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VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

(AUTONOMUS)
Bachupally, Nizampet (SO), Hyderabad 500 090
(R12MTH1101) MATHEMATICS I
(Advanced Calculus)
UNIT I
Differential Calculus
Mean value theorems (statements only) - Rolles theorem, Lagranges theorem, Cauchys theorem,
and generalized mean value theorem (Taylors Theorem), Curvature and Radius of curvature,
Curve tracing Cartesian, polar and parametric curves(standard curves only)

Learning Objectives: At the end of the first unit, the student must be able to:
Mean Value Theorems

Taylors & Meclauriance Series

Write an infinite series expansion of sinx,cosx, ) (
1
x Tan

.
Expansion of Taylors & Mc Laurance Series for function of two variables
Explain the concept of curvature as a rate of change of bentness and find radius
of curvature of different curves ( parametric, polar, pedal curves
Draw appropriate shapes of standard curves by studying some of their important
characteristics like symmetry, intercepts, asymptotes, tangents, multiple points,
region of existence, sign of first and second derivatives.




LECTURE PLAN
Introduction to Mean value theorems by way of checking continuity and
differentiability of Standard functions and their geometrical Interpretations.
Rolles Mean Value Theorems- Statement and.Problems on how to apply and
verify Rolles Mean Value Theorem.
Lagranges Mean value theorem- Statement and Problems.
Cauchys Mean value theorem- Statement and problems
Generalised Mean value theorem - Statement and problems.
Introduction of concept of curvature and radius of curvature of different curves (
parametric, polar, etc.,).
Study some of the important characteristics of curves like symmetry, intercepts,
asymptotes, tangents, multiple points, region of existence, sign of first and second
derivatives with examples.
Trace standard curves in Cartesian form Folium of Descartes, Cissoid,
Strophoid.
Give general equation of a curve in polar coordinates and the salient points to
trace polar curves with examples such as Lemniscate, Three leaved rose,
Limacon.
Discuss the two cases of parametric curve tracing when the parameter t can be
eliminated and when it can not be eliminated.
Tracing of parametric polar and Cartesian curves some assorted problems
Show that between any two roots of e
ASSIGNMENT
x
=sinx there is a
root of e x
x
cos =

.
5. Applying Lagrange MVT to f(x) =xlnx, in [1,b], b>1, prove that
. 1
1
ln 1
<

<
b
b
b

6. Expand: ) (x f =e ,
sinx
using Macalurins series upto the term containing x
4
.
8. Show that between any two roots of e
x
=sinx there is
a root of e x
x
cos =

.

1. Applying Lagrange MVT to f(x) =xlnx, in [1,b], b>1, prove that
. 1
1
ln 1
<

<
b
b
b

2. Expand f(x) =e
,
sinx
using Macalurins series up to the term containing x
4
.
3. Find the radius of curvature at any point on the curve y =c cos h ( )
c
x
.
4. Trace the curve:
1
1
2
2

+
=
x
x
y
5. Trace the curve: ) cos 1 ( + = a r
6. Trace the curve: ) sin ( t t x + = ) cos 1 ( t a y =
7. Trace the curve:
cot
ae r =





UNIT II
Functions of Several Variables
Partial differentiation; Eulers theoremFunctional dependence; Jacobian; Maxima and Minima of
functions of two variables with constraints and without constraints.

Learning Objectives:
At the end of the second unit, the student must be able to:
Extend many of the ideas of Calculus, like limits, continuity, differentiability,
etc., to functions of two or more variables.
Define partial derivatives of functions of several variables and geometrically
interpret partial derivative of a function of two variables.
Write the J acobian in transformation of variables from Cartesian to polar,
cylindrical and spherical coordinates.
Write when two functions are functionally dependent using the J acobian and
also write the necessary condition for functional dependence of two functions.
Find Maxima and Minima of functions of two variables and identify extreme
values.
Find extreme values of constrained functions using Lagrange Multipliers
(implementation).
Draw conclusions from Graphs of Derivatives.
Identify functions that are continuous in specified closed intervals and
differentiable in open intervals
Geometrically interpret the mean value theorems and their importance in
Calculus.
Represent elementary functions such as sine, cosine, log and exponential
functions in their Taylors series expansion form.


UNIT II : LECTURE PLAN
Introduction of functions of several variables, limits and continuity of
functions of two variables.
Define partial derivatives and related problems.
Define J acobian and state its properties.
Explain functional dependence using J acobian.
Expand functions of two variables using Taylors theorem for functions of two
variables.
Critical points and extreme values of functions of two variables
identification.
Finding maximum and minimum of functions of two variables.
Finding extreme values of constrained functions using Lagrange Multipliers.
Review of functions of two variables and problems based on them.

1. f u =sin
ASSIGNMENT
-1
,
y x
y x
+
+
prove that x +
dx
du
y
dy
du
=
2
1
tan u
2. If u =sin
-1
(x-y), x=3t, y=4t
3
2
1
3
t
dt
du

= show that by total differentiation.


3. If x = vw , y = wu , z = uv and u =rsin cos ,
v =rsin sin , w =rcos , find
) , , (
) , , (
r
z y x

.
4. Find the point upon the plane ax +by +cz =p at which the function f(x, y, z) =
x
2 2 2
z y + + has a minimum value and find this minimum value of f( x, y, z).






UNIT III
Improper integrals and Multiple intehgrals
Improper Integrals; Beta, Gamma, and Error integrals - Properties and simple applications.
Applications of integration to lengths, volumes and surface areas in cartesian and polar
coordinates. +Multiple integrals - double and triple integrals, change of variables ( Cylindrical and
Spherical polar coordinates) and change of order of integration.

Learning Objectives: At the end of the third unit, the student must be able to learn

Improper Integrals, types of Improper Integrals
Special functions

Extend the concept of a definite integral to a function of two variables or three
variables.
State the properties of double integrals.
Evaluate a double integral as a two- fold iterated integral and find area bounded
by curves-application.
Evaluate a double integral in a simpler way with change of order of integration.
Apply the change of variables to find area, mass
Evaluate triple integrals as three- fold iterated integrals and use it to find volume,
mass of a solid region.
Apply the change of variables from Cartesian to
Cylindrical and to spherical coordinates as special cases

LECTURE PLAN

Define double integral as an extension of definite integral to functions of
two and three variables.
State properties of double integrals.
Change of order of integration and change of variables in double integrals.
Change of variables- Cartesian to polar coordinates.
Applications of double integrals.
Evaluate triple integrals as three- fold iterated integrals and their
applications.
1. Evaluate by order of evaluation (a)
ASSIGNMENT
dy dx
y x
X

=
+ +
1
0
1
0
2 2
2
) 1 (
1

2.
dydz dx z y x
z x
z x

+ +
1
1
2
0
) (

3. State and prove the relation between beta and gamma functions




UNIT-IV
Vector calculus
Introduction to vector and scalar functions; gradient, curl, divergence, and their related properties
of sums and products; Laplacian and second order operators; Vector integration - line integral,
work done, potential function; Area, surface, and volume integrals; Statements of Vector integral
theorems and their verification (without proofs) - Greens theorem, Stokes theorem, and Gauss
divergence theorem.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the second unit, the student must be able to:
Apply Greens theorem to transform line integrals to double integrals and vice
versa.
Apply Stokes theorem to connect line integral with surface integral.
Transform surface integral to volume integral and vice versa.
Extend the basic concepts of ordinary differential calculus to vector functions,
define gradient, divergence and curl of a vector function.
List properties of sums, differences and products of gradient, divergence and curl.
Write expressions for grad, div, curl and Laplacian in curvilinear and spherical
coordinates.
Extend the results of integral calculus to vector functions.
Use line integrals to calculate work done by a force, area of a plane region, scalar
potential of a conservative field.
Compute the surface area of a curved surface, and the flux of a vector function.

LECTURE PLAN
Define gradient, divergence and curl of a vector function and list their properties.
Compute the surface area of a curved surface and the flux of a vector function.
Express Grad, div, curl in spherical coordinates
Express Grad, div, curl in cylindrical coordinates.
Discussion on related problems in this unit.
Extend the concept of ordinary integral calculus to vector functions.
Define primitive, indefinite integral and state their properties.
Greens theorem in plane- to transform line integral and
double integral in Cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates.
Application of line integrals to calculate work done by a force
Finding area using Greens theorem.
Stokes theorem- Transformation between line integral and surface integral.




ASSIGNMENT
Find the directional derivative to the surface f(x,y,z) =xy
2
2. Show that
z 4, at the point (1, -1,2)
along i+j+k.
2 2
) 1 (

+ =
n n
r n n r

3.A butterfly is located at (2, -1,3) and desires to fly towards fragrance surface f(x,y,z)=
x
2
+yz
2
4. Show that
. Along which direction should it fly to get fragrance at the earliest.
n n
r n r r ) 3 ( ) ( + =


5. Calculate the work done by a force F=3xy i - y
2
j in moving a particle in xy- Plane
from (0,1) to (1, 2) along the parabola y =x
2
6. Find the circulation around a square x=1, x=-1, y=1, y=-1, if F(x
.
2
+xy)i+(x
2
+y
2
7. Use Divergence theorem to evaluate
)j.


S
ds n F

where F=x3i+y3j+z3k and surface is


sphere x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=a
8. Verify Divergence theorem for F=x
2

2
9. Verify Stokes theorem for F=(x
i+zj+yzk taken over the cube x=0, x=1, y=0, y=1,
z=0& z=1
2
+y
2
10. Apply Stokes theorem to evaluate
)i-2xyj taken around a rectangle bounded by the
lines x =a, x=-a, y =0 and y =b.

+ + + +
C
dz z y dy z x dx y x ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( where c is the
boundary of the triangle with vertices (2,0,0), (0,3,0) and (0,0,6)
11. Show that F=(2xy+z
3
)i +x
2
j +3xz
2
(1,-2,1) to (3, 1,4).
k is a conservative force field. Find the scalar
potential and the work done in moving the object in the field from


UNIT V
Elementary analysis
Sequences and series - convergence and divergence, ratio test, comparison test, integral test,
Cauchys root test, Raabes test (statements only for the tests), and absolute and conditional
convergence.

Learning Objectives: At the end of the fifth unit, the student must be able to:
Define a sequence and give examples of sequences.
Write the n
th
term of a given sequence.
Define a series and assign meaning to an expression like
1 + + + + +
16
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
..
Distinguish between a sequence and a series.
Explain whether all sequences behave the same way, as n, the number of terms in
the sequence increases, i.e. to distinguish sequences that approach a unique
limiting value l as n increases, from those that do not, i.e., convergence and
divergence of sequences.
Identify the Geometric series and p- Harmonic series and the conditions for which
they converge or diverge.
Answer the question - If a series converges, what is its sum
Establish the convergence by comparing the terms of the given series with the
terms of a series known to converge comparison test.
Answer questions as: What about tests when the formula for the n
th
term not
relatively simple - n
th
root test, integral test. When to apply what test?
Define an alternating series and be able to apply the Leibnitz test for its
convergence.
Distinguish between Absolute and Conditional Convergence.
Write an infinite series involving powers of x Power Series and discuss its
Convergence

LECTURE PLAN
Introduction to Sequences, some common examples of sequences.
nth term of a sequence, convergence and divergence of a sequence.
Definition of Series some standard series such as Geometric Series and
Harmonic Series and theirConvergence and Divergence.
Test of Convergence of non-negative term series- Comparison test- first form,
limit form and problems based on them.
Ratio Test, Raabes Test- how to apply?
Logarithmic Test, nth root test, Cauchys Integral test- and problems based on
them.
Alternating Series, Absolute Convergence- Define these terms.
Conditional Convergence and Power series- Interval of convergence.
Discussion on sequences and series- Review of these topics.


1. Discuss the convergence of the following series:
ASSIGNMENT
+ +
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
4
.
3
2
3
2
........
7
6
.
5
4
.
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ .
2. Test the convergence of the following series:
+ +
26
5
21
4
16
3
11
2
6
1

3. For what values of x does the following series converge?
x + +
4 3 2
4 3 2
x x x
.
4. Show that the series:
+ +
5 log
1
4 log
1
3 log
1
2 log
1
.. ) 1 ( +
n
+
n log
1