of computer hardware, software
and communications that provide command, control, targeting, and other information to air defenders on the
battlefield, and provides a shared common air picture with the Air Force, Navy and the Patriot Missile System.
FAAD C2I software performs air track and battle management processing functions and uses Single−Channel
Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) for voice communications, the Joint Tactical Information
Distribution System (JTIDS) for AWACS communications, and the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System
(EPLRS) for digital communications between Air Battle Management Operations Center (ABMOC) and the
subordinate units including the weapons platforms. The Sentinel TPQ−36A radar is a three−dimensional radar
system using a phased−array antenna and an Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) device. The GBS/Sentinel
system is mounted on a High Mobility Multi−Purpose Wheeled Vehicle with a towed trailer. LDR needlines are
used to provide C2 between all FAAD units. LDR provides guaranteed delivery between the endpoints (host
platforms) of the FAAD units. MSG needlines are used to provide Air Tracks to all units in the FAAD deployment.
MSG is used because it can provide a guaranteed slice of bandwidth to each SC2 (radar) that all other FAAD
units can receive.
EPLRS supports Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD) by providing two critical functions. MSG needlines are used
to support air track dissemination. MSG is well suited to this application because it provides guaranteed, low
latency broadcast communications. Duplex needlines are used to provide the critical command−to−shooter
control links. Duplex needlines are well suited to this application because they provide bidirectional
communications with guaranteed delivery. As a result, no commands or acknowledgements are ever lost.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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2.6 PLANNING EXAMPLES.
This section presents examples that demonstrate some of the planning tasks required for designing and building
an EPLRS deployment plan. The examples cover the following topics:
D Developing a needline to support user data requirements
D Allocating EPLRS RS assets for a tactical movement
D Allocating needline resources for a Brigade
2.6.1 Example 1: Developing a Needline to Support User Data Requirements.
This example shows the process of determining the needline characteristics needed to meet the user data
requirements. The user requirements are as follows:
D Purpose of needline: Command and control (C2)
D Number of EPLRS RSs: 540
D Data flow: Bi−directional
D Data rate: 5500 bits per second (BPS) total bandwidth
D Area of coverage: Mountainous terrain with obstructions to LOS at various locations
D ECM threat: Low
D Guaranteed access: Not required
D Relevant network parameters: 2−msec timeslot; 6−channel set
Planning Process:
1. Consider the intended use of the needline. Some of the requirements will eliminate some candidate
needline types. These are the critical requirements for the needline:
D Bi−directional data flow between a large number of users
D 5500 BPS
D C2 data without guaranteed access
2. Determine what types of needlines could meet the user requirements and then select the best type from
the available choices. The six types of PVC needlines are:
D CSMA
D MSG
D HDR Duplex
D LDR Duplex
D TAMA
D SMSG
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−24
3. Eliminate non−feasible options.
D LDR duplex is point−to−point and cannot accommodate more than two RSs.
D HDR duplex is point−to−point and cannot accommodate more than two RSs.
D CSMA , MSG, SMSG and TAMA might be feasible.
4. Look more closely at the feasible options.
D MSG and SMSG are similar so we will discuss the MSG needline only. An MSG needline provides
hosts with a few−to−many communication transfer protocol. Messages are transmitted by a select
group of RSs defined as source endpoints and are carried on the needline to all other endpoints, up to
eight hops away. RSs are given various shares on the needline to allow them to source (transmit) data
with guaranteed access. To support the user requirements, all 540 RSs would need to be
pre−established as source endpoints, but there is a limit of 120 source endpoints on an MSG needline.
An MSG needline can meet the 5500−BPS data rate and 8−hop requirements.
D A TAMA needline allows all RSs on the needline to broadcast data to other members of the needline
on demand and up to ten hops away. Access is not guaranteed; transmit opportunities are not
reserved for particular endpoints, as they are in other types of EPLRS needlines. This feature allows
hundreds of endpoints to source data on a single TAMA needline at different times. A TAMA needline
can meet the 5500−BPS data rate and 6−hop requirements. TAMA can only be used with the IP
protocol.
D A CMSA needline allows all RSs on the needline to broadcast data to other members of the needline
on demand and up to six hops away. Access is not guaranteed; transmit opportunities are not
reserved for particular endpoints, as they are in other types of EPLRS needlines. This feature allows
hundreds of endpoints to source data on a single CSMA needline at different times. A CSMA needline
can meet the 5500−BPS data rate and 6−hop requirements. CSMA can be used with both ADDSI and
IP protocols.
5. Make the final choice of needline type.
D A CSMA or TAMA needline is the best choice. Since CSMA meets all requirements and is compatible
with both IP and ADDSI protocols, we will choose it for this exercise.
D It can communicate bi−directionally, as needed, with any other RS assigned to the needline.
D Due to the area of coverage requirement, six hops is the best choice to allow for the maximum amount
of relays to account for the obstruction of LOS at various locations.
D It can accommodate the 540 users and allow any of them to be sources; MSG cannot.
D It does not guarantee access, but in this case, it doesn’t have to.
6. Create and configure the needline via ENP (Net Services tab) to allocate LTS and channel resources, set
up parameters, and ensure that the needline meets the user requirements.
Refer to Figure 2−4. Refer to Chapter 7 for additional information on needlines and how to enter them
into ENP.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−25
D The low ECM threat means that you can use Waveform Mode 14 (highest data rate).
D Set the relay coverage to 6 hops (5 relays).
D Set the circuit size to 1 LTS.
D Set the Waveform Mode to 14.
D Select a single LTS for the CSMA needline. ENP indicates that this provides 8960 BPS (not including
overhead). This exceeds the 5500−BPS requirement.

Figure 2−4. Using ENP to Configure a CSMA Needline
7. Reconfigure the needline via ENP; try using half an LTS and see if requirements can be met.
D Set the circuit size to 1/2 LTS. Do not change any other parameter values.
D ENP indicates that this provides 4480 BPS. This does not meet the 5500−BPS requirement.
Conclusion: Use the 1−LTS CSMA needline that will provide 8960 BPS.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−26
2.6.2 Example 2: Allocating EPLRS RS Assets for a Tactical Movement.
This example shows the process of planning and allocating available RS assets to meet the CONOPS
requirements for a tactical movement. The user requirements are as follows:
D Mission: Develop an RS relay plan to support the simplified EPLRS network in the tactical movement of A
Company into the front−line position vicinity Hill 401, as indicated on the map in Figure 2−5.
D A Company will follow the path indicated on the map. A Company will move north between the mountains
and occupy the designated position on the front line east of B Company. C Company will remain in reserve
and must maintain continuous EPLRS network communications with both A Company and B Company.
Planning Process:
D Review the map in Figure 2−5 and the simplified network diagram shown in Figure 2−6. RS−0004, RS−0005,
and RS−0006 are available for assignment as relay units.
D Select RS assets and place relay RSs as needed to ensure network CONOPS is maintained throughout the
movement phase. Record the Radio Names and locations of relay RSs you assign.
Figure 2−5. Map Showing Planned Tactical Movement
III
A 1−75
III
B 1−75
III
C 1−75
PLANNED POSITION
FOR COMPANY A
FORWARD EDGE OF THE
BATTLE AREA (FEBA)
401
402
RS−0001
RS−0002
RS−0003
403
404
Solution:
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−27
Figure 2−6. Simplified EPLRS Network Diagram for Tactical Movement
A COMPANY
HOST DEVICE
1BN75IN NETWORK
C2 CSMA
LCN 11
CHANNEL 0
LTS 3
RS−0001
RS−0003
RS−0002
B COMPANY
HOST DEVICE
C COMPANY
HOST DEVICE
MISSION:
COMPANY A WILL ADVANCE TO ASSIGNED POSITION
ALONG FEBA TO SUPPORT COMPANY B AND WILL
MAINTAIN NETWORK CONTINUITY WITH COMPANY B
AND COMPANY C AT ALL TIMES.
EPLRS RELAY RS UNITS WILL BE PLACED TO
ENSURE CONOPS THROUGHOUT MOVEMENT
PHASE.
RS−0004, ES−0005, AND RS−0006 AVAILABLE FOR
ASSIGNMENT AS RELAY UNITS AS NEEDED.
RS−0004
RS−0006
RS−0005
The planned position for A Company and route of march require that you place two relay RSs to support network
CONOPS. For best results, the RSs should be placed on Hills 401 and 402. This provides a continuous LOS
between the three companies throughout the movement phase.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−28
2.6.3 Example 3: Allocating Needline Resources for a Brigade.
This example shows the process of laying out the needlines for a light infantry brigade. The example brigade has
an EPLRS community of about 750 RSs, most of which are used for command−and−control (C2) needlines and
situation awareness (SA) needlines. All of the C2 and SA needlines are CSMA needlines. The diagram in Figure
2−7 shows the organization of the brigade and identifies which units will be assigned to have dedicated needlines.
In general, dedicated needlines should go to major maneuver units and others with a large number of EPLRS
RSs and common operational requirements (e.g., aviation). Smaller groups of RSs and support units are
absorbed into appropriate CSMA communities and use their needlines.
Figure 2−7. SBCT Example Showing C2 and SA CSMA Needlines
LOCAL CSMA NEEDLINES
SUPPORTING C2 AND SA
BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM
1ST
INFANTRY
BATTALION
SUBORDINATE
UNITS IN SBCT
UNITS WITHOUT
DEDICATED LOCAL
CSMA NEEDLINES;
RADIOS COMBINED
WITH OTHER LOCAL
COMMUNITIES
UNITS WITH
DEDICATED LOCAL
CSMA NEEDLINES
BRIGADE
HHC
ANTI−TANK
COMPANY
MILITARY
INTEL
COMPANY
BRIGADE
SUPPORT
BATTALION
2ND
INFANTRY
BATTALION
3RD
INFANTRY
BATTALION
SIGNAL
COMPANY
FIELD
ARTILLERY
BATTALION
ADA
BATTERY
ARMOR
BATTALION
RSTA
SQUADRON
(CAVALRY)
FIELD
ARTILLERY
CRT
COMBAT
SERVICE
SUPPORT
COMPANY
AVIATION
BATTALION
ENGINEER
COMPANY
1BN−L−C2
1BN−L−SA
3BN−L−C2
3BN−L−SA
2BN−L−C2
2BN−L−SA
CAV−L−C2
CAV−L−SA
FA−L−C2
FA−L−SA
BSB−L−C2
BSB−L−SA
BDE−L−C2
BDE−L−SA
AVN−L−C2
AVN−L−SA
AR−L−C2
AR−L−SA
NAMES AND NEEDLINE LETTER CODES:
L LOCAL−AREA CSMA COMMUNITY
W WIDE−AREA CSMA COMMUNITY
C2 COMMAND AND CONTROL
SA SITUATION AWARENESS
CRT COMBAT REPAIR TEAM
ADA AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY
HHC HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY
RSTA RECONNAISSANCE, SURVEILLANCE, TARGETING,
AND ACQUISITION
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−29
Planning considerations for the Stryker Brigade Combat Team:
D Look at EPLRS RS communities and how they fit into task organizations within the Brigade. Look for RSs
that belong to common units or have similar communication requirements. Assign CSMA needlines for SA
and C2 to appropriate groups. Consider wide−area groups and local−area groups.
D Consider special requirements such as data rates, relaying, and the overall size of the communities.
D Consider the ECM threat to determine the best timeslot, channel set, and waveform mode for the
deployment. TI deployments usually use 2−msec timeslot. If ECM threat is low, high−data−rate modes can
be used (i.e., Waveform Modes 4 and 14). Six−channel set is usually best.
D Get data throughput requirements from users. Ensure that CSMA LTS size, relay coverage, and Waveform
Mode allow needlines to meet requirements.
D Select and define special−purpose needlines (e.g., MSG for FAAD fire control data).
D Define ENM Broadcast PVC needline and DAP resources for ENM network management.
D Coordinate with higher−level G6 personnel to ensure that you follow SOPs (e.g., assigning all SA needlines to
LTSs 4 and 5 in order to share SA data with EPLRS−equipped aircraft communities). Are other Brigades,
Divisions, units with EPLRS operating in your area?
D Reserve all of LTS 2 for the coordination network.
After studying the requirements and developing preliminary estimates of what needlines are required, you can
start laying out the needlines on a resource allocation worksheet. Table 2−4 shows the first step in the process of
laying out the needlines for the Stryker Brigade Combat Team defined in Figure 2−7.
Table 2−4. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 1
LTS
Half
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1st HDR DAP
2nd ENM−PVC
LTS 1
1st
2nd
LTS 2
1st
Coordination Network
2nd
LTS 3
1st
2nd
LTS 4
1st
2nd
LTS 5
1st
2nd
LTS 6
1st ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
2nd ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
LTS 7
1st
LDR
2nd
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−30
Table 2−4 has the following allocations:
D Half of LTS 0 is allocated to HDR DAP for ENM DAP needline support.
D Half of LTS 0 is allocated to the ENM Broadcast PVC needline for ENM network management.
D LTS 2 is reserved for the coordination network.
D LTS 6 is allocated to a two−channel MSG needline to provide extended−range Air Defense Artillery (ADA)
fire−control data.
D LTS 7 is allocated to LDR duplex for pre−planned ADA C2 needlines and LDR DAP needlines.
Table 2−5 shows the second step in the process of laying out the needlines for the Stryker Brigade Combat Team.
You allocate CSMA needlines for the wide−area communities. Each wide−area community should have a
dedicated LTS (or half LTS). They cannot be overlapped with needlines on other channels. They require
dedicated LTSs because all RSs may need to use the needlines. Examples of needlines dedicated to wide−area
communities include the Brigade−Wide C2 and SA needlines and the Aviation Battalion C2 and SA needlines.
Aviation units are called roamers and may be supporting any of the local−area maneuver units, so all RSs in the
Brigade must be able to use the aviation needlines.
Table 2−5. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 2
LTS
Half
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1st HDR DAP
2nd ENM−PVC
LTS 1
1st AVN−L−C2
2nd
LTS 2
1st
Coordination Network
2nd
LTS 3
1st BDE−W−C2
2nd
LTS 4
1st BDE−W−SA
2nd
LTS 5
1st AVN−L−SA
2nd
LTS 6
1st ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
2nd ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
LTS 7
1st
LDR DAP
2nd
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−31
Table 2−5 has the following allocations:
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Aviation Battalion.
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Brigade Wide−Area.
D CSMA needlines organized and stacked on Channel 0 (orderly but not mandatory).
D LTSs 4 and 5 are used for SA needlines per higher unit SOP.
Table 2−6 shows the third step in the process of laying out the needlines for the Stryker Brigade Combat Team.
You next allocate CSMA needlines for the first of the local−area communities. This allocation fills up the
remainder of the open LTSs. After this, it becomes necessary to begin overlapping local−area needlines or
reusing resources.
Table 2−6. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 3
LTS
Half
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1st HDR DAP
2nd ENM−PVC
LTS 1
1st AVN−L−C2
2nd BDE−L−C2
LTS 2
1st
Coordination Network
2nd
LTS 3
1st BDE−W−C2
2nd BSB−L−C2
LTS 4
1st BDE−W−SA
2nd BSB−L−SA
LTS 5
1st AVN−L−SA
2nd BDE−L−SA
LTS 6
1st ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
2nd ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
LTS 7
1st
LDR DAP
2nd
Table 2−6 has the following allocations:
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Brigade Support Battalion (BSB).
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Brigade Local−Area.
D CSMA needlines organized and stacked on Channel 0 (orderly but not mandatory).
D LTSs 4 and 5 are used for SA needlines per higher unit SOP.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−32
Table 2−7 shows the fourth step in the process of laying out the needlines for the Stryker Brigade Combat Team.
You must now start allocating CSMA needlines for the rest of the local−area communities. Unlike wide−area
needlines, local−area needlines may share the same LTS with other local−area needlines (using different
channels) because each local−area needline serves a separate local radio community. For example, RSs using
one battalion−local needline will never need to use another battalion−local needline, so the resource overlap is
permissible.
Table 2−7. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 4
LTS
Half
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1st HDR DAP
2nd ENM−PVC
LTS 1
1st AVN−L−C2
2nd BDE−L−C2 1BN−L−C2
LTS 2
1st
Coordination Network
2nd
LTS 3
1st BDE−W−C2
2nd BSB−L−C2 CAV−L−C2
LTS 4
1st BDE−W−SA
2nd BDE−L−SA CAV−L−SA
LTS 5
1st AVN−L−SA
2nd BSB−L−SA 1BN−L−SA
LTS 6
1st ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
2nd ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
LTS 7
1st
LDR DAP
2nd
Table 2−7 has the following allocations:
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the 1st Infantry Battalion.
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the RSTA (Cavalry) Squadron.
D CSMA needlines are stacked on Channel 1 in a permissible overlap of local−area needlines.
D LTSs 4 and 5 are used for SA needlines per higher unit SOP.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
2−33/(2−34 blank)
Table 2−8 shows the fifth and final step in the process of laying out the needlines for the Stryker Brigade Combat
Team. You finish the process by allocating CSMA needlines for the rest of the local−area communities. This
requires further overlapping of local−area needlines using different channels.
Table 2−8. SBCT Resource Allocation Worksheet: Step 5
LTS
Half
Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5
LTS 0
1st HDR DAP
2nd ENM−PVC
LTS 1
1st AVN−L−C2
2nd BDE−L−C2 1BN−L−C2 2BN−L−C2 3BN−L−C2 FA−L−C2 AR−L−C2
LTS 2
1st
Coordination Network
2nd
LTS 3
1st BDE−W−C2
2nd BSB−L−C2 CAV−L−C2
LTS 4
1st BDE−W−SA
2nd BSB−L−SA CAV−L−SA
LTS 5
1st AVN−L−SA
2nd BDE−L−SA 1BN−L−SA 2BN−L−SA 3BN−L−SA FA−L−SA AR−L−SA
LTS 6
1st ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
2nd ADA−MSG ADA−MSG
LTS 7
1st
LDR DAP
2nd
Table 2−8 has the following allocations:
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the 2nd Infantry Battalion.
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the 3rd Infantry Battalion.
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Field Artillery (FA) CRT.
D Half an LTS each is allocated to the C2 and SA needlines for the Armor (AR) Battalion.
D CSMA needlines are stacked on Channels 2 through 5 in a permissible overlap of local−area needlines.
D LTSs 5 is used for SA needlines per higher unit SOP.
The needline allocation is now complete. You still have resources available for additional local−area needlines on
LTSs 3 and 4. The allocation, if required, would follow the pattern of LTSs 1 and 5 using the remaining free
channels. If additional wide−area needlines were required, you would have to consider either using quarter−LTSs
to free up resources, or else reusing an LTS to free up more resources. Reusing an LTS might be workable if you
could identify two needlines that were separated by RF−blocking terrain or very long distances.
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CHAPTER 3
EPLRS NETWORK PLANNER
3.1 ENP GUI Description.
The EPLRS Network Planner (ENP) is a utility that is used to create the ENM deployment database. Network
ENM planners use the Graphic User Interface (GUI) provided by the ENP to create and modify deployment plan
files. Deployment plans are updated according to service−specific doctrine or the operating procedures of
individual units. ENP provides the tools to change an existing deployment plan and generate a revised plan and
associated RS configuration files.
This book primarily deals with the Electronic Warfare (EW) modes of operation. Combat Communications (CC)
modes are very similar to EW modes, but have poorer anti−jam characteristics.
The ENP utility lets you review, add, update, and delete information in a deployment plan using drop−down
menus and function tabs. This section presents information on the following topics:
Page number
D ENP startup 3−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D ENP main window components 3−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D ENP menu area 3−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D ENP function tabs 3−34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 ENP Startup.
To activate: Double−click ENP icon on Windows desktop, or click EPLRS Network Planner selection under
Manager Functions menu. Figure 3−1 shows the ENP desktop icon. Figure 3−2 shows the EPLRS Network
Planner selection (startup from within ENM).
Figure 3−1. ENP Desktop Icon
If you start ENP using the desktop ENP icon, ENP displays the title window shown in Figure 3−3, then
immediately displays the ENP Startup window shown in Figure 3−4.
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Figure 3−2. ENP Selection Under ENM Manager Functions Menu
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Figure 3−3. ENM and ENP Title Window
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Figure 3−4. ENP Startup Window
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If you start ENP using the ENM Manager Functions menu, ENP opens the deployment plan currently loaded in
ENM and displays the ENP main window, as shown in Figure 3−5.
Figure 3−5. ENP Main WIndow
The subsections that follow explain the processes of creating a new deployment plan file and opening an existing
deployment plan file for editing with ENP.
Page number
D Creating a deployment plan file 3−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Starting with no existing plan 3−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Starting with a TI plan 3−12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Opening an existing deployment plan file 3−16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.1.1.1 Creating a Deployment Plan File.
Clicking the Create a New Database button displays the Planner Assistance Wizard shown in Figure 3−6. The
deployment plan can be built one of two ways:
D By entering all the data using ENP (no existing plan; data is entered by the system planner)
D From an imported TI plan file (converts the TI plan file to deployment plan format)
NOTE
Templates are not implemented in this version of ENP.
3.1.1.1.1 Starting With No Existing Plan.
If you are starting with no existing plan file, then you will be entering plan data one element at a time into ENP.
You select No Existing Plan as the source for the file type, as shown in Figure 3−6. Clicking the Next>> button
then displays the second Planner Assistance Wizard, as shown in Figure 3−7. This wizard is used to set up the
deployment plan name, plan version number, comms operation, timeslot length, channel set, frequency hop set
(active channels) and the deployment plan description for the network.
Figure 3−6. First Planner Assistance Wizard: No Existing Plan
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Figure 3−7. Second Planner Assistance Wizard: No Existing Plan
The wizard uses the following controls to name the deployment plan and set up the basic time/frequency
resource configuration:
Enter New
Deployment Name:
Plan name Planner−entered name for the new deployment plan.
Name may consist of letters, numbers, dashes and
underlines; no spaces and no special characters or
punctuation.
Deployment
Version (1−4095):
Plan version number Randomly generated number to identify the version of this
deployment plan; you may change the version number, if
desired; legal values range from 1 through 4095.
Comms Operation: EW Comms Electronic Warfare (EW) Communications.
Combat Comms Combat Communications (CC).
Timeslot Length: 2 milliseconds (msec) Tactical (Tac) Internet (Modes 0 through 4 and 14);
normally selected for EPLRS ground−based operations.
4 msec Expanded Data (Modes 5 through 9, 17 and 18); provides
better data rates by using longer (4−msec) timeslot.
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Channel Set: 5 channels
6 channels (recommended)
8 channels
Channels 0 through 4
Channels 0 through 5
Channels 0 through 7
Use Frequency
Translation
On or Off (check box) Frequency translation makes 8 channels available for use
with EPLRS RSs that have the wideband frequency
option. The channel activation window shows 8 channels,
but does not identify the physical frequencies associated
with them. A separate utility program maps the 8
channels to physical frequencies. See section 14.1 for
more information on the Frequency Mapping Tool. The
channel activation window for this option lets you select
which of the 8 channels will be active in the network.
Hop Set button Hop frequencies Lets you select which channels will be active in network;
based on channel set selected (5, 6, or 8), displays one of
the channel activation windows shown in Figures 3−8,
3−9, 3−10 and 3−11. Once this is set, it cannot be
changed for the deployment plan.
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Figure 3−8. Channel Activation Window: 8 Channels
Figure 3−9. Channel Activation Window: Frequency Translation
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Figure 3−10. Channel Activation Window: 6 Channels
Figure 3−11. Channel Activation Window: 5 Channels
NOTE
The deployment plan can be designed to use 5, 6, or 8 channels based on the mission
requirements. The 6−channel set is recommended because it offers the best overall network
performance. All 6 channels can be set active because there is no frequency overlap to cause
interference. The planner can also select or deselect specific channels to use within each
channel set. However, deselecting channels limits the available resources for MSG and HDR
extended circuits requiring channel pairs.
If the 8−channel set is used, it is best to enable either the four even or four odd channels to
maintain a minimum two−channel separation. This separation reduces the potential for mutual
interference when RSs are operating on different needlines but are using the same LTS.
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After you have entered the file name, version number, and selected the timeslot length, you must select the
channel set and set up the active channels via the Hop Set... button. The Hop Set... button displays one of the
channel activation windows shown in Figures 3−8, 3−10, and 3−11, based on the channel set you have selected.
You must set at least one channel active via the channel activation window. If all channels are deactivated,
clicking the OK button displays the error message window shown in Figure 3−12.
Figure 3−12. Channel Activation Error Message Window
After you have set up the check boxes for the desired channels, clicking the OK button records your selections
and closes the channel activation window. The second Planner Assistance Wizard (Figure 3−7) will still be
displayed.
Clicking the Finish button in the second Planner Assistance Wizard closes the wizard and displays the ENP main
window as shown in Figure 3−5. The deployment plan database filename appears in the title bar of the window.
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3.1.1.1.2 Starting With a TI Plan.
ENP lets you create a deployment plan from an imported TI plan file. This option would give the planner a quick
way to convert plans to the latest versions with no modifications needed. The TI plan file uses an MS
Excel−compatible spreadsheet file format. If you are using a TI plan file as the input file, then TI Plan should be
set as the selected source for the deployment type, as shown in Figure 3−13. Clicking the Next button displays
the next wizard shown in Figure 3−14.
Figure 3−13. First Planner Assistance Wizard: TI Plan
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Figure 3−14. Second Planner Assistance Wizard: TI Plan
The second wizard requires you to enter the name of the TI plan file in the field or use the Browse button to
locate and select the name. Clicking the Browse button displays an Open window such as the example shown in
Figure 3−15. Clicking on the Files of type: field lets you display all files in the folder or only TI plan (.csv) files.
Selecting a file name and clicking the Open button displays the next wizard showing the file name entered in the
name field, as shown in Figure 3−16. You can also enter a brief description of your deployment plan under the
Deployment Plan Description field.
Figure 3−15. File Open Window for Locating TI Plan Files
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Figure 3−16. File Name Selected in Planner Assistance Wizard
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Clicking the Next button displays another wizard showing the selected name recorded for use, as shown in Figure
3−17. ENP uses the name from the selected TI plan (.csv) file to create a deployment plan file. The Change
button in this wizard lets you change the file name, if desired. If you do not want to change the file name, then
click the OK button. Clicking the Change button displays the Change window shown in Figure 3−18. You can
then enter a revised file name in the field and click the Save button to complete the process.
Figure 3−17. Change Option in Planner Assistance Wizard
Figure 3−18. File Name Change Window
If the file name you are setting up has previously been assigned to a deployment plan database file, ENP displays
the message window shown in Figure 3−19 to warn you and verify that you want to overwrite the old database
file. Clicking the Yes button confirms the overwrite. Clicking the No button closes the window and returns to the
previous wizard shown in Figure 3−18. After you have entered or confirmed the file name, ENP displays the ENP
main window as shown in Figure 3−5. The deployment plan database filename appears in the title bar of the
window.
Figure 3−19. File Name Overwrite Confirmation Window
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3.1.1.2 Opening an Existing Deployment Plan File.
Clicking the Open an Existing Database button in the ENP Startup window (Figure 3−4) displays the
Deployment Plan Selection window shown in Figure 3−20. You select the deployment plan to be used. After
clicking the Select button, the Deployment Plan Selection window closes and the Deployment Plan Description is
displayed. Click Ok to proceed to the ENP main window as displayed in Figure 3−5.
Figure 3−20. Deployment Plan Selection Window
3.1.2 ENP Main Window Components.
Figure 3−21 shows the components of the ENP main window and identifies their purposes. These components
include:
D Menu area
D Function tab area
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When the ENP main window is first displayed at start−up, the tab displayed is the System tab.
MENU BAR AND MENUS
PROVIDE TOOLS FOR ENP
FUNCTIONS AND FILE
MANAGEMENT
MENU AREA:
WINDOW TITLE BAR SHOWS
WINDOW TITLE AND CURRENT
DEPLOYMENT PLAN NAME
FUNCTION TAB AREA:
FUNCTION TABS PROVIDE ENP
FUNCTION CONTROLS, DATA
ENTRY FIELDS, AND INFORMATION
FOR OPERATOR
Figure 3−21. ENP Main Window Components
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3.1.3 ENP Menu Area.
The ENP main window menu area contains the utilities that are used to perform planning functions, network/UTO
construction, assignment of needline services, and assignment of IP addresses. There are three drop−down
menus:
D File menu
D Edit menu (available with UTO, Net Services, IP Interfaces, and Agent tabs only)
D Help menu
The ENP Status: field located at the bottom of the ENP main window is not currently used. It will always indicate
None for the ENP status.
3.1.3.1 ENP File Menu.
To activate: Click File selection on menu bar.
The ENP File menu provides you with tools to handle files, print reports, analyze plan files, set display options,
and exit ENP. The File menu selections are shown in Figure 3−22.
Figure 3−22. ENP File Menu
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3.1.3.1.1 New....
To activate: Click New selection on File menu (Figure 3−23).
The New selection lets you create a new deployment plan database file. Clicking the New selection displays the
Planner Assistance Wizard shown in Figure 3−6. You enter data into the wizard as described in Section 3.1.1.1.
The New selection is not available when ENP has been opened from ENM because ENM automatically opens the
current deployment plan database file in ENM when ENP is started this way.
Figure 3−23. New... Selection under ENP File Menu
3.1.3.1.2 Open....
To activate: Click Open... selection on File menu (Figure 3−24).
The Open... selection lets you open an existing deployment plan database file as shown in Figure 3−20.
Figure 3−24. Open... Selection under ENP File Menu
Clicking on the Files of type: field lets you display all files in the folder or only deployment plan files. Clicking on
the file name and then clicking the Open button loads the selected deployment plan file for editing. The Open...
selection is not available when ENP has been opened from ENM because ENM automatically opens the current
deployment plan database file in ENM when ENP is started this way.
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3.1.3.1.3 Save....
To activate: Click Save... selection on File menu (Figure 3−25).
Figure 3−25. Save... Selection under ENP File Menu
The Save... selection lets you save the deployment plan file you are currently building. The file is saved in
database format for use by ENM. ENP builds a folder containing the required plan component files and stores
the folder in the c:\opt\enm\data directory. Clicking the Save... selection saves the database file data and closes
the File menu.
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3.1.3.1.4 Save As....
To activate: Click Save As... selection on File menu (Figure 3−26).
Figure 3−26. Save As... Selection under ENP File Menu
The Save As... selection lets you save the current database file in TI plan format for file sharing or exporting.
Save As... packages the database in a single file format rather than the folder format used by ENM. The .csv
format is a readable text file and has a compact file size. Clicking the Save As... selection displays the Save
window as shown in Figure 3−27. You can enter a file name in the File name: field or clicking on a file name in
the directory to select it. Clicking the Save button saves the file in .csv format. Clicking the Cancel button closes
the window without saving the file.
Figure 3−27. Save Window for Exporting File in TI Plan Format
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3.1.3.1.5 Analyze Plan....
To activate: Click Analyze Plan selection on File menu (Figure 3−28).
Figure 3−28. Analyze Plan... Selection under ENP File Menu
The Analyze Plan selection initiates an analysis of the current deployment plan you are constructing or editing in
ENP. Figure 3−29 shows the Deployment Plan Analysis window displayed when you click the Analyze Plan
selection. Clicking the Print button prints a summary of the analysis. Clicking the Close button closes the
Deployment Plan Analysis window.
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Figure 3−29. Analyze Plan Window
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The information presented in the Deployment Plan Analysis window is defined below.
System Parameters:
Power Level RF power level for entire network; low, medium−low, medium−high, or high
Hop Mode Hop or No Hop; set for entire network
Guard Channel Guard channel to be used
Division ID The EPLRS Community ID (A−G)
ENMs:
Networks Total number of network ENMs in plan
Monitors Total number of monitor ENMs in plan
Total ENMs Total number of ENMs present in plan
Radios / Reference Units:
EPLRS Radios Total number of EPLRS radios in the plan
Reference Units Total number of reference units in the plan
OTAR Time / Receive Radio
Status Time:
Time to OTAR Network The estimated time to Over The Air Rekey (OTAR) network if all planned
network ENMs are active
Estimated Time to Receive
Radio Status
Approximate amount of time until RSs report their status
ENMs & Radios per UTO: List of all UTOs in plan and number of ENMs and RSs in each specific UTO
Assigned Radios per Network
ENM:
Number of RSs that each specific Network ENM is currently supporting
Radios with Default IP: List of radios that are assigned default IP addresses (192.168.1.1)
Radios with Proxy ARP: List of radios that are configured to proxy for other IP networks
Needlines: List of all needlines that are defined in the deployment plan
Problems: List of current problems in the deployment plan
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3.1.3.1.6 Print....
To activate: Click Print selection on File menu (Figure 3−30).
Figure 3−30. Print... Selection under ENP File Menu
The Print selection prints information from the currently selected ENP tab. The print reports available for each
ENP tab are listed below:
System tab Data from system tab window and sub−windows; deployment version, system parameters,
position distribution deployment defaults, duplex deployment defaults, HDR DAP
channel/LTS, LDR channel/LTS, and comm channels
UTO tab UTO, RS data, and Radio cutsheets (user−selectable via window shown in Figure 3−31):
List of UTOs; includes parent UTO, number of RSs, and number of ENMs
List of RSs; includes parent UTO, URN, and reference−capable (yes or no)
Radio cutsheet; includes parameters for selected radio, i.e., guard channel, channel set,
timeslot length, etc..
Ref Unit tab Data direct from Ref Unit tab window
Net Services tab Data from Net Services tab window and sub−windows; detailed data on needlines
including name, type, waveform, channel number, LTSs, pos settings, and endpoints;
printing can require several minutes if network is large
IP Interfaces tab Data from IP Interfaces tab window and sub−windows; detailed data on IP interfaces for
each RS including interface type, IP address, subnet mask, unicast/multicast table
assignments, etc.; printing can require several minutes if network is large
Agent tab Data direct from Agent tab window; prints agent table for selected RS
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Figure 3−31. Print UTOs, Radios or Radio Cutsheets Data Window for UTO Tab
Figure 3−32. Print the Radio Report Window for UTO Tab
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Figure 3−33. Print Radio Report Warning Window for UTO Tab
Figure 3−34. Print Radio Cutsheets Window for UTO Tab
Figure 3−35. Print Radio Cutsheets Warning Window for UTO Tab
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Figure 3−36. Print Net Services Window
Figure 3−37. Print IP Interfaces Window
NOTE
Printing for the Net Services and IP Interfaces tabs can require several minutes to
complete if there are many RSs and needlines in the network.
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3.1.3.1.7 Console.
To activate: Click Console selection on File menu (Figure 3−38).
Figure 3−38. Console Selection under ENP File Menu
The Console selection displays the ENP Console window, as shown in Figure 3−39. The Console window
provides a text−based log of operator actions and data processing during the ENP session. It is primarily
intended for use as an engineering tool and is not used during conventional ENP operations. Clicking on the X
box in the upper−right corner of the window closes the ENP Console window.
Figure 3−39. Console Window
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3.1.3.1.8 Preferences....
To activate: Click Preferences selection on File menu (Figure 3−40).
Figure 3−40. Preferences... Selection under ENP File Menu
The Preferences selection lets you control the way data is displayed within ENP. Figure 3−41 shows the Display
Preferences window.
Figure 3−41. Preferences Window
Clicking one button in each pair of buttons sets the display preferences as follows:
Select Unit Label: Designates RSs in UTO tree structure to be labeled with Radio Name or with
RS rolename
Select Needline Label: Designates needlines in ENP Needlines Tree to be labeled with needline name
or with needline number
Select List Type: Not currently implemented
Show Unplanned Radios: Displays unplanned radios in the UTO tab as an orange colored radio icon
when box is checked
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3.1.3.1.9 Exit.
To activate: Click Exit selection on File menu (figure 3−42).
Figure 3−42. Exit Selection under ENP File Menu
The Exit selection lets you shut down the ENP program. Clicking on Exit displays the Exit Application window
shown on Figure 3−43. Clicking the Yes button closes all open ENP windows and terminates the operation of the
program. Clicking the No button closes the Exit Application window and leaves the ENP program open.
Figure 3−43. ENP Exit Window
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3.1.3.2 ENP Edit Menu.
ENP Edit menu selections are available for some but not all of the ENP function tabs. The various Edit menu
selections are different for each ENP functional tab. The selections are defined in the sections that describe the
ENP tabs where they are used. The edit menu selections available for each ENP tab are listed below:
System tab None available
UTO tab Add Radio
Add Deployed ENM
Add UTO
Rename UTO
Delete
Find...
Rebuild Tree...
Ref Unit tab None available
Net Services tab Add Needline
Delete Needline
Find...
IP Interfaces tab Multicast Setup
Find...
Agent tab Add Agent
Modify Agent
Remove Agent
Find...
3.1.3.3 Help Menu.
To activate: Click Help selection on menu bar.
The ENP Help menu selections are shown in Figure 3−44.
Figure 3−44. ENP Help Menu
3.1.3.3.1 ENP User’s Manual.
To activate: Click ENP User’s Manual selection on Help menu.
The ENP User Manual selection provides access to TB 11−5825−298−10−3, the EPLRS Planner’s Manual. You
can navigate through the manual by referring to the list on the left side of the screen and clicking on the icon for
the section or topic you want. You can also step through the pages sequentially by pressing the Page Down and
Page Up keys.
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3.1.3.3.2 Radio User’s Manual.
To activate: Click Radio User’s Manual selection on Help menu.
The Radio User’s Manual selection provides access to TB 11−5825−299−10, the Radio Operator’s Manual. You
can navigate through the manual by referring to the list on the left side of the screen and clicking on the icon for
the section or topic you want. You can also step through the pages sequentially by pressing the Page Down and
Page Up keys.
3.1.3.3.3 Deployment Plan Description.
To activate: Click Deployment Plan Description selection on Help menu.
The Deployment Plan Description selection provides a description of the deployment plan currently loaded in
ENP.
3.1.3.3.4 About ENP.
To activate: Click About ENP selection on Help menu.
The About ENP selection displays a dialog window that identifies the version number and release date of the ENP
software. Figure 3−45 shows the About ENP window. Clicking the OK button closes the window.
Figure 3−45. About ENP Window
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3.1.4 ENP Function Tabs.
There are six ENP function tabs that enable you to display and modify the data in the EPLRS deployment plan.
The row of tabs on the ENP main window is organized into the following areas:
Page number
D System Tab 4−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D UTO Tab 5−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Ref Unit Tab 6−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Net Services Tab 7−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D IP Interfaces Tab 8−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Agent Tab 9−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CHAPTER 4
SYSTEM TAB
4.1 System Tab.
Figure 4−1 shows the System tab. The System tab is used to display and modify system parameters. The tab is
divided into functional areas. Some of the parameters displayed cannot be modified and are for reference only.
Other parameters can be modified via the four modification buttons in the window. Each button displays a
sub−menu to enable you to modify the parameters and save the changes.
Figure 4−1. System Tab Display
The functional areas of the System tab window include:
D Deployment Version
D Radio System Parameters
D Position Distribution Deployment Defaults
D Duplex Deployment Defaults
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D HDR DAP (LTS and Comm Channels)
D LDR (LTS and Comm Channels)
D Comm Channels
4.1.1 Deployment Version.
The Deployment Version area displays global information about the deployment plan. This includes:
D Radio Version (version of firmware loaded in all RSs)
D Time Slot Length (2ms Tact Internet, 4ms Expanded Data)
D Channel Set (5, 6, or 8 channels)
D Deployment ID (version number assigned to deployment plan)
D Use FQ Translation (Yes or No)
Clicking the View button displays the channel activation window for the current deployment plan. The four types
of channel activation windows are shown in Figures 3−8, 3−9, 3−10, and 3−11. The View button allows you to
view the channel configuration and see which channels are set active, but the check boxes are inactive. You
cannot modify the channel configuration by activating or deactivating channels. The check boxes are only active
at the time that the plan is created.
Clicking the Modify... button in the Deployment Version area of the window displays the Change Deployment
Version window as shown in Figure 4−2. Clicking the OK button saves the value entered in the Deployment ID:
field. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
Figure 4−2. Change Deployment Version Window
NOTE
Changing this parameter will require reconfiguring all RSs in the network.
4.1.2 Radio System Parameters.
The Radio System Parameters area displays the following parameters:
D Hop Mode
D Guard Channel
D Network Power Level
D Coord Net Waveform (display only)
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Clicking the Modify... button at the bottom of the window displays the System Parameters Modifying Dialog
window as shown in Figure 4−3. This window lets you edit the hop mode, guard channel, or power level setting
for the network. The coordination net waveform is for display only. With the current version of ENP software, it is
automatically set to Mode 3 for 2 msec timeslots and Mode 9 for 4 msec timeslots and cannot be modified.
Clicking the Save button saves any changes that have been made to the database. Clicking the Cancel button
cancels the modify session and restores all parameters to their current database values.

Figure 4−3. System Parameters Modifying Dialog Window
NOTES
Changes to the hop mode, guard channel, and power level apply to the entire network.
However, the power level setting is a system default value. It will only apply to RSs that
have “system default” as their assigned power setting. Any RS that has a non−default
setting (a specific power level assigned to that RS), will operate at its assigned power
level, regardless of the default setting for the network.
The drop−down list for the Guard Channel: field in Figure 4−3 shows what channels you
can select to be the guard channel in an 8−channel deployment with all channels set
active; for other deployment plans, the list of channels available will vary according to
what channel set is selected and what channels (if any) have been set inactive.
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4.1.3 Position Distribution Deployment Defaults.
An RS can distribute its own position to its host, to the network (RF), or both. Pos data can be sent either using
an EPLRS agent or without an agent. The Position Distribution Deployment Defaults area displays the default
position distribution parameters for the deployment plan and provides tools to modify the default values. Default
position distribution parameters are set up under the System tab using the windows described in this subsection.
The purpose of setting these default parameters is to make it faster and easier to build a deployment plan. After
setting the default parameters under the System tab, all RSs that you add to the plan (under the UTO tab) are
automatically given these default pos parameters. You do not need to set up each RS individually. You only need
to change the parameter fields (under the UTO tab) when adding an RS with a different configuration than the
default. For supplemental and additional information on position location and reference unit placement refer to
Chapter 12, Position Location.
Clicking the Modify Pos. Defaults... button displays the Pos Distribution Settings window. This window enables
you to set up the default parameters that control the distribution of EPLRS position data to host devices and to
the network RSs. The window has three folder tabs that organize the way the parameters and data fields are
presented. The three tabs are:
D Global −− parameters that apply to all RSs
D EPLRS RS −− parameters that apply to EPLRS ground RSs
D SADL RS −− parameters that apply to SADL RSs
Position distribution parameters can be set up individually (for each EPLRS RS in the deployment plan) using
windows under the ENP UTO tab. Conversely, default parameters are set up under the ENP System tab.
Default parameters are applied either to all RSs or to RSs that are reconfigured after the default is set up. For
defining the default EPLRS RS host and RF parameters, ENP provides the same windows as those used for
defining individual host and RF parameters. However, global (network−wide) parameters and SADL RS
parameters are only defined under the System tab, as described in this subsection.
Examples of this window showing the three different tabs are shown in Figures 4−4 through 4−11 and described
in the paragraphs that follow. The global parameters that are displayed include:
D SA Over IP (set on or off)
D JVMF Version
D JVMF Body Version
D Operation Type
D Exercise Type
Position data is distributed in Joint Services Variable Message Format (JVMF) using K05.01 and K05.19
message types. The K05.01 format is used in the FBCB2 environment. The K05.19 format is used in the
Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD) environment.
Position data distribution is controlled by filters with variables you can set using the Pos Distribution Settings
window. Position filters are conditions that you set to restrict how often a position update message is generated
and sent either to the host or to the EPLRS network. The three types of filters used are:
D Host time −− how frequently the RS sends a position update to the host
D RF time −− how frequently the RS sends a position update over the air (OTA) to the network
D RF motion −− how far the unit must move before the RS sends a position update OTA to the network
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For all tab configurations, clicking the Apply button saves the changes you have made and applies them to all
RSs in the database. This includes all RSs previously configured and all RSs added to the deployment plan after
this time. Clicking the Save button saves the changes you have made as the new defaults. All RSs added to the
deployment plan after this time will be configured with the new values. Previously added RSs will remain as they
were. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes. Clicking the Help button
activates Adobe Acrobat Reader and displays the on−line Planner’s Manual.
The Global tab in the Pos Distribution Settings window is shown in Figure 4−4. It is used to set up pos
distribution parameters common to the entire network.
Figure 4−4. Pos Distribution Settings Window: Global Settings
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The Global tab uses the following data fields and controls:
SA Over IP Check box set to enable sending position data (SA, or Situation
Awareness) using Internet Protocol (IP) packaging. SA data is then
transmitted in IP−formatted packets for all RSs in the network; when
check box set, the Save button becomes inactive
JVMF Header Version: Rev B/C/D JVMF message format used; specified by
operations order or FBCB2
JVMF Body Version: R5/6017/6017A JVMF Body Version used; specified by
operations order or FBCB2
Operation Type
(purpose of deployment)
Operation Live deployment
Exercise Training facility deployment
Simulation Simulated track data exercise
Test Lab or contractor facility exercise
Exercise Type Non−Exercise Track Live operation; real track data
Exercise Track All other exercises (training, simulation, etc.)
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Figure 4−5 shows the EPLRS RS tab in the Pos Distribution Settings window.
Figure 4−5. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, Host
To organize EPLRS RS parameters, this tab has three second−level tabs:
D Host −− parameters that apply to the host−RS interface
D RF −− parameters that apply to the RS−RF network interface
D Misc −− miscellaneous parameters that set up the IP header and GPS usage
The Host second−level tab has the data entry fields and drop−down lists shown in Figure 4−5 and described
below. These parameters define the host interface format and resources used for position data distribution.
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Interface Type: ADDSI Army Data Distribution System Interface; selected
when SA over IP is not used
IP/Ethernet IP over Ethernet
IP/PPP IP over PPP
IP/ADDSI IP over ADDSI
None No host interface
NOTE
The interface type you choose here affects which
interface type you will be able to select in the RF
tab.
Default LCN: LCN assigned to pos data; pos data sent from RS to host; a back−up LCN
used if no active host or RF LCN is assigned
JVMF Message Type: K05.01 Long−format header; sent to host; FBCB2 environment
K05.19 Long−format header; sent to host; FAAD environment
Dest IP Address: Host IP address used for delivering pos data; usually a multicast address
so one SA report delivered to all other members of group; from operations
order; only used with IP
UDP Port Number: UDP port number used for delivering pos data; from operations order; only
used with IP; maximum value is 65535
Host Time Filter...
Button
Clicking the Host Time Filter... button displays the Host Time Filters
window as shown in Figure 4−6
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Figure 4−6. Host Time Filters Window
The Host Time Filters window lets you set or modify the fields listed below to the appropriate values for the
different RS configurations that send position data in the EPLRS network. The host time filter determines how
frequently the RSs send position reports to the host computer. The purpose of the filter is to allow only the
minimum number of position reports appropriate for the specific type of RS.
Host Time Filter Definition Range
AGU Auxiliary ground unit (grid reference unit) 1−30 seconds
MPU Manpack unit 1−30 seconds
SVU Surface vehicle unit 1−30 seconds
ARU Airborne rotary−wing unit 1−30 seconds
AFU Airborne fixed−wing unit 1−30 seconds
RBU Relay board unit (testing application only) 1−30 seconds
Clicking the Save button in the Host Time Filters window saves any changes you have made. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes. Clicking the Help button displays the on−line
Planner’s Manual.
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Figure 4−7 shows the EPLRS RS tab with the RF second−level tab selected and the Host Interface type ADDSI.
Figure 4−7. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, ADDSI Host Interface
Figure 4−8 shows the EPLRS RS tab with the RF second−level tab selected and the Host Interface type
IP/Ethernet, IP/PPP, or IP/ADDSI.
Figure 4−8. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, RF, IP Host Interface
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The RF second−level tab has the data entry fields and drop−down lists shown in Figure 4−7 and Figure 4−8 are
described below. These parameters control the RF communication format and resources used for position data
distribution. Note that what you select as an interface type under the Host tab will affect the interface types you
see under the RF tab.
Distribution Type
(Host Interface
Type ADDSI or
Never)
Always (ADDSI) Always distributes pos data OTA to network;
not available with IP
Never Never distributes pos data OTA to network
Contingent (ADDSI) Used with ADDSI; if host link (communication
between host and RS connected to it) is down,
unit sends pos data OTA to network; otherwise,
will not send data OTA; not available with IP
Default LCN: LCN assigned to pos data; a back−up LCN used if no active host or RF
LCN is assigned
JVMF Message
Type:
K05.01 Long−format header; sent to host; FBCB2
environment
K05.19 Long−format header; sent to host; FAAD
environment
Dest IP Address: Destination IP address used for delivering pos data; usually a multicast
address so one SA report delivered to all other RSs
UDP Port Number: UDP port number used for delivering pos data; maximum value is 65535
LCN Inactive Until
Needed:
LCN will stay in standby mode until it needs to be activated
Time/Motion Filter
button
Clicking the Time/Motion Filter button displays the RF Time Motion
Filters window as shown in Figure 4−9
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Distribution Type
(Host Interface
Type IP/Ethernet,
IP/PPP, or IP/ADD-
SI)
Never Never distributes pos data OTA to network
EPLRS Agent
(Ethernet) Used with IP; An agent must be setup to send
and receive pos data using ethernet.
EPLRS Agent
(PPP) Used with IP; An agent must be setup to send
and receive pos data using PPP.
EPLRS Agent
(IP/ADDSI) Used with IP; An agent must be setup to send
and receive pos data using IP/ADDSI.
IP Used with IP. The pos data will be sent over an
IP multicast defined in Dest IP Address and UDP
Port Number
Default LCN: LCN assigned to pos data; a back−up LCN used if no active host or RF
LCN is assigned
JVMF Message
Type:
K05.01 Long−format header; sent to host; FBCB2
environment
K05.19 Long−format header; sent to host; FAAD
environment
Dest IP Address: Destination IP address used for delivering pos data; usually a multicast
address so one SA report delivered to all other RSs
UDP Port Number: UDP port number used for delivering pos data; maximum value is 65535
LCN Inactive Until
Needed:
LCN will stay in standby mode until it needs to be activated
Time/Motion Filter
button
Clicking the Time/Motion Filter button displays the RF Time Motion
Filters window as shown in Figure 4−9
The RF Time Motion Filters window lets you set or modify the fields listed below to the appropriate values for the
different RS configurations that may be sending position data in the EPLRS network. The filters determine how
frequently the RSs send position reports over the air to the network. The purpose of the filters is to allow only the
minimum number of position reports appropriate for the specific type of RS and thereby reduce bandwidth usage
to a minimum.
The RF time filters specify the amount of time that must elapse before an RS can send an updated position
message. The time filter value is compared with how much time has passed since the last position report. When
the elapsed time reaches the filter value, the RS sends an updated position report, and the time filter count resets
and starts over again. Units that move quickly (e.g., aircraft) are generally given lower time filter values.
The RF motion filters specify an amount of movement by the unit (distance travelled; a change in position) that
must occur before an RS can send an updated position report over the air to the network. When the motion
reaches the filter value, the RS sends an updated position report, and the time and motion filter count resets and
starts over again. RSs that move quickly (e.g., aircraft) are generally given higher motion filter values.
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Figure 4−9. RF Time Motion Filters Window
RF Time Filter Definition Range
AGU Auxiliary ground unit (grid reference unit) 1−600 seconds
MPU Manpack unit 1−600 seconds
SVU Surface vehicle unit 1−600 seconds
ARU Airborne rotary−wing unit 1−64 seconds
AFU Airborne fixed−wing unit 1−64 seconds
RBU Relay board unit (testing application only) 1−600 seconds
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RF Motion Filter Definition Range
AGU Auxiliary ground unit (grid reference unit) 10−400 meters
MPU Manpack unit 10−100 meters
SVU Surface vehicle unit 50−200 meters
ARU Airborne rotary−wing unit 100−2000 meters
AFU Airborne fixed−wing unit 100−2000 meters
RBU Relay board unit (testing application only) 10−400 meters
Clicking the Save button in the RF Time Motion Filters window saves any changes you have made. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes. Clicking the Help button activates Adobe Acrobat
Reader and displays the on−line Planner’s Manual.
Figure 4−10 shows the EPLRS RS tab with the Misc second−level tab selected.
Figure 4−10. Pos Distribution Settings Window: EPLRS RS Settings, Misc
The Misc second−level tab has the drop−down lists shown in Figure 4−10 and described below. These
parameters define URNs and IP packet control parameters and the Global Positioning System (GPS) mode used
for position data distribution.
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Originating URN: Source RS unit reference number; used with JVMF Long formats and
assigned by FBCB2
Destination URN: Destination RS unit reference number; used with JVMF Long formats and
assigned by FBCB2
TOS: Type of Service; required field for building IP header; usually set to
Default unless directed otherwise
TTL: Time−to−Live; IP parameter setting the number of times the message can
be relayed before it is dropped as undeliverable from the EPLRS
network; range from 0 to 255; with “zero” value, message will not be sent
at all; default value is 10; value should be supplied by FBCB2
GPS Mode No GPS Serial channel used for GPS is not enabled for PLGR
Continuous GPS connected to RS; dynamic GPS reference
added to OTA position triangulation
Averaging Averages GPS position readings over time; RS
must be fixed reference unit; no position change
Figure 4−11 shows the SADL RS tab.
Figure 4−11. Pos Distribution Settings Window: SADL RS Settings
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The SADL RS tab uses the following data fields and controls:
Starting Source IP Addr: Starting point IP address; lowest number IP address in a range of
addresses; used in SA over IP
Source IP Addr Range: Number specifying range of addresses; added to Starting Source IP
Address to define upper and lower values of IP addresses; e.g., if
Starting Source IP Address is 192.168.10.1 and Source IP Address
Range is 10, then IP addresses will include values from 192.168.10.1 to
192.168.10.10
Destination IP Addr: Multicast address specifying destination for delivering position data;
same as Dest IP Address: field in RF second−level tab under EPLRS
RS tab (Figure 4−7)
UDP Port No: UDP port number used for delivering position data (not available to
modify; only used with IP); maximum value is 65535
TOS: Type of Service; required field for building IP header; usually set to
Default unless directed otherwise
TTL: Time−to−Live; IP parameter setting the number of times the message
can be relayed before it is dropped as undeliverable from the EPLRS
network; range from 0 to 255; with “zero” value, message will not be
sent at all; default value is 10
Destination URN: Destination RS unit reference number; used with JVMF Long formats
and assigned by FBCB2
Rx LCN JVMF Message
Type:
K05.01 Long−format header; sent to host; FBCB2 environment
K05.19 Long−format header; sent to host; FAAD environment
Rx/Tx LCN JVMF
Message Type:
K05.01 Long−format header; sent to host; FBCB2 environment
K05.19 Long−format header; sent to host; FAAD environment
The Apply and Save buttons are used to save the parameter settings after all entries have been made or
modified. The Apply button saves the changes and applies them to all RSs in the network (all existing RSs and
all RSs configured from now on). Clicking the Apply button displays the Select an Option window shown in
Figure 4−12. This window asks you to confirm that you want to overwrite the existing database. Clicking the Yes
button saves the data and closes both the Select an Option and Pos Distribution Settings windows.
Figure 4−12. Change Deployment Version Window
The Save button saves the changes and applies them only to RSs configured from now on. Clicking the Save
button saves the data and closes the Pos Distribution Settings window. The Save button is not available when
the SA Over IP check box is set active. The Cancel button closes the Pos Distribution Settings window without
saving or applying any changes. The Help button opens the PDF file of the Planner’s manual.
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4.1.4 Duplex Deployment Defaults.
The Duplex Deployment Defaults area displays the IP DAP waveform mode and DAP LTS allocation for the
network as shown in Figure 4−1. These parameters are modified by clicking the Modify Duplex
LTS(s)/Channel(s) button and selecting the required values using the fields in the HDR and LDR Duplex
LTS(s)/Channel(s) window.
4.1.5 HDR and LDR Duplex DAP LTS and Channel Window.
Clicking the Modify Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) button displays the HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s)
window as shown in Figure 4−13. The window is partitioned into the following areas:
D IP DAP Waveform/Circuit Size
D HDR DAP (LTS and Comm Channels)
D LDR (LTS and Comm Channels)
Figure 4−13. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window
LTS 3, 5, 7
LTS 5, 7
LTS 7
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT
The upper section of the window is the IP DAP Waveform/Circuit Size area. It is used to set parameters for IP
DAP needlines. IP DAP needlines are automatically built as needed by the individual RSs. The Waveform: field
drop−down list enables you to set up the IP DAP waveform mode. The Circuit Size: field drop−down list enables
you to select the LTS circuit size. The BPS: field shows the best−case bandwidth for the waveform mode and
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circuit size currently selected. You can evaluate the impact of a change in mode or circuit size by making the
change via the drop−down lists and then observing the new value in the BPS: field.
The middle section of the window is the HDR DAP (LTS and Comm Channels) area with the HDR DAP LTS
channel/needline matrix. (The matrix is described in Section 7.2.7.) The HDR DAP (LTS and Comm Channels)
area enables you to set up time and frequency resources for HDR DAP needlines. Selected LTS and channel
resources are made available for the RSs to build HDR DAP needlines. Selected resource cells will appear blue
in the LTS/channel needline matrix. If no selections are made, then all DAP needlines will be LDR. The check
boxes in the matrix are used to set LTS (time) and channels (frequencies) for HDR DAP needlines.
NOTE
HDR DAP LTS assignments apply to the entire network (deployment plan) and not just to
a select group of RSs.
The lower section of the window is the LDR(LTS and Comm Channels) area. It is used to set LDR LTSs, the
DAP and PVC reserves, and the comm channels for LDR needlines. Selected LTS and channel resources are
made available for the RSs to use for building LDR DAP needlines. Selected resource cells will appear yellow in
the LTS/channel needline matrix. Resource cells selected for both HDR DAP and LDR DAP needlines will appear
green in the LTS/channel needline matrix.
The upper area has drop−down lists to enable you set up the LDR LTS allocation and the PVC reserve. The LDR
LTS allocation applies to both DAP and PVC needlines. It lets you assign either one, two, or three LTSs to LDR
needlines.
The PVC reserve can be set to ensure that a specific part of the resources are set aside for DAP versus PVC
needlines. If the PVC Resv: field is set to Use Any, then nothing is reserved for DAPs. In that case, LDR duplex
(PVC) and LDR DAP needlines negotiate for the same resources, and the PVC needlines always have priority
over DAP needlines.
The LTS resources are divisible into three parts per available LTS. For example, if the LDR LTS: field is set to
LTS 5, 7, then there are two LTSs, making six resource parts available. If the PVC Resv: field is set to 2/6, then
2/6 of the resources are assigned to LDR duplex (PVC) needlines, and 4/6 (the remainder of the resources) are
reserved for LDR DAPs.
The Comm Channels area below the drop−down lists provides a channel matrix. It provides check boxes to
enable you to select the channels for LDR DAP and PVC needlines.
Clicking the Save button in the HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) window saves any changes you have
made. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
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CHAPTER 5
UTO TAB
5.1 UTO Tab.
A Unit Task Organization (UTO) is a container (or folder) used to organize RSs and ENMs in a deployment plan.
UTOs are usually created for specific units equipped with EPLRS assets (e.g., brigade, battalion, etc.). An
EPLRS enhancement called ENM Simplification no longer requires a UTO structure to be built for a deployment
plan. If this enhancement is used, then RSs will use a default radio configuration that the planner can custom
define. For more information on editing default radio configuration, see section 5.1.2.1.
A UTO is similar to a folder on the Windows desktop. A UTO can contain RSs, ENMs, or other UTOs. The UTO
tab is used to add, delete, or modify UTOs, ENMs, and RSs to create a deployment plan. There are three
components to the UTO tab display that provide the information and controls. These are:
D UTO tree
D UTO Edit menu
D Description of UTO area
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5.1.1 UTO Tree.
The UTO tab displays a tree diagram of the EPLRS network organization along with the definitions of the UTOs
and the RSs within the UTOs. The tree diagram is displayed in the left side of the window. Figure 5−1 shows an
example of a UTO tab display with the tree diagram fully expanded for viewing.
Figure 5−1. UTO Tab Display
UTO TREE SHOWS ORGANIZATION
OF UTOs, RSs, AND ENMs
EDIT MENU HAS CONTROLS
FOR ADDING, MODIFYING, AND
DELETING UTOs, RSs, AND ENMs
DESCRIPTION OF UTO AREA
SHOWS DETAILED INFORMATION
AND HAS MODIFY BUTTON FOR
MODIFICATION OF SELECTED UTO,
RS, OR ENM (MODIFY BUTTON NOT
AVAILABLE FOR TOP−LEVEL UTO)
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A Windows folder structure is used to display parent and child units. (The standard + and − symbols are
displayed if subordinate (child) units are present.) Clicking + expands the folder structure, making the next
subordinate unit visible. Clicking − collapses it, hiding the subordinate unit. You can drag a unit symbol and drop
it at the desired location to reposition the unit within the tree structure. The drag−and−drop feature works with
UTOs, RSs, and ENMs.
The UTO tree uses graphic symbols to represent UTOs, RSs, and ENMs. These symbols are shown in Figure
5−2.
EPLRS RS
UTO
EPLRS RS WITH CLEARED KEYS (ZEROIZED UNIT)
Figure 5−2. Symbols Used in UTO Tree Diagram
DEPLOYED NETWORK ENM (GRAY COMPUTER SYMBOL)
DEPLOYED MONITOR ENM (BLUE COMPUTER SYMBOL)
UNPLANNED EPLRS RS
NOTE
The planner can manually enter a UTO structure for unplanned RSs. However, if the
planner attempts to enter RSs into that UTO structure, the RSs will no longer be
unplanned. The ENM operator can input UTO information from a Mission Data Loader
(MDL) file or the ENM can get information from Self Descriptive Situational Awareness
(SDSA) messages. The RSs will then be populated automatically when they are heard
from by ENM. If MDL or SDSA information is not available, the ENM will have a default
UTO structure and it will not be updated as RSs join the network.
You can also use the URN as an input field. This will allow the user to create a UTO
entry receiving SDSA messages and placing the platforms or RSs into the correct UTO.
5.1.2 UTO Tab Edit Menu.
To activate: Click Edit selection on menu bar.
The Edit menu under the UTO tab provides the controls for adding, modifying, and deleting RSs, ENMs, and
UTOs. Figure 5−3 shows the selections available from the Edit menu. Some of the selections on the Edit menu
become unavailable (grayed out) if the appropriate element in the UTO tree is not selected. For example, if an
RS is selected in the UTO tree, only the Delete selection will be available from the Edit menu. This is because
UTOs, ENMs, and RSs cannot be added to an RS.
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Figure 5−3. Edit Menu Selections for UTO Tab
The definitions of the Edit menu selections are:
Add Radio... Lets you define and add an RS to the selected UTO.
Add Deployed ENM... Lets you define and add a deployed ENM to the selected UTO.
Add UTO... Lets you define and add a UTO to top−level or subordinate−level UTO.
Rename UTO... Lets you modify the name of selected UTO.
Delete... Lets you delete selected UTO, RS, or ENM from UTO tree.
Find... Lets you search for a Radio Name, RS rolename, ENM name, or UTO name;
locates selected data item in UTO tree.
Rebuild Tree... Lets you rebuild the UTO tree structure. Should be used after ENM makes an
update to the UTO structure as a result of a Mission Data Loader (MDL) or a Self
Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) message.
NOTE
You can display an equivalent Edit menu by right−clicking inside the UTO Tree area.
This action displays the edit menu shown in Figure 5−4. This menu is just like the Edit
menu activated from the menu bar except that it does not show the hot−key commands.
Based on whether you have selected a UTO, an RS, or an ENM in the UTO tree, some
of the Edit menu selections may not be active.
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Figure 5−4. Edit Menu Selections from Right−Clicking in UTO Tree Area
NOTES
The normal sequence of data entry is to create higher−level UTOs first, and then add
subordinate UTOs, RSs, and ENMs as appropriate to complete the task organization.
Always create one UTO that is higher than all other (subordinate) UTOs. For example,
for a division−level deployment, add one top−level UTO called “Division” under the
EPLRS folder icon. Then add the required brigade−level UTOs under the Division UTO.
Having only one top−level UTO allows you to set the Network Community ID to one value
for the entire deployment plan.
5.1.2.1 Add Radio....
To activate: Click Add Radio... selection on Edit menu.
To add an RS, you first must select the parent UTO where the RS will be added, then select Add Radio... under
the Edit menu. The Adding New Unit window will be displayed as shown in Figure 5−5. You then type the RS
parameter values into the data fields and make selections from the drop−down lists. Clicking the Add button
saves the data. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving the data. The Help button
activates and displays the on−line Planner’s Manual.
The DEFAULT radio is always present in the UTO tree, regardless if there is a UTO structure or not. In previous
software versions, the planner would have to manually enter and set the parameters for each RS in a plan. The
DEFAULT RS simplifies the planning process in ENP so that there is no need to manually enter each RS in a
plan. This is useful when most or all of your RSs will be using the same set of parameters such as power level,
position profile, relay control etc. This radio is used for configuring all unplanned RSs that join the network. If you
want to edit the parameters of this radio, select the DEFAULT radio and click Modify.... The changes you make
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to this radio will affect all unplanned RSs that join this network. Unplanned RSs will be displayed in the UTO
structure with orange radio icons as shown in Figure 5−2.
The Add Radio menu helps in the selection of adding a new planned RS to the UTO.

Figure 5−5. Adding New Unit Window
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The Adding New Unit window uses the following fields and controls to represent an RS:
Radio Name: Radio Name; unique for each radio; assigned by planner when RS is added to
UTO; once added, cannot be modified; Valid characters are alpha−numeric with
letters being uppercase only (i.e., 0000abcd is not valid, but 0000ABCD is) and
the length must be exactly 8 characters
Rolename: Descriptive name assigned to RS; usually corresponds to local parent unit;
required field that is assigned by planner when RS is added to UTO; once added
can be modified later; maximum 64 characters; may include spaces and all
characters except single quote and comma
Parent Org: Parent organization of selected RS; imported from parent UTO previously defined
by planner; cannot be modified
Reporting URN: Unit Reference Number; usually corresponds to vehicle number or bumper
number of vehicle with selected RS; assigned by planner when RS is added to
UTO, once added can be modified by ENM operator; range 1 through 1999999 for
US Army; 2000000 through 2999999 for USMC
Ref Unit Capable: Designates that selected RS may be set as a ref unit; set by planner when RS is
added to UTO, selections made from drop−down list; when set to Yes, allows RS
operator to enter reference information at RS using URO
Radio Power Level: Transmit power level setting for selected RS; set to one of the following:
Low 0.4 watts
Medium−Low 3 watts
Medium−High 20 watts
High 100 watts
System Default RS given default value set up under ENP System tab
Relay Control: Makes it possible to ensure that a specific RS will never be involved in relaying for
the network; designates whether or not the selected RS is able to relay for
network needlines; set to one of the following:
Enabled RS will relay based on the needline type and CCA data;
default setting is enabled
Disabled RS can receive and transmit but will never relay
Net Reconsolidation Ind: Designates whether selected RS is eligible to be a Network Reconsolidation
Radio; set to one of the following:
No RS is not eligible to be a Network Reconsolidation Radio
Yes/Off RS is eligible but is not activated to perform the function; ENM
operator can activate and deactivate the RS after the network
is active
Yes/On RS is eligible and is activated to perform the function; ENM
operator can activate and deactivate the RS after the network
is active
NOTE
RS power level is generally set as a system−wide parameter but can be set to different
levels for individual RSs. Medium−high (20 watts) is the normal operating power for most
network operations. An RS with a high duty cycle will automatically adjust its power
output to 20 watts. An RS with an antenna fault will transmit no higher than 3 watts.
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The Ref Unit window lets you set or modify the parameters that define the selected ref unit. The window uses the
following fields to represent a reference unit:
Ref Type: Type of reference unit:
Full: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) and vertical (elevation) reference
Horizontal: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) reference only
Vertical: Vertical (elevation) reference only
None Reference unit disabled
Latitude: Latitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for north latitude; minus
sign (−) for south latitude; limited to 11 characters, including decimal point (.) and minus
sign (−); partitioned as follows:
degrees xx
minutes yy
seconds zzzz where last two characters are hundredths of a second
Example: −15_ 30’ 20.55” is expressed as −15.50571
using the formula [ xx + yy/60 + zzzz/3600 ]
Longitude: Longitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for east longitude; minus
sign (−) for west longitude; limited to 11 characters including decimal point (.) and
minus sign (−); partitioned as shown for latitude
Elevation: Altitude of ref unit measured above Mean Sea Level (MSL) in meters
Uncertainty: Horizontal uncertainty of reference position in meters
NOTES
ENP can enter reference data only in latitude and longitude. An alternative method for
entering reference unit data is to make the RS Ref Unit Capable (via ENP) and then have
the RS operator enter the reference data into the RS using the URO. This method
allows use of the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) format with one−meter
accuracy in Easting and Northing coordinates.
If an RS is set to be a reference unit and valid latitude−longitude values are entered via
ENP, the ENM will set this info into the RS each time the radio is configured (overwriting
what may have been previously entered into the RS).
If an RS is set to be a reference unit and zero−zero latitude−longitude values are entered
via ENP, the ENM will detect this and will not overwrite previously entered lat−long values
when re−configuring the RS.
Clicking the Save button saves the data, closes the window, and returns to the Adding New Unit window. Clicking
the Cancel button closes the window without saving the data. The Help button is not currently active.
NOTES
The white RS symbol with the red circle and slash over it represents a zeroized RS.
When the ENM operator clears the keys from an RS in the network (zeroizes the RS
over the air), ENM automatically changes the RS symbol in the database to the “cleared
keys” RS symbol.
If the cleared RS is an unplanned radio, ENM will create an entry with the RSs Radio
Name and add it into the deployment plans UTO tree.
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5.1.2.2 Add Deployed ENM....
To activate: Click Add Deployed ENM... selection on Edit menu.
To add an ENM, you select the parent UTO where the ENM will be added, then select Add Deployed ENM...
under the Edit menu. The Add/Modify ENM Deployment window will be displayed as shown in Figure 5−6. You
then type the ENM name into the ENM Name: field, and select the ENM type from the ENM type: drop−down list.
Clicking the Add button saves the data. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving the data.
Figure 5−6. Add/Modify ENM Deployment Window
NOTE
ENM names may be up to 64 characters long and may include spaces and all characters
except single quote and comma.
Auto−configuration and auto−OTAR is performed by the ENM closest to the RSs. ENMs automatically assume
responsibility for RSs closest to them and for subordinate RSs if their responsible ENM is not operational.
Only network ENMs can reconfigure or OTAR the RSs, or transmit network management messages. All ENMs
can send ENM chat messages and transfer files via FTP.
5.1.2.3 Add UTO....
To activate: Click Add UTO... selection on Edit menu.
To add a UTO, you select the parent UTO where the child UTO will be added, or add a parent under the EPLRS
folder, then select Add UTO.... If you are adding a UTO under the EPLRS folder, the Add/Modify UTO window
will be displayed as shown in Figure 5−7. You then type the UTO name into the New UTO Name: field. The UTO
name should be a unique organizational name. Space characters are allowed, but do not use a slash character
(/). ENP sorts UTO entries alphabetically in the UTO tree. The EPLRS name is reserved for the top−level
network unit and cannot be used as a name for another UTO. By default, a top−level UTO is already created for
you called DivisionUTO.
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Figure 5−7. Add/Modify UTO Window
The UTO Network Community ID: drop−down list is present as shown in Figure 5−7 when you are adding a UTO
under the top−level EPLRS folder. If you add a UTO under a previously added UTO, the UTO Network
Community ID: drop−down list does not appear in the window, and the subordinate UTO is assigned the
community ID of the parent UTO. The parent UTO is named in the text above the New UTO Name: field.
NOTE
If you are using an unplanned UTO structure, you can edit the UTO Network Community
ID by modifying the DivisionUTO UTO.
The Community ID used to be the EPLRS division. Note that the Community ID may not have the same value as
the Crypto Division entered in the AN/CYZ−10 or AN/PYQ−10 (C). All RSs in the network must have the same
Community ID. An RS with a different Community ID will not be able to join the network. Clicking the Add button
saves the data. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving the data.
5.1.2.4 Rename UTO....
To activate: Click Rename UTO... selection on Edit menu.
To rename a UTO, you select the UTO, then select Rename UTO.... The Add/Modify UTO window will be
displayed as shown in Figure 5−8. You then type the new UTO name into the New UTO Name: field. In some
cases, the UTO Network Community ID: field will appear in the window, but you cannot change the community ID
with the Rename UTO... selection. (The community ID for the parent UTO can be changed via the Modify button
in the Description of UTO area of the tabular window.) Clicking the Save button saves the data. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without saving the data.

Figure 5−8. Add/Modify UTO Window
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5.1.2.5 Delete.
To activate: Click Delete selection on Edit menu.
To delete an RS, you select the RS to be deleted, then select Delete under the Edit menu. ENP will prompt you
to confirm the deletion of the selected RS. The Deleting Confirmation window will appear as shown in Figure
5−9. Clicking the Yes button confirms the deletion. Clicking the No button closes the window without deleting the
RS.
Figure 5−9. Deleting Confirmation Window
To delete an ENM, you select the ENM to be deleted, then select Delete under the Edit menu. The procedure is
the same as that for deleting an RS. The Deleting Confirmation window will appear similar to that shown in
Figure 5−9. Clicking the Yes button confirms the deletion. Clicking the No button closes the window without
deleting the ENM.
To delete a UTO, you select the UTO to be deleted, then select Delete under the Edit menu. Deleting a UTO also
deletes all RSs, ENMs, and UTOs under the selected UTO. ENP will prompt you to confirm the deletion of the
selected UTO. The Deleting Confirmation window will appear similar to that shown in Figure 5−9. Clicking the
Yes button confirms the deletion. Clicking the No button closes the window without deleting the UTO.
5.1.2.6 Find.
The Find... selection lets you search for RSs, UTOs, or ENMs and display them in the UTO Tree. Clicking the
Find selection displays the Find window as shown in Figure 5−10. The Find Type: drop−down list lets you select
one of the following:
D Radio Name (alpha−numeric text)
D RS rolename (alpha−numeric text)
D ENM name (alpha−numeric text)
D UTO name (alpha−numeric text)
It is not necessary to set the display preferences (Radio Name or Rolename) to match the Find Type: field. The
search process is independent of the display preference setting.
To perform the search, you enter the specific search data into the Find What: field and click the Find button. You
can enter a partial Radio Name or rolename, if desired. ENP will search for whatever characters you enter. The
results of the search are displayed in the Results area of the window. The Found: field displays the number of
data items that matched the search criteria. Figure 5−11 shows an example of a search for a part of a UTO name
that returned one result. If the search returns multiple results, the Result(s): drop−down list lets you click to
select one of the results. Clicking the Select button then locates and highlights the selected result in the UTO
Tree. ENP will expand the tree as required to display any data item that was found.
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Figure 5−10. Find Window

Figure 5−11. Find Window with Search Results
5.1.2.7 Rebuild Tree.
The Rebuild Tree... selection lets you rebuild the UTO structure after ENM loads a Mission Data Loader (MDL) or
when ENM receives a Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) message. Both the MDL and SDSA
messages update the UTO structure.
To rebuild the UTO structure, click on the Rebuild Tree... selection. The Rebuild UTO Tree window will appear as
shown in Figure 5−12. Clicking the Yes button confirms rebuilding the UTO tree. Clicking the No button closes
the window without rebuilding the UTO tree.
Figure 5−12. Deleting Confirmation Window
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5.1.3 Description Area.
The Description area consists of the right side of the UTO tab window. Clicking on a RS, ENM, or UTO in the
UTO tree structure displays detailed information about the selected unit in the Description area. The information
presented differs according to whether you select an RS, an ENM, or a UTO. In addition, the title displayed
above the window area varies according to the type of unit selected. The title identifies the type of unit selected
and shows the name as displayed in the UTO tree. The different titles (displayed at the top of the area) include:
D Description of Unit −− displayed when an RS is selected
D Description of ENM Deployment −− displayed when an ENM is selected
D Description of UTO −− displayed when a UTO is selected
The Modify button is located in the center of the window in the lower part of the Description area. It is displayed
below the text block presented for the selected unit. Along with the Edit menu selections, the Modify button lets
you make additional modifications to the selected RSs, ENMs, and UTOs.
5.1.3.1 Description of Unit (RS).
Figure 5−13 shows an example of the detailed information presented for an RS. The Description of Unit area
shows the data for RS−00A4. When displaying information for an RS, you must select one of the three buttons
near the top of the window. The buttons determine the type of information displayed for the selected RS. The
choices are:
D Unit −− button is available for all RSs
D Pos Distribution −− button is available for all RSs
D Ref Unit −− button is only available if RS is designated as reference unit capable
The Unit button displays the following detailed information about the selected RS:
D Radio Name (alpha−numeric text)
D Rolename
D Parent Org
D Reporting URN
D Ref Capable
D Radio power level
D Relay Control
D Net Reconsolidation Ind
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Figure 5−13. Example of Description Area for a Selected RS
The Modify button lets you modify an RS’s parameters. Selecting the unit and then clicking the Modify button
displays the Modifying Unit window shown in Figure 5−14. The Modifying Unit window has the same data fields
as the Adding New Unit window shown in Figure 5−5. However, the Radio Name: and Parent Org: fields are not
accessible for modification and are grayed out.


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Figure 5−14. Modifying Unit Window
The Pos Distribution button displays the following detailed information about the selected RS:
D Host interface
D Default LCN
D Ethernet IP Address
D Ethernet UDP Port
D Host Message Type
D RF Distribution Net
D Default LCN
D RF Message Type
D Operation Indicator
D Exercise Indicator
D GPS Mode
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The Modify button lets you modify an RS’s pos distribution parameters. Selecting the unit and then clicking the
Modify button displays the Pos Distribution Settings window shown in Figure 5−15. Fields that are not accessible
for modification are grayed out. For information on pos distribution parameters, refer to Section 4.1.3.
Figure 5−15. Example of Position Distribution Settings Window
POS DISTRIBUTION FOR
INDIVIDUAL RSs SET UP USING
EPLRS RS TAB; HOST, RF, AND
MISC SECOND−LEVEL TABS ARE
ACTIVE; GLOBAL AND SADL RS
TABS ARE NOT ACTIVE.
DATA IS SAVED FOR INDIVIDUAL
RSs BY USING SAVE BUTTON;
APPLY BUTTON NOT ACTIVE.
NOTE:
CLICKING SAVE BUTTON
CLOSES POS DISTRIBUTION
SETTINGS WINDOW AND
DISPLAYS POS DISTRIBUTION
DATA INFO WINDOW. THE INFO
WINDOW TELLS YOU THAT POS
DATA WILL BE SAVED WHEN RS
IS ADDED VIA ADD BUTTON IN
ADDING NEW UNIT WINDOW.
The Ref Unit button displays the following detailed information about the selected RS:
D Ref Type
D Latitude (deg)
D Longitude (deg)
D Elevation (m)
D Uncertainty (m)
The Modify button lets you assign or modify an RS’s reference unit parameters. Selecting the unit and then
clicking the Modify button displays the Unit Reference Data window shown in Figure 5−16. Fields that are not
accessible for modification are grayed out. For information on reference unit parameters, refer to Section 5.1.2.1.
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Figure 5−16. Example of Unit Reference Data Window
5.1.3.2 Description of Deployed ENM.
The Description of Deployed ENM area presents the following information for the selected ENM:
D ENM Name
D ENM Type (network or monitor)
D UTO (parent organization)
Figure 5−17 shows an example of the information presented for an ENM. The Description of Deployed ENM area
shows that the example ENM, IMAHOST6, is a network ENM assigned to the UTO (ENMBench).
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5−18

Figure 5−17. Example of Description Area for a Selected ENM
The Modify button lets you modify the selected ENM’s name and ENM type. Selecting the unit and then clicking
the Modify button displays an Add/Modify ENM Deployment window. This window is the same as that shown in
Figure 5−6 except that it uses a Save button in place of the Add button. You click the Save button to save
changes.
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5.1.3.3 Description of UTO.
The Description of UTO area presents the following information for a selected UTO:
D Selected UTO: UTO rolename
D Total RS Units: Number of RSs under UTO
D Total ENMs: Number of ENMs under UTO
D Network Community ID: EPLRS Community ID
Figure 5−18 shows an example of the information presented for a UTO. The Description of UTO area shows that
the example UTO, Lab, has 35 RSs and 11 ENMs under it with a Network Community ID of B.
Figure 5−18. Example of Description Area for a Selected UTO
The Modify button lets you modify the UTO name and Network Community ID for the highest level UTO in the
deployment. Selecting the unit and then clicking the Modify button displays the Add/Modify UTO window similar
to that shown in Figure 5−7. For subordinate UTOs, the Network Community ID is not displayed in the
Description of UTO area, and the Modify button is not available.
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CHAPTER 6
REF UNIT TAB
6.1 Ref Unit Tab.
The Ref Unit tab presents a tabular display of all the RSs that are designated reference units in the currently
selected UTO. It also provides the specific reference information entered for each unit (RS) and lets you modify
the reference data for an RS. Note that adding, defining, and deleting a reference unit is done under the UTO
tab. Figure 6−1 shows the Ref Unit tab display.
A reference unit is an EPLRS RS that is set up at a precisely known location so that it can serve as a reference
from which other network RSs determine their positions. Reference units are set up at specific locations and
usually do not move. A reference unit is defined in terms of horizontal position (latitude and longitude) and
vertical position (altitude above mean sea level). A reference unit may provide latitude and longitude, altitude, or
both. Network RSs use multiple reference units to compute their own positions. Each reference unit has an
uncertainty value that is based on the accuracy of the stored reference position. When computing its position, an
RS takes the uncertainty values of the reference units into account and gives the position data from the more
accurate reference unit more weight in the calculation.
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Figure 6−1. Ref Unit Tab Display
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6−3
You can double−click on any of the header blocks (e.g., Radio Name) to display the blue triangular arrowhead.
This action sorts the information in the table according to the column you select. Numeric columns are ordered
from lowest to highest number. Text columns are ordered alphabetically. Repeated double−clicking toggles the
list order and inverts the blue arrowhead.
Double−clicking on the table line with the ref unit to be modified displays the Unit Reference Data window, as
shown in Figure 6−2. The Unit Reference Data window lets you set or modify the parameters that define the
selected ref unit.
Figure 6−2. Example of Unit Reference Data Window
The Unit Reference Data window uses the following fields to represent a reference unit:
Ref Type: Type of reference unit:
Full: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) and vertical (elevation) reference
Horizontal: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) reference only
Vertical: Vertical (elevation) reference only
None Ref unit disabled; will not appear in table under Ref Unit tab;
may be reactivated by modifying RS unit under UTO tab
Latitude: Latitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for north latitude; minus
sign (−) for south latitude; limited to 11 characters, including decimal point (.) and minus
sign (−); partitioned as follows:
degrees xx
minutes yy
seconds zzzz where last two characters are hundredths of a second
Example: −15_ 30’ 20.55” is expressed as −15.50571
using the formula [ xx + yy/60 + zzzz/3600 ]
Longitude: Longitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for east longitude; minus
sign (−) for west longitude; limited to 11 characters including decimal point (.) and
minus sign (−); partitioned as shown for latitude
Elevation: Altitude of ref unit measured above MSL in meters
Uncertainty: Horizontal uncertainty of reference position in meters
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Clicking the Save button in the Unit Reference Data window saves the data. Clicking the Cancel button closes
the window without saving the data. The Help button displays the PDF file for the on−line Planner’s Manual.
Right−clicking on a selected ref unit in the table displays the sub−menu shown in Figure 6−3. The sub−menu
appears in the table, slightly below the table line with the selected reference unit. Clicking on the sub−unit
selection displays the Unit Reference Data window shown in Figure 12−4. This is simply an alternate method of
calling up the Unit Reference Data window.
Figure 6−3. Modify Ref Unit... Sub−Menu
NOTES
ENP can enter reference data only in latitude and longitude. An alternative method for
entering reference unit data is to make the RS Ref Unit Capable (via ENP) and then
have the RS operator enter the reference data into the RS using the URO. This method
allows use of the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) format.
If the RS is entered as reference−capable (using the UTO tab) but no data is entered for
the RS, it will not be listed in the Reference Unit table.
Designate RSs that are connected to an FBCB2 as reference capable, but do not assign
them fixed positions. In this way, the RSs will receive periodic position reports from the
GPS connected to the FBCB2 devices and will act as mobile reference units. It is best to
assign these RSs as Horizontal references because the altitude report, if any, from the
GPS is likely not accurate enough to support radio position location.
If ENM configures an RS with reference data, it will help other RSs become located as soon as it becomes active.
If the RS is not physically at the reference location, it will transmit a REF QUAL (reference quality) trap warning of
inconsistent positioning data, and the position location for the entire network may be significantly impacted.
The planner should consider configuring a reference unit as reference−capable and then having the RS operator
enter the specific reference data obtained from the GPS after the RS is actually located at the reference sight.
When the RS operator enters reference data at the RS, the ENM deployment plan is not changed.
ENM configures the position data for reference unit RSs based on the data stored in both the RS and in the
deployment plan. During configuration, ENM will retrieve the RS’s current reference unit data parameters. There
may be differences between the reference unit data values retrieved from the RS and the reference unit data
values in the deployment plan. ENM will decide which values to use to reconfigure the RS based on the
guidelines in Table 6−1.
NOTES
When ENM reconfigures a reference unit RS, ENM will reconfigure the RS using position
data (latitude and longitude values) from the deployment plan if the values stored in
the deployment plan are non−zero values. ENM will reconfigure the RS using position
data from the RS if the position values stored in the deployment plan are zero values. If
you want to ensure that the reference unit RS will always retain the position data set by
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the RS operator (via URO), then define the reference unit (via ENP) to have latitude and
longitude values set to zero.
If you want to disable a reference unit that is currently Ref Unit Capable and has
non−zero position data loaded, the best way to do it is to reset the Ref Unit Capable
parameter to No (via ENP), and then reconfigure the RS. If you do not reset the Ref Unit
Capable parameter to No, and only reset the Ref Type to None (via ENP), the RS will
retain its current position data and will continue acting as a reference unit.
Table 6−1. Reference Unit Configuration by ENM
Reference Unit Data From
Deployment Plan (Set Up in ENP)
Reference Unit Data
From RS
How ENM Will Configure RS
Ref Unit Capable: No Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: None
Ref Type: None ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: None
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
ENM will configure the RS with the
values retrieved from the RS
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
Latitude: Zero
Longitude: Zero
Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values retrieved from the RS
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
Latitude: Non−Zero
Longitude: Non−Zero
Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
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CHAPTER 7
NET SERVICES TAB
7.1 Net Services Tab.
7.1.1 INTRODUCTION.
EPLRS supports three major types of host−to−host net services:
D Many−to−Many
D Few−to−Many
D One−to−One
The Many−to−Many communications concept is shown in Figure 7−1. Many−to−Many communications allow
many source hosts to reliably send data to many other destination hosts. The Few−to−Many communications
concept is shown in Figure 7−2. Few−to−Many communications allow a few select source hosts to reliably send
data to many other destination hosts. The One−to−One communications concept is shown in Figure 7−3.
One−to−One communications are point−to−point and allow two hosts to send data exclusively to each other.
Figure 7−1. Many−to−Many Communications Concept
RS 1
RS 2
RS 5
RS 3
RS 6 RS 4
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7−2
Figure 7−2. Few−to−Many Communications Concept
RS 1
RS 2
RS 5
RS 3
RS 6 RS 4
Figure 7−3. Point−to−Point Communications Concept
RS 1
RS 2
7.2 NEEDLINES.
The communication services used by EPLRS to set up communications between RSs are virtual circuits called
needlines. The needlines can be Many−to−Many, Few−to−Many or One−to−One to support different host
communication requirements.
A single RS can store up to 64 needlines in memory, but can have only 32 needlines active at any one time. In
order to do this, each LTS (0−7) would have four needlines and each needline on the LTS would be set to use 1/4
of the LTS. However, if the coordination network is used (LTS 2) this would limit the maximum number of active
user available needlines to 28.
EPLRS RSs can send and receive information to many other host computers on the EPLRS network because the
RSs can support many needlines via time division and frequency division multiplexing. Multiplexing is the ability
to send and receive many data transmissions using one RS.
RSs support needlines by sourcing data, receiving data or relaying the data for other RSs. The EPLRS RS can
be a relay on some needlines and be a source or destination for data on other needlines virtually at the same
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time. When an RS acts as a source or destination, it sends data to, and receives data from its host. When an
RS acts as a relay, it forwards the data it receives to other RSs. If the relaying RS is also a destination for the
needline data, the RS will provide the received data to its host. If the relaying RS is not a destination, then the
received data is simply forwarded to other RSs on the needline. Only RSs that are active on a needline are able
to relay for the needline.
7.2.1 Needline Resources.
The data that defines the parameters that make a needline is called the Communication Circuit Assignment
(CCA). CCA data is stored in the memory of each EPLRS RS when it is configured by ENM. The CCA data is
derived from the deployment plan you build using ENP and defines the LTS (time) and Channel (frequency)
resource allocations for each needline, along with other needline parameters. The CCA data is unique for each
needline and includes the following data:
Waveform Mode There are several different waveform modes available. Each
waveform mode offers a unique tradeoff of operational range, jam
resistance, and data rate. Table 7−1 presents detailed parameter data
for the different waveform modes.
Needline Type There are six types of PVC needlines, each offering different
communication advantages. Refer to Table 7−2, Table 7−8 and Table
7−9 for more information on the different needline types.
Logical Channel
Number
A unique Logical Channel Number (LCN) is assigned to each needline
and acts like a phone number for the needline. It is used to identify
the needline between the RS and its host.
Needline Identification
Number
The needline identification (ID) number is assigned to each needline
by ENP. This number is normally generated automatically.
Logical Timeslot The Logical Timeslot (LTS) defines the specific time resources
assigned to the needline. Refer to Section 1.6 for more information on
logical timeslots.
Channel(s) Channels are the nominal frequencies the RSs will use for the
needline. Depending on the needline type and the relay support,
either one or two channels are selected to support the needline.
Refer to Section 1.7 for more information on channels and the
remaining paragraphs in this section for information on the number of
channels each needline type requires.
Relays This is the number of relays the needline will support. (Refer to Table
7−8.)
7.2.2 Needline Waveform Modes.
There are two groups of user−selectable waveform modes associated with needlines. Depending on the
communication needs, the planner chooses which group of waveform modes will best support the deployment.
One group corresponds to the 2msec timeslot length while the other corresponds to the 4msec timeslot length.
When generating a needline, you should choose the waveform to be used for the needline based on the tradeoffs
associated with each waveform. These tradeoffs are as follows:
D Data capacity (throughput performance)
D Jam (ECM) resistance
D Propagation range
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−4
EPLRS can use either a two−millisecond or a four−millisecond timeslot length for the network. Figure 7−4 shows
the way time is allotted for setup, encoded data, propagation, and processing. The length of two 2−msec
timeslots is about the same as one 4−msec timeslot, but the 4−msec timeslot has roughly 3 times more room for
encoded data because it only has to setup, propagate and process one time. Each timeslot length has an
associated group of waveform modes available with it. Each waveform mode has advantages with respect to
data capacity, jam resistance, and propagation range. The signal mission requirements will usually dictate the
best choice of timeslot for the network and waveform mode for each needline. Table 7−1 shows a detailed
comparison of all the different waveform modes.
Figure 7−4. EPLRS 2−Msec and 4−Msec Waveform Modes
2−MSEC TIMESLOT
SETUP
MODES 0−4 AND 14: SINGLE (OR SHORT) TIMESLOTS, NORMAL DATA AND RANGE
MODES 5−9: DOUBLE (OR LONG) TIMESLOTS, MORE DATA
2−MSEC TIMESLOT
4−MSEC TIMESLOT
PROPAGATION
PROCESSING
ENCODED DATA ENCODED DATA
SETUP
PROPAGATION
PROCESSING
SETUP
PROPAGATION
PROCESSING
ENCODED DATA
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−5
Table 7−1. Waveform Modes
Waveform
Group
(Timeslot)
Waveform
Mode
Max
Data
Rate
(KBPS)
User Data
Bytes per
Trans−
mission
General
Anti−Jam
Performance
dBm for
90% Burst
Throughput
Maximum
RS−to−RS
Propagation
Range
(No Relays)
(Km)
Tactical
Internet
(2ms)
0 38 10 Better −100
(dBm)
110
1 38 10 Best −102
(dBm)
110
2 77 20 Better −100
(dBm)
110
3 115 30 Good −98
(dBm)
110
4 311 81 OK −94
(dBm)
110
14 430 122 OK −94
(dBm)
28
Expanded
Data
(4ms)
5 65 34 Best −102
(dBm)
90
6 127 66 Better −100
(dBm)
90
7 184 96 Good −98
(dBm)
90
8 238 124 Good −98
(dBm)
90
9 486 253 OK −94
(dBm)
90
17 772 402 OK −93
(dBm)
35
18 1014 528 OK −92
(dBm)
23
NOTE
Waveform modes 17 and 18 are not available for DAPs.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−6
Based on Table 7−1, Modes 1 and 5 have the best anti−jam performance, and Mode 18 has the highest data
capacity because more data is transmitted per transmission. The Max Data Rate for each waveform in Table 7−1
is calculated using an 8 LTS, 1 hop (no relay) needline. The Max Data Rate can be determined by calculating the
number of timeslots available for data transmitting on a particular frame. External factors in the environment
(either man−made, like a jammer, or naturally occurring, like trees) reduce the ranges stated in the table. In a
hostile ECM environment, some modes are a better choice than others because a mode with better anti−jam
resistance may provide a higher overall data rate than a mode with higher data capacity.
When selecting the waveform mode, refer to Table 7−1 and also consider the following:
1. Effective Range: Maximum range performance is best if you have plenty of signal margin and you have
direct line of sight (LOS). However, the effective single−link range may be reduced if either LOS or signal
margin are compromised. Terrain, vegetation and long RF cables reduce effective LOS ranges,
especially for ground applications. Signal margin is important because in order to receive a transmitted
message, the receive signal strength must be adequate. The waveform modes each have different data
reception capabilities based upon specific signal characteristics.
2. Data Capacity: The data capacity of the waveform mode is determined by how much data the waveform
can carry in a single transmission (i.e., 2−msec vs 4−msec timeslot length).
NOTE
Some user systems may have already optimized their data exchanges to fit particular
EPLRS waveform modes. Changing waveform modes to compensate for other system
environment may impact user data exchange efficiencies.
7.2.3 Needline Types.
The six types of PVC needlines are as follows:
D Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
D Multi Source Group (MSG)
D Low Data Rate (LDR) Duplex
D High Data Rate (HDR) Duplex
D Simple Multi Source Group (SMSG)
D Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access (TAMA)
Table 7−2. Needline Types Summary
Needline Type of Network RS−Acknowledged Needline
CSMA Network (Many−to−Many) No
MSG Network (Few−to−Many) No
LDR Duplex Point−to−Point (One−to−One) Yes
HDR Duplex Point−to−Point (One−to−One) Yes
SMSG Network (Few−to−Many) No
TAMA Network (Many−to−Many) No
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−7
A single RS can support many needlines at the same time. This allows host computers to simultaneously send
and receive different information from different groups of hosts.
A PVC needline is a permanent circuit and is given specific time and frequency resources to use, regardless of
whether the needline is active or not. PVC needlines are predefined by the network planner and become part of
the deployment plan data. ENM loads the data defining these needlines into the network RSs during the RS
reconfiguration process.
EPLRS also uses duplex needlines called Dynamically Allocated PVCs, or DAPs. DAP needlines are either high
data rate or low data rate duplex needlines that are built by the network RSs when needed, used for specific
communication tasks, and then torn down. The planner allocates time and frequency resources for DAPs when
creating the deployment plan, but the RS builds the actual DAP needlines on the fly, as needed. DAP time and
frequency resources are set up under the ENP System tab. (Refer to Section 4.1.)
The Net Services tab lets you define, modify, and review the parameters of the PVC needlines. It also enables
you to review the overall plan for any conflict of time and frequency resources. The tab provides a graphic view of
the channel and LTS allocations for the network and lets you see an overview of which needlines are assigned to
the various timeslots and frequencies. Figure 7−5 shows an example of the Net Services tab display.
There are four components to the Net Services tab display that provide the information and controls. These are:
D Needlines tree
D Net Services Edit menu
D Needline definition
D LTS/CN needline matrix
Figure 7−5. Net Services Tab Display
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−8
7.2.4 Net Services Edit Menu.
The Edit drop−down menu for the Net Services tab lets you add and delete needlines. FIgure 7−6 shows the
selections available from the Edit menu. Some of the selections on the Edit menu become unavailable (grayed
out) if the appropriate element in the UTO tree is not selected. For example, if you have not yet selected a
needline in the UTO tree, the Delete Needline selection will not be available from the Edit menu. After you have
selected a needline, the Delete Needline selection will be available and the Add Needline selection will no longer
be available.
Figure 7−6. Net Services Edit Menu
The menu has three selections:
Add Needline... Lets you add a new needline under a selected UTO.
Delete Needline... Lets you delete a needline.
Find... Lets you search for a Needline ID Number, LCN, or Needline Name; locates selected
data item in UTO tree.
Selecting Add Needline... under the Edit menu (or right−clicking anywhere in the Needlines Tree area) activates
the Add CSMA Needline Wizard, as shown in Figure 7−7. Note that the Add Needline... selection is not available
(active) unless you first select a valid UTO in the Needlines Tree area. The EPLRS folder is not a valid UTO. If
you select the EPLRS folder, the Add Needline... selection is available, but clicking the Add Needline... selection
displays the error message window shown in Figure 7−8.
Figure 7−7. Add CSMA Needline Wizard
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−9
Figure 7−8. Adding a Needline Error Window
The Add CSMA Needline wizard is the default window that ENP displays when you click Add Needline selection
under the Edit menu.
The wizard enables you to perform three functions:
D Select the needline type
D Enter the needline name
D Modify the needline number
The wizard uses the following fields and controls to define the needline parameters:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP or change
number as required; numbers are as follows: LDR Duplex 0001 through 1792; HDR
Duplex, CSMA, MSG, SMSG, and TAMA 1801 through 2048; Modify button used to
change number (e.g., change 1805 to 1825)
Modify button Displays Modifying the generated Needline Number window as shown in Figure 7−9.
Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without saving
changes; Help button is not currently active
Next>> button Displays next wizard for selected needline type; refer to Sections 7.2.6.1 through
7.2.6.7 for descriptions of the wizards
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−10
Figure 7−9. Modifying the Generated Needline Number Window
NOTES
When adding needlines, do not use space characters in needline names. ENP will allow
this, but it causes runtime errors with the database. To separate words in needline name,
use underscore or other characters.
Do not use the number 1800 for CSMA, HDR Duplex, MSG, SMSG, and TAMA
needlines. Legal numbers range from 1801 to 2048.
The Needline Type: drop−down list shown in Figure 7−7 presents the six types of needlines available for you to
select. Clicking on the needline type you want displays the wizard for the appropriate needline. The wizards
guide you through the process of defining and adding the needline. The wizards and the parameters for each
type of needline are described in Sections 7.2.6.1 through 7.2.6.7.
To delete a needline, you must select the needline in the Needlines Tree area, then either click the Delete
Needline selection on the Edit menu. As an alternate method, you can right−click anywhere in the Needlines Tree
area; this action displays an Add−Delete Needline sub−menu, as shown in Figure 7−10. The Delete Needline
selection on the sub−menu will be active. Clicking on the Delete Needline selection displays the confirmation
window shown in Figure 7−11. Clicking the Yes button confirms the deletion. Clicking the No button closes the
window without deleting the needline.
Figure 7−10. Add−Delete Needline Sub−Menu
Figure 7−11. Delete Needline Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−11
The Find selection lets you search for needlines and display them in the Needlines Tree. Clicking the Find
selection displays the Find window as shown in Figure 7−12. The Find Type: drop−down list lets you select either
a Needline ID (four digit decimal value), an LCN (two digit hexadecimal value), or a Needline Name (text) as the
type of data searched for. It is not necessary to set the display preferences (Needline Number or Needline
Name) to match the Find Type: field. The search process is independent of the display preference setting.
Figure 7−12. Find Window
To perform the search, you enter the specific search data into the Find What: field and click the Find button. You
can enter a partial needline name or number, if desired. ENP will search for whatever characters you enter. The
results of the search are displayed in the Results area of the window. The Found: field displays the number of
data items that matched the search criteria. Figure 7−13 shows an example of a search for a part of a needline
name that returned one result. If the search returns multiple results, the Result(s): drop−down list lets you click to
select one of the results. Clicking the Select button then locates and highlights the selected result in the
Needlines Tree. ENP will expand the tree as required to display the needline that was found.
Figure 7−13. Find Window with Search Results
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−12
7.2.5 Description of Needline Display.
The Description of Needline display is the first of the two selectable data displays presented in the right side of
the Net Services tab window. It shows all the parameters for a selected needline. Figure 7−14 shows an
example of the Description of Needline display. You select this display by clicking the Needline Definition radio
button. You must first select a needline in the needline tree before you click the Needline Definition radio button.
Failing to do so displays an empty screen showing the text message ***NEEDLINE IS NOT SELECTED*** in the
right side of the tab display.
Figure 7−14. Description of Needline Display
Clicking the Modify button displays the Modify Needline window for the displayed needline. The Modify Needline
window has the same data entry and parameter fields as the Add Needline wizards used to define each needline.
The data fields and parameters used are specific for each of the six types of needline operations and are
described in Sections 7.2.6.1 through 7.2.6.7. Clicking the Save button saves the data. Clicking the Cancel
button closes the window without saving the data.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−13
Clicking the View/Modify Endpoints button displays the View/Modify Endpoints window as shown in Figure
7−15. Note that the View/Modify Endpoints button is available for HDR Duplex, LDR Duplex, and MSG. The
View/Modify Endpoints window lets you view, modify, add, and delete needline endpoints. To modify, add another
endpoint or delete an endpoint, right click in the window and select the desired operation. The sub−menu
displayed is shown in Figure 7−15. Make the changes desired and click OK to save the data. Clicking Cancel
closes the window without saving the data. The data fields and parameters used are specific for each of the
needline operations described in Sections 7.2.6.1 through 7.2.6.7.
Figure 7−15. View/Modify Endpoints Window
7.2.6 Needlines Tree.
The Needlines Tree is displayed in the left side of the window. Figure 7−5 shows an example of a Net Services
tab display with the tree diagram fully expanded for viewing. The tree shows a graphic representation of the UTO
structure for the network and shows the needlines assigned under each UTO. Each type of needline (CSMA,
MSG, HDR duplex, LDR duplex, TAMA, and SMSG) has a unique symbol to differentiate it from the others (refer
to Figure 7−16). The needline name or number is displayed next to each symbol. The Preferences... selection
under the ENP File menu is used to set up the needline tree to display either needline names or needline
numbers.
Figure 7−16. Needline Symbols Used in Net Services Tree Diagram
CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE−ACCESS (CSMA)
MULTI−SOURCE GROUP (MSG)
HIGH DATA RATE (HDR) DUPLEX
LOW DATA RATE (LDR) DUPLEX
SIMPLE MULTI−SOURCE GROUP (SMSG)
TACTICAL AD−HOC MULTIPLE ACCESS (TAMA)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−14
The Needlines Tree is used to select UTOs where you want to add needlines, and select needlines for
modification or deletion. You must first click on a UTO in the tree to select it before a needline can be added
under that UTO. Double−clicking on a UTO alternately expands and collapses the tree detail under that UTO.
Right−clicking anywhere in the needline tree area displays an Add−Delete Needline sub−menu described in
Section 7.2.4.
When the Description of Needline display is present (in the right side of the Net Services tab window), clicking on
a needline in the tree displays the data for that needline. Double−clicking on a needline displays a Modify
Needline window for the needline. Each of the six needline types has a unique Modify Needline window. The
parameters in the Modify Needline windows are the same as those described for the Add Needline windows used
with each of the six PVC needline types.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−15
7.2.6.1 CSMA Needlines.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying a CSMA needline. CSMA needlines
provide many hosts the capability to send data to each other, with user data rates (for the whole needline) from
about 190 bps to 1012704 bps. A CSMA needline operates like a group of people on a contention voice net,
each speaking when they have something to say and no one else is speaking. The RS automatically ensures no
one else is using the needline, so neither the sourcing host nor the user have to bother with the CSMA network
access protocol. Transmissions via CSMA needlines are unacknowledged.
CSMA needlines are broadcast communications between an unlimited number of endpoints. RSs contend for
and use the CSMA circuit resources as needed, then release them for other RSs to use.
A CSMA needline allows anywhere from one to a large number of endpoints to broadcast data to other members
of the needline on demand. Source−transmit opportunities are not reserved for particular endpoints. This feature
allows hundreds of endpoints to source data on a single CSMA needline on different timeslots. Special usage for
CSMA includes voice over IP (one conversation per circuit) or single source, which provides guaranteed access
and guaranteed maximum latency.
There are three different types of CSMA needlines: Normal Reliability, High Reliability and Short Message. The
three types are described in Table 7−3.
Table 7−3. CSMA Needline Types
Needline Type Definition
Normal Reliability The default CSMA needline type is Normal Reliability. This type supports
general host−host data dissemination with automatic contention detection
and resolution. Normal Reliability needlines use forward error correction
techniques to increase data reliability. Normal Reliability is the default
setting and can be changed as one of the advanced settings.
High Reliability High reliability needlines operate in the same manner as Normal Reliability
needlines, except that additional forward error correction is applied to each
data transmission. This can help counteract the effects of lost packets
due to jamming. High Reliability needlines are a modification of Normal
Reliability needlines that use forward−error correction to increase data
reliability with a 25% reduction in bandwidth.
Short Message Short message needlines operate in the same manner as Normal
Reliability needlines, except that automatic contention detection and
resolution is not supported. This is useful when the probability of
contention on the needline is known to be very low. The two primary
cases for using short message needlines are (1) when host messages are
known to be very short, such that they fit completely within a single
EPLRS burst, and (2) when there are many nodes originating data at any
one time.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−16
The process of adding a CSMA needline begins with the first Add CSMA Needline wizard, as shown in Figure
7−17.
Figure 7−17. Add CSMA Needline Wizard
The wizard uses the following fields and controls to define the needline parameters:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access (select CSMA)
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., CSMA_1BDE_C2)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1801 and 2048; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button is not currently active
Next>> button Displays second wizard for CSMA needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figure 7−18 shows second wizard
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−17
Figure 7−18. Second Add CSMA Needline Wizard
1/2−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
1/4−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT

NOTE
The channels displayed in the Channel(s): drop−down list shown in Figure 7−18 correspond
to an 8−channel deployment plan. If the needline is built under a 6−channel or 5−channel
plan, or if specific channels are set inactive, the available channels on the drop−down list will
differ from those shown in the figure.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−18
The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Relay Coverage: 1 hop−no relay Direct hop from source to destination; full bandwidth,
no relay support, limited to direct LOS and range of RS
2 hops−1 relay Only one relay (2 hops); decreases full bandwidth to one−half;
RSs active on needline can relay; suitable for local Battalion
area coverage
4 hops−3 relays Covers up to 3 relays (4 hops); decreases full bandwidth to
one−quarter; RSs active on the needline can relay; suitable for
multi−Battalion area coverage
6 hops−5 relays Covers up to 5 relays (6 hops); decreases full bandwidth to
one−sixth; RSs active on the needline can relay; suitable for
Brigade−wide area coverage
LTS(s): Bandwidth capacity for needline; select from all 8 (0−7) LTSs down to a single LTS; note
that if you select LTS 2 for the needline, the RS will be off the coordination net and cannot
support pos calculation, and will negatively affect the setup of HDR/LDR DAPs and relay
coordination
Circuit Size: 1 LTS Both halves (all) of the LTS; can be selected if needline is
assigned to one or more LTSs; if needline is assigned to
multiple LTSs, then this assignment is the only option available
1/2 LTS Selects half of LTS with half bandwidth of full LTS
1/4 LTS Selects one quarter of LTS with one quarter the bandwidth of
full LTS
Sub LTS: Corresponds to Circuit Size: field when set to 1/4 or 1/2 LTS; for 1/4 LTS, selects first,
second, third, or fourth quarter or evenly spreads quarter of LTS into first, second, third
and fourth quadrants of LTS for needline; for 1/2 LTS, selects first or second half or evenly
spreads first and second half of LTS for needline; not available with 1 LTS circuit size
Channel(s): Frequency channel for the needline; depends on channel set configuration and which
channels are set inactive; with all channels active:
8−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 7
6−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 5
5−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 4
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW0 10 bytes/TU; use Mode 1 instead
Mode EW1 10 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance; better than Mode 0
Mode EW2 20 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 1
Mode EW3 30 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 2
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 3
Mode EW14 122 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4
Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW5 34 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance for 4−msec expanded
data
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 5
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Mode EW17 402 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 9
Mode EW18 528 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than mode 17
Endpoint LCN
[05−DF](Hex):
Logical channel number assigned to needline; 2−character hexadecimal value;
range 05 through DF; DF is used for ENM Broadcast PVC Needline
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−19
The CSMA needline data rate is automatically computed and displayed by ENP as you select the various
needline parameters. By observing the effect on the data rate, you can use ENP to try different LTS circuit size,
relay coverage, and waveform mode options and then make the best selections for the parameter values. Note
that the numbers computed by ENP do not include overhead. Overhead is the additional loss in data rate
resulting from the various transitions, exchanges, and setups that occur during message handling between hosts.
As a result, the values may be slightly lower than those in Table 7−1 when an RS operator queries the needline in
the field.
Evenly spread uses a different scheduling algorithm and reduces latency and variability. It should almost always
be used. However, if you must use non−EVS scheduling, then you cannot mix both EVS and non−EVS on the
same LTS as the scheduling algorithm will conflict with each other. See Table 7−4 for EVS and non−EVS
performance on CSMA needlines.
Table 7−4. CSMA 6 Hop (5 Relay) Latency Values (ms)
LTS 1/4 1/2 1/4 1/2
non−EVS non−EVS EVS EVS
Case Best Worst Best Worst Best Worst Best Worst
2 ms Latency 148 1028 148 516 404 820 228 452
4 ms Latency 230 1990 230 966 742 1574 390 838
NOTE
Do not mix frame based (First 1/2, Second 1/2 and First 1/4 − Fourth 1/4) and evenly
spread sub LTS on the same LTS, choose one or the other as there will be a time conflict
that arises between the two when the time shares are allocated.
Clicking the Advanced button displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−19.
Figure 7−19. CSMA Advanced Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−20
The CSMA advanced features include:
CSMA Type: High Reliability For messages longer than a single TU; use for Command and
Control (C
2
) messages
Normal Reliability For messages longer than a single TU; use for less important
messages and Situation Awareness (SA) traffic
Short Message For single−TU messages; use for single−TU SA or track data
Max Hold Time:
(Transmissions)
Maximum amount of time that an RS is allowed to “hold” the CSMA needline and continue
using it without interruption; when hold time is exceeded by RS, needline is taken back as
soon as next message boundary is reached; hold time measured in timeslot units;
allowable values are from 1 to 255, or N/A; should be set to 0 or N/A; used for SADL
applications; If hold time set to N/A (the default), hold time is unlimited
EPLRS Pos
Setting:
The EPLRS Pos Setting determines where the EPLRS generated position reports, if any,
will be sent. If HOST is selected, the needline will send position reports to its connected
host. If RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to the other RSs on the
network. If HOST&RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to both its
connected host and the RSs on the network. If NONE is selected, no position reports will
be sent.
HOST Pos distribution to host only (direct connection)
RF Pos distribution to network only (OTA)
HOST&RF Pos distribution to host and network
NONE EPLRS−generated pos data not distributed; note that you can
still get the RS’s generated position by using URO P message
ADDSI IP
Interoperability
Mode:
Allows ADDSI and IP connected hosts to share the same needline
Enabled Ensures interoperability between ADDSI and IP host using the
same circuit.
Disabled ADDSI and IP hosts will not be able to share the same
needline (default)
NOTE
Setting the ADDSI IP Interoperability Mode is optional if one type
of host is being used, but to avoid having all RSs (receiving a mes-
sage) send data to the IP stack, ADDSI IP Interoperability Mode
should be set to DISABLED.
Ad Hoc Mode: Allows TAMA−style ad−hoc routing with non−TAMA needlines, when:
Enabled All RSs send data to hosts (IP or ADDSI)
Disabled RSs only forward data to destination host, reducing possibility
of rebroadcast storm (default)
NOTE
Setting Ad Hoc Mode to ENABLED, will simplify network configuration. This will provide
EPLRS the ability to operate with little to no planning. Ad Hoc routing can be used with
IP or ADDSI, with the ability for multiple CSMA circuits to be Ad Hoc enabled at a time.
Only one Ad Hoc enabled needline can be enabled per deployment plan. This means
that if a CSMA needline is Ad Hoc enabled, a TAMA circuit cannot be enabled as well.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−21
NOTES
For assigning LCNs to needlines, the valid LCN range is between 05 and DE
(hexadecimal). Use LCN DF if the CSMA needline is the ENM Broadcast PVC needline.
LCNs E0 through FF are reserved for DAP needlines. LCNs assigned to CSMA
needlines must not be assigned to any other needline.
If using an 8−channel deployment configuration, a good planning rule is to keep
two−channel separation between needlines operating on the same LTS. Use either the
even or the odd frequencies.
When specifying a needline to send position reports to its Host, RF, or HOST&RF
through the needlines Advanced window under Eplrs Pos Setting, the needlines LCN will
be used to transmit positioning reports. If the LCN is unavailable, then the position
reports will be sent to the default LCN defined under the Position Distribution Deployment
Defaults Default LCN setting under the System tab of ENP.
Some waveform modes have better bandwidth but poorer anti−jam resistance. If you
expect intense jamming, select a mode with better anti−jam resistance. Even though the
bandwidth performance will be lower, the overall throughput for the needline may be
better under jamming conditions.
After all parameters are set up in the second wizard, clicking the Done button saves the data and closes the
window. The <<Back button lets you return to the first wizard to make additional changes or review parameters.
The Cancel button closes the wizard without saving the data.
Modifying a CSMA needline requires changing the needline parameters. The Modify button in the Description of
Needline area of the Net Services tab window enables you to modify needline parameters for a needline you have
already added to the tree. The Modify button displays the Modify Needline window. This window has the same
data entry and parameter fields as the Add Needline wizards used to define a needline.
7.2.6.1.1 CSMA Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating a CSMA needline are summarized below:
D Area of coverage: Larger and more varied terrain will require more hops to support relays.
D Bandwidth requirements: Higher bandwidth requires more LTSs, SA/C2 data can use a 1/2 LTS.
D Sub LTS: Used when Circuit Size set to 1/2 or 1/4 LTS. Evenly spread reduces latency and variability and is
the recommended choice. Cannot mix evenly spread and frame based on same LTS.
D Channel: Choose any available channel.
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D CSMA type: If guaranteed delivery is required, High Reliability should be chosen. If all data fits into one TU or
less, Short Message should be chosen. All others or if unsure, choose Normal Reliability.
D EPLRS Pos Setting: If RS is distributing position, select where the position reports will go. Selecting HOST
means it will be sent only to the RSs connected host. Selecting RF means it will be sent to other RSs on the
needline. Selecting HOST&RF means it will be sent to RSs on the needline and its connected host. If
unsure, set this to NONE.
D ADDSI IP Interoperability: If needline will contain both IP and ADDSI connected hosts, this should be set to
Enabled. All else or not sure, set this to Disabled.
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7.2.6.1.2 ENM PVC DF Needline.
The ENM PVC DF needline (also called the Broadcast PVC needline) is a CSMA needline used by network
ENMs to perform the following:
D Configuring RSs
D Distributing black key files
D Sending ENM status messages to other ENMs
To use the PVC DF needline function, you must create a CSMA needline in the deployment plan database and
assign the LCN value as DF (hexadecimal). For the PVC DF to be most effective, all RSs should have the
LTS/channel resource for the needline available. In most cases, it is best to use extended relay coverage (6
hops, 5 relays) with the DF needline to ensure that the network ENMs will be able to reach all RSs in the network.
To activate the PVC DF needline, you must verify that the PVC Broadcast Enable check box is checked in the
ENM Preference window. This action is performed under PVC Broadcast. Refer to TM 11−5825−298−10−1, the
ENM Operator’s manual for more information on doing this.
To receive ENM status messages via the PVC DF needline, you must set up a multicast address for the ENM RS.
Refer to Section 8.2.4.12 for additional information on how to setup a multicast address. Using the IP Interfaces
tab, add the multicast address 225.1.1.1 to the multicast route table for the PVC DF needline interface. This will
enable your ENM to send ENM status messages to all other network ENMs. Note that monitor ENMs will receive
and process ENM status messages but do not transmit status.
7.2.6.2 MSG Needlines.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying an MSG needline. It defines the
parameters used in the process. The MSG needline is a broadcast needline on which up to 16 RSs can
simultaneously send data to all other RSs on the needline. Resource bandwidth is divided into shares for
assignment to RSs. RSs do not contend for needline resources as they do with CSMA needlines.
The MSG needline provides hosts with a few−to−many communication transfer protocol. Messages are
transmitted by a select group of Source RSs (RSs that are allowed to transmit data from their hosts to all RSs on
the needline) and are carried on the MSG needline, either directly or through relays, to other RSs on the needline.
Although there can be many RSs designated as sources on an MSG needline, only 16 source RSs can be
simultaneously active at any one time. Hosts connected to these source RSs on the MSG needline have the
capability to send data, with guaranteed bandwidth without conflict with user data rates from about 600 bps to
242,880 bps depending on timeslot length, number of logical timeslots, and waveform mode.
An MSG needline operates like a group of people with bullhorns, each person talking in turn to many people who
cannot talk back. Some senders are set up to keep their bullhorns (a dedicated resource) whether or not they
use them, while others give up their bullhorns (a floating or shared resource) when they are finished talking so
others can use them. An MSG needline is similar to a CSMA needline, but each active sender has a dedicated,
guaranteed amount of time to talk.
MSG needlines use a pipeline relay architecture that allows higher data transfer rates than most other relay
transmission architectures. For example, needlines like CSMA use a flood relay timeslot architecture which cuts
the data transfer rate in half when the number of hops is doubled; whereas with a pipeline relay timeslot
architecture the data transfer rate is unchanged when the number of hops is doubled. Under the pipeline timeslot
architecture, the source of each share is able to transmit a message in every other timeslot associated with the
share. RSs that relay have one opportunity to receive each message, and then retransmit it in the next timeslot.
RSs that miss the first transmission may have a second opportunity to receive each message from another relay.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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The process of adding an MSG needline begins with the first Add MSG Needline wizard, as shown in Figure
7−20. This wizard is the same as the Add CSMA Needline wizard except that the Needline Type: field has
already been set to MSG.
Figure 7−20. First Add MSG Needline Wizard
The first wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group (select MSG)
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., MSG_1BDE_FDC)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1801 and 2048; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button is not currently active
Next>> button Displays second wizard for MSG needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figure 7−21 shows second wizard
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Figure 7−21. Second Add MSG Needline Wizard
8 HOP 7 RELAY
COVERAGE
2 HOP 1 RELAY
COVERAGE
1/2−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT
1/4−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
NOTE
The channels and channel pairs displayed in the Channel(s): drop−down lists shown in
Figure 7−21 correspond to an 8−channel deployment plan. If the needline is built under a
6−channel or 5−channel plan, or if specific channels are set inactive, the available
channels and channel pairs on the drop−down lists will differ from those shown in the
figure.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−25
The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Relay Coverage: 2 Hops−1 Relay Only one relay (2 hops); no loss of bandwidth; uses a single (default)
frequency; suitable for local Battalion area coverage
8 Hops−7 Relays Covers up to 7 relays (8 hops); full bandwidth but uses 2 channels;
suitable for Brigade/Regimental area coverage
Channel(s): Frequency channel for the needline; if relay coverage is 2 Hops−1 Relay (local), all
channels available (8, 6, or 5 channels, depending on plan configuration); if relay
coverage is 8 Hops−7 Relays (extended), specific channel pairs available:
8−channel plan 6−channel plan 5−channel plan
(0,4) (0,3) (0,3)
(1,5) (1,4) (1,4)
(2,6) (2,5)
(3,7)
NOTE:
Available channels and channel pairs will depend on channel set selected and which
channels are set active for the deployment plan.
Shares: 16 16−share circuit
8 8−share circuit
7 7−share circuit
6 6−share circuit
4 4−share circuit (best speed of service using one LTS)
2 2−share circuit
1 1−share circuit
NOTE
Available shares will depend on number of LTSs selected. For 1/2
and 1/4 LTS, share allocation will be 4, 8, 16.
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW0 10 bytes/TU; use Mode 1 instead
Mode EW1 10 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance; better than Mode 0
Mode EW2 20 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 1
Mode EW3 30 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 2
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 3
Mode EW14 122 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4
Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW5 34 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance for 4−msec expanded
data
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 5
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Default Endpoint
LCN (Hex):
Logical channel number assigned to needline; 2−digit hexadecimal value;
range 05 through DE; DF reserved for ENM Broadcast PVC needline (CSMA)
LTS Settings: Bandwidth capacity for needline; select 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, or 8 LTSs; if you select LTS 2 for the
needline, the RS will be off the coordination net and cannot support pos calculation, and
negatively affect HDR duplex, or LDR relay requests and setup
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Circuit Size: 1 LTS Both halves (all) of the LTS; can be selected if needline is
assigned to one or more LTSs; if needline is assigned to
multiple LTSs, then this assignment is the only option available
1/2 LTS Selects half of LTS with half bandwidth of full LTS
1/4 LTS Selects one quarter of LTS with one quarter the bandwidth of
full LTS
Sub LTS: The Sub LTS field is available when the circuit size is set to 1/4 or 1/2 LTS; the first,
second, third or fourth quarter can be selected, for 1/2 LTS, the first or second half of the
LTS is selected. In addition, the planner can choose to use evenly or frame spread
transmissions. Choosing evenly spread transmissions reduces latency; not available with
1 LTS circuit size
NOTE
An RS cannot have both evenly spread and non−evenly spread
(frame based) active on the same LTS.
MSG needlines can be assigned 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 or all 8 LTSs. An MSG needline can be designated to
support one or seven relays. Choosing more relays increases the maximum range of the MSG needline because
it allows the needline to reach units further out in the network.
The LTS (time) resource on the MSG needline is divided into portions of 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 or 16 parts. These parts
are called shares. Some or all of the shares can be permanently assigned to specific RSs. Some shares (called
floating shares) are made available to RSs on an as−needed basis. Each RS that is assigned (allowed) to claim
one or more floating shares is said to be a source on the MSG. Having various share options on the needline
allows you to give key RSs dedicated shares, while making some shares available for other RSs to use on an
as−needed basis. The maximum rate at which a source may send data on a particular MSG needline is directly
proportional to the number of shares it is assigned or can claim. Table 7−5 defines the types of endpoint RS
designations used on MSG needlines.
Table 7−5. MSG Needline Endpoint Definitions
RS Endpoint Type Definition
Source RS that is assigned one or more shares. The RS may transmit
data from their hosts on one or more shares and may also
automatically relay. RS that has no assigned shares but can
claim shares, if there are shares available, from the floating pool
of shares is also a source.
Destination An RS that can receive and automatically relay only.
Once the planner decides on the total number of shares the MSG will have available (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, or 16), the
planner chooses the RSs that will source data on the MSG and allocates shares to the source RSs and to the
free pool. Up to 120 units are eligible to source on an MSG needline. All others must be destination RSs.
MSG needlines do not lose bandwidth with extended relay (8 Hop−7 Relay) coverage because they use a pipeline
relay mechanism. However, MSG needs an additional channel to do this.
MSG needlines are a good choice for sensors such as radars because there are usually a limited number of
sensors, and they require guaranteed bandwidth for disseminating data to many others with a guaranteed
maximum latency.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Clicking the Advanced button displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−22.
Figure 7−22. MSG Advanced Window
NOTE:
IF IMMEDIATE SHARE CLAIM
FIELD IS SET TO YES, THIS
DROP−DOWN LIST WILL NOT
BE AVAILABLE.
Table 7−6. MSG Needline Advanced Features
Parameter Definition
MSG Type: Normal (default) Needline does not use any special error checking for data
High Reliability Needline uses redundant transmissions to verify that
transmitted data is correct with a cost of 33% bandwidth
lost; uses extended relay option (8 hops−7 relays)
Immediate Share
Claim:
Yes RSs are allowed to get and keep the specific number of shares
assigned to them and do not get extra shares, even if available;
after setting this parameter, it cannot be modified later
No (default) RSs may negotiate for extra shares based on status of
Authorized to claim last shr field; after setting this parameter, it
cannot be modified later
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Table 7−6. MSG Needline Advanced Features (Continued)
Parameter Definition
Authorized to
claim last shr:
This option lets you designate which RSs can claim the last share among RSs if
Immediate Share Claim is set to No. Typically, the default No Radios option is the
best option because it allocates last shares to any RSs that have unclaimed
assigned shares.
No Radios (default) Only RSs that have assigned shares, but
currently have no shares assigned to them
may negotiate for last share
Radios with no assigned shares RSs with no assigned shares may negotiate
for last share
Radios with assigned shares RSs with assigned shares may negotiate
for last share
All radios All RSs may negotiate for last share
EPLRS Pos
Setting:
The EPLRS Pos Setting determines where the EPLRS generated position reports,
if any, will be sent. If HOST is selected, the needline will send position reports to
its connected host. If RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to the
other RSs on the network. If HOST&RF is selected, the needline will send position
reports to both its connected host and the RSs on the network. If NONE is
selected, no position reports will be sent.
HOST Pos distribution to host only (direct connection)
RF Pos distribution to network only (OTA)
HOST&RF Pos distribution to host and network
NONE Default setting; EPLRS−generated pos data not distributed
ADDSI IP
Interoperability:
Allows ADDSI and IP connected hosts to share the same needline.
Enabled Ensures interoperability between ADDSI and IP host using the
same circuit.
Disabled ADDSI and IP hosts will not be able to share the same needline
(default)
NOTE
Setting the ADDSI IP Interoperability Mode is optional if
one type of host is being used, but to avoid having all RSs
(receiving a message) send data to the IP stack, ADDSI IP
Interoperability Mode should be set to DISABLED.
NOTE
The EPLRS Pos Setting in the MSG Advanced needline window is only used for the
ADDSI protocol and not for the IP protocol.
If you set Immediate Share Claim to Yes, you are permanently assigning a specific number of shares to individual
RSs on the MSG needline. The Yes setting is used if sourcing RSs need to transmit immediately upon demand
at their full bandwidth. The RSs that are assigned shares never give them up, so you do not need to set up any
claim release options. RSs given shares this way (Immediate Share Claim) keep these shares whether they use
them or not.
If the Immediate Share Claim setting is set to No (the default setting), the RSs negotiate with each other for the
use of shares. This negotiation takes about 10 to 60 seconds, depending on how many LTSs are assigned (more
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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LTSs will take less time to negotiate). Immediate Share Claim lets you tailor the share claim/release options for
each RS on the MSG needline. You can specify how unused shares (whether they are assigned or not) are given
to sources that need to use more shares. This option gives you the flexibility to allow some source RSs to always
keep their shares while allowing other source RSs to get shares on an as−needed basis. If the Immediate Share
Claim setting is set to No, then the Authorized to Claim Last Share field becomes available, and you can select
one of the four share claim/release options shown in Table 7−6.
If the Authorized to claim last shr setting is set to No Radios (the default setting), only RSs that have no shares
claimed currently, but do have shares assigned can claim that last share. This ensures that at least 1 share will
be available for RSs that currently have no shares claimed, but do have shares assigned to them. If the setting is
set to Radios with no assigned shares, only RSs that have no assigned shares can claim the last share. If the
setting is set to Radios with assigned shares, only RSs that have shares assigned to them can claim the last
share. This is useful because if there are shares available, RSs that already have shares can claim these shares
to increase their bandwidth. If the setting is set to All Radios, any RS with or without shares can negotiate for the
last share.
When you set up the endpoint RSs for the MSG needline in ENP, there are additional advanced features that
allow you to control the share claim and share release by eligible RSs. These features are defined in Table 7−7.
Table 7−7. MSG Needline Advanced Endpoint RS Features
Parameter Option Definition
Share Release: Hold last share
Release all shares
(default)
Hold all shares
RS can release all unused shares except one. RS can let go of all
its unused shares, except one, to be used by other RSs. Unused
shares are temporarily put in a floating pool.
RS can release all unused shares until needed by owning RS. All
unused shares go into floating pool until the owning RS needs
them.
RS always keeps all its shares. These shares never go into
floating pool even if the RS doesn’t use them.
Share Release
Speed:
Fast
(default)
Medium
Slow
Unused shares released quickly into floating pool. If RS has
known periods of inactivity between transmissions, there is no
reason to wait to give up unused shares.
Unused shares released after a short time into floating pool. This
option helps prevent RS from giving up unused shares and then
having to get them back right away.
Unused shares released after a long time into floating pool. This
option slowly gives up unused shares to floating pool for an RS
that normally wants to keep its shares but has some periods of
inactivity where its unused shares can be used by other RSs.
Share Claim
Speed:
Fast
(default)
Medium
Slow
Unused shares reclaimed quickly. Shares previously placed in
floating pool are quickly reclaimed when RS needs them back.
Unused shares reclaimed after a short time. Shares previously
placed in floating pool are reclaimed at moderate rate when RS
needs them back.
Unused shares reclaimed after a long time. Shares previously
placed in floating pool are reclaimed at a slow rate when RS
needs them back.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Table 7−7. MSG Needline Advanced Endpoint RS Features (Continued)
Parameter Option Definition
Relay Control: Always
(default)
Never
RS always relays.
RS never relays.
Send Latest
Message:
Yes
No
(default)
RS will discard a queued message and send a more current
message instead. Useful if data is repetitive (e.g., radar track
data).
RS will always keep a queued message even if a more current
message arrives; field should be set this way (No) if data is
non−repetitive (e.g., C2 messages).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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The Potential Source Endpoint window is displayed when you click the Next>> button. Figure 7−23 shows the
Potential Source Endpoint window.
Figure 7−23. MSG Potential Source Endpoint Window
16 SHARES 4 SHARES 8 SHARES 2 SHARES
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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The Potential Source Endpoint window uses the following fields and controls:
Choose Endpoint
Radio area
Expandable tree diagram showing UTOs with assigned RSs and ENMs; used to select
endpoint RSs for MSG needline; RS must be selected in tree before it can be
designated an endpoint using Add Another Endpoint button
Shares to Claim: Numeric value from 0 to maximum share count selected; assigned to RS currently
selected in Choose Endpoint Radio tree diagram
Advanced button Displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−24.
Figure 7−24. MSG Endpoint Advanced Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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The MSG Endpoint Advanced features include:
Share Release: Hold last share
Release all shares
(default)
Hold all shares
RS can release all unused shares except one. RS can let
all of its unused shares, except one, be used by other
RSs. Unused shares are temporarily put in a floating pool.
RS can release all unused shares until needed by owning
RS. All unused shares go into floating pool until the
owning RS needs them.
RS always keeps all its shares. These shares never go
into floating pool even if the RS doesn’t use them.
Share Release Speed: Fast
(default)
Medium
Slow
Unused shares released quickly into floating pool. If RS
has known periods of inactivity between transmissions,
there is no reason to wait to give up unused shares.
Unused shares released after a short time into floating
pool. This option helps prevent RS from giving up unused
shares and then having to get them back right away.
Unused shares released after a long time into floating
pool. This option slowly gives up unused shares to
floating pool for an RS that normally wants to keep its
shares but has some periods of inactivity where its unused
shares can be used by other RSs.
Share Claim Speed: Fast
(default)
Medium
Slow
Unused shares reclaimed quickly. Shares previously
placed in floating pool are quickly reclaimed when RS
needs them back.
Unused shares reclaimed after a short time. Shares
previously placed in floating pool are reclaimed at
moderate rate when RS needs them back.
Unused shares reclaimed after a long time. Shares
previously placed in floating pool are reclaimed at a slow
rate when RS needs them back.
Relay Control: Always
(default)
Never
RS always relays
RS never relays
Send Latest Message: Yes
No
(default)
RS will discard a queued message and send a more
current message instead. Useful if data is repetitive (e.g.,
radar track data).
RS will always keep a queued message even if a more
current message arrives; field should be set this way (No)
if data is non−repetitive (e.g., C2 messages).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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NOTES
RSs initially assigned zero shares are eligible to claim a share based on share availability
and requirement to transmit data. RSs not specifically assigned any share value are
destination RSs. These RSs cannot be sources but can relay data. A maximum of 120
RSs are eligible to be sources on a single MSG needline.
The settings that are able to be set in the MSG Endpoint Advanced Window are
determined by what is set initially in the MSG Advanced window. If Immediate Share
Claim is set to No, you will only be able to see Relay Coverage and Send Latest
Message.
You must click to select the RS in the tree in the Choose Endpoint Radio area before the RS can be designated a
source endpoint. If no RS is selected, clicking the Add Another Endpoint button causes ENP to display the
error message window shown in Figure 7−25.
Figure 7−25. Error Message Window if No Endpoint Selected
If you accidentally attempt to add the same source endpoint twice, clicking the Add Another Endpoint button
causes ENP to display the error message window shown in Figure 7−26.
Figure 7−26. Error Message Window if Endpoint Already Assigned
If the Immediate Share Claim: field in the MSG Advanced window is set to Yes, you cannot assign more than the
total number of shares available. If you attempt to assign more than the total allowed number of shares, ENP
displays the error message window shown in Figure 7−27 when you click the Add Another Endpoint button.
Figure 7−27. Error Message Window if Allowed Number of Shares is Exceeded
With an RS properly selected as an endpoint, clicking the Add Another Endpoint button assigns the RS as an
endpoint on the needline. After all parameters are set up in the third wizard, clicking the Done button saves the
data and closes the window. The Cancel button closes the wizard without saving the data.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Modifying an MSG needline requires changing the needline parameters or the endpoint data. Figure 7−28 shows
the Modify button in the Description of Needline area of the Net Services tab window. The Modify button
enables you to modify needline parameters for a needline you have already added to the tree. The Modify
button displays the Modify Needline window. This window has the same data entry and parameter fields as the
Add Needline wizards used to define a needline.
Figure 7−28. Description of MSG Needline Parameters and Modify Button
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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To modify MSG source endpoints, you must click the View/Modify Endpoints button in the Description of
Needline area of the Net Services tab window. This action displays the View/Modify Endpoints window, as shown
in Figure 7−29.
Figure 7−29. View/Modify Endpoints Window for MSG Needlines
Right−clicking on the RS requiring modification displays the sub−menu shown in Figure 7−30. The sub−menu
has selections to modify, add, and delete endpoints.
Figure 7−30. MSG Sub−Menu in View/Modify Endpoints Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Clicking the Modify... selection displays the Modifying Endpoint window, as shown in Figure 7−31. This window
provides the fields to modify share allocation. These fields are the same as those described for the Potential
Source Endpoint window (Figure 7−23). Clicking the Advanced button displays the window to set advanced
features (Figure 7−24). Clicking the OK button saves the changed parameters. Clicking the Cancel button
closes the window without saving the changes.
Figure 7−31. MSG Modifying Endpoint Window
Clicking the Add Another Endpoint... selection displays the Adding MSG Endpoint window, as shown in Figure
7−32. This window has the same tree diagram and data fields that the Potential Source Endpoint window has.
These enable you to add another source endpoint to the MSG needline. Clicking the Advanced button displays
the window to set advanced features (Figure 7−24). Clicking the Add Endpoint button adds the source endpoint
to the needline to the table in the View/Modify Endpoints window and closes the Adding MSG Endpoint window.
Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without adding the source endpoint.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Figure 7−32. Adding MSG Endpoint Window
Clicking the Delete Selected Endpoint... selection displays the Deleting Endpoint window, as shown in Figure
7−33. Clicking the Yes button deletes the source endpoint and closes the window. Clicking the No button closes
the window without deleting the source endpoint.
Figure 7−33. Deleting Endpoint Window
When you have completed endpoint modifications, additions, or deletions, the revised source endpoint data is
displayed in the tabular area of the View/Modify Endpoints window.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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7.2.6.2.1 MSG Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating an MSG needline are summarized below:
D Area of coverage: Larger and more varied terrain will require more hops to support relays. No loss of
bandwidth for using additional relays, but the needline will need to use an additional channel.
D Bandwidth requirements: Higher bandwidth requires more LTSs, SA/C2 data can use a 1/2 LTS.
D Sub LTS: Used when Circuit Size set to 1/2 or 1/4 LTS. Evenly spread reduces latency and variability .
Cannot mix evenly spread and frame based on same LTS. Recommend that you use evenly spread
whenever possible.
D Channel: Choose any available channel(s).
D Shares: If you have 16 or more transmitters, choose 16 shares. All others, choose the highest amount of
shares that is closest to the number of transmitters (i.e., if you have 7 transmitters, choose 8 shares).
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D MSG type: If guaranteed delivery is required, High Reliability should be chosen. All others or if unsure,
choose Normal Reliability.
D Immediate Share Claim: If you have more transmitters than shares, set this to No. If you want the radios you
assign shares to immediately take possession of their shares, set this to Yes. All others, or if you are not
sure, set this setting to No. Once this setting is set, it cannot be changed later.
D Authorized to claim last shr: If Immediate Share Claim is set to No, this setting allows you to specify which
radios can claim any last shares that have not yet been claimed.
D EPLRS Pos Setting: If RS is distributing position, select where the position reports will go. Selecting HOST
means it will be sent only to the RSs connected host. Selecting RF means it will be sent to other RSs on the
needline. Selecting HOST&RF means it will be sent to RSs on the needline and its connected host. If
unsure, set this to NONE.
D ADDSI IP Interoperability: If needline will contain both IP and ADDSI connected hosts, this should be set to
Enabled. All else or not sure, set this to Disabled.
D Choose Endpoint Radio: This is where you specify which RSs will be transmitters. Transmitters are known as
source or endpoint radios. You can assign an endpoint any number of shares from 0 to all 16 shares. Radios
initially assigned to be an endpoint, but not assigned any shares will still be able to transmit, but will need to
negotiate for shares before it can. Default radios cannot be endpoints.
7.2.6.3 Duplex Needlines.
Duplex needlines are point−to−point with each end unit RS (defined as an endpoint) sharing an equal number of
transmit opportunities. A duplex needline operates like one person talking to another person on a telephone.
These needlines provide the highest degree of reliability of all the EPLRS communications services because all
the messages are acknowledged by the RSs. If a message is lost, it will be resent automatically. This makes
duplex needlines a good choice for point−to−point tactical applications that need guaranteed message delivery.
Duplex needlines use automatic relay pathfinding to build the communication path between the two endpoint RSs.
As RSs move, new relay paths are automatically re−negotiated throughout the RS deployment as required.
Duplex needlines can be either low data rate (LDR) or high data rate (HDR). Along with the automatic relay
pathfinding feature, HDR duplex static relays can be pre−planned. This allows you to set up and assign specific
key relays where needed, usually for large needlines where it might be hard to find RSs with available resources.
If your deployment plan includes duplex needlines, you should not overlay LTS 2 with any other needline service.
Remember, LTS 2 is used to coordinate the path to set up duplex needlines.
7.2.6.3.1 Duplex DAP and PVC Needlines.
Hosts requiring high reliability can use duplex services in two ways. For long−term communications, the services
can be pre−planned as Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and be available for use throughout the deployment
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period. For short−term communications RSs set up Dynamically Allocated PVCs (DAPs) to perform
communications for a short time and then terminate the needline when communications are completed. DAPs
are temporary EPLRS duplex needlines, unless data is continuously sent (e.g., keep−alive messages). DAP
needlines have the same capabilities as PVC duplex needlines, but DAPs are automatically set up and
dismantled in response to host demand.
PVC needlines serve permanent or semi−permanent needs, whereas DAP needlines serve short−term or
unplanned needs. Unused DAP needlines are deleted if the host stops sending data for an extended period of
time (about a minute).
7.2.6.3.2 System Wide settings for LDR and HDR needlines.
LDR LTS, channel, and waveform mode parameters are set up under the System tab in ENP. The HDR and LDR
Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) window lets you set up these parameters for HDR duplex DAP, LDR duplex DAP, and
LDR duplex PVC needlines as shown in Figure 7−34.
Figure 7−34. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window
LTS 3, 5, 7
LTS 5, 7
LTS 7
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT
General recommendations are to select all LTSs and channel pairs for both HDR and LDR. The operational
impact is minimal because DAPs will only be built wherever resources are available. In other words, if a DAP and
PVC needline are assigned the same resource, the PVC needline takes precedence and the DAP will find an LTS
and channel pair that is available. IP DAP Waveform/Circuit Size specific recommendations are to select either a
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1/4 LTS or 1/2 LTS with the highest waveform mode supported by RS hardware. This is because duplex type
needlines take less transmissions to get the data across.
The upper section of the window is used to set parameters for IP DAP needlines. IP DAP needlines are
automatically built as needed by the individual RSs. The window lets you set up the IP DAP waveform mode and
select the LTS circuit size. The window automatically displays the best−case bandwidth (data rate) for the
waveform mode and circuit size currently selected. You can evaluate the impact of a change in waveform mode
or circuit size by making the change via the drop−down lists and then observing the new displayed data rate.
The middle section of the window enables you to set up resources for HDR DAP needlines. Selected LTS and
channel resources are made available for the RSs to build HDR DAP needlines. Selected resource cells will
appear blue in the LTS/channel needline matrix (under the Net Services tab in ENP). The check boxes in the
matrix are used to set LTSs and channels for HDR DAP needlines. If you make no selections in the HDR section,
then all DAP needlines built by the RSs can only be LDR.
The lower section of the window is used to set LDR LTSs, DAP and PVC reservations, and the comm channels
for LDR needlines. Selected LTS and channel resources are made available for the RSs to use for building LDR
DAP needlines. In Figure 7−35, selected resource cells will appear yellow in the LTS/channel needline matrix
(under the Net Services tab in ENP). Resource cells selected for both HDR DAP and LDR DAP needlines will
appear green in the LTS/channel needline matrix. The channel matrix provides check boxes to enable you to
select the channels for LDR DAP and PVC needlines.
Figure 7−35. HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s) Window
The window enables you to set up the LDR LTS allocation and the PVC reservation. The LDR LTS allocation
applies to both DAP and PVC needlines. It lets you assign either one, two, or three LTSs to LDR needlines. The
PVC reservation is set to ensure that a specific part of the resources are set aside for DAP versus PVC
needlines. If the PVC Resv: field is set to Use Any, then nothing is reserved for DAPs. In that case, LDR duplex
(PVC) and LDR DAP needlines negotiate for the same resources.
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7.2.6.3.3 Duplex Needline Characteristics.
Duplex needlines provides a host with an acknowledged communication transfer protocol that ensures that host
packets are received by the other host. These needlines provide RS−acknowledged high−reliability balanced
data transfer between two hosts. Duplex needlines can be activated by ADDSI or IP hosts.
Duplex needlines are automatically built by the RSs via the coordination net, and new relay paths are
re−negotiated throughout the deployment period as required.
7.2.6.4 HDR Duplex Needlines.
HDR duplex needlines provide hosts with an RS−acknowledged communications transfer protocol that ensures
that host data is received. HDR duplex needlines provide RS−acknowledged balanced data transfer between two
hosts with data rates for each host from 600 BPS to 121,440 BPS. This type of needline is similar to LDR duplex
needlines, except that the user data rate can be much higher.
The main differences between HDR duplex PVCs and HDR duplex DAPs are HDR PVCs use specific
pre−planned time and frequency resources, whereas HDR DAPs use negotiated time and frequency resources
chosen from a pre−planned set of LTS and channel resources. HDR DAPs are limited to one LTS and can reach
up to 5 hops (4 relays).
HDR DAP needlines do not lose bandwidth with extended relay coverage because they use a pipeline relay
mechanism. HDR DAP needs an additional channel to do this.
HDR duplex PVC needlines can be set from 1/4 LTS up to 4 LTSs. They can reach up to 5 hops (4 relays) with
automatic pathfinding and 6 hops (5 relays) if all relays are pre−planned.
HDR duplex PVC needlines can be pre−planned to include specific RSs assigned to act as relays for the
needline. These pre−planned relay assignments may be used at any time, but should be used (a) when there are
limited relay RSs available; or (b) when using large (e.g., 4 LTS) needlines and there is a small chance that
sufficient relays will be available.
ENP displays the various HDR duplex needline data rates as you define the needline. You can use ENP to try
various resource allocation options and choose the best settings based on the user data rate requirements. The
data rate numbers displayed by ENP do not include automatic retransmissions (more retransmissions are
required when the RS links are poor) and thus are slightly higher than actual rates.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying an HDR duplex needline. It defines the
parameters used in the process. HDR duplex needlines provide communication between two endpoints. RSs
acknowledge each transmission unit (TU) received. Relays are dynamically established for PVC and DAP
needlines. Static relays can be assigned for PVC needlines and are required to support needlines where up to
six hops are needed.
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The process of adding an HDR duplex needline begins with the first Add HDR Duplex Needline wizard, as shown
in Figure 7−36.
Figure 7−36. Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
The first wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex (select HDR Duplex)
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., HDR_2BDE_TOC)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1801 and 2048; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button is not currently active
Next>> button Displays second wizard for HDR Duplex needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figure 7−37 shows second wizard
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Figure 7−37. Second Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
6 HOP 5 RELAY
COVERAGE
2 HOP 1 RELAY
COVERAGE
1/2−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
1/4−LTS
CIRCUIT SIZE
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT
0
NOTE
The channels and channel−pairs displayed in the Channel(s): drop−down lists shown in
Figure 7−37 correspond to an 8−channel deployment plan. If the needline is built under a
6−channel or 5−channel plan, or if specific channels are set inactive, the available
channels and channel−pairs on the drop−down lists will differ from those shown in the
figure.
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The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Relay Coverage: 2 Hops−1 Relay Only one relay (2 hops); needline uses a single channel;
suitable for local area coverage; works with all circuit
sizes; single/multiple LTSs
Up to 6 Hops−5 Relays Covers up to 5 relays (6 hops); static relays must be
planned; suitable for longer distances or difficult
terrain; needline uses 2 channels; no bandwidth
decrease; limited to 1/4, 1/2, or 1 LTS; multiple−LTS
configurations can be supported, but will be less than
6 hops − 5 relays; restrictions per notes below:
NOTES:
HDR Duplex needlines automatically negotiate relays over the coordination net, but there
are limits to consider. If the needline is using one LTS or less, it will automatically
negotiate 5 hops 4 relays. If the needline is using more than one LTS, it will automatically
negotiate 4 hops 3 relays (even with pre−planned relays).

If you require more relays than the number that is automatically assigned, then you must
configure static relays when the needline is built in ENP. To do this, you will need to select
at least 5 RSs and designate them as static relays between the source and destination
RSs in the needline. It is optimal to select more than the required 5 to provide backup in
case RSs move or become inoperable.
Channel(s): Frequency channel for the needline; if relay coverage is 2 Hops−1 Relay (local), all
channels available (8, 6, or 5 channels, depending on plan configuration); if relay
coverage is 6 Hops−5 Relays (extended), specific channel pairs available:
8−channel plan 6−channel plan 5−channel plan
(0,4) (0,3) (0,3)
(1,5) (1,4) (1,4)
(2,6) (2,5)
(3,7)
NOTE:
Available channels and channel pairs will depend on channel set selected and which
channels are set active for the deployment plan.
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW0 10 bytes/TU; use Mode 1 instead
Mode EW1 10 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance; better than Mode 0
Mode EW2 20 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 1
Mode EW3 30 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 2
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 3
Mode EW14 122 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4
Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW5 34 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance for 4−msec expanded
data
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 5
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Mode EW17 402 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 9
Mode EW18 528 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 17
LTS(s): Choose from 1 LTS to 4 LTSs.
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Circuit Size: 1 LTS Both halves (all) of the LTS; can be selected if needline is
assigned to one or more LTSs; if needline is assigned to
multiple LTSs, then this assignment is the only option available
1/2 LTS Selects half of LTS with half bandwidth of full LTS; first or
second half selected based on setting of Sub LTS: field
1/4 LTS Selects one quarter of LTS with one quarter the bandwidth of
full LTS; first, second, third or fourth selected based on setting of Sub
LTS: field
Sub LTS: Corresponds to Circuit Size: field when set to 1/4 or 1/2 LTS; for 1/4 LTS, selects first,
second, third, or fourth quarter of LTS for needline; for 1/2 LTS, selects first half or second
half of LTS for needline; not available with 1 LTS circuit size
Advanced button Displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−38.
Figure 7−38. HDR Advanced Window
The advanced features include:
EPLRS Pos
Setting:
The EPLRS Pos Setting determines where the EPLRS generated position reports, if any,
will be sent. If HOST is selected, the needline will send position reports to its connected
host. If RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to the other RSs on the
network. If HOST&RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to both its
connected host and the RSs on the network. If NONE is selected, no position reports will
be sent.
HOST Pos distribution to host only (direct connection)
RF Pos distribution to network only (OTA)
HOST&RF Pos distribution to host and network
NONE EPLRS−generated pos data not distributed; note that you can
still get the RS’s generated position by using URO P message
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The third Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard is displayed when you click the Next>> button.
Figure 7−39 shows the third Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard. The Source Unit and Destination Unit headers
appear after you select an RS in each window.
Figure 7−39. Third Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
This wizard has two tree diagrams; one is for the source RS, and the other is for the destination RS. You must
click to select both a source and a destination RS and also enter the LCN value for the source and the
destination. The LCN is a two−digit hexadecimal value ranging from 05 through DE (hex). (The value DF is
reserved for the ENM Broadcast PVC needline.) The LCN is the reference number that the host uses when
activating the needline.
It is permissable to use the same LCN for the source, destination, and static relay RSs, but it is also permissable
to use different LCNs. For example, you can assign LCN 6 to the source RS, LCN 7 to the static relay RS, and
LCN 8 to the destination RS. Using different LCNs can sometimes help in needline troubleshooting because the
different LCNs help you determine which RS has a fault if a needline fails to activate. In most cases, however,
use the same LCN for the source, static relay, and destination RSs.
It is also permissable to reuse LCNs with duplex needlines. For example, you can build an HDR Duplex needline
between RS0001 and RS0004 and assign LCN 6 to it. Then you can build another HDR duplex needline between
RS0002 and RS0003 and assign LCN 6 to that needline. The only restriction is that no RS can use the same
LCN for more than one needline.
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Clicking the <<Back button returns you to the second wizard. Clicking the Cancel button closes the wizard and
ends the process without adding the needline. You click the Next>> button after you have set up the source and
destination RSs for the needline and are ready to continue the process. If you click the Next>> button without
selecting both source and destination endpoints, ENP will display one of the error messages shown in Figure
7−40.
Figure 7−40. Endpoint Selection Error Message Windows
The fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard is displayed when you click the Next>> button.
Figure 7−41 shows the fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard. The Relay Unit header appears after you select
an RS. This wizard lets you add one or more static relays to the needline. You must click to select a relay RS
and also enter an LCN value for the relay. Use the same LCN as you did for the source and destination to
simplify the planning process. The LCN is a two−digit hexadecimal value ranging from 05 through DE (hex). The
value DF is used for the ENM Broadcast PVC needline. Clicking the <<Back button returns you to the third
wizard. Clicking the Cancel button closes the wizard and ends the process without adding the needline. You
click the Done button after you have set up the relay RSs for the needline and are finished with the process.
Figure 7−41. Fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
Modifying an HDR duplex needline requires changing the needline parameters or the endpoint data. The Modify
button in the Description of Needline area of the Net Services tab window enables you to modify needline
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parameters for a needline you have already added to the tree. The Modify button displays the Modify Needline
window. This window has the same data entry and parameter fields as the Add Needline wizards used to define
a needline.
To modify HDR duplex endpoints, you must click the View/Modify Endpoints button in the Description of
Needline area of the Net Services tab window. (Refer to Figure 7−14 in Section 7.2.5 for an illustration of the
View/Modify Endpoints button.) This action displays the View/Modify Endpoints window, as shown in Figure
7−42.
Figure 7−42. HDR View/Modify Endpoints Window
Right−clicking on the RS requiring modification displays the sub−menu shown in Figure 7−43. The sub−menu
has selections to modify, add, and delete endpoints.
Figure 7−43. Sub−Menu for HDR View/Modify Endpoints Window
Clicking the Modify... selection displays the Modifying Endpoint window, as shown in Figure 7−44. This window
provides the field to modify the LCN. The LCN field is the same as that described in the third Add HDR Duplex
Needline Wizard (Figure 7−39). Clicking the OK button saves the changed parameter. Clicking the Cancel
button closes the window without saving the change.
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Figure 7−44. HDR Modifying Endpoint Window
Clicking the Add Another Endpoint... selection displays the Add Another HDR Duplex Relay window, as shown in
Figure 7−45. This window has the same tree diagram and data fields that the fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline
Wizard has. This enables you to add another static relay to the HDR duplex needline. Clicking the Add Relay
button adds the relay to the needline to the table in the View/Modify Endpoints window and closes the Add
Another HDR Duplex Relay window. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without adding the relay
endpoint.
Figure 7−45. Add Another HDR Duplex Relay Window
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Clicking the Delete Selected Endpoint... selection displays the Deleting Endpoint window, as shown in Figure
7−46. This enables you to delete static relays from the selected HDR duplex needline. Note that you cannot
delete the source or destination endpoints from the needline table. (If you want to change the source or
destination RS, you must delete the needline and rebuild a new one.) Clicking the Yes button deletes the
selected relay endpoint and closes the window. Clicking the No button closes the window without deleting the
relay endpoint.

Figure 7−46. Deleting Endpoint Window
When you have completed endpoint modifications, additions, or deletions, the revised endpoint data is displayed
in the tabular area of the View/Modify Endpoints window. Click Close to close the window.
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7.2.6.4.1 HDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating an HDR PVC needline are summarized below:
D Area of coverage: larger and more varied terrain will require up to 6 hops to support relays.
D Bandwidth requirements: higher bandwidth requires more LTSs, SA/C2 data can use a 1/2 LTS.
D Sub LTS: used when Circuit Size set to 1/2 or 1/4 LTS.
D Can choose any available channel(s).
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D EPLRS Pos Setting: If RS is distributing position, select where the position reports will go. Selecting HOST
means it will be sent only to the RSs connected host. Selecting RF means it will be sent to other RSs on the
needline. Selecting HOST&RF means it will be sent to RSs on the needline and its connected host. If
unsure, set this to NONE.
7.2.6.5 LDR Duplex Needlines.
Allocating resources to support LDR duplex needlines is a two−step process. First, you allocate the channel and
LTS resources under the System tab in ENP and clicking on the Modify Duplex LTS(s)/Channel(s)... button.
Then you can define the individual LDR duplex needlines using the needline menus under the Net Services tab in
ENP. The RS makes the specific LTS and channel assignment when it builds the LDR duplex needline. The RS
uses resources from the LTS and channel resources you previously assigned for LDR needlines. Resources
within the chosen LTSs are automatically allocated between RSs on an as−needed and as−available basis. For
all other PVC needlines, you select the LTS and channel resources for each needline when defining the needline
via the needline menus of ENP. You have three available LTS allocation options for LDR Duplex needlines. The
three LDR LTS allocation options are as follows:
D LTSs 3, 5 and 7 (3 LTSs)
D LTSs 5 and 7 (2 LTSs)
D LTS 7 (1 LTS)
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying an LDR duplex needline.
It defines the parameters used in the process. LDR duplex needlines provide communication between two
endpoints. RSs acknowledge each TU received.
The process of adding an LDR duplex needline begins with the first Add LDR Duplex Needline wizard, as shown
in Figure 7−47.
Figure 7−47. Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard
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The first wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex (select LDR Duplex)
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., LDR_DIV_S4)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1 and 1792; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
Section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button displays the PDF file for on−line Planner’s Manual
Next>> button Displays second wizard for LDR Duplex needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figures 7−48 and 7−49 show second wizard for 2−msec and
4−msec timeslots
NOTE
LDR duplex needline numbers must be between 1 and 1792; normally, needline numbers
1801 through 2000 are reserved for HDR duplex needlines.
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Figure 7−48. Second Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard: 2−Msec Timeslot
MODE 0
MODE 4
MODE 2
MODE 1
MODE 3
MODE 14
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Figure 7−49. Second Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard: 4−Msec Timeslot
MODE 5
MODE 6
MODE 7
MODE 8 MODE 9
The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW0 10 bytes/TU; use Mode 1 instead
Mode EW1 10 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance; better than Mode 0
Mode EW2 20 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 1
Mode EW3 30 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 2
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 3
Mode EW14 112 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4
Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW5 34 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance for 4−msec expanded
data
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 5
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Rate: Rates range from 20 bps to 16192 bps based on timeslot length and waveform mode
selected; refer to drop−down lists showing rates for each mode in Figures 7−48 and 7−49;
highest circuit rate requires using 2 LTSs from LTSs 3, 5, and 7.
Advanced button Displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−50.
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Figure 7−50. LDR Advanced Window
The advanced features include:
EPLRS Pos
Setting:
The EPLRS Pos Setting determines where the EPLRS generated position reports, if any,
will be sent. If HOST is selected, the needline will send position reports to its connected
host. If RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to the other RSs on the
network. If HOST&RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to both its
connected host and the RSs on the network. If NONE is selected, no position reports will
be sent.
HOST Pos distribution to host only (direct connection)
RF Pos distribution to network only (OTA)
HOST&RF Pos distribution to host and network
NONE EPLRS−generated pos data not distributed; note that you can
still get the RS’s generated position by using URO P message
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The third Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard is displayed when you click the Next>> button.
Figure 7−51 shows the third Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard.
Figure 7−51. Third Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard
This wizard has two tree diagrams; one is for the source RS, and the other is for the destination RS. You must
click to select both a source and a destination RS and also enter the LCN value for the source and the
destination. Use the same LCN for both the source and destination to simplify the planning process. The LCN is
a two−digit hexadecimal value ranging from 05 through DE (hex). The value DF is used for the ENM Broadcast
PVC needline. Clicking the <<Back button returns you to the second wizard. Clicking the Cancel button closes
the wizard and ends the process without adding the needline. You click the Next>> button after you have set up
the source and destination RSs for the needline and are ready to continue the process.
Modifying an LDR duplex needline requires changing the needline parameters or the source endpoint data. The
Modify button in the Description of Needline area of the Net Services tab window enables you to modify needline
parameters for a needline you have already added to the tree. The Modify button displays the Modify Needline
window. This window has the same data entry and parameter fields as the Add Needline wizards used to define
a needline.
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7−58
To modify LDR duplex endpoints, you must click the View/Modify Endpoints button in the Description of
Needline area of the Net Services tab window. This action displays the View/Modify Endpoints window, as shown
in Figure 7−52.

Figure 7−52. LDR View/Modify Endpoints Window
Right−clicking on the RS requiring modification displays the sub−menu shown in Figure 7−53. The sub−menu
has the Modify... selection to let you modify LDR duplex endpoints. The other selections are not available for
LDR needlines.
Figure 7−53. Sub−Menu for LDR View/Modify Endpoints Window
Clicking the Modify... selection displays the Modifying Endpoint window, as shown in Figure 7−54. This window
provides the field to modify the LCN. The LCN field is the same as that described for the third Add LDR Duplex
Needline Wizard (Figure 7−51). Clicking the OK button records the changed parameter. Clicking the Cancel
button closes the window without saving the change.
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Figure 7−54. LDR Modifying Endpoint Window
When you have completed endpoint modifications, the revised endpoint data is displayed in the tabular area of
the View/Modify Endpoints window. Click Close to close the window and save your changes.
7.2.6.5.1 LDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating an LDR PVC needline are summarized below:
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D Rate: Higher rates will have better speed of service, but less LDR needlines can be built. Lower rates will
have slower speed of service, but more LDR needlines can be built.
D EPLRS Pos Setting: If RS is distributing position, select where the position reports will go. Selecting HOST
means it will be sent only to the RSs connected host. Selecting RF means it will be sent to other RSs on the
needline. Selecting HOST&RF means it will be sent to RSs on the needline and its connected host. If
unsure, set this to NONE.
7.2.6.6 SMSG Needlines.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying a Simple Multi−Source Group (SMSG)
needline. It defines the parameters used in the process. SMSG is a needline that provides hosts with a
few−to−many communication transfer protocol similar to MSG but optimized for voice over internet protocol
(VOIP). A typical example of how SMSG is used is to support tactical voice communications at the squad,
platoon, and company level with infantry or armored units. The network planner can set up individual SMSG
needlines for squad−, platoon−, and company−level communications.
SMSG is designed to claim and release shares very quickly. The needline can be set up to have a 4−, 8−, or
16−share architecture. All RSs maintain a running list of available shares. Thus, a 16−share SMSG needline can
support 16 simultaneous talkers between eight different pairs of RSs.
Available SMSG shares are automatically released. If no data is heard on a specific share for one second, that
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share becomes available and can be claimed by other RSs. When an RS has data to send, it immediately grabs
one of the available shares and begins to transmit its data. If an RS has no data to send, it releases its share
after half a second.
SMSG uses collision detection/reclaim logic for the unlikely case where two RSs simultaneously grab the same
share. The needline is also designed to discard queued−up data; this allows an RS to avoid transmitting delayed
voice (data queued up before the RS was in net, or before the RS could claim a share, etc.).
The process of adding an SMSG needline begins with the first Add SMSG Needline wizard, as shown in Figure
7−55.
Figure 7−55. Add SMSG Needline Wizard
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The first wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group (select SMSG)
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., SMSG_DIV_S4)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1801 and 2048; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
Section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button displays the PDF file for on−line Planner’s Manual
Next>> button Displays second wizard for SMSG needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figures 7−56 and 7−57 show second wizard for 2−msec and
4−msec timeslots
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Figure 7−56. Second Add SMSG Needline Wizard: 2−Msec Timeslot
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Figure 7−57. Second Add SMSG Needline Wizard: 4−Msec Timeslot
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT
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The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Relay Coverage: 1 Hop−No Relays No relays (1 hop); full bandwidth; uses a single frequency;
suitable for Battalion local−area coverage
2 Hops−1 Relay Only one relay (2 hops); no loss of bandwidth; uses a single
frequency; suitable for local Battalion area coverage
8 Hops−7 Relays Covers up to 7 relays (8 hops); one−half bandwidth but uses
2 channels; suitable for Brigade/Regimental area coverage
LTS(s): Bandwidth capacity for needline; select from all 8 (0−7) LTSs down to a single LTS; if you
select LTS 2 for the needline, the RS will be off the coordination net and cannot support
pos calculation, and HDR duplex, or LDR relay coordination and setup will be negatively
affected
Circuit size: 1 LTS This is the default circuit size and cannot be modified; if needline is
assigned to multiple LTSs, then this assignment is N/A
Sub LTS: Full This is the default Sub LTS and cannot be modified; if needline is
assigned to multiple LTSs, then this assignment is N/A
Channel(s): Frequency channel for the needline; if relay coverage is 1 hop−No Relays or 2 Hops−1
Relay (local), all channels available (8, 6, or 5 channels, depending on plan configuration);
if relay coverage is 8 Hops−7 Relays (extended), specific channel pairs available:
8−channel plan 6−channel plan 5−channel plan
(0,4) (0,3) (0,3)
(1,5) (1,4) (1,4)
(2,6) (2,5)
(3,7)
NOTE:
Available channels and channel pairs will depend on channel set selected and which
channels are set active for the deployment plan.
Optimum settings for Voice Over IP
1 LTS 4 shares
2 LTS 8 shares
4 LTS 16 shares
Use waveform Mode EW14 to meet voice codec minimum bandwidth requirements on a
land warrior network.

Shares: 16 16−share circuit
8 8−share circuit
4 4−share circuit (best speed of service using one LTS)
2 2 share circuit
1 1 share circuit
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW0 10 bytes/TU; use Mode 1 instead
Mode EW1 10 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance; better than Mode 0
Mode EW2 20 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 1
Mode EW3 30 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 2
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 3
Mode EW14 122 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4,
best mode for Voice Over IP.
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Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW5 34 bytes/TU; best anti−jam performance for 4−msec expanded
data
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 5
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Endpoint LCN
[05−DF](Hex):
Logical channel number assigned to needline; 2−character hexadecimal value;
range 05 through DF; DF is used for ENM Broadcast PVC Needline
Advanced button Displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−58.
Figure 7−58. SMSG Advanced Window
The advanced features include:
SMSG Type: Normal Needline does not use any special error checking for data
(default)
High Needline uses redundant transmissions to verify that
transmitted data is correct with a cost of 33% bandwidth lost
EPLRS Pos
Setting:
The EPLRS Pos Setting determines where the EPLRS generated position reports, if any,
will be sent. If HOST is selected, the needline will send position reports to its connected
host. If RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to the other RSs on the
network. If HOST&RF is selected, the needline will send position reports to both its
connected host and the RSs on the network. If NONE is selected, no position reports will
be sent.
HOST Pos distribution to host only (direct connection)
RF Pos distribution to network only (OTA)
HOST&RF Pos distribution to host and network
NONE EPLRS−generated pos data not distributed; note that you can
still get the RS’s generated position by using URO P message
ADDSI IP Inter-
operability:
Allows ADDSI and IP connected hosts to share the same needline.
Enabled Ensures interoperability between ADDSI and IP host using the
same circuit.
Disabled ADDSI and IP hosts will not be able to share the same needline
(default)
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NOTE
Setting the ADDSI IP Interoperability Mode is optional if one type of host is being used,
but to avoid having all RSs (receiving a message) send data to the IP stack, ADDSI IP
Interoperability Mode should be set to DISABLED.
After all parameters are set up in the second wizard, clicking the Done button saves the data and closes the
window. The <<Back button lets you return to the first wizard to make additional changes or review parameters.
The Cancel button closes the wizard without saving the data. After you complete the needline building process,
the SMSG needline symbol and name will be displayed in the needline tree. Figure 7−59 is an example of a
completed SMSG needline named SMSG_A_CO_Voice_Net listed under the 1st Battalion UTO folder.
Figure 7−59. SMSG Needline Example
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7.2.6.6.1 SMSG Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating an SMSG needline are summarized below:
D Area of coverage: Larger and more varied terrain will require more hops to support relays. No loss of
bandwidth for using additional relays, but the needline will need to use an additional channel.
D Bandwidth requirements: higher bandwidth requires more LTSs.
D Can choose any available channel(s).
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D SMSG type: If guaranteed delivery is required, High Reliability should be chosen. All others or if unsure,
choose Normal Reliability.
D EPLRS Pos Setting: If RS is distributing position, select where the position reports will go. Selecting HOST
means it will be sent only to the RSs connected host. Selecting RF means it will be sent to other RSs on the
needline. Selecting HOST&RF means it will be sent to RSs on the needline and its connected host. If
unsure, set this to NONE.
D ADDSI IP Interoperability: If needline will contain both IP and ADDSI connected hosts, this should be set to
Enabled. All else or not sure, set this to Disabled.
7.2.6.7 TAMA Needlines.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining or modifying a Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access
(TAMA) needline. It defines the parameters used in the process. TAMA is designed to adapt to changes in
network conditions on−the−fly to allow each RS access to the network without any manual configuration by the
operator. The various network conditions that TAMA is designed to adapt to include changes in topology, relays
and bandwidth demand. Unlike CSMA, TAMA provides a near perfect time slot scheduling algorithm for collision
free access to the network even at very high loading levels. TAMA dynamically adjusts the RSs data path so that
each RS has access to the network while ensuring near collision−free transmissions. Relays will be dynamically
updated as RSs move further away and closer to each other. TAMA can be used by RSs using an Ethernet or
IP/ADDSI (IP over ADDSI) connection. There is no limit on the number of TAMA circuits that can be defined in a
deployment plan, but only one TAMA circuit can be active on any one RS. Certain trade offs may occur in
choosing this type of service. TAMA has a large User Datagram Protocol (UDP)/IP header, so certain waveforms
are not available. Some latency will occur, due to the fact that all scheduling and routing information for the user
is performed by TAMA and Tactical Ad−hoc Routing On Demand (TAROD), as it takes time for a route to be
searched. As a result, other needline types might be the more optimal choice depending on the type of data
transmission required. There is also a limit to the number of 1 and 2 hop neighbors TAMA can handle before its
collision free aspect is affected.
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The process of adding a TAMA needline begins with the first Add TAMA Needline wizard, as shown in Figure
7−60.
Figure 7−60. Add TAMA Needline Wizard
The wizard uses the following fields and controls to define the needline parameters:
Needline Type: CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access
MSG Multi−Source Group
HDR Duplex High Data Rate Duplex
LDR Duplex Low Data Rate Duplex
SMSG Simple Multi−Source Group
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access (select TAMA)
Needline Name: Descriptive name for needline; you may enter up to 64 characters; do not use space
characters; use underscores or other characters instead
(e.g., TAMA_1BDE_C2)
Needline Number: Needline identification number; accept default number generated by ENP, or change
number as required; number must be between 1801 and 2048; Modify button used to
change number
Modify button Displays Modifying the Generated Needline Number window. Refer to Figure 7−9 in
section 7.2.4. Overwrite button saves changes; Cancel button closes window without
saving changes; Help button is not currently active
Next>> button Displays second wizard for TAMA needline type; click after you have set up all
parameters in first wizard; Figure 7−61 shows second wizard
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Figure 7−61. Second Add TAMA Needline Wizard
2−MSEC
TAC INTERNET
TIMESLOT
4−MSEC
EXPANDED DATA
TIMESLOT

NOTE
The channels displayed in the Channel(s): drop−down list shown in Figure 7−61 correspond
to an 8−channel deployment plan. If the needline is built under a 6−channel or 5−channel
plan, or if specific channels are set inactive, the available channels on the drop−down list will
differ from those shown in the figure.
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The second wizard uses the following fields and controls:
Waveform:
2−msec
Tac Internet
timeslot
Mode EW4 81 bytes/TU
Mode EW14 122 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 4
Waveform:
4−msec
Expanded Data
timeslot
Mode EW6 66 bytes/TU
Mode EW7 101 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 6
Mode EW8 124 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 7
Mode EW9 253 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 8
Mode EW17 402 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than Mode 9
Mode EW18 528 bytes/TU; slightly less anti−jam performance than mode 17
Channel(s): Frequency channel for the needline; depends on channel set configuration and which
channels are set inactive; with all channels active:
8−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 7
6−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 5
5−channel configuration: Channels 0 through 4
Endpoint LCN
[05−DF](Hex):
Logical channel number assigned to needline; 2−character hexadecimal value;
range 05 through DF; DF is used for ENM Broadcast PVC Needline
LTS settings: Select any number of check boxes and allocate from one to eight LTSs to the needline; if
you select LTS 2 for the needline, the RS cannot support pos calculation and HDR/LDR
needline setup and relay coordination will be negatively affected. Any combination of
LTSs, can be selected, as long as they do not conflict with another needlines LTSs.
Advanced button Displays window to set advanced features as shown in Figure 7−62
Figure 7−62. TAMA Advanced Window
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The TAMA advanced features include:
Circuit Power
Level:
Sets one of the four EPLRS RS power levels to be used for the needline.
After all parameters are set up in the second wizard, clicking the Done button saves the data and closes the
window. The <<Back button lets you return to the first wizard to make additional changes or review parameters.
The Cancel button closes the wizard without saving the data.
Modifying a TAMA needline requires changing the needline parameters. The Modify button in the Description of
Needline area of the Net Services tab window enables you to modify needline parameters for a needline you have
already added to the tree. The Modify button displays the Modify Needline window. This window has the same
data entry and parameter fields as the Add Needline wizards used to define a needline.
NOTE
It is required to set up an IP PVC interface for TAMA. It is also required to set the TAMA
IP PVC Interface Default field to Yes for the TAMA needline to be operational. See
section 8.2.4.4 for more information on setting up IP PVC interfaces.
The max amount of hops that a TAMA needline can currently support is 10.
7.2.6.7.1 TAMA Needline Creation Checklist.
The major decisions for creating a TAMA needline are summarized below:
D Waveform: Balance of anti−jam capability, rs−to−rs range and data transfer rate.
D Channel: Choose any available channel.
D Bandwidth requirements: higher bandwidth requires more LTSs.
D TAMA needlines use Ad Hoc routing and only one Ad Hoc enabled needline can be active in a deployment.
This means that if there is an Ad Hoc enabled CSMA needline active, TAMA cannot be active as well.
D Circuit Power Level: If deployment area contains heavy vegetation or RF attenuating circumstances, High
power should be selected. All else, System Default should be chosen.
7.2.7 LTS/CN Needline Matrix.
The LTS/CN Needline Matrix display is the second of the two selectable data displays presented in the right side
of the Net Services tab window. Figure 7−63 shows an example of the LTS/CN Needline Matrix display. You
select this display by clicking the LTS/CN Needline Matrix button.
The LTS/CN Needline Matrix presents a map of the network PVC needlines showing how LTSs and channels
have been allocated to DAP and PVC needlines. The matrix uses color coding to identify the LTSs/channels
allocated for DAP needlines and for the coordination net. DAP needline resource allocations are made under the
ENP System tab. (Refer to Section 4.1.) Pre−planned needlines are shown as X or O symbols in their assigned
LTS−channel cells in the matrix. This display is very useful for planning LTS and channel allocations for needlines
because it gives you a single picture of all of the needlines and the available resources, making it easier to see
and avoid resource conflicts.
The matrix uses the following colors to identify the allocated LTSs and channels:
D Blue −− HDR DAP needlines
D Yellow −− LDR needlines (DAP and PVC)
D Green −− Both HDR DAP and LDR needlines
D Pink −− LTS 2; reserved for the coordination net
D Black −− Inactive channels; not available for needline use
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Figure 7−63. LTS/Channel Needline Matrix Display
The pink colored zone is assigned by ENP and shows the resources set aside for the coordination network and
the guard channel. The blue, yellow, and green colored zones correspond to the assignments you make for HDR
and LDR DAP needlines. These assignments correspond to the checkboxes selected under the ENP System
tab. LTS−channel cells assigned to be used for DAPs are made available to all the EPLRS RSs in the network.
It is generally a good idea to assign any available unused LTS−channel cells to DAPs to maximize DAP
performance.
Black−colored cells in the matrix show channels that have been set inactive (unavailable) in the deployment plan.
The example in Figure 7−63 shows an eight−channel plan in which all channels are set active, so there are no
black cells. Note that if a channel had been set inactive, the LTS−channel cells under that channel would be
black and unavailable for use. Also, the Channel(s) drop−down lists in the needline wizards would not display the
inactive channel.
Needline allocations made using the Net Services tab are displayed in the matrix as X or O symbols. An X
indicates an LTS−channel cell that is entirely filled. An O indicates an LTS−channel cell that is partially filled. If
there is a resource conflict, the symbol will be displayed in red instead of black text.
Below the matrix, the LTS Size Detail table shows the half−LTS or quarter−LTS allocations for a specific cell in the
matrix. Clicking on a cell in the matrix displays the LTS usage for that cell in the LTS Size Detail table. In the
example in the figure, the table shows LTS usage for the needlines that are currently assigned to use LTS 0 and
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Channel 0. There are three needlines, NEW_CSMA_1805, CSMA_1809 and CSMA_1810 that are assigned to
the selected cell. The selected cell has a yellow outline around it.
The LTS Size Detail table shows how the needlines are placed in the LTS. The First half consists of the 1st and
3rd quadrants, while the Second half consists of the 2nd and 4th LTS quadrants. An unused quadrant would
have a zero in it. In the example in Figure 7−63, two needlines share the resources in the second and fourth
quadrants, so the table entry displays the number 2 in those quadrants. CSMA_1809 and CSMA_1810 both
have a 1/4−LTS circuit size. Thus the two needlines have a resource conflict. This is shown by the number 2
displayed in red instead of black text. The other two LTS quadrants are allocated to only one needline,
NEW_CSMA_1805, so a number 1 appears in black, and there is no resource conflict in the first half of the LTS.
Below the LTS Size Detail table, the Needlines in Matrix display presents a table of the needlines using the
selected LTS−channel cell. Clicking on a specific cell in the matrix displays the needlines using that LTS and
channel in the Needlines in Matrix table. In the example in Figure 7−63, the table shows the three needlines,
NEW_CSMA_1805, CSMA_1809 and CSMA_1810 that are currently assigned to use LTS 0 and Channel 0. The
Needlines in Matrix table displays circuit allocation data for all of the needlines assigned to the selected cell. This
includes needline name, circuit size, LTS, and channel information that makes it easier for you to see the cause
of a resource conflict.
Note that the Needlines Tree does not control the matrix display. Changing the selection in the Needlines Tree
has no effect on the matrix. The matrix is a picture of your entire network, and the Needlines in Matrix table
shows the needlines in the matrix cell that you select.
7.2.8 Needline Identification.
Each EPLRS RS can store up to 64 needlines and actively support up to 32 needlines. Each needline is given a
Logical Channel Number (LCN). Each needline is also given a needline ID number as a way for the RS and ENM
to identify each needline.
LCN Expansion is a concept that has increased the maximum number of needlines allowed per deployment plan
to 2048 needlines, of which 248 can be HDR. The EPLRS RS can still only store a maximum of 64 needlines.
An LCN Expansion enhanced RS will be able to delete and store additional needlines on the fly without the need
for reconfiguration. See Chapter 13 on EPLRS Enhancements for more information on LCN Expansion.
7.2.8.1 Logical Channel Number (LCN).
The LCN is a two−character hexadecimal entry that identifies the specific needline to the host and RS. It is used
like a phone number when exchanging data over one of the host interfaces. When using the ADDSI interface, the
host computer and EPLRS RS use LCNs to refer to specific needlines. When using an IP host, the EPLRS RS
maps a network interface to a needline via an LCN. This makes it transparent to the IP host.
The range of allowable values for LCNs is from 05 through DE, hexadecimal (00 through 04 are reserved). LCN
DF is available but it can only be used as the Broadcast Needline (a special CSMA needline) to support ENM
network management. LCNs E0 through FF are not available to the user because they are reserved for DAP
needlines. The ENP software prevents you from using these numbers when developing a plan.
7.2.8.2 Needline Identification Number.
Needline ID numbers are used between RSs and ENMs to identify needlines. The needline ID number is
automatically assigned by ENP when you create the needline.
Needline ID numbers are allocated as follows:
D LDR duplex PVC needlines: 1 through 1792
D Reserved for system use: 1793 through 1800
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D MSG, HDR duplex PVC, CSMA, SMSG and TAMA needlines: 1801 through 2048
D HDR DAP and LDR DAP needlines: ID numbers are not user assignable
7.2.9 Needline Constraints and Priorities.
All RSs are configured with all the needlines in the deployment plan. An RS can store up to 64 needlines.
However, with LCN expansion, you can define up to 2048 needlines in a deployment plan. Each LCN Expansion
enhanced RS will be able to store and delete needlines on the fly without the need for reconfiguration. Please
see Chapter 13.1 for more details on LCN Expansion.
Because there are no restrictions governing which LTSs may be assigned to HDR needlines, it is possible to
assign HDR needlines to the same LTS and channels as other HDR needlines, LDR needlines, or the
coordination net (LTS 2). In a single RS, these needlines mutually exclude each other because they are assigned
the same LTS resources. Any of these conflicting needlines can be active in the RS, but not at the same time.
Normally you only reuse needline resources as a last resort: when all the resources have been allocated and you
are forced to reuse resources to support additional needlines.
If a single RS is slated to support an HDR needline and an LDR needline assigned to the same resources, the
HDR needline has priority. For this RS, if the HDR needline is activated, the LDR needline will automatically
attempt to use other time resources, if available. When assigning resources, this can be avoided by reusing
needline resources in RSs that use only one of the two needlines at any one time. By doing that, the only
problem that can result is that the LDR and HDR needlines assigned to use the same resources may interfere
with each other (if there is no terrain or distance separation between the RSs), but the LDR needline will still be
supported.
There are additional needline constraints per RS as follows:
D The maximum number of active LDR DAPs is 16.
D The maximum number of active HDR DAPs is 28.
D The maximum number of active MSG plus SMSG needlines is 7.
D The maximum number of active HDR Duplex (PVC) needlines is 32.
D The maximum number of active CSMA needlines is 32.
D The maximum number of active TAMA circuits is 1
D The maximum number of active LDR duplex (PVC) needlines is 24.
An RS can only support one needline out of any group that was assigned the same time resources. However, a
new checkbox called LCN Inactive Until Needed has been added to IP PVC interfaces and EPLRS Agents. This
feature allows a needline to be activated when it is needed to transmit data and can be deactivated to allow
another needline to use the same time resources. If this feature is not used, then the last needline activated
wins. If there is a time conflict, then only the last needline will be up. If there is no conflict, then multiple
needlines will be up.
7.2.10 Needline Attribute Overview.
Table 7−8 summarizes the attributes of the six types of needlines (CSMA, MSG, LDR Duplex, HDR Duplex,
TAMA and SMSG) and their relay capabilities. Table 7−9 compares the major attributes of the six types of PVC
needlines and provides additional operational comparisons to help you choose the best needline type for the
signal mission. The two tables let you compare general needline attributes at a glance when selecting needlines
to fulfill different tactical requirements.
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Table 7−8. Needline Attributes Summary
Comm
Service
Name
Type of
Network
RS
Acknowl−
edged
Available Relay Settings
Hops (Relays)
Relays
automatically
selected from:
1 CSMA Many−to−Many
Network
No Up to 6 hops (5 relays) All RSs on
needline
2 MSG Few−to− Many
Network
No Up to 8 hops (7 relays) All RSs on
needline
3 LDR Duplex One−to−One Yes Up to 5 hops (4 relays) All RSs in the
network
4 HDR
Duplex
One−to−One Yes Up to 6 hops (5 relays) All RSs in the
network.
HDR
Duplex
(DAP)
One−to−One Yes Up to 5 hops (4 relays) All RSs on
network.
5 TAMA Many−to−Many
Network
No Up to 10 hops (9 relays) All RSs on
needline
6 SMSG Few−to−Many
Network
No Up to 8 hops (7 relays) All RSs on
needline
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Table 7−9. Needline Attribute Comparison
Needline
Attribute
CSMA MSG HDR Duplex LDR Duplex TAMA SMSG
Overall
Characteristics
Broadcast
circuit,
contention
based
many−to−many.
Broadcast
needline,
non−contention
based (max of
1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8,
or 16 sources at
any one time);
One−to−one
balanced, RS
acknowledgm−
ent.
One−to−one
balanced, RS
acknowledgm−
ent.
Broadcast
circuit,
contention
based
many−to−many.
Broadcast
needline,
non−contention
based (max of
1, 2, 4, 8, or 16
sources at any
one time);
Relay
Characteristics
Up to 5 relays,
selectable;
automatic relay
negotiation by
needline
participants.
Up to 7 relays,
selectable;
automatic relay
negotiation by
needline
participants.
If needline is
one LTS or
less, automatic
negotiate 4
relays (5 hops).
If more relays
needed planner
can configure
up to 5 static
relays in ENP.
If needline is 2
or 4 LTSs,
automatic
negotiate 3
relays (4 hops).
Automatic relay
negotiation by
relays of
opportunity,
negotiated on
LTS 2; up to 4
relays.
Up to 9 relays,
automatic relay
negotiation by
needline
participants.
Up to 7 relays,
selectable;
automatic relay
negotiation by
needline
participants.
Reliability No RS
acknowledgm−
ent of data.
High reliability
reduces
bandwidth by
25%.
No RS
acknowledgm−
ent of data.
Very high
reliability (RSs
acknowledge
each
transmission).
Very high
reliability (RSs
acknowledge
each
transmission).
No RS
acknowledgm−
ent of data.
No RS
acknowledgm−
ent of data.
Planning
Considerations
Easy to plan,
easy to enter
into ENP, easy
to deploy,
relaying
performed by
RSs on
needline.
Requires more
planning,
sources must
be selected,
bandwidth
allocation
decisions must
be made
among sources;
2 frequencies
required for
more relays.
Each endpoint
must be
selected.
Relays can be
automatically
negotiated or
pre−planned.
Must have
sufficient relay
RSs available.
2 frequencies
required for
more relays.
Each endpoint
must be
selected, but
relays
automatically
negotiated.
Must have
sufficient relay
RSs available.
Easy to plan,
easy to enter
into ENP, easy
to deploy,
relaying
performed by
RSs on
needline.
Easy to plan,
easy to enter
into ENP; 2
frequencies
required for
more relays.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−77
Table 7−9. Needline Attribute Comparison (Continued)
SMSG TAMA LDR Duplex HDR Duplex MSG CSMA Needline
Attribute
Advantages No need to
design relay
schemes
provide
flexibility,
minimum
planning,
supports
one−to−many
and
many−to−many
traffic.
Guaranteed
speed of
service for up to
16 sources per
NL and/or
on−demand
bandwidth,
retains
minimum
bandwidth,
supports
one−to−many
and
few−to−many
traffic, full
bandwidth at 7
relays.
Increased link
reliability.
Higher rate than
LDR duplex.
Increased link
reliability.
No need to
design relay
schemes
provide
flexibility,
minimum
planning,
supports
one−to−many
and
many−to−many
traffic.
Guaranteed
speed of
service for up to
16 sources per
NL and/or
on−demand
bandwidth,
retains
minimum
bandwidth,
supports
one−to−one
and
few−to−many
traffic, full
bandwidth at 5
relays.
Disadvantages Resources not
reserved so no
immediate
transmit
guarantee
unless single
source.
Planning
bandwidth can
be complex.
Limited to 2 end
points, equal
bandwidth
independent of
endpoint data
requirement.
Limited to 2 end
points, equal
bandwidth
independent of
endpoint data
requirement.
Resources not
reserved so no
immediate
transmit
guarantee.
TAMA is only
applicable for IP
connected
hosts.
Planning
bandwidth for
large messages
can be
complex. Not
optimized for
long accesses.
When to Use Requirement for
many radios to
have net
access,
transmit unicast
and/or multicast
messages.
Require
guaranteed
bandwidth for
limited number
of sources,
need extended
range without
bandwidth
penalty,
guaranteed
speed of
service.
Exchange large
size messages,
require high
reliability data
link, require
guaranteed
bandwidth
(guaranteed
speed of
service).
Require high
reliability data
link, require
guaranteed
bandwidth
(guaranteed
speed of
service).
Requirement for
many radios to
have net
access,
transmit unicast
and/or multicast
messages.
Require
guaranteed
bandwidth for
limited number
of short access
sources, need
extended range
without
bandwidth
penalty,
guaranteed
speed of
service.
When Not to
Use
Frequent
requirement to
exchange large
size (>1MB)
messages,
require
guaranteed
bandwidth
(guaranteed
speed of
service).
Many sources
(radios) are
required to
access the
network
frequently and
consistently. If
application is
not tolerant of
slow bandwidth
acquisition must
use immediate
share claim
option.
Exchange
messages
between
many−to− many
sources.
Exchange
messages
between
many−to− many
sources or high
bandwidth.
Frequent
requirement to
exchange large
size (>1MB)
messages,
require
guaranteed
bandwidth
(guaranteed
speed of
service).
Many sources
(radios) are
required to
access the
network for long
periods of time.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
7−78
Table 7−9. Needline Attribute Comparison (Continued)
SMSG TAMA LDR Duplex HDR Duplex MSG CSMA Needline
Attribute
Typical
Application
SA network for
CSMA short
and C2 network
for CSMA
normal.
Sensor netting
(e.g., air
defense).
TOC−to−TOC
large file
transfer.
Battle
management
data (e.g., air
defense).
C2 network. Multiple
simultaneous
Voice over IP
conversations.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−1
CHAPTER 8
IP INTERFACES TAB
8.1 IP INTRODUCTION.
This section describes the basic Internet Protocol (IP) planning required for successful network operations. Some
US Army networks have very few host devices that use IP routing. For example, FBCB2−based operations do
not require you to add IP routes to the RSs, however, evolution of Army systems may require a combination of IP
and non−IP based hosts. Army Land Warrior and US Marine Corps use IP based EPLRS hosts. As a minimum,
it is recommended, but not required, that you set up IP addresses in the ENM computers and the ENM RSs.
8.1.1 EPLRS INTERNET PROTOCOL.
Internet Protocol (IP) is what computers use to communicate with each other. A unique IP address is assigned to
every device on a network. This IP address is to a computer as a street address is to a home. An IP address
contains four full bytes (32 bits) of data (ones and zeros).
IP addresses are usually expressed in dotted−decimal format. Each IP address consists of four bytes of data
with each byte containing eight bits. Each bit can be a one or a zero, and the eight bits together are combined to
express a number between zero and 255. The four bytes (eight bits each) are separated by decimal points.
These decimal points are not conventional decimal points but are separators that mark the boundaries between
the four data bytes. For example, the four bytes of a typical binary 32−bit IP address are expressed as follows:
11010011 01101001 01001011 10111010
But large binary numbers are difficult to record and manage, so the four binary numbers are converted into
decimal values as follows:
211 105 75 186
Then the IP address is written in dotted−decimal format this way:
211.105.75.186
If you are entering an IP address into the EPLRS RS via the URO, you must convert each of the four bytes into
the equivalent hexadecimal value. Appendix A provides a conversion table for hexadecimal and binary numbers.
Converting each byte, the equivalent hexadecimal number for 211.105.75.186 is:
D3 69 4B BA
8.1.2 IP Addresses.
The IP address has two portions to it. The first portion of the IP address is the network portion, and the second
portion of it is the host portion. The network portion tells you where the computer is located, like telling you the
name of the city where a specific house is located. The host portion tells you the exact computer, like telling you
the street address of the house.
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IP addresses are described in the following terms:
Network IP address The network IP address is used to describe a network. The
network IP address is the first IP address of a network. The host
portion bits of the network IP address are all zeros.
Broadcast IP address The broadcast IP address is used to send one message to every
IP address on a single network. The broadcast IP address is the
last IP address of a network. The host portion bits of the
broadcast address are all ones.
Host IP Address Defines the useable addresses that are available to assign to
devices (radios, computers, etc.) for a specific subnet. Number of
addresses available depends on size of subnet. Network IP (first)
address and the broadcast IP (last) address are not available to
assign to devices.
8.1.3 Subnet Masks.
IP assignments for EPLRS devices always include an IP address and a subnet mask. Each IP address identifies
a unique IP network (or subnet) and a unique host device. The subnet mask is the piece of information that tells
which part of the IP address is the network portion, and which is the host portion. The subnet mask and IP
address work hand in hand. All devices on the same network are going to have the same subnet mask.
Computers can communicate directly with other computers that are on the same network.
The subnet mask is used to separate the IP address into its host and network portions by masking away the
network portion from the host portion. In most IP addresses, the first two or three bytes make up the network
portion of the address. The subnet mask will consist of all ones for all of the bits that belong to the network
address. The remaining bits (the least−significant bits in the mask) correspond to the host portion of the IP
address and will consist of all zeros. For example, for the subnet mask 255.255.255.248:
The binary equivalent of the subnet mask is: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000
The subnet mask separates the IP address into 29 bits for the network, leaving 3 bits for the host device. The
binary equivalent of 248 is 11111000, leaving three least−significant bits available for host devices. Three binary
bits define eight possible values (000 through 111). The subnet mask is sometimes called a .248 subnet mask.
The network notation for a subnet like the example is sometimes written as /29 to signify that 29 bits are set to
one in subnet mask. Instead of writing out both the IP address and subnet mask, you can simply write the IP
address with the /29 after it (e.g., 192.168.30.0/29).
Six of the eight IP address values defined in the example are available to assign to host devices (RSs,
computers, etc.); the first and last values are not available. The first IP address is the network address and is
used to identify the local network. The last IP address is the broadcast address. The six remaining addresses
are free to assign to devices.
For example, using the 255.255.255.248 subnet mask, we can define the IP addresses for a local network. With
a .248 subnet, local networks begin at every eighth IP address. Assume that you are assigned to develop a local
network using the IP address 192.168.30.8 and the subnet mask 255.255.255.248. You can derive the following:
1. The subnet mask (.248) makes eight addresses available.
2. The first address (192.168.30.8) is the network address.
3. The last address (192.168.30.15) is the broadcast address.
4. The six remaining addresses may be assigned to host devices:
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−3
192.168.30.9
192.168.30.10
192.168.30.11
192.168.30.12
192.168.30.13
192.168.30.14
Address assignments for host devices should follow SOP or a uniform convention but are not restricted (e.g.,
ENM, ENM RS can be assigned any of the six addresses). Table 8−1 shows other common subnets used in
EPLRS networks and the number of RSs or host devices that may be assigned to them.
Table 8−1. Characteristics of Common Subnet Masks
Subnet Mask Type Number of Addresses in
Local Network
Number of Addresses
Available for Devices
.240 (/28) 16 14
.248 (/29) 8 6
.252 (/30) 4 2
8.1.4 Basic IP Planning for an EPLRS Network.
The initial planning steps for an IP based EPLRS network are similar to an ADDSI based EPLRS network.
Additional requirements for an IP based EPLRS network are setting IP address assignments for your RSs and
ENMs. If you will be using non−TAMA needlines such as CSMA or MSG then you will have to define routes so
the needlines will know where to send their transmissions. In order to define these routes, you will need to create
an IP PVC interface for that needline. Creating this interface will also automatically activate the needline once the
RS is configured by the ENM. Gathering host requirements to decide whether to use unicast or multicast routes
is essential.
If your host requirements dictate using multicast routes, IGMP will need to be enabled. By default, IGMP is set to
On. See Section 8.2.4.11 to find out how to verify if IGMP is set to On.
It is also recommended that you set up your ENM Broadcast PVC needline so your ENMs can send status and
communicate with each other. In order to do this, you have to define a CSMA type needline with the LCN of DF.
An IP PVC Interface for this needline is already created in your deployment plan. All that needs to be done in this
interface is to create a multicast group address of 225.1.1.1 for the ENMs to communicate on. See Section
8.2.4.3 for more information on setting up the ENM Broadcast PVC needline.
EPLRS radio is both a static router and an RF modem. Basic IP Planning for EPLRS planning consists of the
following:
D Host and RS IP address and subnet mask assignments (Section 8.1.2 and 8.1.3)
D Entering IP address and subnet mask assignments for your RSs (Section 8.2.4.1)
D Creating an IP PVC Interface for needlines that the RSs will be using (Section 8.2.4.4)
D Gathering host requirements to decide whether to use unicast or multicast routes
D Gathering route information for host systems
D Entering route information for non−TAMA needlines (Section 8.2.4.9 and Section 8.2.4.12)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−4
The IP Interfaces tab in ENP lets you define IP services for the connections or subnets within the network. This
enables you to configure IP interfaces for each EPLRS RS that is supporting IP message routing.
NOTE
IP addressing in ENP is only for the ENM host and RSs. No other host systems IP
addresses are able to be added via ENP. However, routing for other hosts systems and
networks can be done in ENP.
8.2 IP Interfaces Tab.
The IP Interfaces tab display lets you define IP services for the connections or subnets within the network. This
enables you to configure IP interfaces for each EPLRS RS that is supporting IP message routing.
8.2.1 IP Message Routing.
The embedded router in the EPLRS RS provides several types of IP interfaces that are configurable by the ENM
planner. These are:
Ethernet IP over IEEE 802.3 standard LAN interface; default configuration in RS uses IP address
192.168.1.1; can be assigned unique IP address
DAP IP over dynamically allocated PVC needline interface; route is set up and maintained only
while DAP needline is active; recommended for ENM−to−ENM communications because
DAP is a more reliable needline than CSMA for transferring files; must have pre−planned
DAP needline resources available; DAP can reach up to 5 hops
ENM PVC ENM Broadcast PVC interface; activated when CSMA needline with LCN equal to DF
(hex) activated; used by network ENMs for ENM−to−ENM status messages, RS
configuration, and black key file distribution; uses a network route; ENM PVC can reach up
to 6 hops with CSMA needline
IP PVC Configurable PVC interface; create multiple PVC interfaces to accommodate various
needlines as required; one to 15 interfaces may be added to a single RS
IP over ADDSI IP over X.25 ADDSI interface; enables RS to send IP datagrams via router to
ADDSI−based network devices using X.25 (RS−422 serial) connections; one IP over
ADDSI interface may be added to an RS
PPP Point−to−Point Protocol; PVC interface used to enable PPP−based host/router
connections using RS−232 serial port; one PPP interface may be added to an RS
By default, each RS has three built−in interfaces: Ethernet, DAP, and ENM PVC. These three interfaces are
configured with default values by ENP. You may need to enter IP address values for the Ethernet, DAP and ENM
PVC interfaces. You would do so when the default values need to be changed or routes are being added to the
interfaces. You will need the required routing information to configure the IP interfaces.
You must define certain IP routes for the network needlines so that the RS can send IP datagrams (also called
packets) to the required destinations. The types of IP addressing required depend on the design of your specific
network. The EPLRS RS uses two types of static IP routes: static unicast routes and static multicast routes.
You use the IP Interfaces tab to define these routes and enter them into unicast and multicast route tables for
each interface.
A static unicast route defines a gateway route to a specified host or network destination IP address.
A single source sends data to a single destination. A host route points to a single specific host device such as a
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−5
computer or an RS. For example, the ENM computer is a host device. A host route will always have a subnet
mask of 255.255.255.255. A network route points to a network or subnet and reaches all devices on the local
network. A network route will have the subnet mask assigned to the local network.
A static multicast route defines a multicast group on a specific interface. A single source sends data to a specific
group of destinations. For example, ENM status messages are transmitted to all other ENMs using the ENM
PVC (DF) needline. This is a multicast group that uses the default multicast IP address (225.1.1.1).
The IP routing process used by the RS embedded router for delivering an IP datagram follows the steps listed
below:
1. A device searches the routing table for an entry that matches the complete destination IP address
(network and host ID). This is a host IP address. If found, it sends the IP datagram directly to the
network or route via the next hop gateway. The host IP address has the highest priority in the routing
table in the RS.
2. If that fails, the device searches the routing table for an entry that matches just the destination network
address. This is a network IP address. If found, it sends the IP datagram directly to the network or routes
it via next hop gateway. A network IP address has a lower priority than a host IP address in the routing
table in the RS.
3. If that fails, the device searches the routing table for an entry labeled default. This is a default IP address.
If found, it sends the IP datagram directly to the interface to route it via next hop gateway. A default IP
address has a lower priority than a network IP address in the routing table in the RS.
4. If none of the above is found, the IP datagram is undeliverable and is discarded.
8.2.2 IP Assignments Tree.
Figure 8−1 shows an example of the IP Interfaces tab display. The left side of the tab display is the IP
Assignments Tree. The tree is a UTO−based diagram that shows all of the IP interfaces for each RS. When you
select an interface in the tree, the right side of the tab display shows the following:
D Selected Interface Description −− the defining parameters for the selected interface
D Unicast Table −− the routing table of static unicast destination IP addresses
D Multicast Table −− the routing table of static multicast destination IP addresses
D Radio’s Proxy ARP Table −− the radio’s proxy routing table
The tree in Figure 8−1 shows an RS (RS−00C2) that currently has only the three built−in IP interfaces (Ethernet,
DAP, and PVC DF). Note that the icon for the Ethernet interface has a white background. The white background
for the Ethernet interface indicates that it has the default Ethernet IP address (192.168.1.1) and has not yet been
assigned a unique IP address. When you assign a unique IP address to it, the Ethernet icon changes to a black
background.
If the background for the PVC DF icon is white that indicates that a CSMA needline with an LCN value of DF
(hex) has not yet been created under the Net Services tab. When you create a CSMA needline with LCN equal
to DF, the PVC DF icon changes to a black background, as you see in Figure 8−1.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−6

Figure 8−1. IP Interfaces Tab Display: Ethernet Interface Selected
The IP Assignments tree has a sub−menu to enable you to add, modify, and delete IP interfaces. The selections
active on the sub−menu differ based on what you select to modify. Only those appropriate to the type of interface
you select will be active.
You can select an RS or any of the IP interfaces under it. When you want to add an interface to an RS, you start
by selecting the RS. When you want to modify or delete an interface, you select the interface itself. In each
case, after selecting an RS or interface, right−clicking anywhere in the tree area displays a sub−menu similar to
that shown in Figure 8−2.

Figure 8−2. IP Interface Sub−Menu
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−7
The sub−menu selections for the various interfaces are as follows:
Add Ethernet LAN Route... Adds additional Ethernet LAN routes; specifies IP address, subnet mask, and
next−hop gateway; can include routes in Radio’s Proxy ARP table; active
when Ethernet interface selected; special option used in networks with routers
where additional Ethernet routes are needed; not used with current Army
applications
Add Interfaces... Initiates processes to add various interfaces; active when an RS is selected
Modify PVC... Initiates modification of PVC needline; active when any PVC needline is
selected
Modify DAP... Initiates modification of DAP needline; active when any DAP needline is
selected; displayed in place of Modify PVC... selection in sub−menu
Delete Interface Initiates process to delete selected interface; active when a PVC, PPP, or
IP/ADDSI interface is selected; not available for Ethernet, DAP, or PVC DF
interfaces
Find Opens Find window; lets you search for an RS rolename or Radio Name;
locates selected data item in UTO tree; same function as Find selection under
Edit menu
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−8
The unicast and multicast tables in Figure 8−1 are empty. After you configure the IP interfaces, some of them will
have entries in the tables. Figure 8−3 shows an example of the IP Interfaces tab display with unicast and
multicast table entries for an IP PVC interface.

Figure 8−3. IP Interfaces Tab Display: PVC Interface Selected
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−9
The Modify button in the upper−right area of the display is used to modify the parameters shown in the Selected
Interface Description area. Clicking the Modify button displays an IP services modification window for the IP
service that is selected in the organizational tree. In the modification window, you can modify the IP address and
subnet mask for the selected connection. Figure 8−4 shows an example of a modification window for an Ethernet
interface. The parameters used in each of the modification windows are defined in Sections 8.2.4.1 through
8.2.4.12.

Figure 8−4. Example of IP Interface Modification Window: Ethernet Interface
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−10
When you select an RS in the IP Assignments Tree, the right side of the tab display presents a single table in the
upper area listing the IP interfaces for the selected RS, as shown in Figure 8−5. The table lists the subnet,
subnet mask, and interface type for each IP interface currently assigned to the RS.
Figure 8−5. IP Interfaces Tab Display: RS Selected
8.2.3 IP Interfaces Edit Menu.
When the IP Interfaces tab is selected, the Edit menu has one selection available, the Multicast Setup... selection
as shown in Figure 8−6. This enables you to set up a multicast group for a selected needline.
Figure 8−6. Multicast Setup... Selection Under Edit Menu
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−11
The menu has two selections:
Multicast Setup... Lets you set up a multicast IP group. The maximum amount of multicast groups you
can assign is 30 per RS.
Find... Lets you search for an RS rolename or Radio Name; locates selected data item in UTO
tree.
Clicking the Multicast Setup... selection displays the first Multicast Wizard, as shown in Figure 8−7. This function
allows you to set up multicast routes for individual needlines. It lets you pick specific RSs that will be receiving
multicast messages. The first Multicast Wizard presents a tree diagram showing the network needlines.
Figure 8−7. First Multicast Wizard
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−12
After selecting the needline, clicking the Next>> button displays the second Multicast Wizard, as shown in Figure
8−8. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window and aborts the process.
Figure 8−8. Second Multicast Wizard
The second Multicast Wizard requires that you enter the IP address for the multicast group. It also displays the
name of the needline you selected for the multicast group. After entering the IP address for the multicast group,
clicking the Next>> button displays the third Multicast Wizard, as shown in Figure 8−9. Clicking the Cancel
button closes the window and aborts the process.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−13
Figure 8−9. Third Multicast Wizard
The third Multicast Wizard enables you to select the RSs that you want in the multicast group. These selected
RSs will receive the multicast messages for this interface. To add RSs to the multicast group, you click to select
RSs from the Needline RSs column, then click the Add>> button to move them into the Multicast List column.
You can remove RSs from the group by selecting them and then clicking the <<Remove button. Clicking the OK
button saves the data and closes the window. This action adds the multicast route and also adds the interface if
not already present. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the process.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−14
The Find selection lets you search for individual RSs and display them (along with their IP interfaces) in the IP
Assignments Tree. Clicking the Find selection displays the Find window as shown in Figure 8−10. The Find
Type: drop−down list lets you select either an Radio Name or an RS rolename (text) as the type of data searched
for. If you select Radio Name as the data type, ENP will search through the Radio Name values for the RSs in
the plan. If you select RS Rolename as the data type, ENP will search through the rolenames associated with
the RSs. It is not necessary to set the display preferences (Radio Name or Rolename) to match the Find Type:
field. The search process is independent of the display preference setting.
Figure 8−10. Find Window
To perform the search, you enter the specific search data into the Find What: field and click the Find button. You
can enter a partial rolename or radio name if desired. ENP will search for whatever characters you enter. The
results of the search are displayed in the Results area of the window. The Found: field displays the number of
data items that matched the search criteria. Figure 8−11 shows an example of a search for a radio name that
returned one result. If the search returns multiple results, the Result(s): drop−down list lets you click to select one
of the results. Clicking the Select button then locates and highlights the selected result in the IP Assignments
Tree. ENP will expand the tree as required to display the Radio Name or RS Rolename you searched for.
Figure 8−11. Find Window with Search Results
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8−15
8.2.4 IP Interface Functions.
The subsections that follow discuss the windows and parameters used to configure the various IP interfaces used
in EPLRS ENM networks. These include the following tasks:
Page number
D Configuring the Ethernet interface 8−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring the DAP interface 8−18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring the PVC DF interface 8−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an IP PVC interface 8−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an Additional Ethernet LAN Route 8−37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an IP Over ADDSI interface 8−42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring a PPP interface 8−49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting up a next−hop gateway 8−53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding and deleting unicast and multicast route tables 8−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting a default interface 8−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Enabling IGMP to support multicast routing 8−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting up a multicast group 8−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.1 Configuring the Ethernet Interface.
This is where you enter the IP address and subnet mask assignments for your RSs.
The Ethernet interface for an RS is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS
and then selecting the Ethernet interface for the RS. Figure 8−12 shows an example of the tree with the Ethernet
interface for RS−00C2 selected. Clicking on the Modify button in the Selected Interface Description area
displays the Ethernet modification window shown in Figure 8−13.
Figure 8−12. Ethernet Interface Selected in IP Assignments Tree
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−16
Figure 8−13. Ethernet Interface Modification Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−17
The Ethernet modification window uses the following parameter fields:
IP Address: Ethernet IP address for selected RS; Ethernet IP interface icon initially has
white background and default IP address (192.168.1.1); icon background turns
black when unique IP address assigned
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for selected RS
Default:
(default)
Yes Sets the Ethernet interface as the default interface for the
selected RS; adds default IP address (0.0.0.0), net mask
(0.0.0.0), and gateway IP address to unicast table; the
gateway IP address is the Ethernet address of the RS
No Deselects the Ethernet interface as the default, allowing
another IP interface to be the default interface for the
selected RS; if Ethernet interface had previously been set as
default, ENP removes default route from unicast table
IGMP: (default) On Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) enabled; host
application (connected to selected RS) able to join multicast
groups and receive multicast messages
Off IGMP disabled; host application unable to join multicast groups
Gateway IP: Ethernet address of the device that the RS will forward packets to when no
network route or host route is found for a datagram (only available when
Default entry is set to Yes)
RIP Mode:
(default)
Enabled Enables Routing Information Protocol (RIP); allows EPLRS
RSs to exchange routing information with locally attached
routers and also allows EPLRS RSs to forward this
information over the air, informing remote RSs and routers
Disabled Disables Routing Information Protocol (RIP);
NOTE
Over the air RIP (using RF) can only be used with
TAMA circuits.
RIP Update Interval: Amount of time, in seconds, between RIP Updates
RIP Timeout: Maximum amount of time, in seconds, that an RS is to wait before determining
that another network device sending RIP updates is no longer reachable
RIP Flush Timeout: Amount of time, in seconds, that the RS will wait before deleting routes to
unreachable network devices
NOTE
An alternate gateway or Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) router is a network device
that has the lowest IP address connected to the RS’s Ethernet port that is higher than the
RS’s Ethernet IP address. In order for the alternate gateway to be valid, both the
network device and RS need to be configured to run in RIP mode. If ENABLED, all route
configurations in a RS are reported to any other device configured in RIP mode.
The IP address is where you enter the IP address for your RS. The Subnet Mask field is where you enter the
subnet mask for your RS. The Default field determines if you want this interface to be your default interface. A
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−18
default interface is used when your RS cannot find either a host route or network route for the packet it is trying to
send. It will then forward this packet to its default interface. If Default is set to No then the packet will be
discarded if the RS cannot find either a network or host route for the packet. The IGMP field enables the RS to
receive and send multicast messages. The RIP Mode field is used whenever there is a desire to connect an
EPLRS network to a larger network via a COTS router. The purpose of this is to reduce the amount of
configuration necessary to use EPLRS as a transit network. This field and all its subfields allows the use of
another router other than the EPLRS RS to share routing information with.
After entering the IP address and subnet mask and setting the desired states for the Default:, IGMP: fields and
RIP Mode:, clicking the OK button saves the revised parameters and closes the window. The revised parameters
will appear in the Selected Interface Description area of the tab display. Clicking the Cancel button closes the
window without saving any changes. The Help button opens the on−line PDF file for the Planner’s Manual.
8.2.4.2 Configuring the DAP Interface.
The DAP interface lets you assign specific host routes, network routes, or a default route to DAP needlines. This
capability is useful for setting up DAP routes to deliver IP datagrams between IP hosts. Each EPLRS RS has a
built−in DAP interface that needs no specific operator input to activate it. To set up special message service via
DAP, the planner performs additional configuration tasks:
D Setting the DAP interface as the default interface
D Adding and deleting DAP network routes
D Adding and deleting DAP host routes
D Configuring an RS to proxy for other networks
The DAP interface for an RS is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS and
then selecting the DAP interface for the RS. Figure 8−14 shows an example of the tree with the DAP interface
for RS−0002 selected.
Figure 8−14. DAP Interface Selected in IP Assignments Tree
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−19
8.2.4.2.1 Setting the DAP Interface as the Default Interface.
Clicking the Modify button in the Selected Interface Description area displays the DAP interface modification
window shown in Figure 8−15. Normally, the only parameter that you will modify for the DAP interface is the
Default: field that sets the DAP interface as the default IP interface for the selected RS. When you set the DAP
interface as the default interface for the RS, all IP datagrams that do not have either a network route or host route
will be forwarded to the DAP interface. ENP adds the default IP address (0.0.0.0) and the default net mask
(0.0.0.0) to the unicast table for the DAP interface. ENP sets the Gateway IP address (a virtual gateway value) to
the value assigned to the DAP interface (127.10.2.1).
Figure 8−15. DAP Interface Modification Window

TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−20
The DAP modification window uses the following parameter fields:
IP Address: DAP IP address for selected RS; DAP uses default IP address (127.10.2.1);
this is a virtual gateway address generated by ENP and should not be
changed
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for selected RS; leave this value set to 255.255.255.0
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit; the largest IP datagram (packet) that can be
sent on this interface; defines when a datagram must be fragmented into
multiple datagrams with sizes equal to or smaller than the MTU value; the
default value is 1500 and is usually not changed
Default:
(default)
Yes Sets the DAP interface as the default interface for the
selected RS; adds default IP address (0.0.0.0), net mask
(0.0.0.0), and virtual gateway IP address (127.10.2.1) to
unicast table
No Deselects the DAP interface as the default, allowing one of
the other IP interfaces to be the default interface for the
selected RS; if DAP interface had previously been set as
default, ENP removes default route from unicast table
After entering the desired state for the Default: field, clicking the OK button saves the revised parameter and
closes the window. The revised parameter will appear in the Selected Interface Description area of the tab
display. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes. The Help button opens the
on−line PDF file for the Planner’s Manual.
8.2.4.2.2 Adding and Deleting DAP Network Routes.
The DAP interface can be set up to handle IP datagrams by adding routes to other local subnets. Local subnets
have network IP routes. Network IP routes have a higher priority in IP routing tables than default routes but have
a lower priority than host IP routes. Every network IP route has a subnet mask corresponding to the specific
network (e.g., 255.255.255.248, 255.255.255.0, etc.).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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The process of adding a network route begins with selecting an RS and then selecting the DAP interface. After
that, right−clicking in the IP Assignments Tree displays the sub−menu shown in Figure 8−16.
Figure 8−16. Sub−Menu for Adding a Route to DAP Interface
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8−22
Clicking the Modify DAP... selection displays the Modify DAP Interface window similar to that shown in Figure
8−17. The Interface Parameters section of the window (upper half) displays most of the same parameters as the
DAP interface modification window shown in Figure 8−15. You can also set the DAP interface as the default in
this window. Clicking to set the Include this RS in other RSs unicast check box makes ENP create a route to the
local subnet of the selected RS; ENP automatically writes this route into the unicast tables of the other RSs that
you selected. This feature allows the receiving RS to create a route back to the sending RS.
Figure 8−17. Modify DAP Interface Window
The Unicast section of the window (lower half) displays a list of reachable (destination) subnets for which you can
create network IP routes. After selecting the desired subnets, clicking the Add>> button moves the selected
subnets to the right column of the window. In the example in Figure 8−17, three local subnets have been added
to the right−side column. Clicking the Next>> button saves the revised route data and closes the window. The
revised subnet routes will then be displayed in the unicast table for the RS as shown in Figure 8−18.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−23

Figure 8−18. New Network Routes Added to DAP Interface
8.2.4.2.3 Adding and Deleting DAP Host Routes.
The DAP interface also can be set up to handle IP datagrams by adding routes to other host devices. Host IP
routes have the highest priority in IP routing tables (higher than network routes or default routes). Every host IP
route has a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255. DAP host routes are automatically set up between the ENM
computers in the network by ENP. DAP host routes between ENMs ensure the most reliable ENM−to−ENM
communications (primarily chat and FTP).
To add a host route for the DAP interface, you must search through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS
and then select the DAP interface for the RS. Then right−clicking anywhere in the unicast table area displays the
modification sub−menu shown in Figure 8−19. The sub−menu will be displayed in the unicast table area of the
tabular window.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−24

Figure 8−19. Unicast Modification Sub−Menu for DAP Interface
Clicking the Add Unicast Entry... selection displays the Add DAP Route window as shown in Figure 8−20. You
must enter the IP address and subnet mask for the destination host device into the data fields. The subnet mask
for a host route is always set to 255.255.255.255.
Figure 8−20. Add DAP Route Window with New Values Entered
The Add DAP Route window uses the following parameter fields:
Network IP Address: IP address of remote host device (192.168.51.0 in example)
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for remote host device (255.255.255.255 in example)
Gateway IP Address: IP address of virtual gateway (generated by ENP; do not change)
After entering the data into the fields, clicking the OK button saves the parameters and closes the window. The
new host route will appear in the Unicast Table section of the tab display as shown in Figure 8−21. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
You can delete a host route for the DAP interface by a process similar to that described for adding entries. You
must select the route you want to delete in the unicast table, then right−click to display the modification
sub−menu, and then click the Delete Unicast Entry option. The selected route is immediately deleted from the
DAP unicast table.
You can also use this method to add or delete network routes to local subnets in the unicast table. The
procedures are the same as for adding and deleting host routes except that the subnet mask will not be
255.255.255.255. It will be the subnet mask for the destination subnet.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−25

Figure 8−21. New Host Route Added to DAP Interface
8.2.4.2.4 Configuring an RS to Proxy for Other Networks.
An RS can be configured as a proxy for other networks. One or more destination RSs may be able to reach the
host network. Each RS that can support the host network can act as a proxy for the network. The radio proxy
table for an RS lists the remote networks (portions of the total network) that the RS can act as a proxy.
Each RS maps IP addresses to Radio Names by processing IP ARP request and response messages. When a
Radio Name is needed for an IP address, the sending RS transmits an ARP request message and waits for a
response. If the RS receives an ARP response message, it can then send data for the destination IP address to
the responding RS.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Each radio proxy table entry must be defined by ARP type as either include or exclude based on the following
definitions:
ARP by inclusion (INCLUDE) The RS will support a proxy request if the IP address of the remote
network specified in table entry matches the IP address in the ARP
request message; a separate INCLUDE table entry is required for each
remote network that is supported.
ARP by exception (EXCLUDE) The RS will support a proxy request if the IP address of the remote
network does not match an entry listed as an EXCLUDE entry; using the
EXCLUDE entry can reduce the number of proxy table entries you need to
support all the remote networks.
The RS Proxy ARP Table is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS and then
right−clicking anywhere in the Radio’s Proxy ARP Table area which displays the pop−up sub−menu shown in
Figure 8−22.

Figure 8−22. Sub−Menu for Adding and Deleting Radio Proxy ARP Entries
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−27
Clicking on the Add Radio’s Proxy ARP Entry... selection displays the data entry window shown in Figure 8−23.
You must enter the correct IP address and subnet mask for the network, and also select either INCLUDE or
EXCLUDE for the ARP type. Clicking the OK button saves the entry and closes the window. The entry is then
displayed in the Radio’s Proxy ARP Table, as shown in Figure 8−24. Clicking the Cancel button closes the
window and aborts the process.
Figure 8−23. Radio Proxy ARP Data Entry WIndow
Figure 8−24. New Radio Proxy ARP Entry in Table

TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−28
NOTE
Creating a Radio Proxy ARP table entry does not forward packets without a
corresponding PVC needline route.
8.2.4.3 Configuring the PVC DF Interface.
The PVC DF interface is built into each EPLRS RS and is used in conjunction with the ENM PVC DF needline
(also called the ENM Broadcast PVC needline) to provide dedicated support for essential ENM functions. These
include:
D Configuring RSs
D Sending ENM status messages to other ENMs
The PVC DF interface needs three things to make it available for use:
D Adding to the deployment plan a CSMA needline with LCN equal to DF
D Setting up a multicast group with IP address 225.1.1.1 with all network ENM RSs as group members
D Checking the PVC Broadcast Enable check box under ENM PVC Broadcast in Preferences
The DF interface icon shows whether the DF needline has been added to the deployment plan. Figure 8−1
shows an example of an RS with its IP interface icons displayed under the IP Assignments tree. A white
background for the DF interface icon indicates that a needline with an LCN value of DF (hex) has not yet been
created under the Net Services tab. When you create a CSMA needline with LCN equal to DF, the DF icon
changes to a black background. Figure 8−3 shows an example of an RS with its DF interface icon activated.
Refer to Section 7.2.6.1.2 for information on creating the CSMA needline for the PVC DF interface.
The PVC DF interface must have a multicast group set up to support ENM status messages. The multicast
address must be set to 225.1.1.1, and all network ENM RSs should have this group IP address added to their
multicast tables. The multicast group must also be set up to use the DF needline as its net service. To join the
multicast group, all RSs must have IGMP set to On for their Ethernet interfaces. Refer to Section 8.2.4.12 for
information on setting up a multicast group.
The ENM operator must set the PVC Broadcast check box under ENM Preferences. Refer to ENM Operator’s
Manual, TB 11−5825−298−10−1 for information on setting the Broadcast PVC Enable check box.
NOTES
After affiliation, the ENM RSs distribute needline CCAs via the coordination net. Then
each network RS adds the ENM network route to its DF interface. After an RS receives
the DF CCA, its embedded router activates the PVC DF needline in the RS.
8.2.4.4 Configuring an IP PVC Interface.
The EPLRS planner must create the IP PVC interfaces to go with the needlines in the network. Needlines are
activated in the network using .A URO messages. However, even when the needlines are activated via .A
messages, it is still necessary to configure the embedded router in the RS with the correct IP addresses for the
needlines. This is required for the embedded router software to be able to route IP datagrams and is true for any
RS that is directly connected to a LAN. The router must be able to match the destination IP addresses of the
datagrams with the correct interfaces or needlines.
Figure 8−25 shows an example of a battalion network that uses a CSMA needline to link three companies. Each
company has an RS and a host device on a LAN. The needline available to the network is a CSMA with LCN 11.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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In this example, the ENM using RS−0001 needs to set up the PVC interface to reach the other companies in the
battalion network.
Figure 8−25. Example Network Requiring PVC Interfaces
A COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.16
HOST DEVICE
IP 192.168.211.18
SUBNET 255.255.255.240
.34
1BN75IN NETWORK
1BN_CSMA
LCN 11
CHANNEL 0
LTS 1, 3, 5, 7
RS−0001
IP 192.168.211.17
SUBNET 255.255.255.240
C COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.48
B COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.32
RS−0003
IP 192.168.211.49
SUBNET 255.255.255.240
RS−0002
IP 192.168.211.33
SUBNET 255.255.255.240
.50
NOTE: THE NUMBERS SUCH AS .50 USE AN
ABBREVIATED FORM OF THE IP ADDRESS
(192.168.211.50) TO SIMPLIFY THE DIAGRAM
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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A PVC interface for RS−0001 (A Company) is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate
the RS and then clicking to select it. Then right−clicking anywhere in the IP Assignments Tree area displays the
sub−menu shown in Figure 8−26. Note that the only selection available at this time is the Add Interfaces...
selection.
Figure 8−26. Sub−Menu for Adding PVC Interface to RS−0001
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−31
Clicking on the Add Interfaces... selection displays the Add Interface window shown in Figure 8−27. You must
select one of three PVC interface types (PPP, IP/ADDSI, or PVC). If the type is PVC, set the number of PVCs
you are going to create. In this example, PVC is the interface type, and the number of PVCs is one. After
entering the data, clicking the Next>> button displays the first Add PVC Interface window, as shown in Figure
8−28. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window and aborts the process.
Figure 8−27. Add Interface Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−32
Figure 8−28. Add PVC Interface Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−33
The first Add PVC Interface window uses the following parameter fields:
IP Address: Virtual gateway address for this interface; assigned by ENP software and
should not be changed; first configurable interface is 127.10.6.1
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for selected RS; assigned by ENP software and should not be
changed
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit; the largest IP datagram (packet) that can be
sent on this interface; defines when a datagram must be fragmented into
multiple datagrams with sizes equal to or smaller than the MTU value; the
default value is 1500 and is usually not changed
Default:
(default)
Yes Sets the PVC interface as the default interface for the
selected RS; ENP adds default route to unicast table; IP
address 0.0.0.0. subnet mask 0.0.0.0., and default gateway
(first configurable interface is 127.10.6.1)
No Deselects the PVC interface as the default, allowing one of
the other IP interfaces to be the default interface for the
selected RS; if this PVC interface had previously been set as
default, ENP removes default route from unicast table
Comm Serv LCN (hex): Lists the names of the needlines available for selection to configure the PVC
interface
IP Header Compression: Used to speed up transfer rates for low bandwidth waveform modes by
compressing the IP packet headers
DHCP Support:
(default)
Allows automatic IP configuration for hosts such as ENM and FBCB2. A valid
DHCP server must be operational in the network to use this feature.
Enabled RSs will listen for DHCP broadcast message on its Ethernet
interface and forward the messages on the IP PVC Interface
Disabled RSs will not listen for DHCP broadcast messages on its
Ethernet interface, or forward messages on the IP PVC
Interface
LCN Inactive Until Needed: When this box is checked, the RS will initialize the needline in standby mode
and will be activated once the needline is needed to transmit data. If it is
unchecked, the RS will initialize the needline in active mode and will be ready
to transmit data immediately
Most of the fields in this are set automatically and should not be changed for basic operation of an IP based
EPLRS network. The only fields that you should change are the Default field and the LCN Inactive Until Needed
checkbox. If the needline you are currently creating an IP PVC interface for is the one you want to forward any
packets that do not have either a network or host route, then the Default field should be set to Yes. If you would
like the needline to start in standby mode, then check the LCN Inactive Until Needed checkbox. This is useful
when you have multiple needlines that use the same LTS resources and would like to only have one active when
the RS is initialized. The Comm Serv LCN is a drop down list to choose which needline to use for this IP PVC
interface. The rest of the fields should be left at default values unless directed by appropriate command
personnel.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−34
After selecting the CSMA needline (1BN_CSMA) and setting the desired state for the Default: field (No), clicking
the Next>> button saves the revised parameters and displays the second Add PVC Interface window, as shown
in Figure 8−29. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.

Figure 8−29. Second Add PVC Interface Window
The second Add PVC Interface window shows a unicast table of the destination networks that may be added to
the interface. In this example, to add B and C Companies, you must click to select each company in the Parent
UTO column and then click on the Add>> button. The two companies are then transferred to the table in the
right side of the window, as shown in Figure 8−30. The IP addresses for the two companies are those of the local
subnets for each company.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−35

Figure 8−30. Selections Made in Second Add PVC Interface Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−36
After selecting the destination networks, clicking the Next>> button saves the revised route data, closes the
window, and displays the revised tabular summary shown in Figure 8−31. This table shows all the subnets
present in RS−0001. Note that the interfaces for the two companies are now displayed in the tabular area, and
that a PVC icon for 1BN_CSMA is displayed under RS−0001 in the tree diagram.
Figure 8−31. New PVC Interfaces Added to RS−0001
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−37
Clicking on the 1BN_CSMA icon displays the unicast table for the newly added PVC interface, as shown in Figure
8−32. The unicast table shows the static route destinations defined between RS−0001
(A Company) and B and C Companies. These destinations are now directly reachable on the CSMA needline.
Figure 8−32. Unicast Table for RS−0001 Showing New Static Routes
8.2.4.5 Configuring an Additional Ethernet LAN Route.
The Ethernet LAN Route interface enables the RS to route IP datagrams to other networks. You can setup an
additional Ethernet LAN interface and route that will allow the RS to route IP datagrams to other networks. This
technique requires using a hub and external router as shown in Figure 8−33. You can do this with some IP host
devices, but you should not do this if the host is an ENM.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−38
Figure 8−33. Ethernet LAN Route Example
HOST DEVICE
IP ADDRESS 192.168.10.18
ROUTER
IP ADDRESS 192.168.10.22
RS00A4
IP ADDRESS 192.168.10.17
SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.248
HUB
REMOTE IP NETWORK
IP ADDRESS 205.10.10.0
SUBNET MASK
255.255.255.0
LAN IP ADDRESS
192.168.10.16
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−39
You can add an Ethernet LAN Route for RS−00A4 by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the
RS and then clicking to select it. Then right−clicking anywhere in the IP Assignments Tree area displays the
sub−menu shown in Figure 8−34.
Figure 8−34. Sub−Menu for Adding Ethernet LAN Route to RS−00A4
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−40
Clicking on the Add Ethernet LAN Route... selection displays the Add Ethernet Route window shown in Figure
8−35. After entering the data, clicking the OK>> button finishes adding the Ethernet LAN Route and displays the
newly added route in the Unicast Table and Radio’s Proxy ARP Table, as shown in Figure 8−36. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window and aborts the process.
Figure 8−35. Add Ethernet Route Window
The Add Ethernet Route window uses the following parameter fields:
Network IP Address: This is the network address of the remote network you want to send IP
datagrams to.
Subnet Mask: This is the network subnet mask of the remote network you want to send IP
datagrams to.
Gateway IP Address: This is the router or next hop gateway that routes the IP datagrams to the
network you want to reach.
Add to RS’s Proxy ARP Table: This selection when checked will add this entry into the RS’s Proxy ARP table.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−41
Figure 8−36. Added Ethernet LAN Route Window
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
8−42
8.2.4.6 Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface.
The IP over ADDSI interface enables the RS embedded router to route IP datagrams to other devices
transmitting over a physical RS−422 serial connection (X.25 ADDSI). An example of a configuration requiring IP
over ADDSI is shown in Figure 8−37. ENM needs a unicast route to an IP over ADDSI interface between
192.168.21.120 and 205.54.179.16.
Figure 8−37. IP Over ADDSI Example
HOST DEVICE
IP ADDRESS 192.168.21.122
SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.240
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.21.120
ROUTER
21.121 179.17
ADDSI X.25
205.54.179.16
IP/ADDSI RS (RS−0005)
ADDRESS 205.54.179.18
SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.240
179.18
NOTE
The ENM RS must be configured before connecting to an ADDSI device. You can have
another remote ENM reconfigure your ENM RS over the air or do it via direct Ethernet
connection. If a router is present, do not assign the RS’s Ethernet address to be on the
same LAN as that of the router.
An IP over ADDSI interface for RS−0005 is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate
the RS and then clicking to select it. Then right−clicking anywhere in the IP Assignments Tree area displays the
sub−menu shown in Figure 8−38. Note that the only selection available at this time is the Add Interfaces...
selection.
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Figure 8−38. Sub−Menu for Adding IP Over ADDSI Interface to RS−0005
Clicking on the Add Interfaces... selection displays the Add Interface window shown in Figure 8−39. You must
select the PVC interface types (PPP, IP/ADDSI, or PVC). In this example, IP/ADDSI is the interface type. After
entering the data, clicking the Next>> button displays the first Add IP ADDSI Interface window, as shown in
Figure 8−40. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window and aborts the process.
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Figure 8−39. Add Interface Window
Figure 8−40. Add IP ADDSI Interface Window
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The Add IP ADDSI Interface window uses the following parameter fields:
IP Address: Virtual gateway address for this interface; assigned by ENP software and
should not be changed; first configurable interface is 127.10.6.1; format is
127.10.x.1
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for selected RS; assigned by ENP software and should not be
changed
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit; the largest IP datagram (packet) that can be
sent on this interface; defines when a datagram must be fragmented into
multiple datagrams with sizes equal to or smaller than the MTU value; the
default value is 1500 and is usually not changed
Default: Yes Sets IP over ADDSI interface as the default interface for the
selected RS; ENP adds default route to unicast table; IP
address 0.0.0.0. subnet mask 0.0.0.0., and default gateway
(first configurable interface is 127.10.6.1)
No Deselects IP over ADDSI interface as default, allowing
another IP interface to be the default interface for the
selected RS; if IP over ADDSI interface had previously been
set as default, ENP removes default route from unicast table
ADDSI LCN (hex): The LCN for the configure the IP over ADDSI interface; corresponds to the
path between the RS and the connected ADDSI device (e.g., the router);
select an LCN not assigned to another CSMA circuit or used by the RS or
other services
After entering the LCN for the IP/ADDSI needline (05) and setting the desired state for the Default: field (No),
clicking the Next>> button saves the parameters and closes the second Add IP ADDSI Interface window. The
icon for the IP over ADDSI interface then appears under RS−0005 in the tree diagram in the IP Interfaces tab
display. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
The required static route for the IP over ADDSI interface is added to the unicast table by selecting the IP over
ADDSI interface in the IP Interfaces tab display, then right−clicking anywhere in the Unicast Table area. The
unicast table sub−menu is displayed as shown in Figure 8−41.
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8−46

Figure 8−41. Sub−Menu for Adding IP Over ADDSI Route to Unicast Table
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Clicking the Add Unicast Entry... selection displays the Add IP/ADDSI Route window, as shown in Figure 8−42.
You must add the IP address and subnet mask for the destination subnet (the remote network) and the IP
address of the next−hop gateway.

Figure 8−42. Add IP/ADDSI Route Window
The Add Unicast Route window uses the following parameter fields:
Network IP Address: IP address of remote network (192.168.21.120 in example)
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for remote network (255.255.255.248 in example)
Gateway IP Address: IP address of virtual gateway (generated by ENP; do not change) or also can
be IP address of device serving as next−hop gateway (entered by planner; in
example, IP address is 205.54.179.17, the IP address of the router, as seen
by RS−0005)
After entering the data into the fields, clicking the OK button saves the parameters and closes the window. The
added route will appear in the Unicast Table section of the tab display, as shown in Figure 8−43. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
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Figure 8−43. IP Over ADDSI Route Added to Unicast Table
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8.2.4.7 Configuring a PPP Interface.
The Point−to−Point Protocol (PPP) interface is a special type of interface that defines both a local and a remote
IP address. The local address is the IP address of the RS on the PPP interface. The remote address is the IP
address of the remote device. Figure 8−44 shows a simple example where a PPP interface can be configured.
In the figure, the remote IP address corresponds to the host device (the computer), and the local IP address
corresponds to a connected RS.
Figure 8−44. PPP Example
REMOTE IP ADDRESS 192.168.250.251
SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0
RS CALLS THIS REMOTE ADDRESS
RS−232 PPP
LOCAL IP ADDRESS 192.168.250.250
SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0
HOST DEVICE
RS (RS−0005)
A PPP interface for RS−0005 is configured by searching through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS and
then clicking to select it. Then right−clicking anywhere in the IP Assignments Tree area displays the sub−menu
shown in Figure 8−45. Note that the only selection available at this time is the Add Interfaces... selection.
Figure 8−45. Sub−Menu for Adding PPP Interface to RS−0005
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Clicking the Add Interfaces... selection displays the Add Interface window shown in Figure 8−46. You must select
PPP for the interface type and set the number of PVCs to one. An RS can only have one PPP interface. Clicking
the Next>> button displays the Add PPP Interface window shown in Figure 8−47.
Figure 8−46. Add Interface Window
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Figure 8−47. Add PPP Interface Window
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The Add PPP Interface window uses the following parameter fields:
IP Address: IP address for local end of the PPP interface; assigned by planner
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for PPP interface; assigned by planner
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit; the largest IP datagram (packet) that can be
sent on this interface; defines when a datagram must be fragmented into
multiple datagrams with sizes equal to or smaller than the MTU value; the
default value is 1500 and is usually not changed
Default: Yes Sets PPP interface as the default interface for the
selected RS; ENP adds default route to unicast table; IP
address 0.0.0.0. subnet mask 0.0.0.0., and default gateway
(first configurable interface is 127.10.6.1)
No Deselects PPP interface as default, allowing
another IP interface to be the default interface for the
selected RS; if PPP interface had previously been
set as default, ENP removes default route from unicast table
IGMP: On Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) enabled;
host application (connected to selected RS) is able to join
multicast groups and receive multicast messages
Off IGMP disabled; host application is not able to join multicast
groups
Remote IP: IP address for remote end of the PPP interface; assigned by planner
Phys Data Rate: The baud rate for the serial devices; both the local and the remote devices
must be configured to run at the same baud rate; values range from 150 to
64000 baud
IP CP Addr: Enabled Performs automatic negotiation of the local IP address;
when local IP address is set to 0.0.0.0, the remote host is
expected to return an address for the local end of the PPP
interface; connection is terminated if remote host and RS
fail to negotiate an address
Disabled Does not perform automatic negotiation
Van Jacob: Enabled Performs Van Jacobson TCP/IP header compression
Disabled Does not perform Van Jacobson TCP/IP header
compression
After entering the parameters for the PPP interface, clicking the Next>> button saves the parameters and closes
the second Add PPP Interface window. The icon for the PPP interface then appears under RS−0005 in the tree
diagram in the IP Interfaces tab display. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without saving any
changes.
Figure 8−48 shows the IP Interfaces tab display showing the PPP interface added to RS−0005. You can add
static unicast or multicast routes for the PPP interface by selecting the PPP interface in the IP Interfaces tab
display, right−clicking anywhere in the Unicast Table or Multicast Table areas, and then adding the required IP
addresses for the routes.

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Figure 8−48. PPP Interface Added to RS−0005
8.2.4.8 Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway.
When members of one network need to be able to reach another remote network, you must set up a next−hop
gateway to the remote network. The next−hop gateway is an IP address for a designated RS that can reach the
remote network. The RS must be configured to reach the remote network and handle IP datagrams addressed to
members of the remote network.
Figure 8−49 shows the network used in the example in Section 8.2.4.4 but with the addition of a bridge RS that
can handle IP datagrams for the remote 2BN75IN network. In this example, the ENM using RS−0001 needs to
set up the PVC interface to reach the bridging RS (or next−hop gateway) to the 2BN75IN remote network.
To configure the 1BN75IN network to reach the 2BN75IN (remote) network, you must add the IP address of the
bridging RS to the unicast table for the PVC used by the 1BN75IN network. After locating the 1BN_CSMA
interface in the IP Assignments Tree, clicking on the 1BN_CSMA icon displays the unicast table for the PVC
interface, as shown in Figure 8−50.
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Figure 8−49. Example Network with Next−Hop Gateway to Another Network
A COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.16
2BN75IN NETWORK
IP 192.168.211.90
SUBNET 255.255.255.248
HOST DEVICE
IP .18
SUBNET .240
.34
1BN75IN NETWORK
1BN CSMA
LCN 11
CHANNEL 0
LTS 1, 3, 5, 7
RS−0001
IP .17
SUBNET .240
C COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.48
B COMPANY
ETHERNET LAN
192.168.211.32
RS−0003
IP .49
SUBNET .240
RS−0002
IP .33
SUBNET .240
.50
RS−0004
IP 192.168.211.65
SUBNET 255.255.255.240
RS−0004 IS THE BRIDGING RS TO
THE 2BN75IN NETWORK
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Figure 8−50. Example Showing Unicast Table for 1BN_CSMA
Right−clicking anywhere in the Unicast Table area displays the unicast sub−menu shown in Figure 8−51. Clicking
the Add Unicast Entry... selection displays the Add PVC Route window shown in Figure 8−52.
Figure 8−51. Unicast Sub−Menu
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Figure 8−52. Add PVC Route Window with New Values Entered
The Add PVC Route window uses the following parameter fields:
Network IP Address: IP address of remote network; assigned by planner
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask for remote network; assigned by planner
Gateway IP Address: IP address of bridging (next−hop gateway) RS; assigned by planner
In the example shown in Figure 8−49, the remote network is the 2BN75IN net. Its IP address is 192.168.211.90,
and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.248. Note that RS−0004 is the bridging RS used by RS−0001 (A Company)
to reach the remote network. The IP address of the bridging RS is 192.168.211.65. These values are shown in
the data fields of the Add PVC Route window shown in Figure 8−52. If there is more than one bridging RS on a
needline, an Add PVC Route should be added to each of the bridging RSs on that needline.
After entering the data into the fields, clicking the OK button saves the parameters and closes the window. The
revised parameters will appear in the Unicast Table section of the tab display, as shown in Figure 8−53. Clicking
the Cancel button closes the window without saving any changes.
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Figure 8−53. Next−Hop Gateway Added to Unicast Table for 1BN_CSMA
8.2.4.9 Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Routes.
You can add or delete static routes to unicast or multicast tables for any of the interfaces. The process is
essentially the same for both types. You must search through the IP Assignments Tree to locate the RS and then
select the interface you want to make table entries in. Then right−clicking anywhere in the table area (either
Unicast or Multicast) displays one of the modification sub−menus shown in Figure 8−54.
Figure 8−54. Unicast and Multicast Modification Sub−Menus
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You can delete unicast or multicast entries by the same process as described for adding entries. When the
modification sub−menu is displayed, click the Delete Unicast Entry or Delete Multicast Entry option, as
appropriate. The selected table entry is immediately deleted. Refer to Section 8.2.4.8 for details on adding
unicast routes to the table.
8.2.4.10 Setting a Default Interface.
Any of the IP interfaces for an RS can be set as the default interface for that RS. This is done by first selecting
the interface in the IP Interfaces Tree diagram and then clicking the Modify button in the Selected Interface
Description area. ENP then displays a modification window that lets you set the interface as the default. Refer to
Section 8.2.4.2 for details on setting a DAP as the default interface.
The windows and parameters used are essentially the same for all types of interfaces. When you set an interface
as the default interface for the RS, all IP datagrams without a network or host route will be transmitted via the
selected interface. ENP adds the default IP address (0.0.0.0) and the default net mask (0.0.0.0) to the unicast
table for the interface you select as default. ENP sets the Gateway IP address (a virtual gateway value) to the
value assigned to the interface. For example, the DAP interface will be assigned the virtual gateway value of
127.10.2.1.
NOTE
If using the TAMA needline, do not set up any other Default interfaces because TAMA
uses the Default interface.
8.2.4.11 Enabling IGMP to Support Multicast Routing.
Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) is a protocol used by IP hosts to send messages to other hosts that
have a common multicast IP address. To support multicast routing for an interface, you must enable IGMP for
that interface. Any Ethernet or PPP interface can be set up with IGMP enabled to support multicast routing. You
must first select the interface in the IP Interfaces Tree diagram and then click the Modify button in the Selected
Interface Description area. ENP displays a modification window that lets you turn on IGMP. Refer to Sections
8.2.4.1 and 8.2.4.7 for details on setting IGMP.
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8.2.4.12 Setting Up a Multicast Group.
ENP provides a tool to set up a multicast group for a needline and add eligible RSs. The tool is activated by
clicking the Multicast Setup selection under the Edit menu. ENP then displays the first Multicast Wizard. Figure
8−55 shows example of first Multicast Wizard.
Figure 8−55. First Multicast Group Wizard
This wizard shows the UTO structure and lets you display all the needlines for each UTO. In first Multicast
Wizard, you must click to select one needline to configure the multicast group. After selecting a needline, clicking
the Next button displays the second Multicast Wizard as shown in Figure 8−56.
Figure 8−56. Second Multicast Group Wizard
This wizard displays the name of the needline you selected and lets you enter the multicast address into Enter
Multicast Group IP: field. Allowable IP addresses range from 224.0.1.0 through 239.255.255.255. Clicking the
Back>> button returns you to the previous Multicast Wizard.
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NOTE
The multicast setup tool is useful for setting up the EPLRS Broadcast (PVC DF)
needline. To use the EPLRS Broadcast needline, each participating RS must be entered
in a common multicast group. The default IP address used for the EPLRS Broadcast
needline is 225.1.1.1.
Clicking the Next button displays the third Multicast Wizard as shown in Figure 8−57. This wizard displays a list
of all RSs associated with the selected needline. It lets you select one or more RSs and add them to the
multicast group. The Shift and Ctrl keys support Windows standard multiple item selection and can be used to
select multiple RSs.
Figure 8−57. Third Multicast Group Wizard
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Clicking the Add>> button adds the selected RSs to the multicast group; the selected RSs are moved from the
left column into the right column of the wizard as shown in Figure 8−58. You can also remove RSs from the
multicast group by selecting them and clicking the <<Remove button; the selected RSs are moved from right
column into left column of the wizard.

Figure 8−58. RSs Assigned to Multicast List
Clicking the Back>> button returns you to the previous Multicast Wizard. After adding the required RSs to the
multicast group, clicking the OK button saves the data and closes the wizard. ENP will display the multicast
group IP address in the multicast group IP address table for each RS and PVC. Clicking the Cancel button
aborts the process without saving any data.
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CHAPTER 9
AGENT TAB
9.1 Agent Tab.
The EPLRS agent software is part of the embedded router function in the EPLRS RS. The main purpose of an
EPLRS agent is to enable a higher rate of transmission of situation awareness (SA) data. The EPLRS agent re-
ceives SA messages, removes the User Datagram Protocol (UDP)/IP header from the messages, and then for-
wards the messages to the specified destinations. Removing the header reduces the size of the message and
allows two messages to be sent in a single transmission. EPLRS agent can also receive and transmit other mes-
sage types including radar, Command and Control (C2), as well as convert Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to
ADDSI, and ADDSI to IP datagrams.
EPLRS agent can be used in planning to improve bandwidth in needline parameters. However, it would require
either the EPLRS RS or host to use IP.
Common reasons for using the EPLRS agent are when you want the bandwidth to be more efficient over the air
or if you want to send data from an IP based host to an ADDSI based host. By using an agent to transmit data,
you will be able to choose smaller LTS sizes such as 1/2 LTS or 1/4 LTS. This is because the agent strips off the
header information, thereby making the packet of data smaller in size.
The system planner uses the Agent tab to set up one or more agents for specific RSs and define the agent inter-
face for each agent added. The Agent tab enables you to assign, modify, and remove EPLRS agents in the de-
ployment plan. Figure 9−1 shows an example of the Agent tab. The Agent tab display consists of the EPLRS
Agent Tree area and the Agent Table area.
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Figure 9−1. Agent Tab Display
The EPLRS Agent Tree area presents a tree diagram showing the UTOs and the RSs assigned under each UTO.
Clicking an RS in the tree diagram selects the RS and displays all of its assigned EPLRS agents in the Agent
Table area of the display. The example in Figure 9−1 has one agent in the table.
After you select an RS in the tree, right−clicking anywhere in the EPLRS Agent Tree area displays the Agent Tree
sub−menu as shown in Figure 9−2. You can also display the same selections by clicking the Edit menu. The Edit
menu displays the Add Agent..., Modify Agent..., Remove Agent..., and Find... selections as shown in Figure 9−3.
The present configuration of the selected RS affects which edit selections are available. In Figure 9−2, RS−0002
has all selections active because it already has an agent assigned, so it is possible to add, modify, or remove an
agent. If RS−0002 had no agent assigned, the Modify Agent and Remove Agent selections would be inactive
(grayed out). The Find selection is always active.
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Figure 9−2. Agent Tree Sub−Menu in EPLRS Agent Tree Area
Figure 9−3. Agent Tab Edit Menu Selections
Clicking either Add Agent selection displays the Add Agent window as shown in Figure 9−4. This window is used
to enter or select the parameters that define the agent. Clicking the Add button adds the new agent to the agent
table. Clicking the Cancel button closes the window without adding the agent.
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Figure 9−4. Add Agent Window
The Add Agent window uses the following parameter fields:
Interface Ethernet, PPP, or IP/ADDSI; IP interface where host using agent will reside;
drop−down list will display only those IP interfaces previously defined for RS.
IP Address Unicast address of host using agent; tells what interface to send message out
on.
Net Service The needline assigned to the agent.
UDP Port UDP port number on host computer; pathway into and out of host device;
minimum value is 1024; maximum value is 65535; source and destination ports
must be same. Host sends packet to RS on this port.
LCN Inactive Until Needed When this box is checked, the RS will initialize the needline in standby mode
and will be activated once the needline is needed to transmit data. If it is
unchecked, the RS will initialize the needline in active mode and will be ready to
transmit data immediately.
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To modify or remove an agent, you must click on the agent in the Agent Table area to select it. If you have not
first selected an agent, ENP displays one of the message windows shown in Figure 9−5.
Figure 9−5. Agent Tab Selection Message Windows
After you select an agent in the table, right−clicking anywhere on the data line for the selected agent displays the
Modify−Remove sub−menu, as shown in Figure 9−6. You can also display the Modify Agent or Remove Agent
selections by clicking the Edit menu. Either method produces selections that work the same way. The Edit menu
displays the Add Agent..., Modify Agent..., Remove Agent..., and Find selections as shown in Figure 9−3.

Figure 9−6. Modify−Remove Sub−Menu
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Clicking the Modify Agent selection displays the Modify Agent window as shown in Figure 9−7. This window is
used to change the parameters that define the agent and is similar to the Add Agent window. Clicking the Modify
button saves the changed parameters and displays them in the agent table. Clicking the Cancel button closes
the window without modifying the agent.
Figure 9−7. Modify Agent Window
Clicking the Remove Agent selection displays the Remove? window as shown in Figure 9−8. Clicking the Yes
button deletes the agent from the deployment plan database and removes it from the agent table. Clicking the
Cancel button closes the window without deleting the agent.
Figure 9−8. Remove Agent Window
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The Find selection lets you search for individual RSs and display them in the EPLRS Agent Tree. Clicking the
Find selection displays the Find window as shown in Figure 9−9. The Find Type: drop−down list lets you select
either an Radio Name or an RS rolename (text) as the type of data searched for. If you select Radio Name as
the data type, ENP will search through the Radio Name values for the RSs in the plan. If you select RS Role-
name as the data type, ENP will search through the rolenames associated with the RSs. It is not necessary to
set the display preferences (Radio Name or Rolename) to match the Find Type: field. The search process is in-
dependent of the display preference setting.
Figure 9−9. Find Window
To perform the search, you enter the specific search data into the Find What: field and click the Find button. You
can enter a partial rolename or radio name if desired. ENP will search for whatever characters you enter. The
results of the search are displayed in the Results area of the window. The Found: field displays the number of
data items that matched the search criteria. Figure 9−10 shows an example of a search for an Radio Name that
returned one result. If the search returns multiple results, the Result(s): drop−down list lets you click to select one
of the results. Clicking the Select button then locates and highlights the selected result in the EPLRS Agent
Tree. ENP will expand the tree as required to display the Radio Name or RS Rolename that was found.
Figure 9−10. Find Window with Search Results
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CHAPTER 10
PRE−DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT
10.1 INTRODUCTION.
Management of an EPLRS network begins with the pre−deployment planning and continues through the life of the
network. You should understand the major elements of network management in order to properly allocate assets
and resources for supporting the management of a deployment.
10.2 PRE−DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING.
Pre−deployment planning includes defining and allocating the EPLRS resources needed for the effective
management of the network. Network management makes use of the following functional resources:
D The Coordination Network (LTS 2)
D DAP needlines
D The ENM Broadcast PVC Needline with multicast address 255.1.1.1
Figure 10−1 shows the various EPLRS functional resources that allow you to perform over−the−air network
management. Note that some functional resources can reach over more hops than others. For example, you
can get RS status and reconfigure remote RSs via DAPs or via the ENM Broadcast Needline. But if you use a
6−hop CSMA needline as the ENM Broadcast Needline, ENM can reach one hop farther with the ENM Broadcast
Needline than it can using a DAP. If you have remote RSs that may be more than 5 hops away from an ENM,
then it is a good idea to have the ENM Broadcast Needline in the deployment plan. It’s also a good idea to
geographically place your ENMs around the network community so that RSs are fewer hops away from an ENM.
Some important points to remember in pre−deployment management planning include:
D Ensuring all your ENMs are running the same software version and also using the same network plan.
Failure to do so may result in ENMs being unable communicate with each other, deployment mismatch
errors, and radios being constantly re−configured as they move from one ENM to another.
D It is recommended that a Configuration Management (CM) process be created for database management to
reduce the possibility of different database loads.
D Making sure to have all your ENMs synchronized to the same timezone with your battle units, as doing this
will aid in troubleshooting, fault reporting, and position reporting.
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Figure 10−1. ENM Functional Resources and Ability to Reach to Remote RSs
ENM
RS
RS 1 RS 2 RS 3 RS 4 RS 5 RS 6
DAPS (UP TO 5 HOPS)
ENM
PC
COORDINATION NETWORK (UP TO 5 HOPS)
ENM PVC: USER−SELECTABLE (1, 2, 4, OR 6 HOPS)
10.2.1 ENM−to−RS Communications.
ENM uses the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to communicate with individual RSs directly
connected to the ENM or over needlines to remote RSs. An SNMP manager residing in the ENM exchanges
information with an SNMP agent resident in each RS. Table 10−1 outlines the management functions the ENM
supports and shows which of the functional resources is used to support them. In addition to listing the most
common ENM management functions, Table 10−1 lists the path these functions use between the RS and ENM
and the maximum number of hops each path can support.
ENMs use the ENM Broadcast PVC needline (also called the ENM DF needline) and DAPs to perform many
management functions such as remote RS re−configuration and status queries. The DF needline is a planned
CSMA needline that is assigned the LCN value as DF (hexadecimal). For the Broadcast PVC Needline to be
most effective, plan the needlines so that the Broadcast PVC Needline does not share resources with other
needlines. The RS will attempt to use the ENM PVC DF needline to report its status and after 3 failed attempts
will try to send status using a DAP.
Network ENMs use DAPs to support management functions such as getting RS status and reconfiguring RSs. To
use DAPs, there must be pre−planned DAP resources available, and the Coordination Network must be available
to set up the DAPs.
The Coordination Network is used by the ENM to announce its presence to the network and to collect status
information. Always try to reserve LTS 2 for the Coordination Network alone, and use other LTSs to support PVC
needlines. Doing so protects these direct−management support services along with all the other support services
the Coordination Network supports, such as establishing DAPs.
ENMs use portions of Timeslot Indicator 5 (TSI 5) to support a number of system functions (network advance,
changing power level, changing frequency hop/no−hop, and network resync). Whenever LTS 2 is occupied by a
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PVC needline, TSI 5 will act as a backup in place of it. Ideally, its still best to leave PVC needlines off of LTS 2 as
TSI 5 has limited resources and in large deployments will be slower then if LTS 2 was not used for
communications. TSI 5 is not user configurable.
Table 10−1. Management Functions and their ENM−to−RS paths
Management Functions
Path Function Uses Between RSs and ENM
ENM PVC
User
Selectable
Up to 6 Hops
DAP
Up to 5 Hops
LTS 2
Coordination
Network
Up to 5 Hops
TSI 5
Up to 5 hops
TMI X
System Updates (key advances,
network resync, hop/no−hop
changes, power level changes)
X X
ENM Sending Keys to RS X X
ENM Zeroizing a Remote RS X X X X
ENM Configuring a Remote RS X X
OTAR X X
ENM−to−ENM Communications
(ENM Chat and FTP)
X X
ENM−Requested RS Status X X X X
ENM−to−ENM Status Message X
Periodic RS Status
(Sent to ENM by RS)
X X
CCAs for SADL RSs X X
General RS Anomalies X X
10.2.2 RS Configuration.
Configuring an RS loads network information into a radio. Among the things loaded are needline, IP routing and
position location information for the network. This information is stored in the RS database. You can configure
up to 6 RSs simultaneously. ENM will set up multiple DAP connections to configure multiple RSs. Initial
configuration and reconfiguration reload all parts of the deployment plan into the RS.
This complete loading of parameters into an RS is called RS configuration. An RS may be configured by an ENM
directly (over a LAN) or remotely (via the EPLRS network).
Once configured, RSs can participate in an EPLRS network. RSs hold their configuration data even when
powered off.
10.2.3 EPLRS Communities.
EPLRS performance is influenced by the number of participating RSs, their relative location, and the geography
of the deployment area. An ENM can manage RSs that are within 6 RF hops from the ENM. Area of coverage
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
10−4
will vary depending on terrain. Strategically placed ENMs throughout the network will help distribute the
management responsibilities.
10.2.3.1 Size of the RS Community.
Although there is no limit to the number of RSs that an ENM can manage, it is recommended that the number of
RSs per ENM be limited to around 300. This will avoid long delays in configuring or monitoring radios in the
network.
10.2.3.2 ENM Management Levels.
The ENM supports two levels of management privileges. The privileges for each ENM is decided by the planner
during plan development. The ENM software application is the same for both levels. The two general types of
ENM Operators are as follows:
D Monitor
D Network
D ENM Range Extension (see note below)
NOTE
The ENM Range Extension operator has full Network operator access, but is restricted
from performing any key generation tasks and sending a TMI command. Only under
very special circumstances will a Range Extension operator be allowed to perform key
generation or send a TMI. See TM 11−5825−298−10−2 for more information on these
circumstances. ENM Range Extension is not a software option, rather an ARMY derived
role.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
10−5/(10−6 blank)
The Network ENM Operator has access to all ENM functional privileges while the Monitor ENM Operator has a
limited set of functions. Range Extension Operator functions are exactly like Network Operators, however, it will
only send out TMI or perform key generation functions under very special conditions. Table 10−2 compares the
functional privileges of the Network ENM Operator, Monitor ENM Operator and Range Extension Operator.
Table 10−2. Functional Capabilities of ENM Levels of Access
Function
Network
Range
Extension
Monitor
Deployment Planning (Data Entry and File Generation)
Off−line (not affiliated to an RS) X X X
Real time X X
RS Key Generation
Black key file generation X
Red key DTD loading X
Initiate Network (Time Master Initiate − TMI) X
System−Wide updates (Key Advance, Network Re−
Sync, hop/no−hop changes, power level changes)
X X
General Administrative Commands to RSs (e.g. IP Ping
utility)
ENM (Local) RS X X X
Remote RS X X
Configuring RSs (RS configuration file)
ENM RS X X X
Remote RS X X
Over−the−Air Rekey of RSs (OTAR) X X
Receiving RS Status
(General RS information − faults, key status, etc.)
ENM RS X X X
Remote RS X X X
ENM−to−ENM Communications
ENM status X X Receive Only
ENM chat X X X
FTP X X X
Get & Load DB X X X
Get & Save BKF X X
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−1
CHAPTER 11
KEY PLANNING
11.1 INTRODUCTION.
EPLRS is a secure communications system that protects transmitted information via dynamically altered
waveform attributes and data encryption. The ENM manages the generation and distribution of cryptographic
keys throughout the network.
This chapter provides key planning and management guidance to the system planner. The purpose of key
planning is to incorporate COMSEC guidance and key management doctrine when creating COMSEC plans that
support EPLRS networks.
The Army corps is the highest level of COMSEC community. COMSEC planning, guidance, and distribution of
cryptographic key materials originate at the corps and are implemented at the corps, division, and brigade levels.
The Network Operator Security Center (NOSC) works with the Integrated System Controller (ISYSCON) and
Corps G6 to perform COMSEC key planning; the planner assists in managing key generation and distribution
throughout the EPLRS network via a designated ENM. COMSEC planning requires an understanding of the
following:
D COMSEC hardware
D Key descriptions
D Key generation and distribution
D Network key operations
D COMSEC guidance
For additional information on key operations and procedures and using ENM, refer to the ENM Operator’s Manual
(TB 11−5825−298−10−1).
11.2 COMSEC HARDWARE.
The designated ENM controls and implements NOSC/ISYSCON/G6 instructions regarding cryptographic net
management using COMSEC hardware. This hardware includes devices for reading seed key paper tapes,
generating keys and key files, loading keys into a Data Transfer Device (DTD), and handling encrypted data. A
DTD is a generic term for any device that loads red keys into an EPLRS RS. The two most common DTDs are
the AN/CYZ−10 and the AN/PYQ−10(C) (SKL). Table 11−1 describes the COMSEC hardware devices that are
used with EPLRS and explains their functions.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−2
Table 11−1. EPLRS COMSEC Hardware
Hardware Function
Key Operating Instruction (KOI)−18 Tape Reader The KOI−18 tape reader is used to read Activation Key
Encryption Keys (AKEKs) and Key Production Keys
(KPKs) into the key generation device, the KOK−13.
AKEKs and KPKs come in paper tape form.
KOK−13 Remote Rekey Equipment The KOK−13 is a cryptographic key generator that
generates and packages the keys for the RSs. The
KOK−13 generates some keys that are loaded into RSs via
DTD and others that are loaded via over−the−air−rekey
(OTAR) distribution.
DTD (AN/CYZ−10) The AN/CYZ−10 is the DTD used to load the initial keys
into EPLRS RSs. The KOK−13 generates the keys under
the control of ENM. The keys are downloaded into an
AN/CYZ−10. The AN/CYZ−10 physically connects to each
RS via fill cable to load the initial keys. The ENM
distributes subsequent keys to each RS via the OTAR
process.
SKL (AN/PYQ−10(C)) The AN/PYQ−10 is a replacement for the DTD
(AN/CYZ−10) currently fielded to the US Army. It will be
able to perform all functions that the DTD currently can.
Please see TM 11−7010−354−12&P for more information
on the Simple Key Loader (SKL).
Key Generator Variable (KGV−13A) The KGV−13A is a hardware module inside each EPLRS
RS. The KGV−13A is the COMSEC subsystem that
encrypts and decrypts network data.
11.3 KEY DESCRIPTIONS.
EPLRS uses several different types of COMSEC keys to manage and control the network. As the planner, you
must know the names and purposes of the various types of COMSEC keys used to set up and maintain the
network communities. You may work with the COMSEC custodian in the process of distributing keys in the
network and ensuring that key loading, KOK−13 advances, and network crypto advances are properly scheduled
and performed. There are several types of COMSEC (or crypto) keys used in the process. They can be
separated into two major categories:
D Activation and production keys used by the KOK−13 for key generation
D Keys generated by the KOK−13 and loaded into EPLRS RSs
11.3.1 Activation and Production Keys.
Activation and production keys are loaded in the KOK−13 to enable key generation for EPLRS RSs. These keys
are usually called quad keys and seed keys. They are issued by the National Security Agency (NSA) via the
COMSEC Material Control System (CMCS) in coordination with the Corps G6. Table 11−2 describes the
activation and production keys used by EPLRS, the associated COMSEC terms, and the functions of each key
type. Table 11−3 describes each of the seed keys in further detail, including the associated COMSEC terms and
the functions of each key type.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−3
Table 11−2. Activation and Production Key Descriptions
Key Type Description
Quadrant keys (or Quad keys), also
called Activation Key Encryption Keys
(AKEKs)
Quad keys activate and support internal operation of the KOK−13.
Quad keys consist of two segment tapes, one segment each. The
pair of tapes is identified by an ID number with a letter suffix (e.g.,
A401A, A401B, etc.) The two quad segment tapes may be loaded into
KOK−13 in any order, but both must be loaded before the seed keys
can be loaded. The quad keys issued are the same (common)
throughout the Army and are valid for a crypto period of one year.
Quad keys are provided in paper tape form and require the KOI−18 for
loading them into the KOK−13.
Seed keys, also called Key
Production Keys (KPKs or Z−KPKs)
Used by the KOK−13 to generate all keys for the RSs. Seed keys are
provided in the form of weekly, monthly, and yearly key tapes, and the
weekly seed keys are usually provided in two segments, Week 1 and
Week 2. Seed keys contain the raw crypto material used by the
KOK−13 to generate the red and black keys loaded into the RSs. The
seed keys issued are the same (common) throughout the Corps.
Seed keys are provided in paper tape form and require the KOI−18 for
loading them into the KOK−13.
Table 11−3. Seed Key Descriptions
Key Type Description
Weekly KPK; also called Z2;
separate key segments for Week 1
and Week 2 keys
The weekly key (or Z2) is used to generate the corps−wide common
traffic encryption key (CTEK). A new Z2 key is loaded into the
KOK−13 for each new crypto period as determined by the command
authority. The current key management plan specifies a crypto period
of two weeks for each Z2 key. The loading sequence must increase
linearly; Week 1 is loaded first and usually covers the first half of the
month; Week 2 is loaded next and covers the second half of the
month, then a new Week 1 segment is loaded, and so forth. In order
to execute a monthly advance of the seed keys in the KOK−13, the
next Z2 key must be Week 1.
Monthly KPK; also called Z1
separate key segments for Month 1
and Month 2 keys
The Z1 key is used to generate the current and next month Rekey key.
The current key management plan specifies a crypto period of one
month for each Z1 key. Month 1 must be loaded first, followed by
Month 2, and so forth.
Yearly KPK; also called Z3 The Z3 key is used to generate the Initialization Key Encryption Key
(IKEK). Each RS gets a unique IKEK. The current key management
plan specifies a crypto period of one year for each Z3 key. The same
Z3 key must be used throughout the deployment to ensure
compatibility and support OTAR.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−4
11.3.2 Keys Generated and Loaded into EPLRS RSs.
Keys generated by the KOK−13 are most commonly placed into two general groups: red keys and black keys.
Red keys are unencrypted keys (ready to be used) that are manually loaded into an RS by a DTD fill device. The
IKEK and current traffic keys are referred to as red keys. Red keys are classified secret. Black keys are
encrypted keys and therefore need to be decrypted by other keys before they can be used by the RS.
In addition, there are two basic functional types of keys: traffic encryption keys (TEKs) and key encryption keys
(KEKs). TEKs provide protection for the transfer of data. The same TEK is used by all RSs in the network. An
RS must have a TEK to join the network and transmit information over the air. The TEK is also commonly called
the traffic key. The current traffic and next traffic are TEKs. Conversely, KEKs provide protection for the transfer
of other keys; they are essential for all over−the−air key updates. The initial key encryption key (IKEK), current
rekey, and next rekey are KEKs.
Table 11−4 describes the five different keys used in EPLRS data encryption. These are the keys produced by the
KOK−13 and loaded into the EPLRS RSs. Table 11−5 shows the relationships between the keys loaded into the
EPLRS RSs and the seed keys used to generate them. The table also lists the alternate names you may
encounter when handling the keys. The paragraphs that follow explain the purposes and relationships of the
keys.
Table 11−4. Descriptions of Keys Loaded into EPLRS RSs
Key Name Purpose Load Device Type Group
IKEK Initialization KEK; gives RS
individual identity; classified
key; valid for one year; unique
to each RS
DTD or SKL KEK red
Current Traffic Allows RS to join the network;
protects over−the−air transfer
of data by RS; classified key;
valid for two weeks; key is
common Corps−wide
DTD or SKL TEK red
Current Rekey Given to RS by ENM when RS
enters network (if RS has a
valid IKEK); allows next rekey
and next TEK to be loaded via
OTAR; protected by IKEK; valid
for one month; unique to RS
OTAR or direct
connection to
ENM
KEK black
Next Traffic Next TEK stored by RS;
replaces the current TEK when
advance occurs; protected by
current rekey
OTAR or direct
connection to
ENM
TEK black
Next Rekey Next rekey stored by RS;
replaces the current rekey
when advance occurs;
protected by current rekey
OTAR or direct
connection to
ENM
KEK black
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−5
Table 11−5. Alternate Key Nomenclatures and Seed Key Sources
Key Alternate Names Seed Key Source
IKEK None Yearly seed (Z3) KPK
Current Traffic Current CTEK; or Corps−Wide Common
Traffic Key
Weekly seed (Z2) KPK
Current Rekey Current Unique Key Encryption Key
(UKEK)
Monthly seed (Z1) KPK
Next Traffic Next CTEK Weekly seed (Z2) KPK
Next Rekey Next UKEK Monthly seed (Z1) KPK
There are two operational states associated with TEKs and KEKs: current and next. The current TEK and
current rekey are the keys currently in use by the network. The next TEK and next rekey are delivered to and
stored by the RS until a network advance is required. The next TEK key remains valid for one crypto period
(typically two weeks), and then the key must be advanced again. The next rekey is usually valid for one month.
The cryptographic advance process (network advance) takes place at the same time throughout the entire
network and results in the next TEK replacing the current TEK or the next TEK and next rekey replacing the
current TEK and current rekey. The OTAR process is used to deliver the next keys to the RSs. OTAR prepares
the network for an upcoming cryptographic advance.
The current rekey, next traffic, and next rekey keys are referred to as black keys because they are encrypted
before they are transferred to and stored in the ENM and RSs. All black keys are unique to the particular RS they
are generated for. Black keys are not classified but are protected by KEKs (encrypted) during their transfer to the
RSs.
11.4 KEY GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION.
Key generation is performed by the KOK−13 using common seed key tapes issued by the COMSEC custodian.
The KOK−13 generates both red and black keys. An EPLRS community can have more than one KOK−13 to
generate keys. The corps−level planner determines the COMSEC procedures for the generation and distribution
of all crypto keys necessary to support all operations. However, the COMSEC custodian ensures that the seed
key tapes are delivered to all KOK−13s.
The key generation process requires the following equipment:
KOI−18 paper tape reader: Loads quad and seed key tapes into the KOK−13 key generator
KOK−13 key generator: Generates red keys and black key files; loads red keys into the DTD or SKL
ENM computer: Manages the process of generating red keys and black key files via the
KOK−13; advances the seed keys in the KOK−13
DTD or SKL: Receives red keys from the KOK−13
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−6
The key distribution process requires the following equipment:
DTD or SKL: Loads red keys into RSs by direct connection
ENM computer: Manages the process of sending black keys to network RSs via OTAR and
sending black key files to other network ENMs via FTP
ENM RS: Connected RS used by ENM computer to transmit black keys to RSs and
black key files to ENMs
11.4.1 Key Process Overview.
Figure 11−1 presents an overview of the key generation and distribution process for EPLRS. The diagram shows
the relationship between the individual seed keys and the EPLRS RS keys that correspond to them.
NEXT
TRAFFIC
IKEK
BLACK KEY (REKEY) FILE SENT TO ENMs
OR INDIVIDUAL BLACK KEYS SENT OVER
THE AIR TO NETWORK RSs
BLACK KEYS TO
NETWORK RSs
IKEK
CURRENT
TRAFFIC

Figure 11−1. Key Generation and Distribution Diagram
PAPER TAPE QUAD
KEYS AND SEED KEYS
RED KEYS
KOK−13 KEY
GENERATOR
KOI−18
TAPE
READER
ENM
COMPUTER
YEARLY KPK (Z3)
WEEK 1 KPK (Z2)
(FIRST WEEK LOADED)
WEEK 2 KPK (Z2)
(SECOND WEEK LOADED)
MONTH 1 KPK (Z1)
(FIRST MONTH)
AKEKs
(QUAD KEYS)
ENM
RS
EPLRS
NETWORK
RSs
BLACK
KEY FILE
(BKF)
CURRENT
REKEY
MONTH 2 KPK (Z1)
(SECOND MONTH)
NEXT
REKEY
NEXT
TRAFFIC
(ALTERNATE
LOADING)
CURRENT
TRAFFIC
DTD
/
SKL
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−7
The diagram in Figure 11−2 shows how ENM manages the generation and distribution of the EPLRS COMSEC
keys. By using ENM’s automatic functions, the process minimizes manual key generation, loading, and
distribution.
Figure 11−2. ENM Management of Key Generation and Distribution
ENM RS
RED KEYS LOADED
INTO EPLRS RSs
(VIA FILL CABLE)
BLACK KEY
(REKEY) FILE
COMMANDS TO KOK−13
KOK−13 STATUS
DTD or SKL
RS KEY STATUS
BLACK KEY (REKEY)
FILE (VIA FTP)
SINGLE BLACK KEYS
FOR RSs (VIA OTAR)
KOK−13 KEY
GENERATOR
KOI−18
PAPER TAPE
READER
ENM
COMPUTER
BLACK KEY (REKEY) FILE
SENT TO ENMs OR
INDIVIDUAL BLACK KEYS
SENT OVER THE AIR TO
NETWORK RSs
EPLRS
NETWORK
RSs
RED KEYS (IKEK,
CURRENT TEK)
SEED KEYS
11.4.2 Quad Key and Seed Key Tape Loading.
The key generation process begins with obtaining the required quad and seed keys in paper tape format. This
provides the required yearly seed key (Z3), monthly seed key (Z1), and weekly seed key (Z2) for the KOK−13 to
use to generate the red and black keys for the EPLRS RSs. The KOI−18 is used to load the quad and seed key
tape data into the KOK−13. The recommended order for loading seed keys into the KOK−13 is as follows:
1. Current monthly Z1
2. Next monthly Z1
3. Current weekly Z2
4. Next weekly Z2
5. Current yearly Z3
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−8
11.4.3 Red Key Generation.
For the red key generation process, the KOK−13 generates the common current TEK and the individual IKEKs for
each RS and and loads them into DTDs/SKLs. The ENM software is used to command the KOK−13 to generate
the necessary TEKs and IKEKs and load them into the DTD/SKL. The loaded DTDs/SKLs are then distributed
throughout the network to transfer the red keys into the RSs by individual direct connection. The RS operator
must physically load the EPLRS RS with an IKEK and the current traffic key using a DTD/SKL when the EPLRS
RS is zeroized (has no cryptographic keys). The ENM cannot load red keys into the RSs.
NOTE
While loading the DTD/SKL with the IKEK and the current traffic keys from the KOK−13,
the operator has the option of also loading the next traffic key. Normally, only the IKEK
and the current traffic keys are loaded into the EPLRS RS via DTD. The next traffic key
is loaded via OTAR from the ENM. However, if an RS will be entering the net just before
an advance, both the current and the next traffic keys should be loaded via the DTD/SKL
(along with the IKEK) because the EPLRS RS may not have time to get the next traffic
via OTAR. Without the next traffic, the EPLRS RS will drop out of the network when the
advance occurs.
11.4.4 Black Key Generation.
For the black key generation process, the KOK−13 generates the BKF. The BKF is also called the rekey file.
The BKF contains key information for every IKEK that could be generated by the KOK−13. Current rekeys will
always be generated, and next rekeys and next traffic keys may also be generated in the rekey file (as
determined by the KOK−13 configuration). The current rekey is given to each RS by ENM as soon as the RS
enters the network (if the RS has a valid IKEK and has no current rekey key).
Black keys do not have to be stored on a DTD/SKL because they are encrypted keys. Black keys must be
decrypted before the RS can use them.
An auto−rekey function in ENM automatically delivers next keys to RSs via OTAR. When the ENM operator
starts the auto−rekey process, each RS with a current rekey will receive the next traffic and next rekey from ENM
over the air. Each RS needs these keys to perform a crypto advance.
NOTE
Normally, the next traffic key is transferred to the RS as a black key by ENM via OTAR.
If an RS may be required to enter the network shortly before a scheduled network (crypto
key) advance, and there is no time to get the next traffic key to the RS via OTAR, you
can instruct the key loading personnel to use the DTD/SKL to load the next traffic key
into the RS as a red key. This ensures that the RS has its next next traffic key and can
advance along with the other RSs in the network.
The ENM software is used to command the KOK−13 to generate a BKF that ENM will receive and store for OTAR
use. During the process of creating the BKF, ENM displays the file generation status for review by the ENM
operator. Black keys are also called rekey variables. The process of creating a BKF takes about 15 to 20
minutes, and the file size for a full BKF is just over one megabyte.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−9
After the process of generating the BKF has been completed, the BKF can be:
D Manually delivered to the ENMs responsible for supporting OTAR. This can be done by copying the rekey file
to a removable medium such as a floppy disk or CD and hand−carrying it to the ENMs.
D Distributed via FTP. Network ENMs can get the current rekey file over the air from another ENM via FTP.
Whenever an ENM needs a rekey file to support OTAR, the ENM operator can use a special Get & Save BKF
tool under the ENMs tab and download the file from a remote ENM that has the current rekey file.
11.4.5 Advancing the Seed Keys in the KOK−13.
The KOK−13 advance is automatically performed soon after the EPLRS network advance. ENM displays the
seed key status so you always know what seeds are currently in the KOK−13. Table 11−6 shows an example of
how the seed keys change when you perform a weekly advance. Table 11−7 shows an example of how the seed
keys will change when you perform a monthly advance. When you perform a monthly advance, note that the
weekly seed key also advances. With the monthly advance, the weekly seed key must advance from the even
segment (Week 2) back to Week 1.
Table 11−6. Example of Changes in Seed Keys after Weekly Advance
Seed Before Advance After Advance Effect
CM
NM
CW
NW
CY
406 CJ 01
406 CJ 02
452 TN 01
452 TN 02
459 FO 01
406 CJ 01
406 CJ 02
452 TN 02
None
459 FO 01
No change
No change
Next Week becomes Current Week seed
No Next Week seed
No change
Table 11−7. Example of Changes in Seed Keys after Monthly Advance
Seed Before Advance After Advance Effect
CM
NM
CW
NW
CY
406 CJ 01
406 CJ 02
452 TN 02
452 TO 01
459 FO 01
406 CJ 02
None
452 TO 01
None
459 FO 01
Next Month becomes Current Month seed
No Next Month seed
Next Week becomes Current Week seed
No Next Week seed
No change
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−10
11.4.6 Guidelines for Generating and Managing Keys.
Prior to deployment, the following practices are recommended:
1. Ensure that all seed key tapes (Z1, Z2, and Z3) are identical for all KOK−13s.
2. Load enough DTDs/SKLs with the current traffic key and an adequate number of IKEKs. The
recommended number of IKEKs to load should be about two to three times the number of RSs that you
have to load.
3. When troubleshooting RSs, instruct the RS operators not to zeroize an RS unless necessary; excessive
zeroizing can lead to running out of IKEKs.
4. Ensure that KOK−13 and all DTDs/SKLs have fresh batteries prior to deployment.
5. Before loading keys into an EPLRS RS, instruct the RS operators to verify that the EPLRS Radio Name,
channel set, and guard channel are correct. Normally these settings are set once at the start of a
deployment. Note that these parameters can only be changed when the RS is zeroized, so an incorrect
parameter means that the operator must zeroize the RS, correct the parameter setting via URO, and
reload red keys.
6. If a BKF will be used to support a deployment, be sure to allocate enough time for the generation and
distribution of the file.
7. If possible, generate a complete BKF, not a minimum loading. The BKF should include the next traffic
and next rekey. Distribute the BKF to all network ENM platforms.
8. Ensure that the planned advance time (when radios implement the next keys) is widely known by ENM
operators and RS operators.
9. Ensure that the OTAR distribution of next keys is initiated well before the planned crypto advance period.
Starting OTAR at least forty−eight hours prior is recommend, but the tactical situation may dictate starting
even earlier.
10. Build and distribute the next BKF immediately after the advance occurs.
11. The current black key file must be in the C:\opt\enm\config\rekeys\currentrekey directory on the ENM PC.
11.5 NETWORK KEY OPERATIONS.
This section provides guidance for the system planner and explains the crypto key operations performed during
EPLRS network operations. Topics include the following:
D Network entry
D Network rekey operations
D Network advance operations
D Emergency COMSEC operations
11.5.1 Network Entry.
An EPLRS RS can join the network as long as the RS has a valid current traffic key. Once in the network, the RS
can transmit and receive network data. At the time of entering the network, each RS should already have the
current traffic key and a valid IKEK.
After an RS joins the network, the ENM will send the RS the current rekey key if the RS has a valid IKEK (but
does not yet have a current rekey key). The ENM automatically tries to send the current rekey key to the RS. No
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
11−11
ENM operator action is required. When the RS reports its key status to the ENM in an ENM status message, the
ENM updates the RS’s keys, if needed. If the ENM Auto−Rekey function is enabled, then ENM will send all the
black keys to the RS (the current rekey key, the next rekey key, and the next traffic key), not just the current
rekey key.
If any black key cannot be loaded after six tries, the ENM will stop attempting to send that key to the RS. The
amount of time that this takes can vary between 5−20 minutes. The ENM Radio Status tab display provides
status to the operator to show whether an RS has received black keys or not.
NOTES
If the IKEK is not present in the RS, the RS will not get the current rekey key from ENM
and will not be able to support OTAR.
ENM RSs should not be loaded with two traffic keys. An EPLRS RS with two traffic keys
cannot be used to send the time master initiate command to the network because the RS
does not know which traffic key to use to start the network.
Other EPLRS RSs can have two traffic keys because they will make repeated attempts
to enter the network, using one traffic key and then the other, until they enter the
network. However, if the RS has only one traffic key, it will only use that traffic key to
attempt to enter the network (i.e., it will enter the network roughly twice as fast with a
single traffic key than with two traffic keys).
If an RS does not have the required keys at the time a network crypto advance occurs,
its keys will not be advanced, and the RS will fall out of the network. If an RS has the
next keys but is powered off at the time that the advance occurs, its keys will be
advanced upon subsequent power−up and entering the net.
11.5.2 Key Distribution.
A network ENM can distribute black keys over the air to RSs in the network. The ENM can either distribute black
keys from a connected KOK−13 or from a BKF stored on the ENM PC hard disk. A monitor ENM cannot
distribute keys over the air.
11.5.2.1 Key Distribution From a BKF.
If the ENM is not connected to a KOK−13, then the ENM must have a BKF in order to support over−the−air black
key transfers. The keys stored in a complete BKF will include current rekey keys for all possible IKEKs as well as
next traffic and next rekey keys for all possible current rekey keys. ENM distributes individual black keys to RSs
either manually (by ENM operator action) or automatically (via ENM Auto−Rekey function).
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11.5.2.2 Key Distribution From a KOK−13.
If an ENM is connected to a KOK−13, it can generate black keys and distribute them to individual RSs either
manually (by ENM operator action) or automatically (via ENM Auto−Rekey function). ENM is designed to use a
BKF for rekey operations instead of a connected KOK−13 when both (BKF and KOK−13) are present.
NOTE
If you want to distribute black keys directly from a connected KOK−13 to the network
RSs, then ensure that there is no BKF in the current rekey directory. If an ENM is
connected to a KOK−13 and the ENM has previously obtained black keys from the
KOK−13 (i.e., has a local BKF stored in the current rekey folder), the ENM will update
RSs by using the keys in the BKF, not the keys from the KOK−13.
11.5.3 Network Rekey Operations.
OTAR is the network rekey process in which ENM sends the next set of keys to RSs in an existing network in
anticipation of performing a key advance. The new keys used to support this key advance normally include the
current rekey key, the next rekey key and the next traffic key. Only network ENMs can send keys to remote RSs;
monitor ENMs cannot do this. Network ENM operators can either manually rekey RSs or set up the ENM Auto
Rekey function to do it automatically.
Auto rekey is standard operating procedure. You should manually rekey only for special circumstances, such as
RS rekey failure after an Auto rekey.
Whenever an RS joins the network and the RS needs keys, then ENM displayed status will alert the ENM
Operator that the RS needs keys. If the ENM Auto Rekey function is enabled, or if the Network ENM operator
manually initiates a key update, the ENM will send the RS its next keys for that crypto period. These keys can
come from a black key file or from a KOK−13 connected to the ENM. The ENM first tries to obtain the keys from
a black key file if it has one in its current rekey directory before obtaining keys from an attached KOK−13. If the
Auto Rekey function is disabled, only the current rekey key is sent to the RS automatically. In this case the
Network ENM operator must manually send the next rekey key and next traffic keys to the RS.
11.5.4 Network Advance Operations.
A network advance is a scheduled change to the cryptographic keys used by the network. It is a planned event in
which the current crypto period transitions to the next crypto period for the network. At the scheduled time, the
advance replaces the current weekly key with the next weekly key, or replaces the current weekly and current
monthly keys with the next weekly and next monthly keys.
The advance is a coordinated process that is normally controlled by the IASO, who determines the time at which
a network crypto advance will take place. The IASO must ensure that a network OTAR can be completed by the
chosen time. The IASO notifies the ENM operators of the scheduled advance time. At the scheduled time, a
designated ENM operator initiates the network crypto advance.
By National Security Agency (NSA) direction, planning should schedule for advancing all RSs to a new crypto
period every two weeks. In most cases, when a bi−weekly seed key is in use, the network undergoes a weekly
advance at mid−month, and then a monthly and weekly advance at the end of the month. Note that the monthly
advance is operationally controlled and is not necessarily fixed at a particular number of weekly advances. In
addition, once per year, all ENMs and RSs throughout the corps are reinitialized with new IKEKs based on a new
yearly (Z3) seed key.
All EPLRS RSs must have their next keys in order to advance with the network. To provide the required next
keys prior to the advance, the ENM operator must rekey all RSs that are expected to advance. A countdown
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period begins when the crypto advance is initiated, and the Auto Rekey function in ENM is automatically enabled
to further ensure that network RSs receive the required next keys before the advance.
The Auto Rekey function in ENM is automatically disabled after the advance if the KOK−13 does not have valid
crypto material to support the next OTAR cycle. After an advance, the KOK−13 should be loaded with new seed
keys for the next OTAR cycle. The existing keys in the KOK−13 must be deleted before loading new seed keys.
After loading the next period seed keys into the KOK−13, ENM can generate a new BKF based on the new seed
keys.
At the time of the advance, the RS deletes all its current keys and continues operations without loss of
communications data. The RS begins using the next traffic key (which becomes the current traffic key following
the advance).
If an EPLRS RS does not have a next traffic key when the advance happens, the RS will fall out of the network.
The RS then transitions to Net Entry mode and remains in this state until it is properly rekeyed via a DTD/SKL.
The EPLRS RS never deletes its last (current) traffic key or rekey key. The RS keeps its current traffic key and
attempts to re−enter the network with that key.
If the RS has a next traffic key at the time of the advance, but does not have a next rekey key, then the RS
cannot tell whether the advance is weekly or monthly. In this case the RS will notify the ENM. The ENM will then
send the current rekey key to the RS (it is no longer the next rekey key since it the advance has already
happened).
11.5.4.1 Weekly Advance.
On the fifteenth of each month all EPLRS networks must perform a weekly advance. This consists of loading the
new weekly seed key into the KOK−13, generating a Black Key File (BKF), initiating an Over The Air Rekey
(OTAR), and setting a System Update for Crypto Advance. For more information on how to perform a weekly
advance, see TB 11−5825−298−10−1.
11.5.4.2 Monthly Advance.
On the first of each month all EPLRS networks must perform a monthly advance. This consists of loading the
new weekly seed key and the new monthly seed key into the KOK−13, generating a Black Key File (BKF),
initiating an Over The Air Rekey (OTAR), and setting a System Update for Crypto Advance. For more information
on how to perform a monthly advance, see TB 11−5825−298−10−1.
11.5.4.3 Yearly Advance.
Once a year, all ENMs and RSs throughout the corps will be cryptographically reinitialized with new IKEKs based
on new yearly (Z3) seed keys. ENMs and RSs not initially in the corps will be initialized with only the new year
IKEKs. If all ENMs and RSs are non−operational for several weeks or months, all keys for the preceding year
can be zeroized, and all RSs can be reloaded with keys for the new year.
The following steps are necessary when performing a yearly advance:
1. In the beginning of the yearly advance process, each ENM must load a copy of the new yearly seed key
(delivered via COMSEC courier personnel) while operational to support RSs loaded with IKEKs for either
the new or old year.
2. After confirmation that all ENMs have loaded the new yearly seed key, each ENM will go non−operational
(one at a time) and zeroize and reload its KOK−13 with the new yearly seed key, old yearly seed key,
current monthly seed key, and current weekly seed key.
3. At each ENM, a new IKEK will be obtained and loaded into the ENM RS. Each ENM will return
operational and support RSs loaded with either the new or old IKEK.
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This entire process may take up to several weeks until all ENMs and RSs across the corps have been
cryptographically reinitialized.
11.5.5 Emergency COMSEC Operations.
Under certain emergency conditions (e.g., compromised key material used in the current network), network
management personnel may take specific actions using ENM to re−establish a secure network. These actions
primarily consist of performing emergency network advances and zeroizing compromised RSs in the network.
11.5.5.1 Emergency Network Advance.
In addition to the advance for the crypto period expiration (nominally every two weeks), the network can be
advanced by a network ENM when there is a suspected RS compromise. Prior to the advance the compromised
RS should have its keys zeroized by a network ENM operator who should also notify all other ENMs of the
compromised RS so the other ENMs can update their databases. In this case, all RSs will be rekeyed except for
the compromised RS.
Dealing with compromised key material may require you to perform a crypto advance as soon as possible. It is
important to remember that a minimum of 33 minutes is required between the time you initiate the advance and
when the advance actually happens.
For an emergency advance, use the functions under the System Update tab in ENM to set the effective time to
Immediately and start the crypto advance. This initiates a 33−minute countdown and automatically turns on the
Auto Rekey function. The Auto Rekey process should take care of rekeying RSs that don’t have the required
next keys. This is the fastest way to perform a crypto advance, but because of the short time allowed for
rekeying the network, some RSs may not be ready in time for the advance.
For a normal (non−emergency) advance, you should allow enough time before the advance to make sure that all
RSs have the next traffic and next rekey keys required to advance to the next crypto period. Before initiating the
advance, turn on the Auto Rekey function in ENM. The Auto Rekey function immediately begins distributing the
next keys to the network RSs. Alert the RS operators to make sure that their RSs are powered up after you
begin the rekey process. If an RS is off when the advance occurs, or if the RS does not have the required next
keys, the RS will not be advanced and thereafter will be excluded from the network. The only way to bring an
un−advanced RS back into the network is to load the next traffic key into the RS via a DTD or SKL.
11.5.5.2 Compromised RS in the Network.
If an individual RS is compromised, you can remotely clear the keys of the affected RS by using the Clear Keys
function under the Radio Status tab. If you clear the keys of a compromised RS this way, you should notify the
other ENM operators in the network. The Clear Keys function not only clears the keys of the RS, but also records
its status as a compromised unit in the deployment plan database. If the RS is an unplanned RS, ENM will add it
to the deployment plan and mark it as a cleared RS. Even if the RS is locally rekeyed, ENM will immediately
automatically re−clear the keys of that RS if the RS tries to rejoin the network.
During a deployment, if a Network ENM operator determines that an RS may be compromised, the operator can
clear an RS’s keys over the air. If the RS is subsequently rekeyed with proper keys and tries to enter the same
network, the RS will automatically be re−cleared again upon entry into the network because the ENM flags that
RS as being compromised. An RS that had its keys cleared by a network ENM operator will not be allowed to
participate in the network until the current ENM database is updated by a network ENM operator to allow the RS
back into the network.
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There are two ways to get an RS who has had its keys cleared back into the network:
1. Open ENP, delete the RS that had its keys cleared and re−enter its information. Then reconfigure all RSs
in the network with this updated plan.
2. Have the ENM that cleared the keys use the Get & Load DB function to get a plan that does not have the
RS as cleared. This does not require a reconfiguration of all RSs in the network.
NOTE
When an ENM clears the keys of an RS, this action only affects the deployment plan
database files stored by that ENM. Other ENMs in the network are not automatically
notified and will not know that the RS had its keys cleared. The RS will not be shown as
having its keys cleared in their databases. As a result, if the ENM that cleared the keys
of the RS leaves the network, the zeroized RS may later re−enter the network if it is
rekeyed properly. To prevent this, the ENM operator that cleared the keys of the RS
should inform the other Network ENM operators so they can update their local databases
by performing a Get & Load DB operation.
11.6 COMSEC GUIDANCE.
COMSEC guidance covers use of Corps−wide common seed keys, Corps−level guidance, and Division−level
guidance for the system planner.
11.6.1 Corps−Wide Common Key Distribution.
Common Z1, Z2 and Z3 seed keys (loaded into the KOK−13) are used throughout the Corps. The EPLRS
community ID parameter is used to separate network communities that use identical seed keys. Using a
common Z3 key throughout the Corps may result in some RSs having duplicate IKEKs. However, this duplication
has no effect on RF performance, ENMs, security, or any network operations.
Although each community ID will be assigned the same seed keys, each EPLRS community ID (e.g., EPLRS
community A or EPLRS community B) uses different network timing and initialization parameters, so RSs in a
given community are unable to communicate via RF with RSs in another community. To change the EPLRS
community in an RS, the RS operator uses the URO to send a community transition message (containing the
new community ID) to the RS. When the RS is given a new EPLRS community ID, the RS drops out of its
current network and tries to enter the new community ID network. When the RS hears the other network, it joins
the network and will begin reporting status to the new network ENM.
Using the EPLRS community ID parameter to separate EPLRS communities allows for faster and simpler
transition if RSs must leave one community and join another. The community transition can be done via URO
without zeroizing the RS or reloading red keys. This provides significant operational flexibility over other methods
requiring zeroizing and rekeying the RSs.
An alternate method of separating EPLRS communities is to use identical seed keys but set the communities up
to use different guard channels. This allows for using common seed keys but makes division transition more
difficult. Changing the guard channel in an RS requires zeroizing the RS and reloading red keys.
11.6.2 Corps COMSEC Guidance.
The corps G6 plans the crypto community in cooperation with the NOSC. The COMSEC considerations
developed at the corps level are provided to each division along with operational requirements. Crypto
communities are sets of RSs that share the same traffic level key on the control network. In EPLRS, crypto
communities are partitioned at the corps level into multiple ENM communities.
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11.6.2.1 Multi−Divisional Deployment.
The seed keys (key production keys) used throughout the Corps should be identical. Thus, ENM operators
should use identical seed keys across a multi−divisional deployment. Separate Division−level network
communities can operate near each other without mutual interference if they use different EPLRS community IDs
or operate on different EPLRS guard channels.
RS crypto communities are divided into divisional areas. Gateways can be set up where needed to allow data
exchange between the separate ENM communities. The Corps G6 plans the gateway requirements and
locations.
11.6.2.2 Corps Key Distribution.
The Corps G6 designates KOK−13 seed keys for the corps multiple ENM community or communities and each
division. Each set of keys must be available at each ENM in every multiple ENM community. These keys are
loaded via a KOI−18 tape reader into the KOK−13 with each ENM as directed by the Corps G6.
The Corps G6 handles COMSEC procedures for the generation and distribution of the traffic keys and IKEKs.
Traffic keys and IKEKs for each multiple ENM community in a corps must be available in every multiple ENM
community. Traffic keys and IKEKs are generated at each ENM for their respective divisions. These keys may
be stored for an upcoming exercise or for a contingency OPLAN. As a precautionary measure, the keys for each
division should be loaded into two or more separate fill devices in the event that the battery to maintain memory
storage fails. If the ENMs within a multiple ENM community are not collocated at the start of the exercise or alert,
then two or more fill devices should be loaded for each location. This allows each ENM to provide authorized
users with the necessary transient keys for an adjacent multiple ENM community to be entered.
11.6.3 Division COMSEC Guidance.
COMSEC considerations at the division level (for Division G6) include:
D Coordinating with the Corps G6 for the seed−key pickup and ensuring that the seed keys from the Corps are
valid for the duration of the deployment.
D Coordinating distribution of seed keys to each ENM within the Division. Each ENM within the Division will use
these keys to generate operational keys for the RS within its community.
D Designating an ENM prior to deployment to generate IKEKs for the user community with the appropriate
security classification, then loading them into the DTDs/SKLs designated for the users and controlled by the
appropriate COMSEC custodian/Brigade S6.
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CHAPTER 12
POSITION LOCATION
12.1 INTRODUCTION.
EPLRS position location services allow RSs to precisely determine their own locations and report them to host
devices and to the network. These services are similar to those provided by the Global Positioning System
(GPS). This chapter discusses the EPLRS position location services and explains how to best place reference
unit RSs to ensure position data accuracy and service for the network.
12.2 POSITION LOCATION DATA SOURCES.
The EPLRS RS can use known positions, or it can interface with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver via
its RS−232 interface. The current US Army GPS is the Portable Lightweight GPS System (PLGR). GPS position
inputs, definition by the ENM, or the URO are the three methods used to establish the location of reference RSs.
The GPS Options are as follows:
D No GPS Serial channel used for GPS is not enabled for PLGR
D Continuous GPS connected to RS; dynamic GPS reference added to
over−the−air (OTA) position triangulation
D Averaging Averages GPS position readings over time; RS must be fixed
reference unit; no position change
A bare minimum of three reference unit RSs placed at locations supporting good reference geometry are required
for an RS to calculate its position. The recommended number of reference units though, is five RSs plus five
percent of the total number of RSs in the network. So in a network of 100 RSs, there would need to be at least
ten RSs designated as reference units for reliable position calculation. The EPLRS RS stores positions in
latitude, longitude, and altitude formats and time−tags the position per system time stored in the RS. It receives a
position merit value and stores this as part of the position record. It also stores the three−dimensional velocity
values as part of the position record.
RS position data can be used by host devices attached to the RS to provide navigation aids to network users.
Typical position accuracies fall within 10 to 30 meters for dismounted (manpack), surface vehicle, and grid
reference RSs.
12.3 REFERENCE UNITS.
A reference unit is an RS designated to receive validated position data, either manually (via the ENM or URO), or
electronically (via a GPS device). Non−reference RSs in the network use the position data provided by reference
RSs to determine their own positions. Non−reference RSs compute their own position by exchanging range data
with located RSs in the general vicinity. RSs use resources in LTS 2 (Coordination Network) to exchange this
range data with other RSs.
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12.4 PLANNING FOR REFERENCE UNIT SITES.
The positional accuracy of EPLRS improves directly in proportion to the number of accurately located reference
units. This sub−section discusses the principles of good reference unit positioning. It covers reference unit
geometry and positioning guidelines.
12.4.1 Reference Unit Geometry.
The ideal geometry for a reference unit community consists of a redundant series of interlocking equilateral
triangles. The limiting geometric factor in determining the position of an RS is the vertex angle formed by lines
drawn from the supporting reference community to the RS that you want to locate. Vertex angles should exceed
30 degrees whenever possible. Good reference RS geometry is key to the system providing accurate position
location and navigation information.
Figure 12−1 shows an example of good reference RS employment geometry. Note that the reference RSs are
not deployed along the same line or along nearly parallel lines. Placing the reference units so that the vertex
angles are larger results in better position accuracy.
Figure 12−1. Good Reference RS Geometry
VERTEX ANGLES
RS2
RS3
RS1
X
RS1, 2, 3 = REFERENCE UNITS
X = RS TO BE LOCATED
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Figure 12−2 shows an example of poor reference RS employment geometry. The position location accuracy may
be worse because of the smaller vertex angles. Note that the reference units (R1, R2, and R3) are more nearly
located along the same line than they were in Figure 12−1.
Figure 12−2. Poor Reference RS Geometry
VERTEX ANGLES
RS2
RS3
RS1
X
RS1, 2, 3 = REFERENCE UNITS
X = RS TO BE LOCATED
NOTE
Avoid deploying reference units along a straight line whenever possible.
12.4.2 Guidelines for Placing Reference Units.
Benchmarks and survey teams provide good positions for reference units. They give accurate positions to within
about one meter. Close coordination with survey teams and artillery units should make a sufficient number of grid
reference sites available because they have to know about benchmarks and other sources of precise position
data to do their jobs.
Whenever possible, place reference units so they surround the area of interest. As a minimum, each reference
unit should have contact with six or more other well−located RSs. The position−location lines of these RSs
should form at least a 30−degree angle with each other.
You should provide information on the reference units and their locations to the ENM operators. Once you decide
where your reference unit sites will be, record them as part of the CONOPS plan information in a planner’s
workbook or other documents used as part of your unit SOP.
Designate RSs that are connected to an FBCB2 as reference capable, but do not assign them fixed positions. In
this way, the RSs will receive periodic position reports from the GPS connected to the FBCB2 devices and will act
as mobile reference units. It is best to assign these RSs as Horizontal references because the altitude report, if
any, from the GPS is likely not accurate enough to support radio position location.
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12.5 REFERENCE UNIT CONFIGURATION.
ENP lets you configure the RSs so that reference units needed by the network can be set up and monitored.
ENP can enter reference data only in latitude and longitude. An alternative method for entering reference unit
data is to make the RS Ref Unit Capable (when you add the RS to the deployment plan via ENP) and then have
the RS operator enter the reference data into the RS using the URO. This method allows use of the Military Grid
Reference System (MGRS) format. Figure 12−3 shows the ENP window used to set an RS as Ref Unit Capable.
Figure 12−3. Setting Up an RS as Ref Unit Capable
If an RS is set to be a reference unit, and valid latitude−longitude values are entered via ENP, the ENM will set
this info into the RS each time the radio is configured (overwriting what may have been previously entered into
the RS). If an RS is set to be a reference unit and zero−zero latitude−longitude values are entered via ENP, the
ENM will detect this and will not overwrite previously entered lat−long values when reconfiguring the RS.
There are four different configurations used to define a reference unit RS:
Full Known x, y, and z
Horizontal Known x and y
Vertical Known z
None No reference
If you make an RS Ref Unit Capable, the ENP software lets you set or modify the parameters that define the
reference unit, as shown in Figure 12−4.
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Figure 12−4. Example of Unit Reference Data Window
The ENP software uses the following fields to define and represent a reference unit:
Ref Type: Type of reference unit:
Full: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) and vertical (elevation) reference
Horizontal: Horizontal (latitude/longitude) reference only
Vertical: Vertical (elevation) reference only
None Ref unit disabled; will not appear in table under Ref Unit tab;
may be reactivated by modifying RS unit under UTO tab
Latitude: Latitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for north latitude; minus
sign (−) for south latitude; limited to 11 characters, including decimal point (.) and minus
sign (−); partitioned as follows:
degrees xx
minutes yy
seconds zzzz where last two characters are hundredths of a second
Example: −15_ 30’ 20.55” is expressed as −15.50571
using the formula [ xx + yy/60 + zzzz/3600 ]
Longitude: Longitude of ref unit in degrees; plus (+) sign or no character for east longitude; minus
sign (−) for west longitude; limited to 11 characters, including decimal point (.) and
minus sign (−); partitioned as shown for latitude
Elevation: Altitude of ref unit measured above MSL in meters
Uncertainty: Horizontal uncertainty of reference position in meters
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NOTES
ENP can enter reference data only in latitude and longitude. An alternative method for
entering reference unit data is to make the RS Ref Unit Capable (via ENP) and then
have the RS operator enter the reference data into the RS using the URO. This method
allows for use of the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) format.
If the RS is entered as reference−capable (using the UTO tab) but no data is entered for
the RS, it will not be listed in the Reference Unit table.
Designating an RS as a Full reference unit when it is connected to an FBCB2 host
device will cause the RS to become a dynamic reference and send position reports
generated by the GPS connected to the FBCB2 device. It is best to assign RSs
connected to an FBCB2 as Horizontal reference units because the altitude report, if any,
from the GPS is likely not accurate enough to support radio position location.
If a full reference unit RS is powered on but is not actually positioned at its proper
reference location, it will report a wrong position, and the position location accuracy for
the community may be significantly impacted.
If ENM configures an RS with reference data, then as soon as the RS becomes active, it will provide reference
data to help other RSs become located. If the RS is not physically at the reference location, it will transmit a
Ref−Qual (reference quality) trap to ENM, warning of inconsistent positioning data, and the position location for
the entire network may be significantly impacted.
The recommended practice is to configure reference RSs as reference−capable in ENP and then instruct the RS
operators to enter the specific reference data obtained from the GPS after the RSs are actually located at the
reference sites. When the RS operator enters reference data at the RS, the ENM deployment plan is not
changed.
Configuring all RSs as reference capable and GPS set to Continuous in ENM allows all RSs to become dynamic
reference units if a GPS is attached.
ENM configures the position data for reference unit RSs based on the data stored in both the RS and in the
deployment plan. During configuration, ENM will retrieve the RS’s current reference unit data parameters. There
may be differences between the reference unit data values retrieved from the RS and the reference unit data
values in the deployment plan. ENM will decide which values to use to reconfigure the RS based on the
guidelines in Table 12−1.
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Table 12−1. Reference Unit Configuration by ENM
Reference Unit Data From
Deployment Plan (Set Up in ENP)
Reference Unit Data
From RS
How ENM Will Configure RS
Ref Unit Capable: No Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: None
Ref Type: None ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: None
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
ENM will configure the RS with the
values retrieved from the RS
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
Latitude: Zero
Longitude: Zero
Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values retrieved from the RS
Ref Unit Capable: Yes
Ref Type: Full
Horizontal
Vertical
Latitude: Non−Zero
Longitude: Non−Zero
Anything ENM will configure the RS with the
values from the deployment plan
NOTES
When ENM reconfigures a reference unit RS, ENM will reconfigure the RS using position
data (latitude and longitude values) from the deployment plan if the values stored in
the deployment plan are non−zero values. ENM will reconfigure the RS using position
data from the RS if the position values stored in the deployment plan are zero values. If
you want to ensure that the reference unit RS will always retain the position data set by
the RS operator (via URO), then define the reference unit (via ENP) to have latitude and
longitude values set to zero.
If you want to disable a reference unit that is currently Ref Unit Capable and has
non−zero position data loaded, the best way to do it is to reset the Ref Unit Capable
parameter to No (via ENP), and then reconfigure the RS. If you do not reset the Ref Unit
Capable parameter to No, and only reset the Ref Type to None (via ENP), the RS will
retain its current position data and will continue acting as a reference unit.
12.6 POSITION DISTRIBUTION.
EPLRS RSs can distribute position data, which is also called pos data or Situation Awareness (SA) data. ENP
lets you set up the way each EPLRS RS distributes position data to hosts and to the network. This includes
setting parameters for time and motion filters and options for reporting position data. Filters make it possible to
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control the number of position reports issued and thereby manage the level of pos data traffic taking up network
resources. An RS can distribute its own position to its host, to the network (RF), or both. Position messages
may be formatted as a Joint Variable Message Format (JVMF) K05.01, or K05.19 message. The JVMF message
format is in common use for position exchange. Some guidelines for accurate position location include the
following:
1. BARO adjustment factor − this should be calibrated prior to deployment.
2. TOA adjustment factor − this should be calibrated prior to deployment.
3. The temperature should be set correctly on the ENM for maximum accuracy.
4. Frequency hopping should be enabled for best multi−path immunity.
5. Antenna cable length (−C) should be set properly via the URO.
6. Altitude offset (−A) should be set properly via the URO.
NOTE
BARO and TOA adjustment factors are calibrated at the factory. These settings may
need to be recalibrated if you have inaccurate position reports.
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CHAPTER 13
EPLRS Enhancements
13.1 INTRODUCTION.
This chapter describes the various changes in ENM that have been implemented to support radio set software
11.4.0.9.9.5 and ENM/ENP version 4.4.0.9.9.5. Among the changes are ENM Simplification, LCN Expansion and
RSID Expansion. These changes affect both the way plans are created and how you maintain and manage the
network. They should greatly reduce the amount of work that the planner needs to do. Each topic is discussed in
further detail in the respective sections that follow.
Page number
D ENM Simplification 13−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D LCN Expansion 13−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D RSID Expansion 13−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Ad Hoc Routing 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Selective IP Circuit Activation 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D GPS Based Network Timing 13−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D MANET Mode 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Over−the−Air Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) Messages 13−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 ENM Simplification.
ENM simplification was created to reduce the complexity of ENM planning and operating processes.
To create a plan without using ENM simplification, you had to build a UTO tree and assign your ENMs and RSs to
each branch of the tree. The UTO that an ENM resides in determined which RSs it is in charge of. RSs had to
be added in one by one, which with larger plans could become tedious very quickly.
With ENM Simplification, you can now define a Default RS which will reduce the amount of work it takes to create
individual RSs. Each unplanned RS that joins the network will now be configured with the default RS configura-
tion. Special RSs that need to be pre−planned will still have to be added in manually and will not be configured
with the default RS configuration.
ENM simplification will now allow a network planner to create a plan without having to define any RSs or a UTO
tree structure. All RSs will be managed by the ENM that is closest to them. As RSs move from their original
locations, the ENM that manages them will change dynamically to the ENM closest to them. Other ENMs can
manage an RS if the closest ENM cannot.
Another change that ENM simplification brings is the auto−discovery of its ENM RS. No planning is required for
the ENM−to−ENM RS connection. Simply clicking Affiliate will prompt the ENM to find the RS that is connected
to it and will set the IP address and subnet mask and prompt you to configure the RS if needed. You will still
need to set certain RS parameters through the URO such as guard channel, network community ID, and channel
set before the ENM can connect to its ENM RS.
ENM simplification simplifies the current way of planning, but all existing planning techniques can still be used. In
other words, ENM simplification will not take any current capabilities away from the user.
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13.2.1 Planning Process using ENM Simplification.
Using ENM simplification, the planning process can now be done in 3 ways:
D Defining each radio individually in the network, as is currently done
D Defining specific radios individually and having all other radios use the default configuration
D Defining no radios individually and having all radios use the default configuration
If the planner decides to take advantage of ENM simplification in the planning process and have no pre−planned
RSs, there will be no need for a UTO tree. Each RS will be reference capable and will become a reference unit
when accurate position coordinates are entered via its URO. Each RS will be capable of network reconsolidation,
but by default will be in standby until the operator activates them to be reconsolidation units. With ENM Simplifi-
cation, ENMs and RSs do not have to be manually added to the plan.
13.2.2 Operating ENM with ENM Simplification.
ENM is able to connect to any EPLRS RS without any prior planning. ENM will automatically detect the IP ad-
dress and RSID of the RS that is connected to it.
Each deployed RS will determine who their responsible ENM is. The network ENM closest to the RS will be its
responsible ENM. Once the RS generates its Radio Name and RSID, it will keep these values unless changed
by the ENM operator.
ENMs receive Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) messages which correlate the RSs role information
with the RSs URN. See section 13.10 for more information on SDSA messages. ENM can also accept a flash
drive input called the Mission Data Loader (MDL) which is provided from the Command and Control Registry to
correlate this information.
Initially, RSs will appear much the same way as they do now. The MDL will contain the UTO information which
ENM will use to build a UTO structure. The ENM will also continue to update its UTO database as it receives
SDSA messages. If no MDL is available, the ENM will build its UTO structure from SDSA messages that it and
other ENMs receive.
The planner must still configure and enter in all the needlines for the ENM deployment. All RSs will be configured
with the needlines from the deployment plan. All RSs in a deployment plan need to be under the same network
community ID in order to communicate with each other.
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13.3 LCN Expansion.
LCN expansion was created to allow you to define more than 64 needlines for each deployment plan. The maxi-
mum number of needlines allowed per deployment plan is now 2048 needlines, of which 248 can be HDR need-
lines. Needlines can be sent from the ENM to an RS without the need for an RS reconfiguration whenever a new
needline is requested from the ENM. To make room for a new needline, specific needlines can also be automati-
cally deleted from an RS without reconfiguration.
13.3.1 Planning Limitations with LCN Expansion.
You will only be able to realistically add up to 217 needlines for any given deployment since 217 corresponds to
the number of available LCNs in the range of 05−DE (hexadecimal). LCNs can be re−used (except for group cir-
cuits such as CSMA, MSG, TAMA, etc.).
13.3.2 Operating using LCN Expansion.
If the number of needlines in the deployment plan does not exceed 64, ENM will continue to operate normally
without using any LCN expansion enhancements.
If the number of needlines defined in the deployment plan exceeds 64, then ENM will use LCN expansion en-
hancements to determine which 64 needlines will be initially configured into each RS. The priority for assigning
planned needlines is:
D MSG needlines (if the RS is a source on the needline)
D LDR/HDR Duplex (if the RS is either an endpoint or static relay on the needline)
D All other remaining needlines will be selected randomly.
13.3.3 Requesting and Setting Up Needline Data.
LCN expansion−capable RSs only need to be reconfigured when requesting HDR Duplex needlines. Legacy RSs
will need to be configured whenever they request to activate a needline that is not contained in its current confi-
guration. Currently, there is no way to physically tell legacy RSs from the LCN expansion capable RSs.
If an LCN expansion−capable RS is sent a request to activate a needline that it does not have in its current con-
figuration, it will send a trap message to its ENM. If the RS already has 64 needlines stored in its memory, it will
delete the oldest inactive needline in order to store the new needline. This is all done without reconfiguration.
However, if the RS does have room to store a new needline, then the ENM will process this request and place it
in a formatted network management message to the ENM RS to be broadcast on the coordination net. This also
does not require any radio reconfiguration.
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13.4 RSID Expansion.
Previously, specific ranges of RSIDs were allocated to each of the US armed services. Each RS in a deployment
was allocated a specific RSID. The maximum number of RSs in a deployment was expected to be less than five
thousand. Since the total number of EPLRS RSs produced will shortly exceed the number of valid RSIDs avail-
able (15,871), a new concept was needed.
RSID Expansion allows the legacy functionality, if desired, and it also provides for the use of a new parameter,
called the Radio Name. The Radio Name replaces the RSID from the planner’s and operator’s point of view.
There are three modes of operation with Radio Name:
1.Preplanned Radio Name and preplanned RSID. The Radio Name can be selected as 0000xxxx, where
xxxx = RSID. This is how RSID Expansion can support legacy, preplanned RSID functionality. Choosing
the Radio Name in this manner also chooses the RSID. This option preserves the legacy functionality.
2.Preplanned Radio Name with random RSID. The Radio Name can be selected as axxxxxxx, where ’a’ is an
alphabetic character. ’A’ is reserved for US Army operation, ’N’ for US Navy operations, ’M’ is reserved
for USMC operations, and ’F’ for US Air Force operations. The RSID is randomly chosen automatically
by the RS. If a duplicate RSID occurs, it is automatically fixed (a new RSID is chosen).
3.Random Radio Name and random RSID. In this mode of operation the Radio Name (and RSID) are ran-
domly selected by the RS. This is the simplest from the planner’s point of view since no preplanning is
required. The Radio Name should be selected as 00000000. Random Radio Names will always be in
the range of nxxxxxxx, where ’n’ is a number from 1 to 9. If a duplicate occurs, it is automatically fixed.
13.4.1 RSID Expansion and Unplanned Radios.
The planning process will be much easier and significantly shorter for RSs that do not require special tailoring
(i.e., unplanned RSs).
Unplanned RSs do not require the operator to input unique Radio Name information. These RSs receive a global
assignment from the ENM via an automated process. This process consists of the following steps:
1. If an RS has not been assigned a unique Radio Name, the RS will randomly generate a unique Radio
Name. The RS then restarts.
2. The RS sends status with Radio Name to ENM.
3. ENM configures the RS with common deployment information.
The automated nature of the configuration process frees up the planner’s time to focus on any RSs that require
unit specific parameters (i.e., planned RSs).
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13.4.2 RSID Expansion and Planned Radios.
Because each planned RS requires unique parameters, an operator must define and manually enter the parame-
ters for these RSs into the deployment plan. However, instead of identifying these RSs by RSID, the operator
must identify planned RSs by their Radio Name. This process entails the following steps:
1. The radio operator manually assigns an RS its Radio Name via URO or through the host port. This step
must be performed when the RS is zeroized (similar to how RSID is currently entered).
2. ENP operator enters radio−unique information into the deployment plan according to Radio Name.
3. RS sends status with Radio Name to ENM.
4. ENM configures the RS with uniquely−planned and common deployment information.
13.4.3 Backwards Compatibility.
ENM is able to operate in an environment with both RSID expansion capable RSs and previous versions.
13.4.4 Duplicate RSIDs / Radio Name.
When taking advantage of RSID expansion and ENM simplification, you may run the risk of auto−generating ran-
dom RSIDs that are already in use. If this occurs, an RS will restart and randomly generate another RSID. If an
ENM detects duplicate RSIDs, but different Radio Names, it will assign one of the RSs a new RSID.
13.5 Ad Hoc Routing.
Ad Hoc routing simplifies initial network set up parameters. It allows the EPLRS network to adapt to various
changes in geography without user intervention. For example, if an RS moves out of sight of a relay RS, ad hoc
routing will automatically find another RS to relay messages. In this sense, ad hoc routing is self healing and able
to patch up holes in its communication path dynamically without any user input. Ad hoc routing does not need
any data paths to be defined for it, it will figure out which path to take on its own. There can only be one ad hoc
enabled needline per network. This is because ad hoc routing requires the needline to be the default interface
and the EPLRS RS can only support one default interface at any given time. An ad hoc enabled needline can
support up to 10 hops or 9 relays.
13.6 Selective IP Circuit Activation.
Selective IP Circuit Activation allows an EPLRS RS to automatically activate needlines when they are needed to
transmit IP data. What this means is that two or more needlines can share the same time and frequency re-
sources and the RS will selectively activate the needline which is required to transmit data. When two or more
needlines share the same time and frequency resources, only one of them can be active at a time. This feature
allows the RS to activate one or the other in response to host demand. ENP has a new checkbox for IP PVC In-
terfaces called LCN Inactive Until Needed for selective IP circuit activation.
13.7 GPS Based Network Timing.
In earlier versions of the EPLRS network, the timing of the network was dependent on each RS within the net-
work. RSs would compare their oscillator clocks to one another and adjust their timing as necessary to stay in
sync with each other. However, when a group of RSs went out of line of sight for a long period of time, their tim-
ing would drift apart from the main networks and when they regained line of sight with the main network they
could no longer rejoin it due to this timing discrepancy. When this occurred, it would be known as a network frac-
ture. The solution to network fractures are to perform a system update command called Network Resync. How-
ever, network resyncs are very disruptive events and would make all the RSs in the network fracture cluster lose
communications for a period of time. Add to this that sometimes more than one network fracture would be pres-
ent and the disruption in communications from all the network resyncs was unacceptable. GPS Based Network
Timing solves this problem by having a minimum of 5 + 5% of the RSs in the network synchronized to GPS timing
using 1 Pulse Per Second (PPS) time references. Now when RSs move out of line of sight with other RSs in the
network, they would all be kept in timing sync with each other through the 1PPS time reference which will drasti-
cally reduce the amount of network fractures and thereby the need for network resyncs.
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13.8 Manet Mode.
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) mode is an EPLRS configuration that allows for quick deployment with minimal
planning and configuration. A network operating in MANET mode can be deployed very quickly as it does not
require the use of an ENM. The EPLRS RSs will have a web based interface allowing for quick and easy deploy-
ments. This web interface can be accessed using any web browser on the host computer. This web interface
can be used to start the network timing, change network parameters such as guard channel and the network
community ID.
RSs will communicate with each other using a TAMA needline while in MANET mode. This needline will have an
LCN of DE and will use 6 LTSs, using either waveform mode EW9 for 1720D, 1720E or 1720F type radios or
mode EW18 for all other radios in a 4 msec timeslot. For information on using the web interface, see TM
11−5825−299−10.
NOTE
Only Ethernet connected hosts can use the web browser interface for MANET mode.
13.9 Over−the−Air Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in local area networks. It allows EPLRS
RSs to exchange routing information with locally attached routers. Over−the−Air RIP allows EPLRS radios to for-
ward this information over their Radio Frequency (RF), informing remote RSs and routers. The purpose of this is
to reduce the amount of configuration necessary to use EPLRS as a transit network. Only TAMA type needlines
can use over−the−air RIP. Other needlines can use RIP, but without the over−the−air capability.
RIP should be enabled whenever there is a desire to connect an EPLRS network to a larger network via a COTS
(Commercial Off The Shelf) router or Alternate gateway. RIP must be enabled on all radios in the network in
addition to the router connected to the network. RIP can be enabled in the ENP software under the IP Interfaces
tab by modifying the Ethernet interface of an RS.
13.10 Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) Messages.
Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA) messages contain information about a RSs role information and
UTO information. ENMs receive these messages and use them to dynamically update its UTO structure. This
allows the EPLRS deployment plan to be started with no UTO structure information and for ENM to learn the
structure of the UTO from these messages.
In order for ENM to be able to receive SDSA messages the network planner needs to enter two needlines into the
deployment plan. The two needlines should be CSMA type needlines. One needline will be used for the Situa-
tional Awareness (SA) Upload and the other will be used for the SA Download. The SA up needline will need to
be configured with an IP PVC interface and a multicast address of 239.0.11.103 and an endpoint LCN of 0C. The
SA down needline will need to be configured with an IP PVC interface and a multicast address of 239.0.11.104
and an endpoint LCN of 0D hexadecimal. Once these two needlines are in place, ENM will be able to receive
SDSA messages.
NOTE
Only FBCB2 type hosts can generate SDSA messages.
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CHAPTER 14
Frequency Mapping Tool
14.1 Frequency Mapping Tool.
14.1.1 Introduction.
When you have extended frequency (XF) RSs, you can use Frequency Translation to create a custom channel
map for your RSs. XF RSs have model numbers starting with RT−1915. When using XF RSs you have the op-
tion of using the 3 EPLRS default channel sets of 5, 6 and 8 channels or defining your own custom channel set
with frequencies from 225 Mhz to 450 Mhz. Note that if you do use one of the EPLRS default channel sets that
the frequency range will be from 425 Mhz to 450 Mhz.
Frequency Translation is useful when you have frequency restrictions in certain areas and you need to get around
those limitations. For example, when deploying in Germany you will encounter many frequency restrictions and
using Frequency Translation will allow you to program your channel maps around these restrictions. There is also
a way to save and load different frequency profiles so when you go to another area, you can load a different
channel profile.
Non XF RSs and XF RSs can be together in one network as long as they all share the same channel mapping.
When initially setting up a network of XF RSs that you want to use custom channel maps with, you must connect
to each RS individually and perform Frequency Translation. This allows you to program their channels with the
frequencies you define. All RSs must have the same channel mapping in order to be able to communicate to-
gether.
All XF RSs have the 3 EPLRS default channel sets defined internally. See Section 1.7.1 for information on these
default channel sets. These default channel sets can be reprogrammed into the RSs whenever you want to stop
using Frequency Translation.
The minimum channel separation is 5 Mhz. There is no maximum channel separation, as long as the frequencies
fall within the 225 Mhz to 450 Mhz range. You can define a maximum of 8 channels with the minimum being 1
channel on your XF RSs.
This section presents the wizards and windows for defining, modifying, and deleting a Frequency Channel Set. A
frequency channel set will need to be defined when a wide band RS is used and frequencies outside of the
EPLRS defaults are required. The Use Frequency Translation option in ENP will also need to be checked. Using
the Wide Band Integrated RF Assembly (WBIRA) utility allows frequencies to be mapped to physical channels in
the RS. In order to program the RS with new frequencies, two prerequisites must be true:
D The only active ethernet interface is the one that the host is using to connect to the RS.
D The RS must be zeroized before any changes can be made.
NOTE
Changing frequencies on the RS can only be done locally through a host and not over
the air.
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Starting up the WBIRA utility requires clicking on Start−>Programs−>Raytheon−>Tools−>Wide Band IRA. Click-
ing on Wide Band IRA displays the window shown in Figure 14−1. If a connection to an RS is not present or if
there are multiple ethernet interfaces, the error message in Figure 14−2 is displayed. If the error message ap-
pears, click Yes to proceed to the WBIRA utility without connecting to an RS and click No to exit.
Figure 14−1. Starting WBIRA.exe
Figure 14−2. Connection to Radio Failed error
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The main window of the WBIRA utility program at startup is shown in Figure 14−3.
Figure 14−3. Wide Band IRA Main Window

14.1.2 Creating a new Frequency Channel Set.
Create a name for the new frequency channel set by clicking on Edit...
The window displayed is shown in Figure 14−4.
Figure 14−4. Edit Frequency Set Name
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Change the frequency set name (e.g., fqSet1) and click OK. The dialog box will be removed and the frequency
set name will be displayed next to the FQ Set Name as shown in Figure 14−5. Clicking Save will store this fre-
quency channel set to a file called freqTranslation.csv which is in the C:\opt\enm\bin\fqx folder. Make the desired
changes to the frequency mappings, and active channels then click Save and Figure 14−6 will be shown.
Figure 14−5. Wide Band IRA Edit FQ Set Name
Figure 14−6. Saving Frequency Channel Set Success
To create another frequency set profile, click the Edit... button and enter the new frequency set name. Make
changes to the frequencies and active channels and save the new frequency set. Repeat this for any additional
frequency sets as needed.
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14.1.3 Loading a Frequency Channel Set.
Loading a frequency channel set is done by clicking the Select... button in the main WBIRA window. The display
will show a window similar to Figure 14−7.

Figure 14−7. Frequency Translation Set File
Select the frequency set to load and click the Select button, or double click on the frequency set. The dialog box
will be removed and the loaded frequency set name will be displayed next to the FQ Set Name similar to that of
Figure 14−5.
14.1.4 Deleting a Frequency Channel Set.
Deleting a frequency set is done by clicking the Select... button in the main WBIRA window as shown in Figure
14−3, selecting the frequency set to delete in Figure 14−7 and clicking the Delete button. A confirmation window
similar to Figure 14−8 will be shown. Click Yes to confirm delete, or No to cancel without deleting.
Figure 14−8. Delete Table Entry Window
14.1.5 Modifying a Frequency Channel Set.
Modifying a frequency channel set is done by clicking the Select... button in the main WBIRA window as shown in
Figure 14−3 to display the stored frequency sets as shown in Figure 14−7. Highlight the frequency set you want
to modify and click Select or double click on the frequency set. The main window of the WBIRA utility is dis-
played as shown in Figure 14−5. Edit the frequency set as needed and click the Save button. Figure 14−9 will
be shown, click Yes to save your modifications and No to cancel without saving.

14.1.6 Setting a Frequency Channel Set.
Setting a frequency channel set is done by clicking the Send to RS button in the main WBIRA main window as
shown Figure 14−3. Setting a frequency set loads the current frequency set into the RS. The RS stores both the
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Figure 14−9. Overwrite Frequency Channel Set
frequency set and the frequency set name. After clicking Send to RS, Figure 14−10 is shown when the frequen-
cies are successfully set into the RS. If you receive the error in Figure 14−11 then you need to deactivate the
channels that are not active in the RS before sending the frequency set to the RS.
Figure 14−10. Setting a Frequency Set
Figure 14−11. Load Frequency Set
NOTE
It is recommended that each channel have at least a 5 Mhz separation from the next
channel for there to be no mutual interference between channels.
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14.1.7 Default Frequency Channel Set.
The DEFAULT frequency set is a reserved set provided by WBIRA that can be used to configure wide band type
RSs to operate over the EPLRS default channel sets. Each channel set (5,6 and 8) have their own default fre-
quency set. Loading the default frequency set into the RS is done by clicking Select... in the WBIRA main win-
dow and double−clicking on the DEFAULT set as shown in Figure 14−7. After loading the default set, Figure
14−12 is shown. Click Send to RS and the EPLRS default frequency set will be loaded into the connected RS
and Figure 14−13 will be shown.
Figure 14−12. Default Channel Set to Load
Figure 14−13. Default Channel Set Successfully Loaded
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When an RS is configured with the WBIRA DEFAULT frequency set, clicking Get RS FQs will respond as shown
in Figure 14−14 with the Translated Freq and Active Channels greyed out indicating that they cannot be changed.
Figure 14−14 is the default EPLRS 8 channel set.
Figure 14−14. Default EPLRS 8 Channel Set
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14.1.8 Retrieving the RS Frequency Set.
Retrieving a frequency set is done by clicking the Get Rs FQs button in the WBIRA main window as shown Fig-
ure 14−3. If the currently displayed frequency set has not yet been saved, Figure 14−15 will be displayed asking
if you want to save your changes before retrieving the frequency set loaded in the RS. Click Yes to proceed with-
out saving the current frequency set, and click No to save the frequency set before retrieving the frequency set
currently loaded inside the RS. Figure 14−16 is shown after the frequency set is successfully retrieved from the
RS. After retrieving the frequency set, a display similar to Figure 14−5 will be shown.
Figure 14−15. Confirm Get Rs FQs dialog box
Figure 14−16. Retrieve Frequency Set Success
NOTE
It is not necessary to zeroize an RS to retrieve the configured frequency set with the Get
RS FQs button.
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14.1.9 Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range.
Retrieving the RSs frequency range capability is done by clicking the Get RS FQ Range button in the WBIRA
main window as shown Figure 14−3. Clicking on the Get RS FQ Range button gets the frequency minimum
(FqMin), frequency maximum (FqMax) and frequency step (FqStep) for the currently connected RS as shown in
Figure 14−17. This data is useful when specifying new frequencies. The user specified frequency values must
be within the range of the FqMin and FqMax and in multiples of the FqStep. For example, if the FqMin is 225.000
MHz and the FqMax is 450.750 MHz and the FqStep is 0.250 MHz, then the specified frequencies can start at
225.000 MHz, and end at 450.750 MHz in multiples of 0.250 MHz (i.e., a value of 425.10 is not allowed as it is
not a multiple of 0.250 MHz). After clicking the Get RS FQ Range button, the RSs frequency range data infor-
mation will be displayed in the second row of the WBIRA main window underneath the Edit... button as shown in
Figure 14−17.
Figure 14−17. Get RS Frequency Range
NOTE
Figure 14−17 shows 0.000 MHz for channels 6 and 7 since the RS is configured for 6
channel operation. Note the response will have the Active Channels box checked since
the WBIRA tool obtains 8 values. However, the 0.000 MHz implies the channel is not
active.
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14.1.10 Retrieving the RSs Channel Set.
Retrieving the RSs Channel Set is done by clicking the Get Ch Set button in the WBIRA main window as shown
Figure 14−3. Clicking the Get Ch Set button gets the number of active channels in the connected RS. After
clicking the Get Ch Set button, the channel set information will be displayed in the second row of the WBIRA
main window underneath the Get Ch Set button as shown in Figure 14−18. The RS cannot have keys loaded to
perform this function.
Figure 14−18. Get RS Channel Set
14.1.11 Exiting WBIRA Utility.
Exiting the WBIRA utility is done by clicking the X in the upper right corner of the main WBIRA window as shown
in Figure 14−3. A confirmation window will be shown as in Figure 14−19, click Yes to exit and click No to return
to the WBIRA utility without exiting.
Figure 14−19. Exit WBIRA Confirmation
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CHAPTER 15
EPLRS PLANNER PROCEDURES
15.1 Network Planning.
Network planning is the creation of a plan for a network of EPLRS radio sets (RSs). The created plan is called a
deployment plan. The plan is used to configure individual RSs for their specific roles within the EPLRS network.
The plan is created by a network planner and is then provided to the ENM operator. The network planner does
one of the following:
D Manually enters the plan data using ENP (EPLRS Network Planner)
D Imports a TI plan file and uses ENP to convert it into a plan and then modifies it
ENP is the utility that is used to create the deployment plan database used by ENM to manage the network. ENP
is activated either from within ENM or from the Windows desktop. Using the ENP’s GUI, you can create and
modify deployment plans. All of the information output from ENP is contained in the deployment plan database.
With the exception of crypto keys, this database contains all information necessary to manage a deployment.
Information such as the guard channel, hop mode, and individual Communication Circuit Assignments (CCAs) are
all contained in the deployment plan. ENM uses this database to generate files for managing the network and
reconfiguring RSs as necessary. All network−level ENMs have the same deployment plan database, so they all
have the ability to support and reconfigure any RS within a range of five RF hops.
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This subsection presents procedures for the following operations:
Page number
D Starting ENP from the desktop 15−2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Starting ENP from ENM 15−3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Creating a new deployment plan file 15−4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Importing data from a TI plan file 15−5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Opening an existing deployment plan file 15−6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Saving a file 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Saving a file in TI plan format 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Importing a deployment plan file from an external media source 15−7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Printing ENP data 15−9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting ENP display preferences 15−13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying system parameters 15−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Building a UTO organization tree 15−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying reference units 15−31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding and modifying needlines 15−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding and modifying IP services 15−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding and modifying agents 15−74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Analyzing a planning file 15−77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Running ENP help functions 15−77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Exiting ENP 15−78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1 Starting ENP.
NOTE
You can start ENP either from the desktop ENP icon or from within ENM, using the
Manager Functions menu. Start ENP from the desktop ENP icon whenever you want to
create a new deployment plan either from input data or from a TI plan file. If you start
ENP from inside ENM, it does not allow you to create new deployment plans.
Only a Network−level ENM can create, update, or modify a deployment plan.
15.1.1.1 Starting ENP from the Desktop.
Prerequisites: None.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Press power switch to
turn on ENM computer.
The ENM computer will turn on,
and the display will become
active. EPLRS background and
Begin Logon window will be
displayed.
2 Press Ctrl−Alt−Del
keys.
United States Department of
Defense Warning Statement
window will be displayed.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−3
Starting ENP from the Desktop
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Click OK button. Logon Information window will be
displayed.
4 In User name: field, type
user name.
User name and password must be
provided by responsible command
authority.
5 In Password: field, type
password.
6 Click OK button. Logon Information window will
close. ENM and ENP icons will be
displayed.
7 Start ENP by double−
clicking on ENP icon.
ENP title window will appear, then
ENP Startup window will be
displayed on top.
Refer to Figures 3−3 and 3−4 on
page 3−4.
8 To create a new
deployment plan, refer
to Section 15.1.2 on
page 15−4.
Creating a new deployment plan.
9 To open an existing
deployment plan, refer
to Section 15.1.4 on
page 15−6.
Modifying an existing deployment
plan.
15.1.1.2 Starting ENP from ENM.
Prerequisites: ENM software running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In the ENM main
window, click on the
Manager Functions
menu.
Manager Functions selections will
be displayed.
2 Click on the EPLRS
Network Planner
selection.
ENP main window will be
displayed with current deployment
plan loaded.
When starting ENP from ENM, only
option is to open currently loaded
deployment plan database.
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15−4
15.1.2 Creating a New Deployment Plan File.
Prerequisites: ENP running and ENP Startup window displayed.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At ENP Startup window,
click Create a New
Database button.
To create a new
deployment plan
database without
importing a Tactical
Internet (TI) plan file,
continue with Step 2.
To import a TI plan file,
refer to Section 15.1.3
on page 15−5.
Planner Assistance Wizard will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−6 on page 3−6.
2 Click to set No Existing
Plan button and click
Next>> button
No Existing Plan window will be
displayed.
3 Under No Existing Plan
area, in Enter New
Deployment Name field,
enter a name for your
new deployment file,
modify Deployment
Version as needed, click
appropriate values in
Comms Operation: field,
Time Slot Length: field,
Channel Set: field and
Use Frequency
Translation radio box,
and provide description
of plan in Deployment
Plan Description.
4 Click Hop Set... button. Channel activation window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figures 3−8, 3−10, and 3−11
on pages 3−9 and 3−10 for channel
activation window for the selected
channel set.
5 Click check boxes to
activate or deactivate
required channels.
Deactivated (un−checked)
channels will change from colored
to gray.
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15−5
Creating a New Deployment Plan File
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
6 Click OK button. Channel activation window will
close.
7 Click Finish button. ENP main window will appear, and
deployment plan name will be
displayed in title bar of window.
You can also create a new
deployment plan database file after
you have started ENP and performed
other ENP operations. To create a
new file this way, click on the New...
selection under the File menu. The
Planner Assistance Wizard described
in Step 1 in this section will appear.
From there, proceed with Steps 2 and
following to create a new deployment
plan database file.
15.1.3 Importing Data from a TI Plan File.
Prerequisites: ENP running and ENP Startup window displayed.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At ENP Startup window,
click Create a New
Database button.
Planner Assistance Wizard
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−6 on page 3−6.
2 Select TI Plan button.
3 Click Next>> button. Next Planner Assistance
Wizard window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−14 on page 3−13.
4 Click Browse button. Open window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−15 on page 3−13.
When window opens, you’ll see
names of TI plans that can be
opened (imported).
5 Select file name and
click Open button.
Planner Assistance Wizard
window will appear with
correct file name in Choose
File: field.
Refer to Figure 3−16 on page 3−14.
6 Click the Next>> button. Next Planner Assistance
Wizard window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−17 on page 3−15.
When window opens, displays
deployment plan name.
7 Observe name in
Deployment Name
window.
If correct, proceed to Step 12;
otherwise, continue with Step 8.
8 Click Change button. Change window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−18 on page 3−15.
9 Enter desired name for
deployment plan.
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15−6
Importing Data from a TI Plan File
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
10 Click Save button. Planner Assistant Wizard
window with Deployment
Name field will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−17 on page 3−15.
11 Observe name in
Deployment Name field.
If not correct, go back to Step 8 and
repeat. If correct, continue with
Step 12.
12 Click Finish button.
If file already exists,
ENP will prompt you to
verify whether to
overwrite the file. Click
Yes button to overwrite.
Click No button to
cancel overwrite.
After several seconds, ENP
main window will be
displayed.
You can also import a TI plan to
create a new deployment plan
database file after you have started
ENP. To create a new file this way,
click on the New... selection under
the File menu. The Planner
Assistance Wizard described in Step
1 of this section will appear. Proceed
with Step 2 to import a TI plan and
create a new deployment plan
database file.
15.1.4 Opening an Existing Deployment Plan File.
Prerequisites: ENP running and ENP Startup window displayed.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At ENP Startup window,
click Open an Existing
Database button.
Open window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 3−20 on page 3−16.
2 Select file name from
list, and click Select
button.
Deployment Plan Description
window will be displayed.
3 Click Ok button to
continue or Cancel to
pick another file.
After a few seconds, ENP main
window will appear with selected
deployment plan name showing in
title bar of window.
You can also modify an existing
deployment plan database file after
you have started ENP. To modify an
existing file this way, click on the
Open... selection under the ENP File
menu. The Open window described in
Step 1 above will appear. From
there, proceed with Step 2 to open an
existing deployment plan database
file for modification.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−7
15.1.5 Saving a File.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under File menu, click
Save...
None. Refer to Figure 3−25 on page 3−20.
The database file will be saved in its
current directory under its current
name.
15.1.6 Saving a File in TI Plan Format.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
NOTE
The Save As... selection lets you save the current database file in TI plan format. Save
As... packages the database in a single file format (.csv). The .csv format is a readable
text file and has a compact file size.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under File menu, click
Save As... selection.
Save window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 3−27 on page 3−21.
2 Locate directory to save
file. Enter new file name
in File name: field, then
click Save button.
If prompted, click Yes
button to overwrite file or
No button to cancel.
Save window will close and return
to ENP main window. If file
already exists, ENP will prompt
you to verify overwriting the file.
15.1.7 Importing a Deployment Plan File From an External Media Source.
Prerequisites: Windows running; deployment plan files on CD or thumb drive.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At ENM computer, insert
CD into CD−ROM drive,
or insert thumb drive into
USB port.
2 Double−click on My
Computer icon. Open
windows for CD−ROM
drive or thumb drive and
destination folder.
My Computer window will be
displayed. Windows for source
and destination folders will be
displayed.
Source folder will contain the
deployment plan or TI (.csv) plan file
and the destination folder is
c:\opt\enm\data for deployment plans
and c:\opt\enm\config\plans for TI
plan files.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−8
Importing a Deployment Plan File From an External Media Source
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Copy files from source
into destination folder
(data or plans).
Ensure that files copied from CD or
thumb drive are not set to read−only.
If necessary, clear check from
Read−only checkbox in Properties
window for files copied.
4 Click X boxes to close
My Computer windows.
My Computer windows will close. Refer to Section 15.1.3 for importing
data from a TI plan file, or Section
15.1.4 for opening an existing
deployment plan file.
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15−9
15.1.8 Printing ENP Data.
ENP tab information can be printed for the following tabs:
D System
D UTO
D Ref Unit
D Net Services
D IP Interfaces
D Agent
15.1.8.1 Printing ENP System Tab Information.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click ENP System tab.
ENP System tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 4−1 on page 4−1.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Computer Print window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−30 on page 3−25.
3 Click OK button in
computer Print window.
System parameter report will be
printed, and window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing System tab information.
15.1.8.2 Printing ENP UTO Tab Information.
15.1.8.2.1 Printing UTOs.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Print UTOs, Radios or Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−31 on page 3−26.
3 Click to select UTOs
then click OK button.
Window will close. If UTO
selected: Computer Print window
will be displayed after a few
seconds.
4 Click OK button in Print
window.
Selected data will be printed, and
window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−10
15.1.8.2.2 Printing Radios.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Print UTOs, Radios or Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−31 on page 3−26.
3 Click to select Radios
then click OK button.
Window will close. Print the Radio
Report window will be displayed.
4 Click OK button. Print the Radio Report window will
display message Please note that
this action may take a few minutes
to complete. Do you want to
continue?
Select Include Position Distribution
Parameters as required by
unchecking or checking box.
5 Click Yes or No button. Computer Print window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−36 on page 3−28.
6 Click OK button in Print
window.
Selected data will be printed, and
window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing UTO tab information.
15.1.8.2.3 Printing Radio Cutsheets.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Print UTOs, Radios or Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−31 on page 3−26.
3 Click to select Radio
Cutsheets then click OK
button.
Window will close. Print Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
4 Click OK button in Print
Radio Cutsheets
window.
Print Radio Report window will
display message Please note that
this action may take a few minutes
to complete. Do you want to
continue?
Select Crypto Division ID (A−G),
Crypto Segment # (1−52) and Host
Link Parameters as required.
5 Click OK button in Print
window.
Selected data will be printed, and
window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−11
15.1.8.2.4 Printing Blank Radio Cutsheets.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Print UTOs, Radios or Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−31 on page 3−26.
3 Click to select Blank
Radio Cutsheet then
click OK button.
Window will close. Print Radio
Cutsheets window will be
displayed.
4 Click Yes or No button. Print Radio Report window will
display message Please note that
this action may take a few minutes
to complete. Do you want to
continue?
5 Click OK button in Print
window.
Selected data will be printed, and
window will close.
15.1.8.3 Printing ENP Ref Unit Tab Information.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Ref Unit tab.
Ref Unit tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 6−1 on page 6−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
After a few seconds, computer
Print window will be displayed.
Must have Reference units in the tab
in order for the computer Print
window to be displayed.
3 Click OK button in
computer Print window.
Ref Unit data will be printed, and
window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing Ref Unit tab information.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−12
15.1.8.4 Printing ENP Net Services Tab Information.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−5 on page 7−7.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
After a few seconds, computer
Print window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−30 on page 3−25.
3 Click OK button in
computer Print window.
Net services data will be printed,
and window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing Ref Unit tab information.
15.1.8.5 Printing ENP IP Interfaces Tab Information.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
Print IP Interfaces Report window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−37 on page 3−28.
3 Click OK button in Print
IP Interfaces Report
window.
Computer Print window will be
displayed.
4 Click OK button in
computer Print window.
IP interfaces data will be printed,
and window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing IP Interfaces tab information.
15.1.8.6 Printing ENP Agent Tab Information.
Prerequisites: ENP running; printer connected and operational.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Agent tab.
Agent tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−1 on page 9−2.
2 Under File menu, click
Print....
After a few seconds, computer
Print window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−30 on page 3−25.
3 Click OK button in
computer Print window.
Agent data will be printed, and
window will close.
Printed report is a tabular form
showing Agent tab information.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−13
15.1.9 Setting ENP Display Preferences.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under File menu, click
Preferences....
Display Preferences window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−40 on page 3−30
and Figure 3−41 on page 3−30.
2 Under Select Unit
Label:, click either
Rolename or Radio
Name.
3 Under Select Needline
Label:, click either
Needline Name or
Needline Number.
4 Under Select List Type:,
click either List or UTO
Tree.
Not currently implemented.
5 Check or uncheck Show
Unplanned Radios, as
desired.
When checked, Unplanned radios will
be shown with orange colored radio
icons in the UTO tab.
6 Click OK button. Display Preferences window will
close and return to ENP main
window.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−14
15.1.10 Modifying System Parameters.
Page number
D Modifying deployment plan ID number 15−14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying network RS parameters 15−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying position distribution default parameters 15−15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying default duplex LTS and channel allocations 15−17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.10.1 Modifying Deployment Plan ID Number.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
NOTE
If deployment plan ID is not the same as the deployment plan ID provided by NOSC,
perform the following procedure.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP System tab,
click Modify... button in
the Deployment Version
area of the window.
Change Deployment Version
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−2 on page 4−2.
2 Enter value in the
Deployment ID: field.
3 Click OK button to save
change.
Change Deployment Version
window will close and return to
ENP System tab display. New
deployment ID value will be
displayed in Deployment Version
section of display.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−15
15.1.10.2 Modifying Network RS Parameters.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP System tab,
click Modify... button in
Radio System
Parameters part of
display.
System Parameters Modifying
Dialog window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−3 on page 4−3.
2 From System
Parameters Modifying
Dialog window, select
RS system parameter(s)
to be changed. Click on
parameter, select new
value, and go on to next
parameter.
Entered value displayed.
3 After desired changes
have been made, click
Save button.
System Parameters Modifying
Dialog window will close, and
modified parameter will be
displayed in Radio System
Parameters section of display.
15.1.10.3 Modifying Position Distribution Default Parameters.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP System tab,
click Modify Pos.
Defaults... button in
Position Distribution
Deployment Defaults
area of display.
Pos Distribution Settings window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−4 on page 4−5.
2 Under Global tab,
change parameters as
required.
3 Click EPLRS RS tab.
Change parameters as
required.
EPLRS RS tab fields will appear in
window.
Refer to Figure 4−5 on page 4−7.
4 Using Host second−level
tab, change parameters
as required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−16
Modifying Position Distribution Default Parameters
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Click Host Time Filter
button.
Host Time Filters window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−6 on page 4−9.
6 Change parameters in
Host Time Filters
window as required.
Changes will be displayed. Ensure changes in settings are within
allowable ranges shown in Host Time
Filters window.
7 Click Save button to
save modifications.
Host Time Filters window will
close. If error message is
displayed, click OK button,
recheck parameter with error,
return to Step 6, and continue with
procedure.
Error message tells which parameter
has illegal value.
8 Click RF second−level
tab and change
parameters as required.
Refer to Figure 4−7 on page 4−10.
9 Click Time/Motion
Filter button.
RF Time Motion Filters window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−9 on page 4−13.
10 Change parameters in
RF Time Motion Filters
window as required.
Changes will be displayed. Ensure changes in settings are within
allowable ranges shown in RF Time
Motion Filters window.
11 Click Save button to
save modifications.
RF Time Motion Filters window
will close. If error message
window appears, click OK button,
recheck parameter with error,
return to Step 10, and continue
with procedure.
Error message will tell which
parameter has illegal value.
12 Click Misc second−level
tab and change
parameters as required.
Refer to Figure 4−10 on page 4−14.
13 Click SADL RS tab. SADL RS tab fields will appear in
window.
Refer to Figure 4−11 on page 4−15.
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15−17
Modifying Position Distribution Default Parameters
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
14 Change parameters as
required.
15 Click Save button or
Apply button.
If Apply button clicked,
ENP will prompt you to
verify whether to
overwrite the file. Click
Yes button to overwrite.
Click No button to
cancel overwrite.
If Apply button clicked,
ENP may display
warning message if
parameter errors or
incompatibilities
detected.
Pos Distribution Settings window
will close and return to ENP
System tab display.
Save button saves changes and
applies them to all agents (RSs)
configured from this time on. Not
available when SA Over IP check box
is set active.
Apply button saves changes and
applies them to all agents (RSs) in
the network (all existing agents and
all agents configured from now on).
15.1.10.4 Modifying Default Duplex LTS and Channel Allocations.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP System tab,
click Modify Duplex
LTS(s)/Channel(s)...
button in lower−right part
of display.
HDR and LDR Duplex
LTS(s)/Channel(s) window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−13 on page 4−17.
2 In IP/DAP Waveform/
Circuit Size area, click
drop−down lists to
configure waveform
mode and circuit size as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−18
Modifying Default Duplex LTS and Channel Allocations
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 In HDR DAP (LTS and
Comm Channels) area,
click to set check boxes
in matrix to configure
allocations for HDR DAP
needlines as required.
Check marks will appear in
selected boxes.
4 In LDR (LTS and Comm
Channels) area, click
drop−down lists to set
LDR LTSs and PVC
Resv reserves as
required.
5 Click to set Comm
Channel check boxes to
configure channel
allocations for LDR
needlines as required.
Check marks will appear for
selected comm channels.
6 After all changes have
been made, click Save
button.
HDR and LDR Duplex LTS(s)/
Channel(s) window will close; ENP
System tab will still be displayed.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−19
15.1.11 Building a UTO Organization Tree.
To build a UTO organization tree, you create Unit Task Organizations (UTOs) and then add RSs and ENMs to
them. This process includes some or all of the following tasks:
Page number
D Adding a UTO 15−19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Renaming a UTO 15−20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Deleting a UTO 15−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding an RS 15−21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying an RS: Standard RS Unit 15−23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying an RS: Pos Distribution 15−24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying an RS: Ref Unit 15−25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Deleting an RS 15−26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding an ENM 15−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying a Deployed ENM 15−27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Deleting a Deployed ENM 15−28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Moving Units 15−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Finding Units in the UTO Tree 15−29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTES
Before building UTO organization tree, ENP must be running and a deployment plan file
must be open.
ENP automatically saves all modifications to UTO organization tree as you enter them.
No additional file save commands are required.
15.1.11.1 Adding a UTO.
Prerequisites: ENP running.
NOTES
The normal sequence of data entry is to create higher−level UTOs first, and then add
subordinate UTOs, RSs, and ENMs as appropriate to complete the task organization.
There is one UTO called “DivisionUTO” already created under the EPLRS folder icon.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Click EPLRS UTO icon
located in UTO Tree
section of window, or:
If you already have
UTOs in tree, click UTO
that will be the parent of
UTO you want to add.
ENP will highlight selected UTO
text.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−20
Adding a UTO
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add UTO.
Add/Modify UTO window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−7 on page 5−10.
4 Type name for new UTO
into New UTO Name:
field.

UTO names may be up to 64
characters long and may include
spaces and all characters except
single quote and comma.
5 If UTO Network
Community ID: field is
present in window, set
community ID to letter A
through G, as required.
UTO Network Community ID: field is
not displayed in window when adding
a subordinate UTO if community has
been previously defined in the parent
UTO. The new (subordinate) UTO
will be set to the community of the
parent UTO.
6 Click Add button. ENP will add new UTO to UTO
tree.
7 Repeat Steps 4 through
6 to add more UTOs if
desired.
Multiple layers of subordinate UTOs
can be created and nested under
parent UTOs.
8 When all required UTOs
have been added, click
Cancel button.
Add/Modify UTO window will
close.
15.1.11.2 Renaming a UTO.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one UTO under EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click UTO that
you want to rename.
ENP will highlight selected UTO
name.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Rename UTO selection.
Add/Modify UTO window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−8 on page 5−10.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−21
Renaming a UTO
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
4 In Add/Modify UTO
window, type new name
for UTO into New UTO
Name: field.
New name will be displayed. UTO Network Community ID: field
may or may not be displayed in
window, but community ID cannot be
changed via this function.
5 In Add/Modify UTO
window, click Save
button.
Add/Modify UTO window will
close, and ENP will display
revised name of UTO in UTO tree.
15.1.11.3 Deleting a UTO.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click UTO that
you want to delete.
ENP will highlight selected UTO
name.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete....
Deleting Confirmation window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−9 on page 5−11.
4 Ensure that correct unit
is shown in Deleting
Confirmation window.
Click Yes button to
delete UTO.
Selected UTO is deleted. Deleting
Confirmation window will close.
15.1.11.4 Adding an RS.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
You cannot add RSs directly under EPLRS UTO. Attempting to do so will result in error
message.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 In UTO Tree section of
the window, click UTO
that you want to add RS
to (if UTO is not already
selected).
ENP will highlight selected UTO
name.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−22
Adding an RS
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Radio....
Adding New Unit window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−5 on page 5−6.
4 In Radio Name: field,
type Radio Name of RS
to be added, or accept
default number.
The Radio Name must be an
alpha−numeric entry with all letters
being uppercase, up to 8 characters.
5 In Rolename: field, type
rolename for RS.
Rolenames may be up to 64
characters long and may include
spaces and all characters except
single quote and comma.
6 In Reporting URN: field,
type Unit Reference
Number (URN) or leave
blank.
When you save, it will automatically
add next valid number.
7 In the Ref Unit Capable:
field, click drop−down list
and select Yes if RS will
be a reference unit or
No if RS will not be.
8 In the Radio Power
Level: field, click
drop−down list and
select power level.
9 In Relay Control: field,
click drop−down list and
select Enabled if you
want RS to relay.
Selecting Enabled sets up RS to
relay. Selecting Disabled sets up RS
to never relay.
10 In Net Reconsolidation
Ind: field, click
drop−down list and
select desired
configuration.
11 In Adding New Unit
window, click Add
button.
UTO tree will display newly added
RS. Adding New Unit window will
advance to next available Radio
Name.
12 Repeat Steps 3 through
9 to add more RSs to
selected UTO, if desired.
13 When all required RSs
have been added, click
Cancel button.
Adding New Unit window will
close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−23
15.1.11.5 Modifying an RS: Standard RS Unit.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing RS
assigned to UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−13 on page 5−14.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click RS to be
modified.
ENP will highlight selected RS
rolename.
Expand tree as required to display
RSs.
3 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Unit button.
Window will display unit data for
selected unit.
4 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Modify button.
Modifying Unit window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−14 on page 5−15.
5 Type new rolename into
Rolename: field, if
required.
6 Type new URN into
Reporting URN: field, if
required.
7 Click Ref Unit Capable:
drop−down list and
change setting, if
required.
8 Click Radio Power
Level: drop−down list
and change setting, if
required.
9 In Relay Control: field,
click drop−down list and
select Enabled if you
want RS to relay.
Selecting Enabled sets up RS to
relay. Selecting Disabled sets up RS
to never relay.
10 In Net Reconsolidation
Ind: field, click
drop−down list and
select desired
configuration.
11 Click Save button to
save modifications.
Modifying Unit window will close,
and detailed information section of
UTO tab display will show
modified data for RS.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−24
15.1.11.6 Modifying an RS: Pos Distribution.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing RS
assigned to UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−13 on page 5−14.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click RS to be
modified.
ENP will highlight selected RS
rolename or Radio Name.
3 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Pos Distribution
button.
Window will display Pos
Distribution data for selected unit.
4 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Modify button.
Pos Distribution Settings window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−15 on page 5−16.
5 Using Host second−level
tab, click drop−down
fields in Pos Distribution
Settings window and
change parameters as
required.
6 Click Host Time Filter
button.
Host Time Filters window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−6 on page 4−9.
7 Change parameters in
Host Time Filters
window as required.
Changes will be displayed. Ensure changes in settings are within
allowable ranges shown in Host Time
Filters window.
8 Click Save button. Host Time Filters window will
close. If error message is
displayed, click OK button,
recheck parameter with error,
return to Step 7, and continue with
procedure.
Error message tells which parameter
has illegal value.
9 Click RF second−level
tab, then click
drop−down fields in Pos
Distribution Settings
window and change
parameters as required.
10 Click Time/Motion
Filter button.
RF Time Motion Filters window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 4−9 on page 4−13.
11 Change settings in RF
Time Motion Filters
window as required.
Changes will be displayed. Ensure changes in settings are within
allowable ranges shown in RF Time
Motion Filters window.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−25
Modifying an RS: Pos Distribution
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
12 Click Save button. RF Time Motion Filters window
will close. If error message
window appears, click OK button,
recheck parameter with error,
return to Step 11, and continue
with procedure.
Error message will tell which
parameter has illegal value.
13 Click Misc second−level
tab, then click
drop−down fields in Pos
Distribution Settings
window and change
parameters as required.
14 In Pos Distribution
Settings window, click
Save button.
Pos Distribution Settings window
will close.
15.1.11.7 Modifying an RS: Ref Unit.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing
reference unit RS assigned to UTO.
NOTES
If no RSs have been designated to be reference units, Ref Unit button on right side of
UTO tab display will be grayed out (inactive).
If an RS is set to be a reference unit and valid latitude−longitude values are entered via
ENP, the ENM will set this info into the RS each time the radio is configured (overwriting
what may have been previously entered into the RS).
If an RS is set to be a reference unit and zero−zero latitude−longitude values are entered
via ENP, the ENM will detect this and will not overwrite previously entered lat−long values
when reconfiguring the RS.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−13 on page 5−14.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click RS to be
modified.
ENP will highlight selected RS
rolename or Radio Name.
3 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Ref Unit button.
Window will display data for
selected unit.
4 In Description of Unit
section of window, click
Modify button.
Unit Reference Data window will
be displayed.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−26
Modifying an RS: Ref Unit
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Click drop−down menu
for Ref Type in Unit
Reference Data window
and select reference
type.
Selected reference type displayed.
6 Modify Latitude,
Longitude, Elevation,
and Uncertainty values
in data fields as
required.
Ensure that changes in values are
within allowable ranges shown in Unit
Reference Data window.
7 Click Save button to
save modifications.
If error message window appears,
click OK button, recheck
parameter with error, return to
Step 6, and continue with
procedure.
If parameters are correct, Unit
Reference Data window will close.
Error message will tell which
parameter has illegal value.
15.1.11.8 Deleting an RS.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing RS
assigned to UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−13 on page 5−14.
2 In UTO Tree (EPLRS)
section of window, click
RS to be deleted.
ENP will highlight selected RS
rolename or Radio Name.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete....
Deleting Confirmation window will
open.
Refer to Figure 5−9 on page 5−11.
4 Ensure correct unit is
shown in Deleting
Confirmation window.
Click Yes button to
delete RS.
Deleting Confirmation window will
close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−27
15.1.11.9 Adding an ENM.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 In UTO Tree (EPLRS)
section of window, click
UTO where you want to
add ENM (if UTO is not
already selected).
ENP will highlight selected UTO
name.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Deployed ENM....
Add/Modify ENM Deployment
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−6 on page 5−9.
4 In ENM Name: field,
type name for ENM to
be added.
ENM names may be up to 64
characters long and may include
spaces and all characters except
single quote and comma.
5 Click ENM Type: field
and select ENM type.
6 Click Add button. UTO Tree will display newly added
ENM.
7 Repeat Steps 2 through
6 to add more ENMs, if
desired.
8 After all ENMs have
been added, click
Cancel button.
Add/Modify ENM Deployment
window will close.
15.1.11.10Modifying a Deployed ENM.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing ENM
assigned to a UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−17 on page 5−18.
2 In UTO Tree section of
window, click ENM to be
modified.
ENP will highlight selected ENM
name, and Modify button will be
present in Description of ENM
Deployment section of UTO tab
display.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−28
Modifying a Deployed ENM
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 In Description of ENM
Deployment section of
UTO tab display, click
Modify button.
Add/Modify ENM Deployment
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−6 on page 5−9.
4 In Add/Modify ENM
Deployment window,
modify ENM properties
(ENM name and type)
as required.
5 Click Save button. Add/Modify ENM Deployment
window will close. UTO Tree will
display newly modified ENM.
Description of ENM Deployment
section will display modified data
for ENM.
6 Repeat Steps 2 through
5 to modify additional
ENMs, if desired.
15.1.11.11 Deleting a Deployed ENM.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing ENM
assigned to a UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 In UTO Tree (EPLRS)
section of window, click
to select ENM you want
to delete.
ENP will highlight selected ENM
name.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete.
Deleting Confirmation window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 5−9 on page 5−11.
4 Ensure correct unit is
shown in Deleting
Confirmation window.
Click Yes button to
delete.
Deleting Confirmation window will
close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−29
15.1.11.12Moving Units.
You may move RSs, ENMs, and UTOs within the UTO tree by dragging and dropping them. RSs, ENMs, or
UTOs must be relocated under another UTO. They cannot be moved directly under other RSs or ENMs. Moving
a UTO takes all subordinate UTOs, RSs, and ENMs along with it and maintains the existing organizational
structure of the subordinate units.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one or more
existing RSs, ENMs, or other subordinate UTOs.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Left−click and hold
mouse button on unit to
be moved.
Use mouse or equivalent pointing
device (e.g., touch pad and buttons).
2 Drag selected unit to
icon of new parent UTO,
holding down mouse
button.
3 Release mouse button. Move Radio confirmation window
will be displayed.
4 Click Yes button. Window will close, and unit will be
moved under new parent UTO in
tree structure.
5 Repeat Steps 1 through
4 to move other units, if
desired.
6 To move UTO, perform
Steps 1 through 5 the
same way as for an RS
or ENM.
15.1.11.13Finding Units in the UTO Tree.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one or more
existing RSs, ENMs, or other subordinate UTOs.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 At main ENP window,
click UTO tab.
UTO tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−1 on page 5−2.
2 Under Edit menu, click
Find....
Find window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 5−10 on page 5−12.
You can also right−click in UTO Tree
area and click Find... selection on
sub−menu.
3 Click Find Type:
drop−down list and
select data type.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−30
Finding Units in the UTO Tree
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
4 Enter search data in
Find What: field.
You can enter a complete data item
(e.g., 1st Brigade ENM), or a partial
data item (e.g., Brig) as the search
data.
5 Click Find button. Found: field will display the
number of results found.
Refer to Figure 5−11 on page 5−12.
If Found: field displays zero, search
data was not found.
6 Click Result(s):
drop−down list to display
data results found.
7 Click desired result (data
item found) in
drop−down list.
8 Click Select button. Selected result will be highlighted
in UTO Tree.
9 Click X box in Find
window.
Find window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−31
15.1.12 Modifying Reference Units.
Prerequisites: ENP running; UTO tree with at least one existing reference unit assigned to a UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Ref Unit tab.
Ref Unit tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 6−1 on page 6−2.
2 Click on any field located
in table line to select
reference unit to be
modified.
Selected field highlighted.
3 Right−click on any field
in selected reference
unit.
Modify Ref Unit... sub−menu will
be displayed slightly below
selected unit’s line in tabular area.
Refer to Figure 6−3 on page 6−4. As
an alternate method to this step,
instead of right−clicking on the
reference unit line in the table, you
can double−click on the line. This
bypasses the sub−menu and
immediately displays the Unit
Reference Data window.
4 Click on Modify Ref Unit
sub−menu.
Unit Reference Data window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 12−4 on page 12−5.
5 Enter data to be
changed in appropriate
fields of Unit Reference
Data window.
6 Click Save button. Window will close, and data will be
updated.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−32
15.1.13 Adding and Modifying Needlines.
ENP provides the tools to perform the following for CSMA, MSG, HDR Duplex, LDR Duplex, SMSG and SDL
Needlines.
D Adding a needline to the database
D Modifying a needline’s parameters
D Deleting a needline from the database
The procedures in this subsection are organized as follows:
Page number
D CSMA Needlines 15−32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D MSG Needlines 15−35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D HDR Duplex Needlines 15−39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D LDR Duplex Needlines 15−44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D SMSG Needlines 15−47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D TAMA Needlines 15−50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Finding a Needline in the UTO Tree 15−54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.13.1 CSMA Needlines.
15.1.13.1.1 Adding a CSMA Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−63 on page 7−72.
Display will look similar to Figure
7−63 if LTS/CN Needline Matrix
button is selected.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO selected.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−33
Adding a CSMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline.
First Add CSMA Needline Wizard
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select CSMA.
CSMA selected.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
No spaces are allowed in needline
names. To separate words, use
underscore or other characters.
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
Needline number must be unique for
each needline, regardless of type.
7 Click Modify button in
Add CSMA Needline
Wizard.
Modifying the generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
Entry displayed.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add CSMA Needline Wizard will
be displayed with revised needline
number.
10 Click Next>> button. Second Add CSMA Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−18 on page 7−17.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
12 If required to set CSMA
Type (reliability), Max
Hold Time, and EPLRS
Pos Setting, ADDSI IP
Interoperability Mode or
Ad Hoc Mode click
Advanced button.
CSMA Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−19 on page 7−19.
13 Set parameters as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
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Adding a CSMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
14 Click OK button. CSMA Advanced window will
close.
15 To go back to first Add
CSMA Needline Wizard,
click <<Back button
(optional), and repeat
Steps 4 through 14 as
required.
16 When changes are
complete, click Done
button.
Add CSMA Needline Wizard will
close, and new needline will
appear in needline tree.
17 To review needline
parameters, ensure that
Needline Definition
button is set, then click
to select new needline in
tree.
Needline parameters will be
displayed in Description of
Needline area.
15.1.13.1.2 Modifying a CSMA Needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will look similar to Figure
7−14 but will show CSMA parameters
rather than MSG.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify... button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−35
Modifying a CSMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
4 Change needline
parameters as required,
then click Save button.
Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
5 If required to set CSMA
Type (reliability), Max
Hold Time, and EPLRS
Pos Setting, ADDSI IP
Interoperability Mode or
Ad Hoc Mode click
Advanced button.
CSMA Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−19 on page 7−19.
6 Set parameters as
required.
7 Click OK button. CSMA Advanced window will
close.
15.1.13.1.3 Deleting a CSMA Needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select CSMA
needline to be deleted.
Selected needline will be
highlighted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline.
Delete Needline window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
CSMA needline will be deleted,
and Delete Needline window will
close.
15.1.13.2 MSG Needlines.
15.1.13.2.1 Adding an MSG Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−36
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO highlighted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline.
Add Needline under Edit menu will
be displayed, then Add CSMA
Needline Wizard will appear.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select MSG.
The wizard title bar will change to
Add MSG Needline Wizard and
the default name in the Needline
Name: field will include an MSG
prefix.
Refer to Figure 7−20 on page 7−23.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
7 Click Modify button in
Add MSG Needline
Wizard.
Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
New number displayed. Needline number must be unique for
each needline, regardless of type.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add MSG Needline Wizard will be
displayed with revised needline
number.
10 Click Next>> button. The second Add MSG Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−21 on page 7−24.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
12 If required to set share
claim parameters,
EPLRS Pos Setting,
MSG Type or ADDSI IP
Interoperability click
Advanced button.
MSG Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−22 on page 7−27.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−37
Adding an MSG Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
13 Set parameters as
required.
14 Click OK button when
selection complete.
MSG Advanced window will close.
15 To go back to previous
Add MSG Needline
Wizard, click <<Back
button (optional).

16 When changes are
complete, click Next>>
button.
The Potential Source Endpoint
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−23 on page 7−31.
17 In the Endpoint Radio
area, click to select an
endpoint RS for the
MSG needline.
18 Click on Shares to
Claim: drop−down list to
set value for share
fraction.
Count in Shares Already Claimed:
field will increment to show shares
used for needline.
Zero is a legal entry.
19 Click Advanced button. MSG Endpoint Advanced window
will be displayed. Review and
modify parameters using
drop−down lists as required.
Refer to Figure 7−24 on page 7−32.
20 Click OK button. MSG Endpoint Advanced window
will close.
21 Click the Add Another
Endpoint button.
Count in Number of Endpoints
Added: field will increment to show
that endpoint was added.
22 To go back to Add MSG
Needline Wizard
(optional), click <<Back
button.
23 To add another endpoint
RS, repeat Steps 17
through 21.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−38
Adding an MSG Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
24 If no additional endpoint
RSs needed, click Done
button.
Potential Source Endpoint window
will close, and new needline will
appear in needline tree.
25 To review needline
parameters, ensure that
Needline Definition radio
button is set, then click
to select new needline in
tree.
Needline parameters will be
displayed in Needline Description
area.
15.1.13.2.2 Modifying an MSG Needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify... button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
4 Change needline
parameters as required.
5 If required to change
advanced needline
setting parameters, such
as MSG Type click
Advanced button.
MSG Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−22 on page 7−27.
Display will be similar to Figure 7−22
but Immediate Share Claim: field will
not be active.
6 Set parameters as
required.
7 Click OK button when
selection complete.
MSG Advanced window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−39
Modifying an MSG Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
8 Click Save button. Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
9 If needline endpoints
need to be modified,
click View/Modify
Endpoints... button.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−15 on page 7−13.
10 Right−click on endpoint
to be modified.
Modification sub−menu will be
displayed.
11 Click required sub−menu
selection to add, modify,
or delete endpoint.
When changes are
complete, click Close
button to save changes.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
close.
15.1.13.2.3 Deleting an MSG Needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select MSG
needline to be deleted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline.
Delete Needline window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
MSG needline will be deleted and
Delete Needline window will close.
15.1.13.3 HDR Duplex Needlines.
15.1.13.3.1 Adding an HDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−40
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO highlighted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline.
Add Needline under Edit menu
highlighted, then Add CSMA
Needline Wizard will appear.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select HDR Duplex.
The wizard title bar will change to
Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
and the default name in the
Needline Name: field will include
an HDR prefix.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
7 Click Modify button in
Add HDR Duplex
Needline Wizard.
Modifying the generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
Number displayed.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
will be displayed with revised
needline number.
10 Click Next>> button. Second Add HDR Duplex
Needline Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−37 on page 7−44.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
12 If required to set EPLRS
Pos Setting, click
Advanced button.
HDR Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−38 on page 7−46.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−41
Adding an HDR Duplex Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
13 Select EPLRS Pos
Setting.
14 Click OK button. HDR Advanced window will close.
15 Click Next>> button. Third Add HDR Duplex Needline
wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−39 on page 7−47.
16 In Source Unit area of
wizard, click to select
source RS unit.
Expand tree as required.
17 In Destination Unit area
of wizard, click to select
destination RS unit.
18 Set LCN values for
source and destination
RSs as required.
19 Click Next>> button. Fourth Add HDR Duplex Needline
wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−41 on page 7−48.
20 If a relay unit is assigned
to needline, click to
select RS for relay unit.
21 Click Add Another
Relay button.
Count in Number of Relay Units:
field will be incremented.
22 Repeat Steps 20 and 21
to add more relay units,
if needed.
23 When data entry is
complete, click Done
button.
Add HDR Duplex Needline Wizard
will close, needline will appear in
needline tree.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−42
15.1.13.3.2 Modifying an HDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing HDR duplex
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
4 Change needline
parameters as required.

5 If required to change
EPLRS Pos Setting,
click Advanced button
to display HDR
Advanced window.
HDR Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−38 on page 7−46.
6 Select EPLRS Pos
Setting.
7 Click OK button. HDR Advanced window will close.
8 Click Save button. Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
9 If needline endpoints
need to be modified,
click View/Modify
Endpoints button.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−42 on page 7−49.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−43
Modifying an HDR Duplex Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
10 Right−click on endpoint
to be modified.
Modification sub−menu will be
displayed.
11 Click required sub−menu
selection to add or
modify endpoint.
Add, modify, or delete windows
will be displayed per sub−menu
selection.
Endpoint RSs may be:
modified (Steps 12 through 14),
added (Steps 15 through 17), or
deleted (Steps 18 through 19).
Endpoint RSs (source or destination)
may be added or modified, but not
deleted. Relay RSs may be added,
modified, or deleted.
12 To modify an endpoint,
click Modify... selection.
Modifying Endpoint window will be
displayed.
13 Change LCN value as
required.
Only option available.
14 Click OK button. Modifying Endpoint window will
close.
Endpoint modification complete.
Go to Step 20.
15 To add another endpoint,
click Add Another
Endpoint... selection on
modification sub−menu.
Add Another HDR Duplex Relay
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−45 on page 7−50.
16 Click to select RS in
Select Relay Units area.
17 Click Add Relay button. Add Another HDR Duplex Relay
window will close, and new relay
will be displayed in View/Modify
Endpoints window.
Endpoint addition complete.
Go to Step 20.
18 To delete a relay, click
Delete Selected
Endpoint selection on
modification sub−menu.
Deleting Endpoint window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−46 on page 7−51.
19 Verify Radio Name of
relay to be deleted, then
click Yes button.
Deleting Endpoint window will
close, and relay will be deleted
from View/Modify Endpoints
window.
Relay deletion complete.
20 When required changes
are complete, click
Close button to save
changes.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−44
15.1.13.3.3 Deleting an HDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing HDR duplex
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select HDR
duplex needline to be
deleted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline....
The Delete Needline window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
The HDR duplex needline will be
deleted, and the Delete Needline
window will close.
15.1.13.4 LDR Duplex Needlines.
15.1.13.4.1 Adding an LDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO highlighted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline....
Add CSMA Needline Wizard will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select LDR Duplex.
Wizard title bar will change to Add
LDR Duplex Needline Wizard and
the default name in the Needline
Name: field will include an LDR
prefix.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−45
Adding an LDR Duplex Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
7 Click Modify button in
Add LDR Duplex
Needline Wizard.
Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
Number displayed.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add LDR Duplex Needline Wizard
will be displayed with revised
needline number.
10 Click Next>> button. Second Add LDR Duplex Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−48 on page 7−54.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
Refer to Figure 7−50 on page 7−56.
12 If required to set EPLRS
Pos Setting, click
Advanced button.
LDR Advanced window will be
displayed.
13 Select EPLRS Pos
Setting.
14 Click OK button. LDR Advanced window will close.
15 Click Next>> button. Third Add LDR Duplex Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−51 on page 7−57.
16 In Source Unit area of
wizard, click to select
source RS unit.
17 In Destination Unit area
of wizard, click to select
destination RS unit.
18 Set LCN values for
source and destination
RSs as required.
19 When data entry is
complete, click Done
button.
Needline wizard will close,
needline will appear in needline
tree.

TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−46
15.1.13.4.2 Modifying an LDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing LDR duplex
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
4 Change needline
parameters as required.

5 If required to change
EPLRS Pos Setting,
click Advanced button.
LDR Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−50 on page 7−56.
6 Select EPLRS Pos
Setting.
7 Click OK button. LDR Advanced window will close.
8 Click Save button. Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
9 If needline endpoints
need to be modified,
click View/Modify
Endpoints button.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−52 on page 7−58.
10 Right−click on endpoint
to be modified.
Modification sub−menu will be
displayed.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−47
Modifying an LDR Duplex Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
11 Click Modify... selection
to modify endpoint.
Modifying Endpoint window will be
displayed.
12 Change LCN value as
required.
13 Click OK button. Modifying Endpoint window will
close.
14 To modify other
endpoints, repeat Steps
10 through 13.
15 When changes are
complete, click Close
button to save changes.
View/Modify Endpoints window will
close.
15.1.13.4.3 Deleting an LDR Duplex Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing LDR duplex
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select LDR
duplex needline to be
deleted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline....
The Delete Needline window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
Display will be similar to figure.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
The LDR duplex needline will be
deleted, and the Delete Needline
window will close.
15.1.13.5 SMSG Needlines.
15.1.13.5.1 Adding an SMSG Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−48
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO highlighted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline.
Add CSMA Needline Wizard will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select SMSG.
Wizard title bar will change to Add
SMSG Needline Wizard and the
default name in the Needline
Name: field will include an SMSG
prefix.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
7 Click Modify button in
Add SMSG Needline
Wizard.
Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
Number displayed.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add SMSG Needline Wizard will
be displayed with revised needline
number.
10 Click Next>> button. Second Add SMSG Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−56 on page 7−62.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
12 If required to set
EPLRS Pos Setting,
SMSG Type or ADDSI
IP Interoperability, click
Advanced button.
SMSG Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−58 on page 7−65.
13 Set parameters as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−49
Adding an SMSG Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
14 Click OK button. SMSG Advanced window will
close.
15 To go back to previous
Add SMSG Needline
Wizard, click <<Back
button (optional).
16 If no additional steps are
required, click Done
button.
Add SMSG Needline Wizard will
close, and new needline will
appear in needline tree.
15.1.13.5.2 Modifying an SMSG Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing SMSG
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
4 Change needline
parameters as required.

5 If required to change
advanced needline
settings, click Advanced
button.
SMSG Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−58 on page 7−65.
6 Set parameters as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−50
Modifying an SMSG Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
7 Click OK button when
selection complete.
SMSG Advanced window will
close.
8 Click Save button. Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
15.1.13.5.3 Deleting an SMSG Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing SMSG
needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select SMSG
needline to be deleted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline....
The Delete Needline window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
Display will be similar to figure.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
The SMSG needline will be
deleted, and the Delete Needline
window will close.
15.1.13.6 TAMA Needlines.
15.1.13.6.1 Adding a TAMA Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder.
NOTE
To add a needline, you must select UTO that is under EPLRS folder. You cannot add a
needline to the EPLRS folder.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select UTO
where you want to add
needline.
UTO highlighted.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−51
Adding a TAMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 Under Edit menu, click
Add Needline.
Add CSMA Needline Wizard will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−7 on page 7−8.
4 Click Needline Type:
drop−down list and
select TAMA.
Wizard title bar will change to Add
TAMA Needline Wizard and the
default name in the Needline
Name: field will include a TAMA
prefix.
5 Check needline name
displayed in Needline
Name: field; modify if
necessary.
6 Check displayed
needline number; if
correct, skip to Step 10.
7 Click Modify button in
Add TAMA Needline
Wizard.
Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−9 on page 7−10.
8 Type new needline
number into Enter New
Needline Number: field.
Number displayed.
9 Click Overwrite button. Modifying the Generated Needline
Number window will close, and
Add TAMA Needline Wizard will
be displayed with revised needline
number.
10 Click Next>> button. Second Add TAMA Needline
Wizard will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−61 on page 7−69.
11 Review and modify
needline parameters
using data fields and
drop−down lists as
required.
12 If required to set Circuit
Power Level, click
Advanced button.
TAMA Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−62 on page 7−70.
13 Set parameter as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−52
Adding a TAMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
14 Click OK button. TAMA Advanced window will
close.
15 To go back to previous
Add TAMA Needline
Wizard, click <<Back
button (optional).
16 If no additional steps are
required, click Done
button.
Add TAMA Needline Wizard will
close, and new needline will
appear in needline tree.
15.1.13.6.2 Modifying a TAMA Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing TAMA needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
When display opens,
ensure Needline
Definition data select
button is set.
If display opens with
Needlines Tree closed,
double−click on EPLRS
folder to expand it.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select needline
to be modified.
When needline is selected, right
side of window will display
needline parameters and Modify
button in Description of Needline
area.
3 Click Modify button. Modify Needline window will be
displayed.
4 Change needline
parameters as required.

5 If required to change
Circuit Power Level,
click Advanced button.
TAMA Advanced window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−62 on page 7−70.
6 Set parameter as
required.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−53
Modifying a TAMA Needline
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
7 Click OK button when
selection complete.
TAMA Advanced window will
close.
8 Click Done button. Modify Needline window will close,
and revised needline parameters
will be displayed in Description of
Needline area in right side of Net
Services tab display.
15.1.13.6.3 Deleting a TAMA Needline.
Prerequisites: Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one existing TAMA needline.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Click to select TAMA
needline to be deleted.
3 Under Edit menu, click
Delete Needline....
The Delete Needline window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 7−11 on page 7−10.
Display will be similar to figure.
4 Verify that correct
needline is shown in
Delete Needline window.
Click Yes button.
The TAMA needline will be
deleted, and the Delete Needline
window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−54
15.1.13.7 Finding a Needline in the Needline Tree.
Prerequisites: ENP running; Needline tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one or more
existing needlines.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Net Services tab.
Net Services tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−14 on page 7−12.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Under Edit menu, click
Find....
Find window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 7−12 on page 7−11.
You can also right−click in Needline
Tree area and click Find... selection
on sub−menu.
3 Click Find Type:
drop−down list and
select data type.
4 Enter search data in
Find What: field.
You can enter a complete data item
(e.g., PVC_DF), or a partial data item
(e.g., DF) as the search data.
5 Click Result(s):
drop−down list to display
data results found.
6 Click desired result (data
item found) in
drop−down list.
7 Click Select button. Selected result will be highlighted
in Needline Tree.
8 Click X box in Find
window.
Find window will close.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−55
15.1.14 Adding and Modifying IP Services.
The subsections that follow tell you how to add, modify, or configure the various IP interfaces used in EPLRS
networks. These include the following tasks:
Page number
D Configuring an Ethernet interface 15−55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding DAP network routes 15−56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding DAP host routes 15−57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an RS to proxy for other networks (DAP proxy) 15−58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring the PVC DF interface 15−59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an IP PVC interface (adding PVC routes) 15−60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring an IP Over ADDSI interface 15−62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Configuring a PPP interface 15−64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting up a next−hop gateway 15−66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Adding and deleting unicast and multicast routes 15−67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting a default interface 15−70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Enabling IGMP to support multicast routing 15−70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting up a multicast group 15−71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Finding an RS in the IP assignments tree 15−72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.14.1 Configuring an Ethernet Interface.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO where
you want to add
interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS and select
Ethernet interface.
3 Click Modify... button in
Selected Interface
Description area.
Ethernet modification window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−13 on page 8−16.
4 Enter IP Address.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−56
Configuring an Ethernet Interface
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Enter Subnet Mask.
6 Set desired state for
Default:, IGMP: and RIP
Mode: fields.
7 Click OK button to save
revised parameters and
close window.
Revised parameters will appear in
Selected Interface Description
area of tab display. Ethernet
symbol background will go to
black.
If Ethernet interface is set as default
interface, IP address will be displayed
in unicast table.
15.1.14.2 Adding DAP Network Routes.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and RSs with configured
Ethernet interfaces assigned to that UTO.
NOTE
To set the DAP interface as the default IP interface, refer to the procedure in Section
15.1.14.11. To delete a network route, refer to the procedure in Section 15.1.14.10.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO where
you want to configure
interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS and select
DAP interface.
Refer to Figure 8−14 on page 8−18.
3 Right−click in the IP
Assignments Tree area
to display modification
sub−menu.
Refer to Figure 8−16 on page 8−21.
4 Click the Modify DAP...
selection.
The Modify DAP Interface window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−17 on page 8−22.
5 Click to select unicast
members to add as
destinations.
Assigns static routes; enters
networks that are directly reachable
without going through any routers in
between.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−57
Adding DAP Network Routes
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
6 Click Add>> button. Selected unicast members will be
transferred to table in right side of
window.
7 To include new route(s)
in other RSs in this
UTO, set Include this RS
in other RS’s unicast
check box.
Adds route(s) to unicast tables for all
other RSs under the UTO.
8 Click Next>> button. Parameters will be saved, Modify
DAP Interface window will close,
and routes added will be displayed
in unicast table.
Refer to Figure 8−18 on page 8−23.
15.1.14.3 Adding DAP Host Routes.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder, RSs with configured
Ethernet interfaces assigned to that UTO, and IP−based host devices connected to the Ethernet−configured RSs.
NOTE
To set the DAP interface as the default IP interface, refer to the procedure in Section
15.1.14.11. To delete a host route, refer to the procedure in Section 15.1.14.10.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO where
you want to configure
interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS and select
DAP interface.
Refer to Figure 8−14 on page 8−18.
3 Right−click anywhere in
the unicast table to
display modification
sub−menu.
Refer to Figure 8−19 on page 8−24.
4 Click Add Unicast
Entry... selection.
Add DAP Route window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−20 on page 8−24.
The 127.10.2.1 IP address is a virtual
gateway IP address assigned by
ENP. Do not change it.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−58
Adding DAP Host Routes
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Enter IP address of
destination host in
Network IP Address:
field.
6 Enter subnet mask of
destination host in
Subnet Mask: field.
Subnet mask is 255.255.255.255.
7 Click OK button. Add DAP Route window will close,
new unicast route will be displayed
in unicast table.
Refer to Figure 8−21 on page 8−25.
15.1.14.4 Configuring an RS to Proxy ARP for Other Networks (Radio’s Proxy ARP).
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO; IP address of remote network.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO where
you want to configure
interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS to set up
proxy, and right−click
anywhere in Radio’s
Proxy ARP Table.
Refer to Figure 8−22 on page 8−26.
3 Click Add Radio’s Proxy
ARP Entry...
4 Enter IP address for the
remote network in
Subnet IP: field.
5 Enter subnet mask for
the remote network in
Subnet Mask: field.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−59
Configuring an RS to Proxy ARP for Other Networks (Radio’s Proxy ARP)
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
6 Select INCLUDE or
EXCLUDE for Address
Resolution Protocol
(ARP) type in ARP Type:
field.
7 Click OK button. Parameters will be saved, and
data entry window will be closed.
New entry is then displayed in
DAP Proxy Table.
Refer to Figure 8−24 on page 8−27.
15.1.14.5 Configuring the PVC DF Interface.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
NOTES
The PVC DF needline must be enabled after the network is initialized via ENM. The
ENM operator must set the Broadcast PVC Enable check box under ENM Preferences.
For more information on this, refer to TB 11−5825−298−10−1, the ENM Operator’s
manual.
Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) is a protocol used by IP hosts to send
messages to other hosts that have a common multicast IP address. To support multicast
routing with the PVC DF needline, IGMP must be set to On (enabled) for the Ethernet
interface. The default state for RSs is IGMP enabled, so normally you don’t have to
enable them individually. Refer to Section 15.1.14.12 for the procedure on enabling
IGMP.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under Net Services tab,
create a CSMA needline
to be the PVC DF
needline.
Refer to Section 15.1.13.1.1 for
procedure. LCN must be DF
(hexadecimal).
2 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−60
Configuring the PVC DF Interface
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
3 In IP Assignments Tree,
double−click on an RS to
display built−in
interfaces. Observe
PVC DF interface icon.
PVC DF interface icon should
have a black background.
Black background indicates that valid
PVC DF needline was added to
deployment plan. If icon has white
background, check parameters of
PVC DF needline under Net Services
tab.
4 Under IP Interfaces tab,
create a multicast group
that uses the PVC DF
needline.
Refer to Section 15.1.14.13 for
procedure. Multicast IP address
must be 225.1.1.1. Net service used
must be PVC DF needline. All
network ENM RSs should be
members of multicast group.
15.1.14.6 Configuring an IP PVC Interface (Adding PVC Routes).
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
NOTE
The network planner must create the IP PVC interfaces to go with the needlines in the
network. Needlines are activated in the network using .A URO messages or when data
is sent from host if IP protocol is correct. However, even when the needlines are
activated via .A messages, it is still necessary to configure the embedded router in the
RS with the correct IP addresses for the needlines.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO RS
assignments where you
want to add interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Locate RS where you
want to add PVC
interface. Click to select
RS.
3 Right−click anywhere in
IP Assignments Tree
area.
IP interface sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−26 on page 8−30.
4 Click on Add
Interfaces....
Add Interface window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−27 on page 8−31.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−61
Configuring an IP PVC Interface (Adding PVC Routes)
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Select PVC type.
6 Enter number of PVCs
you are going to create.
7 Click Next>> button. First Add PVC Interface window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−28 on page 8−32.
The 127−series IP addresses (e.g.,
127.10.4.1) are virtual gateway IP
addresses assigned by ENP. These
are system defaults and follow a
convention controlled by ENP. Do not
change these IP addresses or the
subnet masks that come with them.
8 Set the desired state for
Default: field.
9 Select a needline for
interface under Comm
Serv (LCN hex): field.
10 Select desired setting for
IP Header Compression:
field.
This setting should be left at default
value unless directed by responsible
command personnel.
11 Select desired setting for
DHCP Support: field.
This setting should be left at default
value unless directed by responsible
command personnel.
12 Check the LCN Inactive
Until Needed box if
needline shares time
resources with another
needline.
13 Click Next>> button. Parameters will be saved, and
second Add PVC Interface
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−29 on page 8−34.
14 Click to select unicast
members to add as
destinations.
Assigns static routes; enters
networks that are directly reachable
without going through any routers in
between.
15 Click Add>> button. Selected unicast members will be
transferred to table in right side of
window.
16 To include new route(s)
in other RSs in this
UTO, set Include this RS
in other RS’s unicast
check box.
Adds route(s) to unicast tables for all
other RSs under the UTO.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−62
Configuring an IP PVC Interface (Adding PVC Routes)
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
17 Click Next>> button. Parameters will be saved, Add
PVC Interfaces window will close,
and revised tabular summary will
be displayed.
18 Click on icon for newly
generated PVC interface
under the RS.
or
Unicast table for PVC interface will
be displayed.
19 Right−click in unicast
table to make individual
additions or deletions.
Unicast entry sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−51 on page 8−55.
20 To add a PVC route,
click on Add Unicast
Entry... selection.
Add PVC Route window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−42 on page 8−47
for Add PVC Route window. Window
saves last−entered data values.
21 Enter IP address and
subnet mask for new
route.
Normally, gateway IP address should
be left at ENP−supplied default value.
22 Click OK button. Add PVC Route window will close,
and new route will appear in
unicast table.
23 To delete PVC route,
select route, then click
on Delete Unicast Entry
selection.
Selected route will be deleted from
unicast table.
15.1.14.7 Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
NOTE
Refer to Figure 8−37 on page 8−42 for an example of an IP over ADDSI network
configuration.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−63
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO RS
assignments where you
want to add interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Locate RS where you
want to add IP over
ADDSI interface. Click
to select RS.
3 Right−click anywhere in
IP Assignments Tree
area.
IP interface sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−38 on page 8−43.
The ENM RS must be configured
before connecting to an ADDSI
device. You can have another
remote ENM reconfigure your ENM
RS over the air or do it via direct
Ethernet connection. If a router is
present, do not assign the RS’s
Ethernet address to be on the same
LAN as that of the router.
4 Click Add Interfaces...
selection.
Add Interface window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−39 on page 8−44.
5 Set PVC type to IP over
ADDSI.
6 Enter 1 in No. of PVCs:
field.
7 Click Next>> button. Add IP ADDSI Interface window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−40 on page 8−44.
8 Set the desired state for
the Default: field.
9 Enter the ADDSI LCN.
10 Click Next>> button. Parameters will be saved, and
Add IP ADDSI Interface window
will be closed.
Icon for IP over ADDSI interface will
appear under RS selected in tree
diagram in IP Interfaces tab display.
New route data will be displayed in
right side of IP Interfaces tab display.
11 Click to select new IP
over ADDSI interface in
IP Assignments Tree
area.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−64
Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
12 Right−click anywhere in
Unicast Table area.
Unicast table sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−41 on page 8−46.
13 Click Add Unicast
Entry... selection.
Add IP/ADDSI Route window will
be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−42 on page 8−47.
14 Enter IP address of
remote network in
Network IP Address:
field.
15 Enter subnet mask for
remote network in
Subnet Mask: field.
The 127−series IP address (e.g.,
127.10.4.1) is a virtual gateway IP
address assigned by ENP.
16 Click OK button. Parameters will be saved, and
Add IP/ADDSI Route window will
be closed.
New added route will appear in
Unicast Table section of tab.
15.1.14.8 Configuring a PPP Interface.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO RS
assignments where you
want to add interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Locate RS where you
want to add PPP
interface. Click to select
RS.
3 Right−click anywhere in
IP Assignments Tree
area.
IP interface sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−45 on page 8−49.
4 Click Add Interfaces...
selection.
Add Interface window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−46 on page 8−51.
5 In Add Interface window,
select button for PPP.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−65
Configuring a PPP Interface
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
6 Enter 1 in No. of PVCs:
field.
Number of interfaces will always be
set to 1 for PPP.
7 Click Next>> button. Add PPP Interface window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−47 on page 8−51.
8 Enter the parameters for
the PPP interface.
9 Click Next>> button. Parameters will be saved, and
Add PPP Interface window will
close.
Icon for new PPP interface will be
displayed under parent RS in tree
diagram in IP Interfaces tab display.
You can add static unicast or
multicast routes for the PPP interface
by selecting the PPP interface in the
IP Interfaces tab display,
right−clicking anywhere in the Unicast
Table or Multicast Table areas, and
then adding the required IP
addresses for the routes.
Refer to Section 15.1.14.10 for the
procedures for building unicast and
multicast route tables.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−66
15.1.14.9 Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO; designated RS to serve as gateway (bridging RS); IP address of remote network.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
If display opens with IP
Assignments Tree
closed, double−click on
EPLRS or UTO folders
to expand UTO RS
assignment where you
want to add interface.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Locate RS where you
want to build next−hop
gateway.
Expand tree to display IP interfaces.
3 Locate PVC interface
under selected RS in the
IP Assignments Tree.
Click on PVC interface
icon to select it.
Unicast table for selected PVC
interface will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−50 on page 8−55.
4 Right−click anywhere in
Unicast Table area.
Unicast sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−51 on page 8−55.
5 Click Add Unicast
Entry... selection.
Add PVC Route window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−52 on page 8−56.
6 Enter IP address of
remote network in
Network IP Address:
field.
7 Enter subnet mask for
remote network in
Subnet Mask: field.
8 Enter IP address of
bridging RS (next−hop
gateway) in Gateway IP
Address: field.
9 Click OK button.
Parameters saved.
Add PVC Route window will be
closed.
New parameters will appear in
Unicast Table section of tab display.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
15−67
15.1.14.10 Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Route.
You can add or delete static routes to unicast or multicast tables for any of the interfaces. The process is
essentially the same for both types.
15.1.14.10.1 Adding a Unicast Route.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO; IP address and subnet mask of route.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS you want to
add unicast route for.
Expand tree to display
IP interfaces.
2 Click to select IP
interface (PPP,
IP/ADDSI or PVC) you
want to add unicast
route in to.
3 Right−click anywhere in
Unicast Table area.
Unicast sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−51 on page 8−55.
4 Click Add Unicast
Entry... selection.
Add (selected interface) Route
window will be displayed. For
example, if PPP interface
selected, displayed window will be
Add PPP Route window.
Refer to Figure 8−52 on page 8−56.
The 127−series IP address (e.g.,
127.10.5.1) is a virtual gateway IP
address assigned by ENP.
5 Enter destination IP
address in Network IP
Address: field.
6 Enter destination subnet
mask in Subnet Mask:
field.
7 Click OK button. Add (selected interface) Route
window will close, new unicast
route will be displayed in unicast
table.
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15.1.14.10.2 Deleting a Unicast Route.
Prerequisites: None.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS that you want
to delete unicast route
for. Expand tree to
display IP interfaces.
2 Click to select IP
interface, (PPP,
IP/ADDSI or PVC).
3 In Unicast Table, click to
select route you want to
delete.
4 Right−click to display
modification sub−menu.
Unicast sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−51 on page 8−55.
5 Click Delete Unicast
Entry selection.
Route will be deleted and will be
removed from unicast table.
15.1.14.10.3 Adding a Multicast Route.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO; IP address of route.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS you want to
add a multicast route for.
Expand tree to display
IP interfaces.
2 Click to select IP
interface, (Ethernet,
PPP, IP/ADDSI, or
PVC).
3 Right−click any where in
Multicast Table area to
display modification
sub−menu.
Multicast sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−54 on page 8−57.
4 Click Add Multicast
Entry... selection.
Multicast IP address window will
be displayed.
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Adding a Multicast Route
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
5 Enter destination IP
address in Multicast
Group IP: field.
6 Click OK button. Multicast IP address window will
close, and new multicast route will
be displayed in multicast table.
15.1.14.10.4 Deleting a Multicast Route.
Prerequisites: None.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Assignments Tree,
locate RS you want to
delete a multicast route
for. Expand tree to
display IP interfaces.
2 Click to select IP
interface.
3 In Multicast Table, click
to select route you want
to delete.
4 Right−click to display
modification sub−menu.
Multicast sub−menu will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−54 on page 8−57.
5 Click Delete Multicast
Entry selection.
Route will be deleted and will be
removed from multicast table.
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15.1.14.11 Setting a Default Interface.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
NOTE
Any of the IP interfaces for an RS can be set as the default interface for that RS.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Interfaces Tree
diagram, locate interface
you want to make the
default. Click to select
interface.
2 Click Modify... button in
Selected Interface
Description area.
Modification window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−13 on page 8−16.
3 Click drop−down list for
Default: field, then click
Yes to set default.
4 Click OK button. Modification window will close,
and Default Route: field in
Selected Interface Description
area will display Yes for selected
interface.
The default IP address (0.0.0.0)
and default subnet mask (0.0.0.0)
will be displayed in unicast table.
If interface is reset so that it is no
longer the default interface, then ENP
will delete default IP address (0.0.0.0)
and default subnet mask (0.0.0.0)
from unicast table.
15.1.14.12 Enabling Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) to Support Multicast Routing.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
NOTE
IGMP is a protocol used by IP hosts to send messages to other hosts that have a
common multicast IP address. To support multicast routing for an interface, you must
enable IGMP for that interface. Any Ethernet or PPP interface can be set up with IGMP
enabled to support multicast routing.
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Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 In IP Interfaces Tree
diagram, locate interface
you want to enable
IGMP on. Click to select
interface.
2 Click Modify... button in
Selected Interface
Description area.
Modification window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−13 on page 8−16.
3 Click drop−down list for
IGMP: field, then click
On to enable IGMP.
4 Click OK button. Modification window will close,
and IGMP: field in Selected
Interface Description area will
display On for selected interface.
15.1.14.13 Setting Up a Multicast Group.
Prerequisites: IP Assignments tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO; IP address for multicast group; UTO with needline available for multicast group.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Click IP Interfaces tab. IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
2 Under Edit menu, click
Multicast Setup...
selection.
First Multicast Wizard will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−55 on page 8−59.
3 In first Multicast Wizard,
click to select needline
to configure multicast
group.
4 Click Next>> button. Second Multicast Wizard will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−56 on page 8−59.
5 Enter multicast address
into Enter Multicast
Group IP: field.
6 (Optional) To go back to
previous Multicast
Wizard, click Back>>
button.
Select an Option window will be
displayed.
Prompts user to save changes if
desired. Clicking Yes button saves
the most recently entered changes.
7 Click Yes button to save
changes, or click No
button to go back
without saving changes.
Select an Option window will
close, and first Multicast Wizard
will be displayed.
User can make changes in first
Multicast Wizard; must then click
Next button to return to second
wizard.
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Setting Up a Multicast Group
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
8 In second Multicast
Wizard, click Next>>
button.
Third Multicast Wizard will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 8−57 on page 8−60.
9 In left column of wizard,
click to select RSs to go
into multicast group,
then click Add>> button.
Selected RSs will move from left
column into right column.
Refer to Figure 8−58 on page 8−61.
10 (Optional) To remove
RSs from multicast
group, in right column of
wizard, click to select
RSs to be removed,
then click Remove>>
button.
Selected RSs will move from right
column into left column.
11 (Optional) To go back to
previous Multicast
Wizard, click Back>>
button.
Select an Option window will be
displayed.
12 Click Yes button to save
changes, or click No
button to go back
without saving changes.
Select an Option window will
close, and second Multicast
Wizard will be displayed.
User can make changes in second
Multicast Wizard; must then click
Next button to return to third wizard.
13 After adding selected
RSs to multicast group,
click OK button.
Wizard will close, and multicast
group IP address can be viewed in
multicast group IP address table
for selected RS and PVC.
15.1.14.14 Finding an RS in the IP Assignments Tree.
Prerequisites: ENP running; IP Assignments Tree (EPLRS) with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder
and one or more existing RSs.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click IP Interfaces tab.
IP Interfaces tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−1 on page 8−6.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Under Edit menu, click
Find....
Find window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 8−10 on page 8−14.
You can also right−click in IP
Assignments Tree area and click Find
selection on sub−menu.
3 Click Find Type:
drop−down list and
select data type.
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Finding an RS in the IP Assignments Tree
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
4 Enter search data in
Find What: field.
You can enter a complete data item
(e.g., RS−000000A1), or a partial
data item (e.g., RS−00) as the search
data.
5 Click Find button. Found: field will display the
number of results found.
Refer to Figure 5−11 on page 5−12.
If Found: field displays zero, search
data was not found.
6 Click Result(s):
drop−down list to display
data results found.
7 Click desired result (data
item found) in
drop−down list.
8 Click Select button. Selected result will be highlighted
in Needline Tree.
9 Click X box in Find
window.
Find window will close.
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15.1.15 Adding and Modifying Agents.
Procedures for the EPLRS Agent tab include the following:
D Adding an agent
D Modifying an agent
D Removing an agent
D Finding an agent in the EPLRS agent tree
15.1.15.1 Adding an Agent.
Prerequisites: EPLRS Agent tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and at least one RS
assigned to that UTO.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Agent tab.
Agent tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−1 on page 9−2.
2 Click to select RS in the
tree diagram.
Agent Table will display all
assigned EPLRS agents for
selected RS.
3 Right−click anywhere in
EPLRS Agent Tree area.
Add Agent sub−menu will be
displayed.
RS must have active configured
interface. Refer to Figure 9−2 on
page 9−3.
You can also display the Add Agent
selection by clicking the Edit menu.
Either method produces an Add
Agent selection. The Edit menu
displays the Add Agent..., Modify
Agent..., and Remove Agent...
selections. Refer to Figure 9−3 on
page 9−3.
4 Click Add Agent. Add Agent window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 9−4 on page 9−4.
5 Enter or select
parameters that define
the agent using
drop−down lists and
data entry fields.
6 Click Add button to add
new agent to agent
table.
Agent will be displayed in table.
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15.1.15.2 Modifying an Agent.
Prerequisites: EPLRS Agent tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder, at least one RS assigned
to that UTO, and at least one agent assigned to that RS.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Agent tab.
Agent tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−1 on page 9−2.
2 In Agent Table area,
click to select agent.
3 Right−click anywhere on
data line for selected
agent.
Modify and Remove sub−menu
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 9−3 on page 9−3.
4 Click Modify Agent. Modify Agent window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 9−7 on page 9−6.
5 Modify parameters as
required using
drop−down lists and
data entry fields.
6 Click Modify button to
save changed
parameters.
Changed parameters displayed in
agent table.
15.1.15.3 Removing an Agent.
Prerequisites: EPLRS Agent tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder, at least one RS assigned
to that UTO, and at least one agent assigned to that RS.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Agent tab.
Agent tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−1 on page 9−2.
2 In Agent Table area,
click to select agent.
3 Right−click anywhere on
data line for selected
agent.
Modify and Remove sub−menu
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 9−3 on page 9−3.
4 Click Remove Agent. Remove? window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 9−8 on page 9−6.
5 Click Yes button. Agent will be deleted from
deployment plan database and
removed from agent table.
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15.1.15.4 Finding an Agent in the EPLRS Agent Tree.
Prerequisites: ENP running; EPLRS Agent tree with at least one existing UTO under EPLRS folder and one or
more RSs.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
click Agent tab.
Agent tab will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−1 on page 9−2.
Display will be similar to figure.
2 Under Edit menu, click
Find....
Find window will be displayed. Refer to Figure 9−9 on page 9−7.
You can also right−click in Agent Tree
area and click Find... selection on
sub−menu.
3 Click Find Type:
drop−down list and
select data type.
4 Enter search data in
Find What: field.
You can enter a complete data item
(e.g., RS−0002), or a partial data item
(e.g., 02) as the search data.
5 Click Find button. Found: field will display the
number of results found.
Refer to Figure 9−10 on page 9−7. If
Found: field displays zero, search
data was not found.
6 Click Result(s):
drop−down list to display
data results found.
7 Click desired result (data
item found) in
drop−down list.
8 Click Select button. Selected result will be highlighted
in EPLRS Agent Tree.
9 Click X box in Find
window.
Find window will close.
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15.1.16 Analyzing a Planning File.
Prerequisites: ENP running with deployment plan data entered from existing deployment plan, imported TI plan,
or entered by operator.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under File menu, click
Analyze Plan....
ENP will display deployment plan
analysis in Deployment Plan
Analysis window.
Refer to Figure 3−29 on page 3−23.
2 Review deployment plan
analysis as needed.
3 To print analysis report,
click Print button.
4 Click Close button or X
box in upper−right
corner of window to
close and return to ENP
main window.
ENP main window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−5 on page 3−5.
15.1.17 Running ENP Help Functions.
D Running ENP on−line user manual (part of ENM on−line user manual)
D Verifying ENP software version number and release date
15.1.17.1 Running ENP On−Line User Manual.
Prerequisites: None
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
select Help menu, then
click ENP User’s
Manual.
ENP User’s Manual utility will
display opening screen of user
manual.
Refer to Figure 3−44 on page 3−32.
2 Review ENM User
Manual for ENP
information as required.
To close ENP User’s
Manual, click X box in
upper right corner of
window.
ENP User’s Manual will close and
return to ENP main window.
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15.1.17.2 Verifying ENP Software Version Number and Release Date.
Prerequisites: None
To verify ENP software version number and release date, perform the following:
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From ENP main window,
select Help menu, then
click About ENP.
About ENP window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−44 on page 3−32
and Figure 3−45 on page 3−33.
2 Verify version number
and build date. Click
OK button.
About ENP window will close.
15.1.18 Exiting ENP.
Prerequisites: None.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 Under File menu,
click Exit.
Exit Application window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 3−43 on page 3−31.
2 Click Yes button. ENP software will close.
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15−79
This subsection presents procedures for the following operations:
Page number
D Starting WBIRA Utility 15−79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Creating a new Frequency Channel Set 15−79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Loading a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Deleting a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Modifying a frequency channel set 15−80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Setting a Frequency Channel Set into the RS 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Retrieving a Frequency Channel Set from the RS 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range 15−81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Retrieving the RSs Channel Set 15−82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Exiting WBIRA 15−82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.19 Starting WBIRA Utility.
Prerequisites: ENP platform installed.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From windows desktop,
double−click wbira.exe
icon or go to
Start−>Programs−>
Raytheon−>Tools−>
Wide Band IRA.
WBIRA startup window will be
displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−1 on page 14−2.
If you get a Connection to Radio
Failed error message as shown in
Figure 14−2 on page 14−2, click Yes
to proceed without connecting to RS
and No to abort and close the utility.
15.1.19.1 Creating a new Frequency Channel Set.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Edit...
button.
Edit Frequency Set Name window
will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−4 on page 14−3.
2 Type in a frequency set
name, up to 8
characters and click OK.
WBIRA utility main window is
displayed with new FQ Set Name
displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−5 on page 14−4.
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15.1.19.2 Loading a frequency channel set.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Select
button.
Frequency Translation Set File
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−7 on page 14−5.
2 Select the set to load
and click Select button
or double−click on the
set.
WBIRA utility main window is
displayed with the loaded FQ Set
Name displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−5 on page 14−4.
15.1.19.3 Deleting a frequency channel set.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Select
button.
Frequency Translation Set File
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−7 on page 14−5.
2 Select the set to delete
and click Delete button.
Delete Table Entry window is
displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−8 on page 14−5.
3 Click Yes to confirm
delete or No to abort.
15.1.19.4 Modifying a frequency channel set.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Select
button.
Frequency Translation Set File
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−7 on page 14−5.
2 Select the set to modify
and click Select button.
WBIRA utility main window is
displayed with the FQ Set Name
to be modified displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−5 on page 14−4.
3 Make modifications as
desired to Translated
Freq and Active
Channels checkboxes
and click Save.
FreqTranslateUtil.saveFq−ToFile
window is displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−6 on page 14−4.
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15−81
15.1.19.5 Setting a Frequency Channel Set into the RS.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Send to
RS button.
The Frequency Table Was Set
window will be displayed.
Refer to Figure 14−10 on page 14−6.
2 If you receive the error
message window
FreqTranslatorUtil.all
UserSpecdFqsAreIn
ValidRange window, you
need to deactivate the
inactive channels before
clicking Send to RS.
Refer to Figure 14−11 on page 14−6.
15.1.19.6 Retrieving a Frequency Channel Set from the RS.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Get RS
FQs button.
If the current frequency channel
map has not been saved, Figure
14−15 on page 14−9 will be
shown. Otherwise, Figure 14−16
on page 14−16 will be shown.
If Figure 14−15 is shown, click Yes to
save the current frequency channel
set or No to retrieve the current RS
frequency channel set without saving.
15.1.19.7 Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Get RS
FQ Range button.
The WBIRA main window will be
displayed with the RSs frequency
range in the second row of the
window.
Refer to Figure 14−17 on page
14−10.
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15−82
15.1.19.8 Retrieving the RSs Channel Set.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started and RS zeroized (no keys loaded).
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click Get Ch
Set button.
The WBIRA main window will be
displayed with the RSs channel
set in the second row of the
window.
Refer to Figure 14−17 on page
14−10.
15.1.19.9 Exiting WBIRA.
Prerequisites: WBIRA utility started.
Step Operator Action System Indication Remarks
1 From WBIRA utility main
window, click the X in
the upper right corner.
Figure 14−19 on page 14−11 will
be shown, click Yes to exit and
click No to return to the WBIRA
utility without exiting.
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A−1/(A−2 blank)
APPENDIX A
HEXADECIMAL CONVERSION TABLE
Table A−1. Decimal−to−Hexadecimal Conversion
DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX DEC HEX
0 0 32 20 64 40 96 60 128 80 160 AO 192 CO 224 EO
1 1 33 21 65 41 97 61 129 81 161 A1 193 C1 225 E1
2 2 34 22 66 42 98 62 130 82 162 A2 194 C2 226 E2
3 3 35 23 67 43 99 63 131 83 163 A3 195 C3 227 E3
4 4 36 24 68 44 100 64 132 84 164 A4 196 C4 228 E4
5 5 37 25 69 45 101 65 133 85 165 A5 197 C5 229 E5
6 6 38 26 70 46 102 66 134 86 166 A6 198 C6 230 E6
7 7 39 27 71 47 103 67 135 87 167 A7 199 C7 231 E7
8 8 40 28 72 48 104 68 136 88 168 A8 200 C8 232 E8
9 9 41 29 73 49 105 69 137 89 169 A9 201 C9 233 E9
10 A 42 2A 74 4A 106 6A 138 8A 170 AA 202 CA 234 EA
11 B 43 2B 75 4B 107 6B 139 8B 171 AB 203 CB 235 EB
12 C 44 2C 76 4C 108 6C 140 8C 172 AC 204 CC 236 EC
13 D 45 2D 77 4D 109 6D 141 8D 173 AD 205 CD 237 ED
14 E 46 2E 78 4E 110 6E 142 8E 174 AE 206 CE 238 EE
15 F 47 2F 79 4F 111 6F 143 8F 175 AF 207 CF 239 EF
16 10 48 30 80 50 112 70 144 90 176 BO 208 DO 240 FO
17 11 49 31 81 51 113 71 145 91 177 B1 209 D1 241 F1
18 12 50 32 82 52 114 72 146 92 178 B2 210 D2 242 F2
19 13 51 33 83 53 115 73 147 93 179 B3 211 D3 243 F3
20 14 52 34 84 54 116 74 148 94 180 B4 212 D4 244 F4
21 15 53 35 85 55 117 75 149 95 181 B5 213 D5 245 F5
22 16 54 36 86 56 118 76 150 96 182 B6 214 D6 246 F6
23 17 55 37 87 57 119 77 151 97 183 B7 215 D7 247 F7
24 18 56 38 88 58 120 78 152 98 184 B8 216 D8 248 F8
25 19 57 39 89 59 121 79 153 99 185 B9 217 D9 249 F9
26 1A 58 3A 90 5A 122 7A 154 9A 186 BA 218 DA 250 FA
27 1B 59 3B 91 5B 123 7B 155 9B 187 BB 219 DB 251 FB
28 1C 60 3C 92 5 124 7C 156 9 188 BC 220 DC 252 FC
29 1D 61 3D 93 5D 125 7D 157 9D 189 BD 221 DD 253 FD
30 1E 62 3E 94 5E 126 7E 158 9E 190 BE 222 DE 254 FE
31 1F 63 3F 95 5F 127 7F 159 9F 191 BF 223 DF 255 FF
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B−1
APPENDIX B
NEEDLINE WORKSHEET
Members of the EPLRS user community should submit their individual communications requirements to the
system (network) planner using a tabular or graphic worksheet. The worksheet must identify the following:
D Endpoint identification (Radio Name and MILID, if available)
D LCN requirements or limitations
D Needline service type
D Needline data classification
D Data rate requirements
Table B−1 shows an example of a tabular needline worksheet. It lists the services required for two duplex users
and a third user group assigned to an MSG needline. This information gives you enough to select time and
frequency resources and define the needlines that are required to meet the user requirements. It must include
specific information such as message size, messages sent per hour, and composite speed of service (SOS).
SOS is defined as the maximum allowable time (in seconds) from when the host message is present at the
source RS until the entire message has been received at the destination RS. Figure B−1 shows a graphical
summary of the same service requirements as listed in Table B−1.
Table B−1. Sample Needline Tabular Worksheet
Item Source Destination Priority Type Msg/
hour
Bits/
msg
SOS
(sec)
Radio Name/Rolename
INF/LCN
Radio Name/Rolename
INF/LCN
1 1E73/S3−1−5−5 AD/73 1E50/S2−11−5 AD/73 3 Duplex 900 110 10
2 1E73/S3−1−5−5 AD/41 1D41/S3−TAC−1 AD/41 2 Duplex 900 110 10
3 1D41/S3−TAC−1 AD/30 2 MSG 900 240 10
0091/S3−TAC−2 AD/30 2 MSG 900 240 10
0092/S3−TAC−3 AD/30 2 MSG 900 240 10
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
B−2
Figure B−1. Graphic Needline Worksheet
RN 1D41
S3−TAC−1
RN 0091
S3−TAC−2
RN 0092
S3−TAC−3
RN 1E50
S2−11−5
RN 1E73
S3−1−1−5
NEEDLINE # 3
MSG
LTS 3
CH 3, 7
PRIORITY 2
NEEDLINE # 2
DUPLEX
900 MSG/HR
110 BITS/MSG
SOS = 10
NEEDLINE # 1
DUPLEX
900 MSG/HR
110 BITS/MSG
SOS = 10
LCN
73
LCN
30
LCN
30
LCN
73
LCN
41
LCN
41
LCN
30
The needlines to be input into the ENM database come from endpoint requirements. These are the user
requirements that establish the user−to−user data communications network. The following are key questions you
must ask a user when you want to create a needline:
D Does the user need bi−directional data flow between RSs?
D How often does the user send messages?
D Throughput requirements: Does the data need to be acknowleged or not?
D Speed of service: Is there a required time for source−to−destination delivery?
D Message size: How big are the messages sent by the user?
Based on this information, you can select the needline type (LDR Duplex PVC, LDR Duplex DAP, HDR Duplex
PVC, HDR Duplex DAP, MSG, CSMA, SMSG or TAMA) and use the ENP menus to select the needline
parameters for the best possible configuration.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
C−1
APPENDIX C
RS PARAMETERS CHECKLIST
The RS Parameters Checklist is a template for the required operational RS parameters. System parameters go into
the Setup area. Needline definitions are entered into the Needline Data area. Potential time conflicts are accounted
for using the Time Conflict Matrix area.
Needline Data
Needline Extended .? Response .Q Response(s)
Usual Conditions
Unusual Conditions
HDR Manual Relay Assignment
Entry at Host or URO Note
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
C−2
Time Conflict Matrix
Needline Time Number (LTS)
Usual Conditions
0 4 2 6 1 5 3 7
Duplex Relay Coordination X
LDR DAP (any Time) (any LCN, E0 thru FF) (LTS 3, 5, and/or7)
LDR Duplex (any Time) (LCNs 30, 31, and 32) (LTS 3, 5, and/or 7)
Note: LDR DAP and LDR Duplex needlines can co−exist without
blockage.
Unusual Conditions
HDR Manual Relay Assignment
Note: If LCN 2 is blocked, no ENM support, and no DAP support.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
D−1
APPENDIX D
PLANNER TROUBLESHOOTING
Problem: RS does not join operational network. One RS remains in Net Entry mode (RS OUT OF NET LED
continues to blink at a once−per−second rate) while other RSs join the network (Track or Active mode).
Solution:
1. Check RS antenna and antenna cables. Send −N message (URO).
2. Verify correct EPLRS network community ID.
3. Verify correct guard channel, timeslot length, and channel set.
4. Verify proper key loaded into a known good DTD/SKL and rekey the radio if all above steps check out to
be good.
Problem: RSs do not form a network. (All RSs remain in Net Entry mode.)
Solution:
1. Verify that ENM has time−mastered the network.
2. Rekey RS with keys from known good DTD if above step has been completed.
Problem: RS is unreachable by ENM via a DAP (even if ENM is receiving good RS status updates).
Solution:
1. Ensure DAP resources are available in the plan.
2. Ensure there is only one host connected to your ENM RS.
3. Ensure DAP resources are not in conflict with other needline resources in the plan.
4. Verify that coordination network is available to support DAP setup.
Problem: RS keeps losing its keys.
Solution:
1. Ensure that RS is not zeroized in another ENM’s database. If RS is zeroized in another ENM’s database,
have that ENM download a copy of the deployment plan from an ENM that does not have the RS as
zeroized to fix this issue.
2. Ensure Keep Alive Battery is good and the RS does not have an intermittent power connection.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
D−2
Problem: RS does not have any needlines.
Solution:
1. Verify that needlines are in the plan.
2. Verify needlines with ENM, or have RS operator send a .? message (URO).
3. Verify that RS is configured properly. If not, reconfigure RS.
Problem: RS has a needline but it is not active.
Solution:
1. RS operator can activate with .A command (URO).
2. Host may not have activated needline.
Problem: Needline cannot be activated either by its host or via .A message (URO).
Solution:
1. Verify that RS is configured properly. If not, reconfigure RS.
2. Verify that there are no resource conflicts in plan.
Problem: ENM does not affiliate with ENM RS.
Solution:
1. Verify RS IP is configured properly with −E message. Check the IP address and subnet mask numbers.
Ensure that they are correct.
2. Verify ENM platform IP settings. Check the address, subnet mask, and gateway settings.
3. Check cable and connections. Use ENM Ethernet cable or hub to connect to ENM RS.
Problem: ENM software has just been installed successfully but will not run.
Solution:
1. Verify that correct user group and profiles have been set up on ENM platform.
2. Verify that platform meets ENM memory and processor requirements.
For additional troubleshooting information, refer to the ENM Operator’s Manual, TB 11−5825−298−10−1.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 1
EPLRS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
General Questions
1. What is EPLRS?
A:The Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) is a network of wireless tactical radios
operating in the 420−450 MHz range. Although, new RF hardware can be obtained to expand this range
to 225 to 450 MHz. EPLRS network distributes digital data from many mobile users to many mobile us-
ers. The network consists of many EPLRS RSs and one or more EPLRS Network Manager (ENM) host
computers. The RSs automatically route and deliver user messages and provide multiple secure concur-
rent communications paths known as needlines. All RSs have algorithms to triangulate and determine an
RS’s own position based on at least three known terrestrial based reference locations.
2. What is the communications network?
A: Communications network is the group of resources which supports the passing of data between hosts
connected to RSs. Communication resources include both time and frequency parameters. The manner
in which these parameters are assigned affect what resources are available at each unit to support com-
munication services. Some communications resource parameters are set for the network while others
are set for each individual RS.
3. What is the acquisition network?
A: Acquisition network is the resource used to initially synchronize RSs to form a network. It is also used
to help keep RSs in time and cryptographic synchronization within the network.
4. What is the coordination network?
A: The Coordination network is the group of resources used by the ENM and RSs to handle the following
network tasks. (1) Duplex Circuit Relay Pathfinding, (2) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Support, (3)
ENM Support, and (4) Low−Rate Broadcast Messaging (e.g. Local Subnet). ENM Support includes out-
bound ENM support messages and inbound trap messages.
5. What is the frequency range of EPLRS?
A: At the current time, EPLRS operates in the frequency range of 420 to 450 MHz. New RF hardware
can be obtained to expand this range to 225 to 450 MHz.
6. What is a logical channel number?
A: Logical Channel Number (LCN) is a 2 digit hexadecimal number. A radio will have a unique LCN for
each assigned needline. LCN is not necessarily a unique identifier for each needline in an EPLRS com-
munity (i.e., it is unique for a radio only).
7. What is a timeslot?
A: A timeslot is the smallest division of time in an EPLRS network. All radios in an EPLRS Community
can be configured to either two (2) millisecond or four (4) millisecond timeslot length. The 2 and 4 milli-
second timeslot lengths are approximate. An EPLRS Community configured to the two millisecond time-
slot length averages 512 timeslots per second and an EPLRS Community configured to the four millisec-
ond timeslot length averages 256 timeslots per second. A single transmit or a single receive attempt may
occur in a timeslot.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 2
8. What is a frame?
A: A frame is a sequential group of 128 timeslots. The recurrence rate of many EPLRS activities is once
per frame. If the radios in an EPLRS Community are configured for two millisecond timeslot length,
frames are 1/4 second long. If the radios are configured for four millisecond timeslot length, frames are
1/2 second long.
9. What is an epoch?
A: An epoch is the largest division of time in EPLRS and consists of 256 frames or (256x128) 32768 time-
slots. If the EPLRS Community is configured for two millisecond timeslot length, epochs are 64 seconds
long. If the network is configured for four millisecond timeslot length, epochs are 128 seconds long.
10. What is a logical timeslot?
A: A Logical Timeslot (LTS) is a grouping of timeslots. A frame is broken up into 8 LTSs, each consisting
of 16 timeslots. Logically, the spacing between timeslots associated with an LTS is 8 timeslots apart.
EPLRS needlines are always LTS−based, being associated with one LTS, multiple LTSs or a fraction of
an LTS (1/2 or 1/4 LTS).
11. What are Duplex Needlines?
A: Duplex needlines are needlines that are point to point between two RSs. They share an equal number
of transmission opportunities on an alternating basis. Duplex needlines have a high degree of reliability in
that each message is acknowledged by the RS and there are automatic retransmissions if a message is
lost. Duplex needline lines can be either Low Data Rate (LDR) or High Data Rate (HDR). LDR duplex
needlines cover 5 hops or 4 relays and depending on waveform selected have data rates from 20 bps to
16192 bps. HDR duplex needlines have data rates from 600 bps to 121,440 bps depending on waveform
selected. HDR duplex needlines can be classified as Local (2 hops or 1 relay) or Extended (up to 6 hops
or 5 relays). Depending on the number of Logical Time Slots required to support the HDR duplex need-
line, static relays must be defined to support extended areas of coverage.
Duplex needlines that are pre−planned by the ENM are called Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) duplex
needlines. Duplex needlines can also be set up temporarily and are called Dynamically Allocated PVC
(DAP) Duplex needlines. Resources for DAP duplex needlines are allocated by the ENM and are avail-
able for use by all RSs in the network.
12. What is a PVC?
A: A Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) is considered a long−term needline that requires pre−planning to
define the end points by the ENM.
13. What is a DAP?
A: A Dynamically Allocated Permanent Virtual Circuit (DAP) is set up as a temporary needline. Re-
sources that are shared by all radios in the network to use for DAP circuits are allocated by the ENM.
The sourcing RS must find a path to the destination RS. Through this process the pathway (including
any required relays) is established using available network resources. Once host data transfer has com-
pleted the circuit is terminated and the resources are released to the network for other RSs to utilize.
14. How many DAPs can a radio support?
A: An RS can support up to 16 active low data rate and up to 28 high data rate DAPs. Resource assign-
ments for these and other active needline types will determine how many can be active simultaneously.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 3
15. What is a CSMA needline?
A: A Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) needline is classified as a many−to−many needline. The
needline resources and members must be defined in the ENM deployment. Members that transmit on
the needline, transmit to all other members of the needline. There is no acknowledgement of message,
so lost messages are not retransmitted. RSs wishing to transmit on the needline, must first check to
verify that no other RS is transmitting before it can transmit. Transmitting RSs will use the entire allo-
cated resource to transmit before releasing the resource for other members. Depending on waveform
mode used, data rates vary from 150 bps to 485,760 bps. Relay coverage can be between 1 hop or no
relay, 2 hops or 1 relay, 4 hops or 3 relays, or 6 hops with 5 relays. Full bandwidth is obtained when 1
hop is selected. The bandwidth is reduced by half when 2 hops are selected. Bandwidth is reduced to
one quarter when 4 hops are selected and reduced to one−sixth with 6 hops.
16. What is a MSG needline?
A: A Multi Source Group (MSG) needline is classified as a few−to−many needline. The needline re-
sources and members must be defined in the ENM deployment. Specific members are allocated a spe-
cific portion of the resource for transmission. Their transmission resource can further be defined as dedi-
cated or shared. Resources that are dedicated can only be used by the specific RS. Resources that are
shared, can be released for use by other RSs of the needline. Transmissions are received by all RSs of
the needline. Depending on the waveform used, data rates vary from 37.5 bps to 485,760 bps. Relay
coverage can be between 2 hops or 1 relay or 6 hops with 5 relays.
17. What happens to my EPLRS system capabilities as available operating frequencies are removed?
A: Frequencies cannot be removed after a network has been started. As with any communication sys-
tem, however, fewer frequencies mean lower overall bandwidth.
18. What is the needline storage capacity of an EPLRS RS?
A: An EPLRS RS can store parameters for up to 64 needlines including any active needlines. Up to 32
needlines can be simultaneously active depending on the size of the needlines. If the maximum number
of needlines are stored and a new needline is activated, the oldest stored needline will be deleted.
19. How do RSs enter an EPLRS network?
A: Radios automatically synchronize with the first EPLRS network within line of sight that meets all of the
following criteria. The network must be keyed with the same crypto key and be set to the same guard
channel, channel map set, network community ID, and timeslot length.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 4
20. What are the typical link ranges that can be expected from the RS and what are the parameters
that affect those ranges?
A: EPLRS operates in the 420−450MHz band. Consequently, it is a line−of−sight waveform. The net-
work supports automatic relaying for beyond line−of−sight range extension, up to six RF hops. By far,
terrain is the most overwhelming factor in determining link range. A typical link range for vehicular
mounted radios operating in unobstructed terrain is approximately 15km.
21. Are there any system tweaks/recommendations that can be made to help EPLRS operations in an
urban environment?
A: No. The network will adapt automatically.
22. For planning purposes, what might be considered reasonable areas of coverage for an EPLRS
equipped platoon, company, battalion and brigade?
A: Coverage depends greatly on the density of deployed EPLRS radios as well as local terrain conditions.
Ten km per RF hop is a reasonable starting point for ground−ground operations. EPLRS networks con-
tain the ability to automatically relay traffic up to 6 RF hops − 60km in this example.
23. What is a guard channel?
A: The guard channel is the well known channel used for initial network synchronization. All RSs wishing
to participate in the network must use the same guard channel. The guard channel is one of the initializa-
tion parameters that must be loaded into each RS prior to operating in the network.
24. Is there any way to change the frequency allocations of an EPLRS network once it has been initi-
ated?
A: Changes to the EPLRS frequency allocations would require changes to the ENM database. This is
necessary because needline resources would have to be reallocated to accommodate the change in fre-
quency structure. New RS configuration files would have to be generated and distributed. Depending
on the reallocation, a new guard channel might have to be loaded into all radios. Once the updated ENM
database is loaded and distributed, the ENMs can perform the radio reconfigurations necessary for the
changes. This can be done over the air or via a local connection.
25. How is EPLRS network timing maintained?
A: Once an EPLRS RS enters an EPLRS network, it begins to exchange information with the neighboring
RSs it hears. The information is used to help establish the RS’s position as well as maintaining time syn-
chronization with the rest of the network. Information about network time is used by the RS to compare
against its local oscillator setting and to make appropriate adjustments to keep it from drifting outside of
the network timing boundaries. Number of other radios heard and how well those other radios are con-
nected to the rest of the network are a couple of the factors that help a RS maintain its network timing.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 5
26. How can the EPLRS user ensure adequate connectivity between radio units throughout the net-
work?
A: There are a number of factors that determine whether adequate connectivity can be established
among EPLRS RSs throughout a network. Not only must the network must be planned in such a manner
so as to allow connectivity over an anticipated distance, but each radio must have the correct antenna
connections and sufficient line−of−sight with other radio units.
A planner must ensure that the correct settings are specified in the plan for transmit power level, timeslot
and burst length, waveform mode, and hop−count. Transmit power level, timeslot and burst length, and
waveform mode are planned parameters that dictate the maximum RF range between individual RSs.
Hop−count is also a planned parameter and allows the range of the network as a whole to be extended
by enabling the relaying capability of EPLRS units. In addition, the planner should employ retransmission
units in well−sited locations (e.g., fire towers, hilltops, etc.) when poor connectivity is expected (e.g., ex-
cessive foliage, mountainous topography, urban environments with many tall buildings, etc.).
The radio operator should be aware of radio conditions as well as environmental conditions. Care should
be taken that the radio−antenna connection is tight, free of debri, and no antenna faults exist. An anten-
na fault should be corrected immediately or performance will suffer. Under poor connectivity conditions
(e.g., excessive foliage, mountainous topography, urban environments with many tall buildings, etc.), the
operator should move to the best−sited position, away from obstructions. The operator can determine
connectivity by seeing if the number of expected messages are being received. If the operator needs
additional connectivity information, the ”−R” URO message can be used to determine how well−con-
nected the radio is.
Additional information can be found in further detail in the EPLRS Radio Set Operator’s Technical Manu-
al, the EPLRS Training Manual, and the Planner’s Manual. These concepts are also explained in EPLRS
training.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 6
EPLRS ENM Questions
27. What is a deployment plan?
A: A database that is developed by the ENM planner which contains the network parameters, unit orga-
nization information, RS assignments, needline definitions and other data used by the ENMs. Network
parameters include default RS power level setting, frequency hopping mode, Network Community ID, and
frequency allocation information. Unit organization information is used to help organize the display of
units on the ENM. RS assignments includes the Radio Name of all units expected in the deployment
along with information about interfaces to be used and how EPLRS positions will be reported. Needline
definitions contain information such as waveform, logical channel number assignment, logical timeslot
assignment and frequency channel assignment for each needline in the deployment.
Deployment plans are usually developed by a planning cell and distributed amongst the ENMs in the de-
ployment either over the air or via sneaker net. Updates to the plan can be distributed in the same man-
ner. Deployment plans are time−stamped when generated by the ENM so it is important that a com-
pleted plan be generated on one ENM and distributed to others for implementation rather than
independently generated on each ENM from a CSV file. Doing so will cause ENMs to think that a data-
base mismatch exists in the network.
28. What is a CSV file?
A CSV file is an ENM database, exported in text format easily read by Microsoft Excel. CSV files are
much smaller than database files and can be more easily read using standard COTS software. As a re-
sult, they are often found to be a more convenient format for archival and development of ENM data-
bases. CSV files are not ENM database files, though ENM may import CSV files to create database files.
29. What is RS configuration?
A: The complete loading of parameters from the ENM database into a RS is called RS (RS) configuration.
Configuration can be performed while directly connected (over LAN) to an ENM or remotely by an ENM
over the air.
30. What is RS re−configuration?
A: No different from RS configuration. Re−configuration is required for radios that have been affected by
a modification to the ENM database. For example, if the ENM database is modified such that radio 0001,
previously assigned to auto−locate, is declared a position−location reference, radio 0001 will require re-
configuration.
31. What is auto−configuration?
A: ENM continually checks each networked radio’s configuration status against the active database. Ra-
dios whose configuration status does not match the active database are flagged by ENM as ’requiring
configuration’. Auto−configuration, when enabled, allows ENM to automatically configure radios that re-
quire it without operator intervention.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 7
32. When does ENM perform a RS configuration?
A: RS configuration can be performed manually (the ENM operator is provided a GUI to do this) or auto-
matically whenever ENM determines a radio requires configuration.
Configuration is required whenever a new database is loaded or a database is modified (though a modifi-
cation may not mandate reconfiguration of all radios). Radios store configuration information in non−vola-
tile memory. As a result, configuration is typically only required once per deployment.
33. What is a radio restart?
A radio restart is a power−on restart. When executing a restart an RS reboots, as though power were
removed and reapplied. An RS will restart automatically upon completion of RS (re)configuration or in
response to a command received over the air from the ENM. The ENM operator can initiate a restart
command to an individual RS.
34. What is network resynchronization?
A: Network resynchronization (or Network Resync) is a method to join two EPLRS networks that are not
in time synch and subsequently cannot communicate with each other. One of the ENM operators sends
out a resync command to the RSs within his network. When the RSs within that network receive the re-
sync command, they go into net entry mode. While executing the net entry process, the RSs should hear
the time synch from the other network and join it. If it works, all the radios in both communities should be
in time sync and able to communicate with each other.
35. What is network reconsolidation?
A: Network reconsolidation is a programmable RS function. It is used to automatically consolidate sepa-
rate networks. The network planner designates specific RSs as reconsolidation RSs. The ENM operator
can then activate them in advance or during network operations. The role of the reconsolidation RS is to
listen for networks external to it’s own. When detected the reconsolidation radio attempts to enter the
other network and then to resynchronize it. If successful, the two networks reconsolidate into one net-
work. An RS designated for this function should not be used to simultaneously perform any other func-
tion such as relay, gateway or host operations.
36. What is the difference between network resynchronization and network reconsolidation?
A: The goal of both actions is to combine two networks which are on common crypto but are out of timing
synchronization. Network resynchronization is executed by an ENM operator, while network reconsolida-
tion is performed by a designated RS(s) in the deployment.
37. Is there a difference between ”Restart” and ”Resync” commands?
A: Any radio may be issued a RESTART command from the ENM. A RESYNC is essentially a mass,
synchronized RESTART of all radios in the net.
38. What is TMI?
A: TMI stands for Time Master Initiate. It is the process used by EPLRS to establish the network. It is
important for an EPLRS network which is deploying with multiple ENMs that only one ENM perform the
TMI.
39. What are traps?
Traps are status messages sent from radios in a network to ENM.
40. Can an EPLRS network be established without an EPLRS Network Manager?
A: One radio, designated the Timing Master, is required to initiate network timing. Any radio can be des-
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 8
ignated the Timing Master by its host computer. Currently only the ENM, SADL aircraft, and Land War-
rior equipment possess this Timing Master activation capability.
An ENM is a computer running the java−based ENM software that is connected to an EPLRS RS over an
Ethernet interface. For SADL, the host computer interfaces to the RS via MIL−STD−1553 or via Ethernet
using MIL−STD−1553 emulation. For Land Warrior, the Computer SubSystem connects to the RS using
IP via a USB interface.
All RSs expected to participate in the network will require the proper initialization parameters needed for
network entry.
In addition, all RSs will require configuration files to be loaded in order to perform any needline opera-
tions. This means each of the radios must have had some contact with an ENM prior to being deployed
in the ”ENM−less” network. This can be accomplished either by physically connecting each RS to an
ENM and passing the configuration information across the cable or to enter an ENM controlled network
and being configured over the air.
The use of this type of network can be useful in situations that require rapid deployment of a small num-
ber of units. The network cannot be rekeyed over the air crypto or advanced. Additional radios can enter
the network, but cannot be configured over the air. Therefore, any additional radios must have been
loaded with their configuration files prior to entering the network.
An ENM that enters the community will take over management of the network and can perform all the
tasks associated with that network management. It is important that configuration files be synchronized
so needline operations are not disrupted.
41. What happens in a network that was formed using the procedures ”Establishing an EPLRS Net-
work without an ENM” when an ENM joins the network?
A: The ENM joining the community will start performing network management functions. Some of these
functions include RS configuration, RS fault reporting resolution, and cryptographic key management. It
is important that the configuration files used during the initial establishment of the network be synchro-
nized with the configuration file in the ENM or functioning needlines may not operate correctly after the
ENM joins the community.
42. What is the purpose of the range extension support ENM?
A: The purpose of a range extension ENM is to propagate database changes and crypto keys to the net-
work. Using range extension support ENMs at the Battalion level and below will ensure platoon radios
can be configured and receive Over−the−air rekey keys quicker and more efficiently.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 9
43. How can an ENM operator ensure that the correct ENM library is being used for a particular
FBCB2 deployment?
A: The name of the ENM library contains the FBCB2 SW version, the FBCB2 database version, and the
FBCB2 database release date as part of its file name.
For example:
FBCB2 SW version: SBCT−3 v3.5.5
FBCB2 Database version: 1.0−5
FBCB2 Database release date: 29 Jun 05
ENM Library : SBCT3−3_v355−5−29June05.csv
44. What is the purpose of the DF needline?
A: The DF needline is a communication service dedicated for ENM coordination and general usage. It
facilitates the detection of active ENMs and ENM IP address recovery, auto−configuration and OTAR of
radios, file transfer protocol for transferring black key files, and radio status retrieval. If the DF needline
does not exist, these functions can still be executed via the EPLRS coordination network and using
DAPs.
In addition the DF needline also is used for ENM to ENM free text chat, deployment plan coordination,
black key file status, system coordination in advance of a system update, and network status sharing.
These functions are lost if the DF needline is not present. Impacts include No ENM to ENM test chat, no
alerts when multiple plans are loaded, no indication of which ENMs have black key file, reduction in sys-
tem update coordination and radio status visibility.
45. What are the impacts if I have active ENMs in the same network operating using different ENM
plans?
A: In this case it is likely that radios will not be configured in a uniform fashion. The ENMs may battle
over the configuration of the same set of radios with the result being that radios are constantly being re-
configured by alternate ENMs.
Care should always be taken to use the same ENM plan and so all radios operate with common Network
Parameters (excluding Radio Name).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 10
EPLRS RS Questions
46. What are basic network parameters?
A: Basic network parameters, typically loaded into zeroized radios via the URO, give radios the minimum
information required to enter an EPLRS network. These parameters include frequency channel map and
guard channel. The network community ID and timeslot length are two optional network parameters. If
these parameters are not set the radio will attempt all combinations and enter the first network found that
shares the same frequency channel map and guard channel loaded with the same traffic encryption key
If these parameters are established the radio is restricted to joining networks that also share the same
network community ID and timeslot length. It is considered best practice to set network community ID
and timeslot length to ensure fast network entry into the desired network. Once a radio has network pa-
rameters and is loaded with appropriate traffic encryption keys, it can enter the network and be config-
ured by the ENM with the data in the ENM database.
47. What is net entry mode?
A: The mode when a RS is listening for time sync from other RSs, but has not yet found a network to join.
Out of net light blinking once every second is an indication of the RS undergoing net entry process.
48. What is active mode?
A: The mode when a RS has found, joined a network and has communicated with a network ENM. The
out of net light is extinguished when the RS is in the active mode.
49. What is track mode?
A: The mode where RS has found and joined a network, but has not yet communicated with a network
ENM. Previously configured RSs are synchronized and are able to communicate with each other. The
out of net light blinks once every 4 seconds when the RS is in track mode.
50. How is an EPLRS RS output power controlled?
A: Individual RS output power can be selected from four levels at the ENM. The four levels are Low (.4
watt), Medium−Low (3 watts), Medium−High (20 watts) and High (100 watts). A network default power
level can also be selected at the ENM. Any RS not assigned a specific power setting will use the network
default. Both the network default and individual RS power levels can be changed over the air from the
ENM. The local user cannot change the output power of the RS. An RS with an antenna fault will trans-
mit no higher than Medium−Low (3 watts).
51. What is RS silent mode?
A: An RS that is placed in silent mode can receive, but not transmit. The local operator via User Read
Out commands can place and remove an RS from radio silent mode operations. When an RS in silent
mode is within line of sight of an RF−active RS, the out of net LED will remain off, otherwise it will blink
once every second indicating the RS has dropped out of the network.
An RS in silent mode will not transmit host data on any needline. It can receive data on needlines and
pass that traffic to its host. The RS will not relay for any other RSs.
The RS cannot support an automatic key advance action (neither OTAR nor advance) while in radio silent
mode. If the radio is in silent mode during the advance process and was loaded with next rekey and next
traffic key prior to going radio silent (either manually loaded or received OTA), it can automatically re−en-
ter the EPLRS network when it comes out of radio silent mode. If the radio is in silent mode during the
advance process and does not have the next rekey and next traffic key loaded it will have to be manually
loaded before it can rejoin the network.
52. What information is provided by the RS indicator lights?
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 11
A: The RS has 4 LEDs on the front panel. The ALM indicator is lit constantly if either a fault exists or no
traffic keys are present. The PWR indicator is lit when power is applied to the RS. The LOW KAB indica-
tor is lit if the Keep Alive Battery voltage is low. The Out of Net indicator will blink once per second while
the RS is trying to enter the network (net entry mode), will blink once every 4 seconds indicating the RS
has entered another network of time synched RSs (track net mode), will be off when the RS is in an ENM
controlled network (active mode) or is in radio silent mode.
53. What happens when an RS is zeroized?
A: When an RS is zeroized, all of the crypto variables are erased. An RS can be zeroized remotely from
an ENM, from the front panel of the RS or via a −Z URO command. No configuration data is erased. In
order to re−enter the network, the RS must have new IKEK and current traffic keys loaded from a DTD/
SKL.
54. Can an RS configuration file be deleted from the RS?

A: No.
55. My RS out of net light is blinking. What does that mean?
A: The Out of Net indicator will blink once per second while the RS is trying to enter the network (net
entry mode), will blink once every 4 seconds indicating the RS has entered another network of time
synched RSs (track net mode), will be off when the RS is in an ENM controlled network (active mode) or
is in radio silent mode.
56. Can my RS still operate when I have an antenna fault alert?
A: An RS can still operate with an antenna fault, however operations will be impacted. The radio will not
radiate at greater than 3 watts resulting in a reduction in operating range.
57. How does a ”−Z” request for zeroization work?
A: Sending a −Z to a radio will cause the radio to clear its crypto keys, necessitating a visit by a crypto
custodian with an AN/CYZ−10.
58. What happens to my needline configuration data when I perform a ”.X” delete needline from my
URO?
A: A .X message instructs the radio to delete its associated needline data. A .X may specify a specific
LCN or it can specify all LCNs. The configuration data contained in the RS is erased and in order to get it
back again, the RS must be reconfigured.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 12
59. If I perform a ”.X” needline delete on a needline, will the ENM perform a reconfiguration automati-
cally to restore the needline data information?
A: No.
60. Can an RS in Track Mode communicate via a needline to an RS in Active Mode?
Yes.
61. What are the consequences of having an RS defined as a surface vehicle installation in the ENM
and using a manpack antenna?
A: This is not possible. There is no unit type designation included in the ENM plan.
62. I have to replace an RS and I cannot determine the length of antenna cable used in my vehicle.
What would be reasonable parameters to use?
A: In this case one would have to estimate. A reasonable cable length for most vehicle installations
would be 7 meters.
63. What is the relationship between length of antenna cable and amount of location reporting error?

A: There is no relationship between antenna cable length and location reporting error as long as accurate
cable length and antenna elevation values have been entered into the radio.
64. Can the automatic relaying on participating needlines be turned off?
A: Yes. The operator can turn off this function by using the URO ”RY OF” command.
65. How do I calculate the data rate of my radio?
A: Per circuit, the operator can determine the maximum baud rate and the percentage of the maximum
baud rate being used. These percentages are available per individual RSs and by all RSs on the particu-
lar circuit. The percentage used by all RSs is expected to be equal to the sum of the percentages used
by the individual RSs.
To view the maximum baud rate per circuit, open the ENM Network Planner application with the current
plan. The ENM Network Planning window can be opened to the current plan by pulling down the Manag-
er Functions − EPLRS Network Planner selection from the main ENM application. The maximum baud
rate per circuit can be viewed from within the Net Services tab of the EPLRS Network Planner window.
Per circuit, the percentage of the maximum baud rate being used by all RSs and the percentage of the
maximum baud rate being used by individual RSs can be viewed within the Net Services tab of the ENM
application.
The maximum baud rate of the radio can be determined by adding up the maximum baud rate of all cir-
cuits used by the radio.
66. What IP interfaces are provided by an EPLRS radio?

A: The EPLRS RS can support IP messaging via a host over Ethernet (IEEE 802.3 standard LAN), IP
over ADDSI and Point−to−Point (PPP) interfaces and via RF over dynamically allocated permanent virtual
circuit (PVC) [DAP], ENM PVC and IP PVC interfaces. Each RS has Ethernet, DAP, and ENM PVC in-
terfaces by default.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 13
EPLRS Cryptographic/Security Questions
67. What is a key encryption key?
A: A key encryption key or KEK is a type of crypto key used to encrypt/decrypt the transfer of other keys.
They are essential for over the air key updates. The initial key encryption key (IKEK), current rekey and
next rekey are all key encryption keys. The IKEK is a red or classified key and must be loaded via a data
transfer device (DTD). Current rekey and next rekey are black or encrypted keys and can be loaded via
OTAR or through direct connection to an ENM. An RS uses the IKEK to decrypt the current rekey and
then uses the current rekey to decrypt any other black keys the RS receives (next rekey and next traffic).
68. What is a traffic encryption key?
A: A traffic encryption key or TEK is a type of crypto key used to encrypt/decrypt the transfer of data over
the network. The same TEK is used for all RSs in the network. RSs must have a TEK in order to join an
EPLRS network. The current traffic and next traffic are TEKs. The TEK is also called a traffic key or a
common key. The current traffic key is a red or classified key and must be loaded via a data transfer de-
vice (DTD). The next traffic key is a black or encrypted key and can be loaded via OTAR or through di-
rect connection to an ENM.
69. What is a black key file?
A: When connected to an ENM, a KOK−13 is used to generate crypto keys for an EPLRS network. Keys
are generated by the KOK−13 and supplied to the network (via ENM) on demand. Red keys are supplied
via an AN/CYZ−10 and black keys are supplied over the air (OTAR). The disadvantage to this approach
is that every ENM required to support OTAR must have a KOK−13 attached. A black key file can be gen-
erated by an ENM and KOK−13 in advance of use. The black key file contains all keys which might need
to be supplied OTAR to the network. By distributing the black key file to all ENMs, ENMs without a
KOK−13 can support OTAR.
70. What are OTAR and Advance?
A: OTAR stands for Over the Air Rekey. It is the method that is used by EPLRS to update the crypto
keys in the RSs throughout the network. OTAR can be performed manually or automatically by the ENM
operator. An RS is provided the next rekey and next traffic keys when OTAR is performed. The ENM
displays to the operator how many RSs need to be rekeyed. When all of the RSs have received their
rekey, the ENM can send out the advance command to the network.
Advance is a command which is controlled from the ENM. The operator inputs the time the advance is to
take place (> 30 minutes from now) and sends out the command. When executed by the network, all
radios simultaneously change their crypto settings. Under some circumstances, the ENM operator can
elect to have the advance performed ”Immediately” (16 minutes from now).
71. What happens if my RS receives an OTAR, but does not receive the advance command?
A: Successful receipt of an OTAR indicates that the RS has the next rekey and next traffic key. Non−re-
ceipt of the advance command indicates that the RS will not advance its crypto to the next traffic key with
the rest of the community at the scheduled advance time. Having the RS powered off during the distribu-
tion and execution of the advance command is the most likely way this condition may occur. This can
also occur if the RS is placed in radio silent mode during the distribution and execution of the advance
command. This RS will still be able to automatically enter the newly advanced EPLRS network without
further operator intervention as long as it is not zeroized. The RS accomplishes by ”toggling” between
the old traffic key and the next traffic key as part of the net entry process.
72. What happens if my RS does not receive an OTAR and the EPLRS network advances to the next
crypto key?
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APPENDIX E
FAQ 14
A: Non−receipt of the OTAR indicates that the RS does not have the next rekey and next traffic key. At
the time of execution of the network advance command, this RS will drop out of the network. Having the
RS powered off during the distribution of next rekey and next traffic key (OTAR) and the execution of the
advance command or having the RS in silent mode are common ways for this condition to occur. This
RS will have to be manually loaded with the new rekey and traffic key before it can rejoin the network.
73. What is stored in the AN/CYZ−10?
A: For EPLRS usage, the AN/CYZ−10 or Data Terminal Device (DTD) stores the RS IKEK keys and traf-
fic keys. The DTD can also store next rekey and next traffic keys if the KOK−13 is configured to gener-
ate them and store them to a DTD.
74. What is a secure disk image?
A: A Secure ENM disk image (SDI) is a DITSCAP accredited solution for running the EPLRS Network
Manager on a secure install of Microsoft Windows 2000/XP on a Panasonic Toughbook laptop. The SDI
is carefully tested to mitigate security risks and vulnerabilities and is distributed as a set of CDs which
install a pre−configured software image of all necessary software, drivers, and vulnerability patches re-
quired to operate an EPLRS Network Manager.
75. What happens to my data when a new secure disk image is loaded on my ENM?
A: Installing the secure ENM Platform Image will delete/erase ALL data on the hard drive. Do you want
to continue?” prompt is displayed before installation. All necessary data should be backed up on a CD
and then reinstalled after the new secure disk image is installed.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 15
EPLRS Gateway Questions
76. What is an EPLRS gateway?
A: An EPLRS gateway is a method of passing host needline traffic between two EPLRS networks which
are in different divisions. This is accomplished by using two radios sets. One is configured for operations
in the first division and the other is configured for operations in the second division. Both gateway radios
must be keyed to the same crypto level (i.e., secret or confidential). The RSs are connected together via
their host ports with a gateway cable and local URO commands are used to complete the gateway con-
figuration process.
77. Can the radio gateway bridge radio communities of differing waveforms?
A: Yes. Care should be taken to ensure the needline capacity is adequate for both divisions.
78. What planning steps have to be accomplished in the ENM to facilitate the establishment of an
EPLRS gateway operation?
A: The purpose of an EPLRS gateway is to be able to pass needline data between two EPLRS communi-
ties which are operating on different Network Community IDs. However, it should be noted that when
attempting to disseminate data via multicast, the remote host (host terminal in the other community) does
not have the ability to join the multicast group on which the data is being sent. Hence, in this case the
gateway serves no purpose.
Setting up an EPLRS gateway is accomplished by placing two RSs ”back−to−back” and directly connect-
ing their host ports together via a gateway cable. One RS is configured to operate in one community and
the other RS is configured to operate in the other community.
If using the ADDSI interface, then the interface parameters must be the same (except one will be config-
ured as the DTE and the other as the DCE), and both needlines must be for the same LCN.
If using the Ethernet interface, both are to be configured with unique Ethernet IP addresses on the same
subnet. Additionally, agents must be configured in each gateway radio. When defining an agent for
EPLRS gateway purposes, the interface type for the agents in both radios must be set to ”Ethernet” and
the port number specified for both radios’ agents must match each other. The IP address to be specified
for the agent should correspond to the Ethernet IP address of the other gateway radio in the setup. The
”Net Service” for the agent must be defined as well. When sending data to the other gateway radio, ”Net
Service” refers to the needline from which data will be forwarded. Conversely, when receiving data from
the other gateway radio ”Net Service” refers to the needline to which this data will be forwarded.
79. Can a gateway be formed which connects two different needline types, such as CSMA to MSG or
CSMA to Duplex?
A: Yes. Gateway functionality is done at the base band (ADDSI) interface. It is independent of the need-
line type. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that the needlines used on each side of the gateway
have enough bandwidth to support all gateway traffic.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 16
80. What is the difference between an EPLRS ENM Gateway and a Community Needline Gateway?
A: The term ”Gateway” has a couple of different meanings depending on the context in which it is used.
A gateway from the ENM computer to the EPLRS network is established by the RS which is physically
connected to the ENM computer. This radio is sometimes referred to as an EPLRS or ENM gateway
(providing ENM the access to the rest of the EPLRS RF network). The process of establishing this con-
nection is called affiliation.
Another way the term gateway is used is the establishment of a needline connection between two differ-
ent EPLRS RF communities which have different network community IDs. In this case the connection is
made by connecting two RSs ”back−to−back”, correctly configuring the RSs and activating the appropri-
ate needlines. This configuration is also referred to as an EPLRS gateway or a Community gateway.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 17
EPLRS Position Location Questions
81. How does EPLRS perform position location?
A: EPLRS radios determine their own positions via radio location. By measuring the distance between
themselves and others (reference units with known locations), radios are able to determine their own
locations. A minimum of three reference units are required. Depending on deployment characteristics,
more than three reference units may be needed.
82. Can the radio emit SA by itself and under what conditions?
A: Radios can be configured to emit SA by themselves (1) all the time or (2) contingent upon the ADDSI
interface to the INC (Host) going down.
83. Can a GPS be connected to an EPLRS RS? To what advantage?
A: Connecting a PLGR to an EPLRS RS and using it as a reference unit eliminates the need to survey or
enter reference unit locations.
84. Can an EPLRS reference community be established using only moving reference units?
A: Yes, as long as each moving reference unit is equipped with a GPS device (e.g., PLGR).
85. What is a dynamic reference?
A: A dynamic reference is a reference unit with an attached PLGR.
When an EPLRS reference unit is classified as ”Full” and has an FBCB2 host connected, the RS will
send position reports generated by the GPS connected to the FBCB2. It is recommended to designate
an FBCB2 hosted RS as a ”Full” reference, as this will make them mobile reference units.
86. How are EPLRS derived positions distributed throughout the network?
A: Once a radio has determined its own location, it transmits that position periodically on the network.
This feature can be turned on, off or tailored.
87. How does EPLRS perform altitude position location?
A: EPLRS radios contain barometric pressure sensors which enable radios to measure altitude.
88. How accurate are EPLRS derived positions?
A: Most recent testing showed EPLRS positions to be within 8m circular error probable. The EPLRS op-
eration requirements document calls for accuracy of not more than 30m circular error probable. Position
accuracy and errors are related to the geometry of the reference units for the community. The more ac-
curate the positions of the reference units are known and the better the reference unit geometry within
the community, the better the accuracy of community RS location reporting.
89. What does ”Full”, ”Horizontal” and ”Vertical” reference units mean?
A: EPLRS reference units can be classified as ”Full”, ”Horizontal” or ”Vertical”. A reference unit classified
as ”Full” has a known position in x, y and z planes. A reference unit classified as ”Horizontal” has known
position in the x and y planes and a unit classified as ”Vertical” has a known position in the z plane.
90. How is the accuracy of EPLRS derived positions affected by using a reference community based
on dynamic reference units?
A: The accuracy of EPLRS derived positioning is directly affected by the accuracy of the reference posi-
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 18
tions. As long as the reference positions are accurate, EPLRS positioning will be accurate. This applies
to fixed as well as dynamic references.
91. Why is it not recommended to designate a RS connected to a FBCB2 or other host as a ”Full”
reference unit? Can it be designated as any other reference type?
A: FBCB2 hosted platforms may be designated full reference units.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 19
EPLRS Ad Hoc Routing
92. What is an Ad Hoc Network?
A: An Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile radios capable of dynamically forming a network
without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Ad hoc networks ex-
hibit properties such as self−healing (the radio automatically heals a broken route without user interven-
tion) and self− configurability (the network dynamically allocates resources based on the up to date condi-
tions).
93. What is TAROD?
A: Tactical Ad Hoc Routing On Demand (TAROD) is a routing protocol developed to enable reactive, mul-
tihop routing between radios in an Ad Hoc network. In reference to the Open Systems Interconnection
Reference Model (OSI model), TAROD is a layer three protocol that interfaces with layer two communica-
tion services. TAROD’s main functions are route discovery and route maintenance.
94. How does TAROD work?
A: TAROD’s two main tasks are route discovery and route maintenance. The radio initiates route discov-
ery when it needs to transmit data but does not have a route to a specific destination. The radio then
broadcasts a route request message over the network. Once this message reaches the destination ra-
dio, it sends a reply message. This reply is forwarded over the reverse route to the radio which initiated
the route request. Each radio in the path updates its routing table after receiving a route request and re-
ply. Once the reply reaches the source radio, both source and destination are free to send data along
this route. Route maintenance is a process that deletes timed out routes and heals broken routes.
95. What Communication Services currently interface with TAROD?
A: TAMA and CSMA have the ability to interface with TAROD. TAMA, however, is the current recom-
mended communications service to be used with TAROD, since TAROD with CSMA has not yet been
tested. In addition, cross−layering optimizations between TAROD and TAMA significantly improve Ad Hoc
performance compared to TAROD with CSMA.
96. How many circuits can TAROD handle?
A: Currently the radio can only support one TAROD enabled communications service in its configuration
at any given time, since it becomes the default route. Other communications services may be configured
but to be used for IP, they require static routes.
97. What types of Data transmissions can TAROD handle?
A: TAROD supports unicast and multicast data transmissions.
98. How many hops can be supported between a source and destination using TAROD?
A: Currently the max number of radios a TAROD route can have is ten.
99. What is TAMA?
A: Tactical Ad Hoc Multiple Access (TAMA) is a scheduling algorithm that is designed to provide medium
access control (MAC) by autonomously adapting to changes in network conditions. TAMA dynamically
adjusts the radios’ transmission schedules as conditions change (e.g. radios powering on and off, topolo-
gy changes, and bandwidth demand changes), so that each radio has access to the wireless medium
according to its need while ensuring near collision−free transmissions.
100. How does TAMA work?
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APPENDIX E
FAQ 20
A: TAMA is a combination of three scheduling algorithms based on random access, scheduled access
and priority access. The timeslots are divided according to these three scheduling algorithms and each
radio based can access different subsets of the slots on its topology information. The random access
(New Member) timeslots can be accessed by all radios in the network and are used to send neighbor sta-
tus messages. Scheduled access (Fair Access) timeslots are used by radios with sufficient topology
knowledge to either transmit a neighbor status message or any application data currently queued for
transmission. The importance of including these slots are so that tight topology consistency is main-
tained and each radio has reserved bandwidth to transmit data without the possibility of bandwidth starva-
tion from higher priority radios. Priority access (Weighted Access) timeslots are used by high bandwidth
demand radios. Radios are given a priority (weight) based on bandwidth demand (e.g., launching an ap-
plication, route discovery, and
queued message size).
101. How do I calculate the baud rate available to a given radio?
A: Baud rate calculations are difficult for TAMA, since bandwidth can be re−used across the network. In
any localized area, the bandwidth (in bits per second, bps) of a node is:
bps = (90*b*l)/m*(n+1)
Where
b =Bits per TU
l = Number of LTSs assigned to TAMA service
m = Millisecond mode (2 or 4)
n = Number of 1− and 2−hop neighbors for a specific radio with near−equal or greater weight
102. What LTS’s are available with TAMA?
A: 1 LTS, 2 LTS*, 3 LTS*, 4 LTS*, 5 LTS*, 6 LTS*, 7 LTS*, 8 LTS
* These circuit sizes can use any combination of LTSs. For example, a 2 LTS circuit can use LTSs 0
and 1, or 0 and 2, or ... or 7 and 8. In other words, the LTS combinations are not restricted to the LTS
combinations of other types of circuits like CSMA.
103. Can you use the ADDSI interface with TAMA?
A: The interface for TAMA is Internet Protocol (IP) Only. There are three types of IP Radio connections:
Ethernet, PPP, or IP over ADDSI.
104. How many radios can TAMA support?
A: There is not a limit on the number of radios but rather optimal performance is achieved when the num-
ber of 1− and 2− hop neighbors is < =140. Some collisions may occur with 1− and 2− hop neighbors
>140, which could cause a reduction in the effective baud rate. Reducing radio transmit power can re-
duce the number of 1− and 2− hop neighbors, if necessary.
105. Why use TAROD and TAMA?
A: TAROD and TAMA together are designed to foster a wireless mobile Ad Hoc network. With the guar-
antee of near collision−free transmissions, TAMA is designed for every radio to have a fair opportunity to
transmit data while providing optimal bandwidth allocation for the radios that require larger bandwidth. In
addition, TAROD simplifies network preplanning by allowing dynamic routing and self healing of the net-
work without any user intervention. TAROD with TAMA can have significant slot re−use leading to a high
network baud rate.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 21
ENM Simplification
106. What is ENM Simplification?
A: ENM Simplification is a set of changes in the software that reduces required planning by allowing the
ENM to:
a. auto discover its ENM RS;
b. configure unknown units with a pre−defined default configuration;
c. assign radios to a primary ENM manager using hop count instead of the UTO structure;
d. communicate with other ENMs without pre−planned routes.
107. Where did the ’Platform’ tab go?
A: The ’Platform’ tab in the ENM application GUI (Graphical User Interface) has been removed as a re-
sult of the new ’ENM RS Auto Discovery’ capability. The user is no longer required to supply ENM with
the ENM RS parameters such as RSID, Ethernet IP Address, or Net Mask.
108. What is the first step to starting a network?
A: To start a network, simply click the ’affiliate’ button. This starts the ’ENM RS Auto Discovery’ process
and subsequently the gateway radio reconfiguration, and ENM affiliation.
109. Where did the ’System Update’ tab go?
A: The ’System Update’ tab has been removed. The functions provided under this tab have been moved
to the left margin control panel of the ENM GUI. To initiate a system update, the ENM operator must click
the ’set’ button.
110. What does ENM RS Auto Discovery mean?
A: ENM RS Auto Discovery refers to the ability that ENM has to ’discover’ its radio. The ENM searches
for a physically connected radio that is on its same local area network (LAN) and has an Ethernet IP ad-
dress that falls within the same subnet as the ENM host. If the ENM detects that a radio is locally con-
nected but the radio’s Ethernet IP address is not on the same subnet, ENM will attempt to change the
radio’s IP address so that it is within the subnet. The assumption here is that the ENM operator has set
the intended IP address of the ENM host beforehand.
111. How is the ENM RS Auto Discovery process initiated?
A: The ENM discovery process is initiated when the ENM operator clicks the ’Affiliate’ button.
112. What happens when the discovery process is complete?
A: After the discovery process is complete and successful, ENM will prompt the operator on whether to
go ahead with reconfiguring the ENM RS. This prompt will only appear if the radio is not properly config-
ured per the deployment plan opened by ENM. If the radio is configured properly, this prompt will not ap-
pear and the ENM will automatically affiliate. If the gateway radio reconfigures, ENM will affiliate automat-
ically after the radio is finished reconfiguring.
113. When do I configure the ENM gateway radio?
A: The ENM gateway radio should only be reconfigured when it needs to be (i.e. if its configuration does
not match the deployment plan opened by ENM). ENM will automatically determine whether or not the
ENM RS needs to be reconfigured and will prompt the ENM operator on whether to go ahead with recon-
figuring it.
114. How has the planning process changed with this ENM build?
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 22
A: The planner is no longer required to enter radios nor a UTO structure. This means that radios can be
either pre−planned with a pre−defined UTO structure (like they always have been), or radios can be un-
planned with no UTO structure required. Unplanned radios will be configured with the default configura-
tion data.
The planner is no longer required to enter deployed ENMs. Similar to the simplification for radios, this
means that the ENM Name can either be pre−planned or unplanned. The ENM will prompt the user to
select from a list of pre−planned ENMs if available or the ENM operator may enter a different ENM
Name.
ENM responsibility is no longer predicated upon where in the UTO structure the ENM was added. In pre-
vious builds, where the ENM was located in the UTO structure determined which radios were under its
command. In this build, the ENM can be placed anywhere in the UTO structure that the user desires,
however, all ENMs will behave as if they reside at the top of the hierarchy. This is because ENMs can
now be responsible for any of the radios in the UTO due to radios automatically selecting their responsi-
ble ENM on the basis of proximity.
In an effort to minimize planning, ENM will now automatically add or delete host routes to remote ENMs
on the DAP interface. This aids ENM−to−ENM communication. The user no longer needs to manually
add a unicast route to an ENM radio’s DAP interface in order to communicate with another ENM. As long
as the user has defined the ENM PVC for all intercommunicating ENMs, the ENM application will auto-
matically add a host route to all other remote ENMs. When an active DAP between the ENM radios is
dismantled, the ENMs will delete the added host route from their respective radios automatically.
115. How does ENM handle an unplanned radio?
A: When ENM receives status from an unplanned radio and that ENM is defined as the radio’s primary
ENM, ENM will automatically reconfigure the radio using preset default configuration values. This is in
contrast to how ENM previously handled unknown radios. Previously, ENM would not reconfigure an un-
known radio.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 23
RSID Expansion
116. How are radios identified after RSID Expansion?
A: Previously, EPLRS radio sets were identified with a unique four character hexadecimal RSID. With the
11.4.0.9.5 software release, users will no longer have to identify a radio using the RSID.
Users will now identify radios using an 8 character alphanumeric Radio Name. The Radio Name expands
the total number of unique identifiers that are available. Operators can now plan, initialize, and manage a
network based on the Radio Name.
117. What is a Radio Name?
A: The Radio Name is an 8 character alphanumeric parameter that identifies the EPLRS radio. To the
user, the Radio Name essentially replaces the RSID. Operators may set the Radio Name using the new
”−I” URO command.
118. What happened to the RSID?
A: The RSID still remains within the EPLRS system as an internal parameter (radio selected), however
users should refer to an EPLRS radio by the 8 character Radio Name.
119. What if I don’t care about identifying my radio by name?
A: If the user doesn’t care about identifying a radio, then the radio will select an RSID and Radio Name.
Note that the radio must be assigned a Radio Name if it is to be pre−planned by the ENM. If the radio is
non pre−planned, it will receive the default configuration data.
120. How do I used the ”−I” URO command?
A: The ”−I” URO command was introduced to enable users to set and request the Radio Name.
As required for RSID changes in the past, the operator must zeroize the radio before modifying the Radio
Name, Channel Set, or Guard Channel.
121. Does the ”− −” URO command still function?
A: The ”−−” URO command still exists to set the Channel Set and Guard Channel only. Additionally, the
”−−” URO command may be used to request the Channel Set, RSID, Baro Correction, Guard Channel,
and TOA Correction settings. If users attempt to set the RSID, the URO response will be ”−− DO SEND
−I”. Users should send a ”−I” URO command to change the RSID.
122. Do I need to zeroize the radio to change the Radio Name?
A: Yes, users are required to zeroize the radio to change the Radio Name. Using the ”−I” command, us-
ers will be able to set the Radio Name after zeroization. Microlight and SADL do not need zeroization to
modify the Channel Set, or Guard Channel.
123. How will the radios be identified in the EPLRS Network Manager (ENM)?
A: ENM 4.4.0.9.5 or higher has been modified to display the radio according to the Radio Name. Similar-
ly, EPLRS Network Planner (ENP) has been modified so that planning is performed based on Radio
Name.
124. Do I need to zeroize the radio to change the Channel Set or Guard Channel?
A: In order to modify the Channel Set or Guard Channel, users will still need to zeroize as required in the
past. Microlight and SADL−configured RSs do not need zeroization to change the Radio Name, Channel
Set, or Guard Channel.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 24
125. What should I expect when upgrading to the 11.4.0.9.5 or higher radio software?
Because the Radio Name did not exist previously, the radio will automatically generate a random Radio
Name after programming. Keep in mind that in order for the radio to generate a random Radio Name, the
radio must have cryptographic keys.
If the radio must be zeroized prior to programming, load the crypto keys after programming is complete.
The radio should restart after the fill device is disconnected and generate a random Radio Name.
For Microlight radios only, the Radio Name will be assigned 9SCQPE01 after the upgrade is com
plete. This is a known issue and will be apparent for all Microlight radios during the upgrade
process. Use the ”−I” command to change the Radio Name after programming.
126. After programming the radio using REFP, the Operation Mode remains in TEST.
A: After upgrading the radio software to 11.4.0.9.5, some users may notice that the radio takes longer to
complete programming. If REFP is used, the user may even notice that the Operational Mode remains in
TEST. This is normal; the radio is actually generating the new Radio Name. Make sure that crypto keys
are loaded and wait approximately 5 minutes maximum.
127. Since the radios are generating a random Radio Name, what happens if duplicates are observed?
A: There is a low probability that a duplicate radio selected Radio Name may appear in the deployment.
Normally, a duplicate Radio Name is due to a planning error. In the event a duplicate pre−planned Radio
Name appears, the ENM operator will receive an alert. Manual intervention is required to resolve this
issue. In the event that a random Radio Name is duplicated in the network, the ENM will detect and re-
solve duplicate random Radio Name issues. Radio selected Radio Names use a different range than are
valid for pre−planned Radio Names, so there can be no duplicate between radio selected and pre−
planned Radio Names.
Future enhancements will include functionality that automatically resolves duplicate Radio Name values.
128. What if my host application needs to keep fixed RSID?
A: Some users, such as the Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD), will still use the RSID because their op-
erational concept requires endpoint addressing by RSID when using ADDSI Dynamically Allocated Per-
manent Virtual Circuits (DAPs). By entering a Radio Name of 0000XXXX, ;where XXXX=RSID, the RSID
will be fixed.
129. What is flood relaying?
A: When an EPLRS RS transmits data, all RSs active on the needline will receive the data. No other RS
will be able to transmit data until the transmission has been completed.
130. What is pipeline relaying?
A: When an EPLRS RS transmits data, specific RSs active on the needline will receive the data. Other
RSs will be able to transmit data while this transmission is still in progress.
APPENDIX E
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
FAQ 25
GPS Based Network Timing
131.What is GPS Based Network Timing?
A: GPS Based Network Timing reduces the risk of splintering a single EPLRS network into multiple net-
works caused by timing differences between RF separated groups. As long as RF separated groups re-
main synchronized to GPS time (using 1PPS Time References), they will maintain synchronization with
one another indefinitely.
132.What is a 1PPS Time Reference?
A: In order for RF separated groups to maintain network synchronization, 1PPS Time References are
utilized within each group (at least 5+5% concentration) for synchronization to GPS time. Any RT−1720F
(VECP 2) model or higher EPLRS radio can be used as a 1PPS Time Reference without any functional
limitations. 1PPS Time References must remain in good GPS satellite coverage such that the Time Fig-
ure of Merit (TFOM) is equal to or less than 5 (meaning time accuracy is within 10 microseconds).
133.What radio types can be used as a 1PPS Time Reference?
A: The following EPLRS radio types can be configured to work as a 1PPS Time Reference by connecting
an external GPS device: RT−1720D (LRIP Retrofit), RT−1720F (VECP 2), RT−1720G (VECP 3),
RT−1922 (CNRS).
The DH−500 radio has an embedded GPS and can be used as a 1PPS Time Reference without connect-
ing an external GPS device.
134.How do I initiate a network with GPS Time using ENM?
A: To form a network capable of supporting GPS Based Network Timing, the ENM operator must initially
TMI the network with GPS Time. The TMI process for the ENM operator has not changed, but requires
the ENM be equipped with a 1PPS cable to connect the RS and GPS and that the RS qualify as a 1PPS
Time Reference.
135.Will an ENM operator be able to identify which radios in the network have GPS?
A: In ENM, radios that have a GPS connected and qualify as a 1PPS Time Reference will be identified
with a blue satellite icon on the Radio Status tab. If an operator believes that a specific radio should be a
1PPS Time Reference and the blue satellite icon is not displayed, the operator may right−click on the ra-
dio and select ”Current Configure” to determine the GPS Status.
136.How many 1PPS Time References are recommended to be in a network?
A: It is recommended that at least 5+5% of the radios in the network are 1PPS Time References. This
means that a minimum of 5 GPS equipped radios plus an additional 5% of the total number of active ra-
dios should have a GPS connected. For a deployment of 100 radios, it is recommended that 10 radios
have a GPS connected.
137.How do radios without a GPS receiver stay in net?
A: Not all radios in the network need to have a GPS receiver, however it is recommended that at least
5+5% of all radios are 1PPS Time References. Radios without a GPS receiver automatically exchange
timing information with 1PPS Time References and other EPLRS radios to maintain network synchroniza-
tion.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
APPENDIX E
FAQ 26
138.What new URO commands are available to the radio operator?
A: The GPS interface for all radios that are 1PPS Time Reference capable is already enabled by default
in the radio. The ”GP” URO command can be used to Disable/Enable the GPS interface and query the
status of a 1PPS Time Reference.
139.Can two networks merge if TMI’d separately?
A: No, this enhancement does not provide the capability for two separately TMI’d networks to merge.
Even though there are no timing differences between the two networks, other restrictions exist to prevent
this capability today. These restrictions will be relaxed when EPLRS cryptographic devices have been
modernized.
140.What if I do not want to use GPS Time to start a network from an ENM?
A: This enhancement does not remove any capabilities previously provided. ENM operators are still able
to TMI a network without GPS Time. The ability to TMI a network with Host Time or a Manually Entered
Time is present if GPS Time is not available. Keep in mind that without GPS Time, the network may
splinter if groups are RF separated over an extended period of time.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 1
GLOSSARY
Term or Abbreviation Definition or Description
@ URO message header during self−test. Character following @
indicates crypto key status. For example, @S indicates that the RS
has a good key load with secret keys, @C, the same for confidential
keys, and @0 indicates that the RS has no keys (zeroized).
AAR After−Action Review.
ac Alternating current.
Acquisition Network The time−frequency resource used to initially synchronize the RSs to
form a network of RSs. It is also used to keep the RSs time
synchronized, which keeps the RSs in the network and allows them to
communicate with each other. The acquisition network itself is the only
dedicated resource set aside to support acquisition of new RSs into
an existing network of RSs or maintain an existing RS network.
Active Mode EPLRS network mode in which RSs have time−synchronized with
each other, are communicating with each other, and are
communicating with a network ENM.
ADDSI Army Data Distribution System Interface.
Ad−hoc A self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless
links.
AFATDS Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System.
Affiliation The process whereby ENM makes its existence known to the ENM
RS and other RSs in the EPLRS network.
AFU Airborne Fixed−Wing Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
AGU Auxiliary Ground Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
Agent A managed entity that interfaces to a local device. The agent in the
EPLRS RS is a software program that interfaces with ENM and is
resident in the RS. The network manager passes information back
and forth from the agent under SNMP. The agent itself can monitor a
device and report extraordinary events.
AKEK Activation Key Encryption Key.
ANCD Automated Net Control Device.
AN/CYZ−10 COMSEC device used to load keys into RS; also called Data Transfer
Device (DTD).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 2
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
AN/PYQ−10(C) COMSEC device used to load keys into RS; also called Simple Key
Loader (SKL). It will replace the AN/CYZ−10 currently fielded to the
U.S. Army. Provides all the functions currently resident in the
AN/CYZ−10 key management features.
Antenna The part of the RS that emits the transmitted signal and collects
incoming signals.
API Application Programmer’s Interface; provides access to management
protocol services; for example, ENM utilities access SNMP−based
management information and services through the domain manager’s
API. This makes SNMP protocol operation and data management
transparent processes to the network manager.
ARP Address Resolution Protocol.
ARU Airborne Rotary−Wing Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
ATN Attention.
BARO Barometric transducer in EPLRS RS.
BIOS Basic Input−Output System.
BIT Built−In Test.
Black Key File The Black Key File (BKF) is generated by KOK−13 under the control
of ENM. The BKF contains key information for every IKEK that could
be generated by the KOK−13. The BKF is also called the Rekey file.
The file itself is usually distributed between ENMs via FTP or
CD−ROM.
Black Keys Keys generated by KOK−13 and contained in the rekey file used by
ENM. Also called rekey variables. Black keys include the current
rekey, next traffic, and next rekey. ENM sends black keys over the air
to individual RSs that need them. ENM can also load black keys into
RSs by direct connection.
BLOS Beyond Line−of−Sight.
BPS Bits per second.
BRT Brightness key on URO. Increases brightness of display on URO.
Broadcast Needline The PVC DF needline; a special CSMA needline used by network
ENMs to configure RSs, distributing black key files, and send status to
other ENMs; always set up to use the LCN number DF (hexadecimal)
and a multicast group with IP address 225.1.1.1.
C Celcius.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 3
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
C2 (C
2
) Command and Control.
CC Combat Communications. Uses a channel bandwidth of 1.2 MHz and
is mandated by US regulations to be used when operating in the 225
MHz to 400 MHz frequency band.
CCA Communications Circuit Assignment; a command to an EPLRS RS
from the ENM that defines the LCNs and resources assigned to the
RS.
CCI Controlled Cryptographic Item.
CD Compact Disk.
Channel An EPLRS frequency; one of a group of frequencies used by the RS.
Channel Set A predefined group of frequencies used by the EPLRS network.
EPLRS can use a channel set of 5, 6, or 8 channels; all RSs in the
network will be set to use the same channel set. Set to 5, 6, or 8 via
URO. Can only be changed when RS is zeroized.
CM Current Monthly seed key tape.
Command Center A host able to receive library data from a controlling ENM via its RS.
Communication Network The network used to support host−to−host communications, including
automatic relaying, group−addressed needlines (one−way), and
duplex needlines (two−way) with automatic acknowledgments. Most
of the available time−frequency resources go to the communication
network.
Community A group of RSs that are synchronized with one another, and have the
same traffic key. They can send and receive local subnet messages.
If a Network ENM is managing the community, the RSs can receive
ENM support as well.
Community ID EPLRS community parameter designated by a letter from A through
G; set up in deployment plan and also can be set in RS via URO; all
RSs in the network must have the same EPLRS community letter.
COMSEC Communication Security; the practice of denying the enemy access to
intelligence gained by intercepting our communications.
COTS Commercial Off The Shelf.
CMCS COMSEC Material Control System.
Coordination Network Part of EPLRS network system; a pathfinding network used to
negotiate relay paths for communication circuits.
CPU Central Processing Unit.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 4
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
CRM Circuit Request Message.
Crypto Division See Division.
CSMA Carrier−Sense Multiple−Access, a needline in which information flows
from a single source to all destinations, without RS acknowledgement.
A CSMA needline operates like a group of people on a contention
voice net, each speaking when they have something to say and no
one else is speaking.
CTEK Common Traffic Encryption Key.
CW Current Weekly seed key tape.
CY Current Yearly seed key tape.
Cycle Power (EPLRS RS) Restarting the RS; the process of turning the POWER switch on the
EPLRS RS to OFF; waiting 30 seconds, then turning the POWER
switch to ON or ON + AUDIBLE.
DA Department of the Army.
DAP Dynamically−Allocated PVC needline; a needline that is set up by the
EPLRS RS when needed and then torn down after use. EPLRS uses
high−data−rate and low−data−rate DAPs.
Datagram A single data packet that includes a destination address so it can
travel from the source device to the destination device without relying
on an earlier exchange or connection between the source and
destination.
dc Direct current.
Default RS An unplanned RS that has a set of predefined parameters such as
power level and position distribution profile.
Destination A radio set or ENM intended to be the receiver of a sent message.
DIM Dim key on URO. Decreases brightness of display on URO.
DIVID Division Identification (one letter, A thru G); the EPLRS Division;
assigned in deployment plan for each RS; can be reset in RS via URO
message.
Division Crypto key division parameter designated by a letter from A through
G; set up in AN/CYZ−10 (DTD). Can be set to the same letter as the
EPLRS Community ID but does not have to be; all RSs in the network
must have the same crypto division letter.
Dotted−decimal Format Format used to represent IP addresses and subnet masks in internet
protocol. See also Internet Address.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 5
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
DTD Data Transfer Device, most commonly the AN/CYZ−10; used to load
red keys into the radios by direct connection.
Duplex Needline A two−way communication path having just one unit at each of two
endpoints. RS acknowledges each message and provides for
retransmission.
ECM Electronic Countermeasures.
EIR Equipment Improvement Recommendation.
Embedded Router A set of software modules contained in the EPLRS 10x radio set; they
provide a network interface capability for all physical interfaces
including Ethernet, PPP, ADDSI X.25, and EPLRS wireless
communication services.
Endpoint A unit that is a source and/or destination on a needline.
ENM EPLRS Network Manager.
ENP EPLRS Network Planner.
Epoch One complete network transmission cycle. An epoch is 64 seconds.
EPLRS Enhanced Position Location Reporting System.
EVS Evenly Spread, a time scheduling algorithm that reduces latency and
variability and is used with 1/2 LTS or 1/4 LTS circuits.
EW Electronic Warfare.
FAAD Forward Area Air Defense.
F Fahrenheit.
FBCB2 Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade−and−Below. FBCB2 is the
major digital command and control system for the Army at brigade
level and below. FBCB2 provides enhanced situation awareness to
the lowest tactical levels and a seamless flow of command and control
information across the battlefield. EPLRS provides a secure RF
network “backbone” for Army FBCB2 host platforms.
FTP File Transfer Protocol; can be used by ENM to transfer files such as
deployment plans or black key files to other ENMs.
Gateway A data bridge between communities having different crypto keys; also,
the term default gateway is used when setting up IP address for ENM
computer via Windows; it refers to the IP address of the RS
connected to ENM computer.
GB Gigabyte.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 6
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
GET URO key used to retrieve stored URO messages. Provides last sent
message if pressed once without a number key. Provides last known
own position by pressing twice without a number key.
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus.
GPS Global Positioning System.
GR Grid Reference.
GR−RS Grid Reference Radio Set.
Guard Channel Frequency that RS listens to for network timing and network entry
identification. All RSs in the network must use the same guard
channel. Set via URO. Can only be changed when RS is zeroized.
GUI Graphic User Interface.
G? Ground unit antenna fault.
Hexadecimal A numbering system with a base of 16.
HDR High Data Rate; a type of duplex needline.
HDR DAP High Data Rate Dynamically Allocated PVC needline.
HDR Relay Assignment An individually assigned relay assignment for any HDR needline. Can
be input from host, URO, or ENM.
High Data Rate A set of host−to−host services which includes CSMA, Point−to−Point,
and MSG.
Host A device attached to the RS in order to take advantage of EPLRS
communications net data distribution capabilities. Host data is sent
over a jam−resistant network, and is automatically encrypted by the
RS before sending. It can be received by other EPLRS units and
shared with other hosts, even different kinds as long as they are also
connected to a RS. For example, a host radar sends an air picture
through its RS to an air defense unit RS. The RS forwards the air
picture to an attached host display. The host can be a computer,
another RS, or other hardware.
IASO Information Assurance Security Officer.
ID Identification.
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; used in terminology
identifying standard signal and cable interfaces (e.g., IEEE−488 cable
interface used with KOK−13).
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 7
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
IGMP Internet Group Message Protocol; protocol used by IP hosts to send
messages to other hosts that have a common multicast IP address.
IKEK Initial Key Encryption Key; cryptographic key used to receive all new
keys from the ENM.
Internet Address A 32−bit number (4 8−bit fields) that represents the individual machine
and subnet of the network. Each 8−bit field is designated by a
decimal number between 0 and 255 in the form a.b.c.d, known as
dotted−decimal format. The address is divided into two parts: a
network address and a host address.
I/O Input/Output.
IP Internet protocol; the method by which data is sent from one computer
to another on the network; IP handles addressing of packets and is a
connectionless protocol. IP does not guarantee delivery (TCP does);
IP defines data format, chooses the data path (route), and establishes
rules for data delivery.
IP ADDSI IP over ADDSI X.25; IP interface that enables the RS embedded
router to route IP datagrams to other devices transmitting over a
physical RS−422 serial connection (X.25 ADDSI).
IP DAP IP over Dynamically Allocated EPLRS PVC.
IP PVC IP over EPLRS PVC (LDR/HDR duplex, CSMA, MSG).
ISYSCON Integrated System Controller.
JVMF Joint Services Variable Message Format.
KAB Keep−Alive Battery; a power cell (9−volt commercial alkaline or lithium
battery) that enables stored memory data to be retained even while
equipment is powered down. The KAB retains crypto key data in the
EPLRS RS.
KEEP URO key pressed when storing a message in the URO. Note: stored
URO messages are erased when RS is turned off.
KEK Key Encryption Key.
KM Kilometer.
KOI−18 Tape reading device used to load crypto information into KOK−13 key
generator.
KOK−13 Key generation device used to generate crypto keys for EPLRS RSs.
Generates red keys that are loaded into AN/CYZ−10 DTD, and
generates black key files used by ENM.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 8
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
KPK Key Production Key.
LAN Local Area Network.
LCD Liquid Crystal Display.
LCN Logical Channel Number; hexadecimal identification number of a
needline between two or more RSs; like a phone number for
identifying a needline; identifies a communication circuit.
LDR Low Data Rate; a type of duplex needline.
LED Light−Emitting Diode.
Link A direct RF communication between two EPLRS radio sets.
LOS Line−of−Sight.
LTS Logical Time Slot.
MB Megabyte.
MDL Mission Data Loader
Message Descriptor Information that is displayed with received messages in the
MESSAGE DESCRIPTOR field on the URO device to explain or
amplify the displayed message.
Message Definition Words or abbreviations that appear in the MESSAGE DESCRIPTOR
field in order to clarify the data in the EAST/BRG NORTH/RNG field.
Message Label A two−character designator that is displayed in the message label
field on the URO device which denotes the general type of message.
MGR Military Grid Reference System; military mapping system used to
identify any location by means of easting and northing coordinates.
MIB Management Information Base; a database supporting SNMP
operations by storing information about network devices; the
information is used to monitor and manage the devices.
MILID Military identification. Format that identifies a military unit for
purposes of query, response, library inputs, and display.
MPU Manpack Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
MSG Multi−Source Group; type of needline in which information flows from
1 to 16 sources to up to 300 destinations and without RS
acknowledgement.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 9
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit; the largest IP datagram (packet) that
can be sent on this interface; defines when a datagram must be
fragmented into multiple datagrams with sizes equal to or smaller than
the MTU value.
Multicast Source group sending a message from a single source to a select
group of recipients; multicast operation allows one host computer on
the internet to send content to multiple other computers that have
identified themselves as interested in receiving the original computer’s
content.
NCOIC Non−Commissioned Officer In Charge.
NCS Net Control Station; replaced by ENM.
Needline A requirement for two or more users to communicate. Needlines are
defined by a source, destination, rate, priority, and acknowledgment.
They may be either duplex (two−way communication, point−to−point)
or simplex (one−way communication, with one source and multiple
destinations).
Net Entry Mode EPLRS network mode in which RSs have not yet time−synchronized
with each other and have not yet heard from a network ENM. RSs in
Net Entry mode are listening for a TMI command or for the presence
of an existing network.
Network A group of RSs that participate in radio communications.
NIC Network Interface Card.
NM Next Monthly seed key tape.
NOSC Network Operator Security Center
Notice In EPLRS RS self−test results displayed on the URO, a warning that a
fault has been detected in the RS.
NW Next Weekly seed key tape.
OldDBEntry Config Status displayed under Radio Status tab when RS
configuration data in the ENM database is older than the
corresponding data loaded in the selected RS; another ENM has
reconfigured the RS; normally, the ENM operator with OldDBEntry
displayed should retrieve latest plan from another ENM via FTP.
OTA Over−the−Air.
OTAD Over−the−Air Distribution.
OTAR Over−the−Air Rekey; the process where ENM distributes black keys
to individual RSs over the EPLRS network.
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Glossary 10
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
Packet A portion of a message sent over the Internet; a message is divided
into packets at the source and reassembled at the destination. A
packet may pass through multiple networks before arriving at its
destination; the network routers control the packet’s course. A packet
has three parts: the data being sent, the source and destination
addresses for routing the data, and error correction information.
PAM Pamphlet.
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
PDF Portable Document Format.
PLGR Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver.
PMCS Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services.
P-P Point-to-Point.
PPP Point−to−Point Protocol; provides connections to TCP/IP network,
enables router−to−router, router−to−host, and host−to−host
connections.
Protocol A set of rules that govern how computers and network devices
connect with and talk to one another; protocol specifies timing,
sequencing, format, error checking, and data compression.
Proxy Agent An agent that acts on behalf of a device that cannot implement SNMP
itself. The proxy agent translates data between the device and the
network and can act as a cache for network information.
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit; virtual circuit maintained between two RSs
even when data is not being transmitted; PVC requires no prior setup
of connections when data is to be transmitted. PVC needline differs
from Dynamically−Allocated PVC (DAP) needline; PVC is permanent,
whereas DAP needline is set up by the EPLRS RS when needed and
then torn down after use.
PVC DF Needline See Broadcast Needline.
RAM Random−Access Memory (read−write memory).
RBU Relay Board Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
RCVD URO key pressed to retrieve and display a message that has been
received by the URO.
Red Keys Keys generated by the KOK−13 and loaded into EPLRS RSs via the
AN/CYZ−10 DTD. Red keys include the IKEK and current traffic key.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 11
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
Reference Unit An EPLRS RS whose exact location is known (not calculated by
EPLRS) and serves as a basis to calculate the positions of other
units. The reference unit can get its position data when reconfigured
by ENM, or the RS operator can enter the position data into the RS
via the URO.
Relay An RS that provides forwarding service on a path between a source
and a destination. All active RSs have relay capability.
Rekey Crypto key type that provides protection for the transfer of
other keys; they are essential for all over−the−air key updates; types
include current rekey and next rekey.
Rekey Variables Black keys. ENM displays a rekey variable count along with a
progress bar while the black key file is being generated in the
KOK−13.
Resync Network resynchronization (resync); a type of system update in which
an ENM directs all of its RSs to go into Net Entry mode. Used to
merge separate networks into a single network.
Required Config Status displayed under Radio Status tab when RS
configuration data in ENM database is newer than the corresponding
data loaded in the selected RS; the RS has old config data or wrong
config data; normally, the ENM operator should reconfigure the RS.
RF Radio Frequency.
RIP Routing Information Protocol; EPLRS RS will now update its routing
table using updates from alternate routers.
Router A device or software that determines the next network point to which a
packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is
connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send
each packet based on the router’s current understanding of the state
of the networks it’s connected to.
RS Radio Set; in EPLRS, consists of a receiver/transmitter, input/output
device, antenna, and a power source. The EPLRS radio set comes in
one of the following configurations: Airborne Vehicle (AV), Grid
Reference (GR), Manpack (MP), Surface Vehicle (SV). Also known
as: RS, unit, or user unit.
RSID Radio Set Identification Number; unique hexadecimal four−character
identification number assigned to and stored in every EPLRS RS. Set
via URO. Can only be changed when RS is zeroized.
RT Receiver/Transmitter.
SA Situation Awareness; refers to position location data.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 12
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
SADL Situation Awareness Data Link; EPLRS RS used by USAF fixed−wing
aircraft providing Close Air Support (CAS) such as F−16 and A−10.
SADL RSs can enter a network with EPLRS−equipped ground units.
SBCT Stryker Brigade Combat Team.
SDSA Self Descriptive Situational Awareness.
SDUSN Secure Data Unit Serial Number.
Self−test A check done by RTs and UROs to verify operational status or detect
any faults.
SIF Single Interface to the Field, https://sif.kc.us.army.mil/.
SKL Simple Key Loader.
SMSG Simple Multi Source Group, a needline similar to MSG that is used in
Land Warrior operations for Voice Over IP.
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol; protocol governing network
management and the monitoring of network devices and their
functions; primary protocol used by ENM to communicate with
gateway RSs and other ENMs.
SOP Standing Operating Procedure.
Source The RS on a group−addressed needline that generates messages.
Source Index A randomly selected number that identifies a specific radio on a
needline. A two−digit value ranging from 01 through 78 hexadecimal.
SPA Selectable power adapter.
SSFA Software Support Facility Agent.
Stryker The armored wheeled vehicle (Infantry Carrier Vehicle) used by the
Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT).
Subnet See Local Subnet.
Subnet Mask Used to split the complete IP address into network address and host
address; determines whether an IP address is on the local network or
on a remote one.
SV−RS Surface Vehicle Radio Set.
SVU Surface Vehicle Unit; filter identification used in pos distribution.
SVUIK Surface Vehicle Unit Installation Kit.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 13
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
TAMA Tactical Ad−hoc Multiple Access, a needline that is able to find its own
routes dynamically. It does this by learning what RSs are near it and
adjusting its route according to that data. Can only be used with IP
based hosts.
TAROD Tactical Ad−hoc Routing On Demand, routing protocol developed to
enable reactive, multihop routing between radios in an Ad−hoc
network.
TB Technical Bulletin.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; a suite of protocols
used for data exchange between different hardware and/or operating
systems; TCP divides a message into packets to be individually sent
and efficiently routed; TCP keeps track of their order so that the
packets can be reassembled by TCP at the destination; TCP is
connection−oriented and guarantees delivery; IP handles the
transmission and delivery of the message packets (handles
addressing).
TEK Traffic Encryption Key; encryption key used to allow RS to send and
receive messages to and from the ENM and other RSs. Without this
key the RS cannot enter the network.
TIM Tactical Internet Manager.
TKEK Transient Key Encryption Key.
TMI Time Master Initiate. The EPLRS network is started when the ENM
operator sends a TMI command, making his ENM RS the time master
and effectively setting the network timing. Other RSs automatically
synchronize with the time master RS or with the existing network.
TOA Time of Arrival.
TOD Time of Day; crypto−time sync message needed initially by a radio set
to enable it to receive further messages.
TOS Type of Service; required field for building IP header for reporting RS
position data.
TQ Track Quality; measure of how reliably a radio set’s position is being
estimated.
Track Mode EPLRS network mode in which RSs have time−synchronized with
each other and are communicating but have not yet heard from a
network ENM.
Transient A radio set in the process of transitioning from one division to another.
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Glossary 14
Definition or Description Term or Abbreviation
Trap Messages Periodic status and event messages from radios. Trap messages (or
traps) are received by all EPLRS gateway radios and sent to the
affiliated ENMs. Sent by agents; a trap alerts the network
management station that an important event has occurred (i.e., a
predefined condition or a threshold that has been reached).
TSEC Telecommunications Security.
TSI 5 Timeslot Indicator 5, a special resource reserved to support some
ENM network management tasks such as network advances and
changing power levels.
TTL Time−to−Live. IP parameter setting the number of times a message
can be relayed before it is considered undeliverable and dropped from
the EPLRS network.
TU Transmission unit; data sent between EPLRS RSs; 80, 160, or 240
bits of data depending on waveform with needline.
UDP User Datagram Protocol.
UKEK Unique Key Encryption Key.
Unicast Sending a message from a single source to a single recipient.
URN Unit Reference Number; decimal value of RSID.
URO User Readout. Hand−held display/entry device cabled to the radio set
to let the RS operator set up, test, and troubleshoot the RS.
USMC United States Marine Corps.
UTO Unit Task Organization.
Waveform Mode EPLRS RS operating mode; usually identified by data rate expressed in
bytes/TU; available modes with 2−msec timeslot are Mode 0 through
Mode 4, and mode 14; available modes with 4−msec timeslot are Mode
5 through Mode 9 and mode 17 and mode 18; each mode offers different
date rates, range performance, and levels of jam resistance.
WBIRA Wide Band Integrated RF Assembly. Utility that allows for custom
mapping of RS frequencies with XF type RSs.
XF Extended Frequency.
Zeroize Process by which all keys are erased in the RS. Done by Zeroize
switch on RS or by remote command (Clear Keys...) from Network
ENM.
INDEX
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index i
A
About ENP. See Help Menu, ENP
Activation and Production Keys, 11−2
Active Channel Selection, 1−13
Ad Hoc Routing, 13−5
Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Routes
Description, 8−57
Procedure, 15−67
Adding Needlines
CSMA, 15−32
ENM PVC DF, 7−22
HDR Duplex, 15−39
LDR Duplex, 15−44
MSG, 15−35
SMSG, 15−47
TAMA, 15−50
Adding Network Elements
Adding a UTO, 15−19
Adding an ENM, 15−27
Adding an RS, 15−21
ADDSI Interface, 1−22
Advance (Key)
Monthly, 11−13
Weekly, 11−13
Yearly, 11−13
Advanced Endpoint RS Features Table, MSG, 7−29
Advanced Features Table
CSMA, 7−19
MSG, 7−27
Advancing the Seed Keys in the KOK−13, 11−9
Agent Tab, ENP
Adding an Agent, 15−74
Description, 9−1
Edit Menu, 9−3
EPLRS Agent Tree, 9−2
Finding an Agent in the EPLRS Agent Tree, 15−76
Modifying an Agent, 15−75
Printing, 15−12
Removing an Agent, 15−75
Allocating EPLRS RS Assets for a Tactical
Movement, 2−26
Allocating Needline Resources for a Brigade, 2−28
Allocating Resources for HDR Duplex Needlines, 2−9
Allocating Resources for LDR Duplex Needlines, 2−9
AN/CYZ−10 Data Transfer Device, 11−2
Analyzing a Planning File
Description, 3−22
Procedure, 15−77
Analyzing EPLRS Assets and Preliminary
Requirements, 2−5
Antenna Placement Optimization, 1−19
Antenna Siting, 2−15, 2−17
ARP by Inclusion or Exception
Description, 8−25
Procedure, 15−59
Assigning Rolenames and Developing the UTO
Structure, 2−6
Assigning RSs as Reference Units, 2−5
B
Backwards Compatibility, 13−5
Basic IP Planning for an EPLRS Network, 8−3
Black Key File (BKF), 11−8
Black Key Generation, 11−8
Broadcast PVC Needline, 7−22
Building the UTO Organization Tree
Adding a UTO, 15−19
Adding an ENM, 15−27
Adding an RS, 15−21
Deleting a Deployed ENM, 15−28
Deleting a UTO, 15−21
Deleting an RS, 15−26
Description, 15−19
Finding Units Within the Organizational Tree, 15−29
Modifying a Deployed ENM, 15−27
Modifying an RS Definition in the UTO Tree
Pos Distribution, 15−24
Reference Unit, 15−25
Standard RS Unit, 15−23
Modifying Reference Units, 15−31
Moving Units Within the Organizational Tree, 15−29
Renaming a UTO, 15−20
C
Cable Losses Versus Antenna Height, 2−16
Channel Set Selection, 1−10
Communication Network, 1−20
Communication Services
Introduction, 7−1
Needlines, 7−2
Compromised RS in the Network, 11−14
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index ii
COMSEC Guidance
Corps COMSEC Guidance, 11−15
Corps−Wide Common Key Distribution, 11−15
Description, 11−15
Division COMSEC Guidance, 11−16
COMSEC Hardware
Description, 11−1
Hardware Table, 11−2
Configuring a PPP Interface
Description, 8−49
Procedure, 15−64
Configuring an Ethernet Interface
Description, 8−15
Procedure, 15−55
Configuring an Ethernet LAN Route, Description,
8−37
Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface
Description, 8−42
Procedure, 15−62
Configuring an IP PVC Interface
Description, 8−28
Procedure, 15−60
Configuring an RS to DAP Proxy for Other Networks,
Procedure, 15−58
Configuring an RS to Proxy for Other Networks,
Description, 8−25
Configuring the DAP Interface
Adding and Deleting DAP Host Routes, 8−23,
15−57
Adding and Deleting DAP Network Routes, 8−20,
15−56
Description, 8−18
Setting the DAP Interface as the Default Interface,
8−19
Configuring the PVC DF Interface
Description, 8−28
Procedure, 15−59
Controls and Indicators, ENP GUI Description, 3−1
Coordination Network, 1−20
Corps COMSEC Guidance
Corps Key Distribution, 11−16
Description, 11−15
Multi−Divisional Deployment, 11−16
Corps Key Distribution, 11−16
Corps−Wide Common Key Distribution, 11−15
Creating a Deployment Plan File
Starting With a TI Plan, 3−12
Starting With No Existing Plan, 3−6
Creating a new Frequency Channel Set, 14−3
Procedure, 15−79
CSMA Needline Creation Checklist, 7−21
CSMA Needlines
Adding a CSMA Needline, 15−32
Deleting a CSMA Needline, 15−35
Description, 7−15
Modifying a CSMA Needline, 15−34
Types, 7−15
Current and Next Keys, 11−5
D
DAP Host Routes, Adding, Procedure, 15−57
DAP Needlines, 7−7
DAP Network Routes, Adding, Procedure, 15−56
Default Frequency Channel Set, 14−7
Defining System Parameters
Description, 2−13
Frequency Allocation, 2−13
Power Level, 2−14
Deleting a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Procedure, 15−80
Deleting Needlines
CSMA, 15−35
HDR Duplex, 15−44
LDR Duplex, 15−47
MSG, 15−39
SMSG, 15−50
TAMA, 15−53
Deleting Network Elements
Deleting a Deployed ENM, 15−28
Deleting a UTO, 15−21
Deleting an RS, 15−26
Deployment Plan Database
Creating a Deployment Plan File, 3−6
Creating a New Deployment Plan Database, 15−4
Importing a Deployment Plan File From an External
Media Source, 15−7
Opening an Existing Deployment Plan Database,
15−6
Opening an Existing Deployment Plan File, 3−16
Version Number, Modifying, 4−2, 15−14
Description and Use of Operator Controls and
Indicators, ENP Graphic User Interface, 3−1
Designing and Developing a New Plan, 2−2
Analyzing EPLRS Assets and Preliminary
Requirements, 2−5
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index iii
Assigning Rolenames and Developing the UTO
Structure, 2−6
Assigning RSs as Reference Units, 2−5
Defining System Parameters, 2−13
Designing Needlines and Allocating Resources, 2−6
Determining the Initial Deployment Strategy, 2−4
Distributing the Deployment Plan, 2−15
Generating the Deployment Plan, 2−14
Planning for COMSEC, 2−14
Planning for CONOPS, 2−12
Designing Needlines and Allocating Resources, 2−6
Allocating Resources for HDR Duplex Needlines,
2−9
Allocating Resources for LDR Duplex Needlines,
2−9
LTS/CN Needline Matrix, 2−7
Needline Resource Allocation Worksheets, 2−9
Determining the Initial Deployment Strategy, 2−4
Developing a Needline to Support User Data
Requirements, 2−23
Distributing the Deployment Plan, 2−15
Division COMSEC Guidance, 11−16
Duplex Needlines
Description, 7−39
Duplex DAP and PVC Needlines, 7−39
Duplex Needlines Characteristics, Needline
Characteristics, 7−42
Duplicate RSIDs / Radio Name, 13−5
E
Elevating the ENM RS Antenna, 2−15
Emergency COMSEC Operations
Compromised RS in the Network, 11−14
Description, 11−14
Emergency Network Advance, 11−14
Emergency Network Advance, 11−14
Enabling IGMP to Support Multicast Routing
Description, 8−58
Procedure, 15−70
ENM, 1−2
Modifying a Deployed ENM, 15−27
ENM Key Distribution
Key Distribution from a BKF, 11−11
Key Distribution from a KOK−13, 11−12
ENM Management Levels, 10−4
ENM PVC DF Needline, 7−22
ENM Simplification, 13−1
ENM−to−RS Communications, 10−2
ENP
Creating a New Deployment Plan Database, 15−4
Function Tabs, 3−34
Startup, 3−1, 15−2
ENP Function Tabs
Agent Tab, 9−1
IP Interfaces Tab, 8−4
Net Services Tab, 7−1
Ref Unit Tab, 6−1
System Tab, 4−1
UTO Tab, 5−1
ENP GUI Description
Description, 3−1
ENP Function Tabs, 3−34
ENP Main Window Components, 3−16
ENP Menu Area, 3−18
ENP Startup, 3−1
ENP Help Functions
Description, 3−32
Procedure, 15−77
ENP Menu Area
Description, 3−18
Edit Menu, 3−32
File Menu, 3−18
Help Menu, 3−32
ENP User Manual (On−Line Help)
Description, 3−32, 3−33
Procedure, 15−77
EPLRS Communities
Description, 10−3
ENM Management Levels, 10−4
Size of the RS Community, 10−4
EPLRS Enhancements
Ad Hoc Routing, 13−5
Backwards Compatibility, 13−5
Duplicate RSIDs / Radio Name, 13−5
ENM Simplification, 13−1
ENM−less Configuration, 13−6
GPS Based Network Timing, 13−5
Introduction, 13−1
LCN Expansion, 13−3
MANET Mode, 13−6
Operating ENM with ENM Simplification, 13−2
Operating using LCN Expansion, 13−3
Planning Limitations with LCN Expansion, 13−3
Planning Process using ENM Simplification, 13−2
Requesting and Setting Up Needline Data, 13−3
RIP Mode, 13−6
RSID Expansion, 13−4
RSID Expansion and Planned Radios, 13−5
RSID Expansion and Unplanned Radios, 13−4
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index iv
SDSA Messages, 13−6
Selective IP Circuit Activation, 13−5
EPLRS Frequency Resources
Active Channel Selection, 1−13
Channel Set Selection, 1−10
Description, 1−10
Frequency Hopping, 1−14
EPLRS Host Interfaces, 1−22
EPLRS Interfaces
ADDSI Interface, 1−22
Ethernet Interface, 1−22
RS−232, 1−22
EPLRS Internet Protocol
Basic IP Planning for an EPLRS Network, 8−3
Description, 8−1
IP Addresses, 8−1
Subnet Masks, 8−2
EPLRS Network Overview, 1−4
EPLRS Networks, 1−20
Communication Network, 1−20
Coordination Network, 1−20
EPLRS Planning Process Table, 2−3
EPLRS Resources, 1−7
EPLRS Frequency Resources, 1−10
EPLRS Time Resources, 1−7
Interferrence Between RSs, 1−17
LTS and Channel Resource Allocation, 1−14
EPLRS RS, 1−2
EPLRS Time Resources
Description, 1−7
Time Division Units of Measure, 1−8
Timeslot Length Options, 1−10
Ethernet Interface, 1−22
Exiting ENP
Description, 3−31
Procedure, 15−78
Exiting WBIRA, Procedure, 15−82
Exiting WBIRA Utility, 14−11
F
FAQ, FAQ 1
File Menu, ENP
Analyze Plan..., 3−22
Console, 3−29
Description, 3−18
Exit, 3−31
New..., 3−19
Open..., 3−19
Preferences..., 3−30
Print..., 3−25
Save As..., 3−21
Save..., 3−20
Finding a Needline Within the Needline Tree, 15−54
Finding an Agent in the EPLRS Agent Tree, 15−76
Finding an RS in the IP Assignments Tree, 15−72
Finding Units Within the Organizational Tree, 15−29
Forward Area Air Defense Operations, 2−22
Frequency Allocation, 2−13
Frequency Hopping, 1−14
Frequency Mapping Tool, 14−1
Creating a new Frequency Channel Set, 14−3
Default Frequency Channel Set, 14−7
Deleting a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Exiting WBIRA Utility, 14−11
Loading a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Modifying a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Retrieving the RS Frequency Set, 14−9
Retrieving the RSs Channel Set, 14−11
Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range, 14−10
Setting a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Frequency Separation, 1−18
Frequently Answered Questions, FAQ 1
Functional Capabilities Table, 10−3, 10−5
G
Generating and Managing Keys, 11−10
Generating the Deployment Plan, 2−14
Geographic Separation, 1−19
Glossary, Glossary 1
GPS Based Network Timing, 13−5
H
HDR Duplex Needlines
Adding an HDR Duplex Needline, 15−39
Deleting an HDR Duplex Needline, 15−44
Description, 7−42
Modifying an HDR Duplex Needline, 15−42
HDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist, 7−52
Help Menu, ENP
About ENP, 3−33
Description, 3−32
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index v
ENP User’s Manual (On−Line Help), 3−32, 3−33
Hexadecimal Conversion Table, A−1
How Features in the Area Affect Radio
Communications, 2−15
Cable Losses Versus Antenna Height, 2−16
Elevating the ENM RS Antenna, 2−15
Losses for Various Antenna Cable Lengths, 2−16
I
IGMP
Description, 8−58
Procedure, 15−70
Importing Data from a TI Plan FIle, 15−5
Interferrence Between RSs
Antenna Placement Optimization, 1−19
Description, 1−17
Frequency Separation, 1−18
Geographic Separation, 1−19
Needline Coding, 1−19
Time Separation, 1−18
Introduction, 14−1
IP Addresses, 8−1
IP Interfaces Tab, ENP
Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Routes,
8−57
Configuring a PPP Interface, 8−49
Configuring an Ethernet Interface, 8−15
Configuring an Ethernet LAN Route, 8−37
Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface, 8−42
Configuring an IP PVC Interface, 8−28
Configuring an RS to Proxy for Other Networks,
8−25
Configuring the DAP Interface, 8−18
Configuring the PVC DF Interface, 8−28
Description, 8−4
Enabling IGMP to Support Multicast Routing, 8−58
Finding an RS in the IP Assignments Tree, 8−14,
15−72
IP Assignments Tree, 8−5
IP Interface Functions, 8−15
IP Interfaces Edit Menu, 8−10
IP Message Routing, 8−4
Printing, 15−12
Setting a Default Interface, 8−58
Setting Up a Multicast Group, 8−59
Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway, 8−53
IP Planning, EPLRS Internet Protocol, 8−1
IP Services
Adding a Multicast Route, 15−68
Adding a Unicast Route, 15−67
Adding and Deleting Unicast and Multicast Routes,
15−67
Adding and Modifying, 15−55
Adding DAP Host Routes, 15−57
Adding DAP Network Routes, 15−56
Configuring a PPP Interface, 15−64
Configuring an Ethernet Interface, 15−55
Configuring an IP Over ADDSI Interface, 15−62
Configuring an IP PVC Interface, 15−60
Configuring an RS to Proxy for Other Networks,
15−58
Configuring the PVC DF Interface, 15−59
Deleting a Multicast Route, 15−69
Deleting a Unicast Route, 15−68
Enabling Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP)
to Support Multicast Routing, 15−70
Setting a Default Interface, 15−70
Setting Up a Multicast Group, 15−71
Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway, 15−66
K
Key Advance
Monthly, 11−13
Weekly, 11−13
Yearly, 11−13
Key Descriptions
Activation and Production Keys, 11−2
Description, 11−2
EPLRS RS, 11−4
Keys Generated and Loaded into EPLRS RSs,
11−4
Quad Keys, 11−3
Seed Keys, 11−3
Key Distribution, Description, 11−11
Key Distribution from a BKF, 11−11
Key Distribution from a KOK−13, 11−12
Key Generation and Distribution
Advancing the Seed Keys in the KOK−13, 11−9
Black Key Generation, 11−8
Description, 11−5
Guidelines for Generating and Managing Keys,
11−10
Key Process Overview, 11−6
Quad Key and Seed Key Tape Loading, 11−7
Red Key Generation, 11−8
Key Nomenclature Table, 11−5
Key Planning
COMSEC Guidance, 11−15
COMSEC Hardware, 11−1
Introduction, 11−1
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index vi
Key Descriptions, 11−2
Key Generation and Distribution, 11−5
Network Key Operations, 11−10
Key Process Overview, 11−6
Keys Generated and Loaded into EPLRS RSs, 11−4
KGV−13A COMSEC Module, 11−2
KOI−18 Tape Reader, 11−2
KOK−13 Key Remote Rekey Equipment, 11−2
L
Land Warrior Operations, 2−21
LCN Expansion, 13−3
LDR Duplex Needlines
Adding an LDR Duplex Needline, 15−44
Deleting an LDR Duplex Needline, 15−47
Description, 7−52
Modifying an LDR Duplex Needline, 15−46
LDR PVC Needline Creation Checklist, 7−59
Loading a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Procedure, 15−80
Logical Channel Number (LCN), 7−73
Losses for Various Antenna Cable Lengths, 2−16
LTS and Channel Resource Allocation, 1−14
LTS and Comm Channel Allocations, Modifying,
15−17
LTS/CN Needline Matrix, 2−7
M
Maintaining and Modifying an Existing Plan, 2−2
MANET Mode, 13−6
Modifying a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Procedure, 15−80
Modifying an RS Definition in the UTO Tree
Pos Distribution, 15−24
Reference Unit, 15−25
Standard RS Unit, 15−23
Modifying Needlines
CSMA, 15−34
HDR Duplex, 15−42
LDR Duplex, 15−46
MSG, 15−38
SMSG, 15−49
TAMA, 15−52
Modifying Network Elements
Modifying a Deployed ENM, 15−27
Modifying an RS
Pos Distribution, 15−24
Reference Unit, 15−25
Standard RS Unit, 15−23
Renaming a UTO, 15−20
Modifying Reference Units, 15−31
Modifying System Parameters
Default Duplex LTS and Channel Allocations, 15−17
Deployment Plan Version Number, 15−14
Description, 15−14
Network RS Parameters, 15−15
Position Distribution Default Parameters, 15−15
Monthly Advance, 11−13
Moving Units Within the Organizational Tree, 15−29
MSG Needline Creation Checklist, 7−39
MSG Needlines
Adding an MSG Needline, 15−35
Deleting an MSG Needline, 15−39
Description, 7−22
Modifying an MSG Needline, 15−38
Multi−Divisional Deployment, 11−16
Mutual Interferrence, 1−17
N
Needline Attributes
Comparison Table, 7−76
Overview, 7−74
Summary Table, 7−75
Needline Coding, 1−19
Needline Constraints and Priorities, 7−74
Needline Identification
Description, 7−73
Logical Channel Number (LCN), 7−73
Needline Identification Number, 7−73
Needline Resource Allocation Worksheets, 2−9
Needline Resources, 7−3
Needline Types
Description, 7−6
Duplex Needlines, 7−39
Needline Waveform Modes, 7−3
Needline Worksheet, B−1
Needlines
Adding and Modifying, 15−32
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index vii
CSMA, 7−15, 15−32
DAP, 7−7
Description, 7−2
ENM PVC DF, 7−22
HDR Duplex, 7−42, 15−39
LDR Duplex, 7−52
MSG, 7−22, 15−35
Needline Attribute Overview, 7−74
Needline Constraints and Priorities, 7−74
Needline Identification, 7−73
Needline Resources, 7−3
Needline Types, 7−6
Needline Waveform Modes, 7−3
LDR Duplex, 15−44
SMSG, 7−59
SMSG Needlines, 15−47
TAMA, 7−67
TAMA Needlines, 15−50
Net Services Tab, ENP
CSMA Needlines, 7−15
Description, 7−1
Description of Needline Display, 7−12
ENM PVC DF Needline, 7−22
Finding a Needline Within the Needline Tree, 15−54
HDR Duplex Needlines, 7−42
LDR Duplex Needlines, 7−52
LTS/CN Needline Matrix, 7−71
MSG Needlines, 7−22
Needlines Tree, 7−13
Net Services Edit Menu, 7−8
Printing, 15−12
SMSG Needlines, 7−59
TAMA Needlines, 7−67
Network Advance Operations
Description, 11−12
Monthly Advance, 11−13
Weekly Advance, 11−13
Yearly Advance, 11−13
Network Entry, 11−10
Network Key Operations
Description, 11−10
Emergency COMSEC Operations, 11−14
Key Distribution, 11−11
Network Advance Operations, 11−12
Network Entry, 11−10
Network Rekey Operations, 11−12
Network Management
Functions Table, 1−6
Introduction, 10−1
Pre−Deployment Management Planning, 10−1
Network Planning
Adding and Modifying Agents, 15−74
Adding and Modifying IP Services, 15−55
Adding and Modifying Needlines, 15−32
Analyzing a Planning File, 15−77
Building the Organizational Tree, 15−19
Importing Data from a TI Plan FIle, 15−5
Creating a New Deployment Plan Database, 15−4
Importing a Deployment Plan File From an External
Media Source, 15−7
Introduction, 2−1
Modifying Network RS Parameters, 15−14
Opening an Existing Deployment Plan Database,
15−6
Planning and Management Responsibilities, 2−1
Planning Examples, 2−23
Planning Process, 2−2
Printing ENP Data, 15−9
Procedure, 15−1
Saving a File, 15−7
Saving a File in TI Plan Format, 15−7
Setting ENP Display Preferences, 15−13
Sighting Requirements, 2−15
Starting ENP, 15−2
Tactical Internet Communications, 2−18
Network Rekey Operations, 11−12
O
Operating ENM with ENM Simplification, 13−2
Operating using LCN Expansion, 13−3
Operation Under Usual Conditions
ENP Help Functions, 15−77
Network Planning, 15−1
Operator Roles and Functions, Functional Capabilities
Table, 10−3, 10−5
Over−the−Air Rekey (OTAR), 11−5, 11−12
Over−the−Air Routing Information Protocol, 13−6
Overview of EPLRS
ENM, 1−2
EPLRS Network Overview, 1−4
EPLRS RS, 1−2
Introduction, 1−1
P
Placing Reference Units, 12−3
Planner Troubleshooting, D−1
Planning and Management Responsibilities, 2−1
Planning Examples
Allocating EPLRS RS Assets for a Tactical
Movement, 2−26
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index viii
Allocating Needline Resources for a Brigade, 2−28
Description, 2−23
Developing a Needline to Support User Data
Requirements, 2−23
Planning for COMSEC, 2−14
Planning for CONOPS, 2−12
Relay RSs, 2−12
RF Silence, 2−12
Planning for Reference Unit Sites
Description, 12−2
Placing Reference Units, 12−3
Reference Unit Geometry, 12−2
Planning Limitations with LCN Expansion, 13−3
Planning Process, 2−2
Designing and Developing a New Plan, 2−2
Maintaining and Modifying an Existing Plan, 2−2
Planning Process using ENM Simplification, 13−2
Pos Distribution Default Parameters, Modifying
Description, 4−4
Procedures, 15−15
Position Distribution, Description, 12−7
Position Location
Introduction, 12−1
Planning for Reference Unit Sites, 12−2
Position Distribution, 12−7
Position Location Data Sources, 12−1
Reference Unit Configuration, 12−4
Reference Units, 12−1
Position Location Data Sources, 12−1
Positioning Reference Units, 2−16
Power Level, 2−14
Pre−Deployment Management Planning
Description, 10−1
ENM−to−RS Communications, 10−2
EPLRS Communities, 10−3
RS Configuration, 10−3
Preferences, Display, Setting, ENP, 3−30
Printing ENP Data
Agent Tab Information, 15−12
IP Interface Tab Information, 15−12
Net Services Tab Information, 15−12
Ref Unit Tab Information, 15−11
System Tab Information, 15−9
UTO Tab Information, 15−9
Q
Quad Key and Seed Key Tape Loading, 11−7
Quad Keys, 11−2
R
Red and Black Keys, 11−4
Red Key Generation, 11−8
Ref Unit Tab, ENP
Description, 6−1
Modifying Ref Units, 6−1, 15−31
Printing, 15−11
Reference Unit Configuration, Description, 12−4
Reference Unit Geometry, 12−2
Reference Units, 12−1
Relay RSs, 2−12
Requesting and Setting Up Needline Data, 13−3
Retrieving a Frequency Channel Set from the RS,
Procedure, 15−81
Retrieving the RS Frequency Set, 14−9
Retrieving the RSs Channel Set, 14−11
Procedure, 15−82
Retrieving the RSs Frequency Range, 14−10
Procedure, 15−81
RF Silence, 2−12
RS
Adding to Network, 15−21
Deleting from Network, 15−26
Modifying an RS Definition in the UTO Tree
Pos Distribution, 15−24
Reference Unit, 15−25
Standard RS Unit, 15−23
RS Configuration, 10−3
RS Parameters Checklist, C−1
RS−232 Interface, 1−22
RSID Expansion, 13−4
RSID Expansion and Planned Radios, 13−5
RSID Expansion and Unplanned Radios, 13−4
S
SADL Operations, 2−20
Saving a File, 15−7
Saving a File in TI Plan Format, 15−7
Seed Keys, 11−2
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index ix
Selective IP Circuit Activation, 13−5
Self Descriptive Situational Awareness (SDSA)
messages, 13−6
Setting a Default Interface
Description, 8−58
Procedure, 15−70
Setting a Frequency Channel Set, 14−5
Setting a Frequency Channel Set into the RS,
Procedure, 15−81
Setting Display Preferences, ENP, 3−30, 15−13
Setting Up a Multicast Group
Description, 8−59
Procedure, 15−71
Setting Up a Next−Hop Gateway
Description, 8−53
Procedure, 15−66
Siting Requirements
Description, 2−15
How Features in the Area Affect Radio
Communications, 2−15
How Good Siting Can Improve RS Operations,
2−17
Positioning Reference Units, 2−16
Size of the RS Community, 10−4
SMSG Needline Creation Checklist, 7−67
SMSG Needlines
SMSG Needlines, 15−47
Deleting an SMSG Needline, 15−50
Description, 7−59
Modifying an SMSG Needline, 15−49
Software Version Number and Release Date,
Verifying, ENP, 15−78
Starting ENP
From ENM, 15−3
From the Desktop, 15−2
Startup, ENP, 3−1, 15−2
Subnet Masks, 8−2
Symbols, UTO Tree, 5−3
System Tab, ENP
Description, 4−1
Displaying Duplex Deployment Defaults, 4−17
Modifying Deployment Version Number, 4−2
Modifying HDR and LDR Duplex DAP LTS and
Channel Matrix, 4−17
Modifying Position Distribution Deployment
Defaults, 4−4
Modifying Radio System Parameters, 4−2
Printing, 15−9
System Update Tab, ENM, Network RS Parameters,
Modifying, 15−15
System Wide settings for LDR and HDR needlines,
7−40
T
Tactical Internet Communications
Description, 2−18
SADL Operations, 2−20
TI Structure, 2−18
TAMA Needline Creation Checklist, 7−71
TAMA Needlines
TAMA Needlines, 15−50
Deleting a TAMA Needline, 15−53
Description, 7−67
Modifying a TAMA Needline, 15−52
TI Structure, 2−18
Time Division Units of Measure, 1−8
Time Resource Definition Table, 1−8
Time Separation, 1−18
Timeslot Length Options, 1−10
Troubleshooting (Planner), D−1
U
UTO
Adding to Network, 15−19
Deleting from Network, 15−21
Renaming, 15−20
UTO Tab, ENP
Add Deployed ENM..., 5−9
Add Radio..., 5−5
Add UTO..., 5−9
Delete..., 5−11
Description, 5−1
Description Area, 5−13
Description of Deployed ENM, 5−17
Description of Unit (RS), 5−13
Description of UTO, 5−19
Edit Menu, 5−3
Find, 5−11
Finding Units in the Organizational Tree, 15−29
Printing, 15−9
Rebuild Tree, 5−12
Rename UTO..., 5−10
UTO Tree, 5−2
INDEX (Continued)
TB 11−5825−298−10−3
Index x
W
WBIRA Start−up, Procedure, 15−79
Weekly Advance, 11−13
Y
Yearly Advance, 11−13